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Sample records for assaying qualitative

  1. Application of statistical process control to qualitative molecular diagnostic assays

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Cathal P.

    2014-11-01

    Modern pathology laboratories and in particular high throughput laboratories such as clinical chemistry have developed a reliable system for statistical process control (SPC). Such a system is absent from the majority of molecular laboratories and where present is confined to quantitative assays. As the inability to apply SPC to an assay is an obvious disadvantage this study aimed to solve this problem by using a frequency estimate coupled with a confidence interval calculation to detect deviations from an expected mutation frequency. The results of this study demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and highlight minimum sample number requirements. Notably, assays with low mutation frequencies and detection of small deviations from an expected value require greater sample numbers to mitigate a protracted time to detection. Modeled laboratory data was also used to highlight how this approach might be applied in a routine molecular laboratory. This article is the first to describe the application of SPC to qualitative laboratory data.

  2. Application of statistical process control to qualitative molecular diagnostic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathal P O'brien

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern pathology laboratories and in particular high throughput laboratories such as clinical chemistry have developed a reliable system for statistical process control. Such a system is absent from the majority of molecular laboratories and where present is confined to quantitative assays. As the inability to apply statistical process control to assay is an obvious disadvantage this study aimed to solve this problem by using a frequency estimate coupled with a confidence interval calculation to detect deviations from an expected mutation frequency. The results of this study demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and highlight minimum sample number requirements. Notably, assays with low mutation frequencies and detection of small deviations from an expected value require greater samples with a resultant protracted time to detection. Modelled laboratory data was also used to highlight how this approach might be applied in a routine molecular laboratory. This article is the first to describe the application of statistical process control to qualitative laboratory data.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays for Detection and Characterization of Protein Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, M Heath; Ford, Kara A; Doyle, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Initial evaluations of large microbial libraries for potential producers of novel antimicrobial proteins require both qualitative and quantitative methods to screen for target enzymes prior to investing greater research effort and resources. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate two complementary assays for conducting these initial evaluations. The microslide diffusion assay provides an initial or simple detection screen to enable the qualitative and rapid assessment of proteolytic activity against an array of both viable and heat-killed bacterial target substrates. As a counterpart, the increased sensitivity and reproducibility of the dye-release assay provides a quantitative platform for evaluating and comparing environmental influences affecting the hydrolytic activity of protein antimicrobials. The ability to label specific heat-killed cell culture substrates with Remazol brilliant blue R dye expands this capability to tailor the dye-release assay to characterize enzymatic activity of interest.

  4. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  5. Real-time PCR assay for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Erika; Perkátai, Katalin; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Farkas, Agnes; Kucsera, István

    2012-12-01

    Simple real-time PCR assay with one set of primer and probe for rapid, sensitive qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica has been used. Consensus sequences were used to amplify a species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were used for detection in a LightCycler platform (Roche). The anchor probe sequence was designed to be a perfect match for the 16S rRNA gene of Entamoeba species, while the acceptor probe sequence was designed for Entamoeba histolytica, which allowed differentiation. The performed characteristics of the real-time PCR assay were compared with ELISA antigen and microscopical detection from 77 samples of individuals with suspected clinical diagnosis of imported E. histolytica infection. Stool and liver abscess pus samples were examined with analytical sensitivity of 5 parasites per PCR reaction. The melting curve means Tms (standard deviation) in clinical isolates were 54°C. The real-time assay was 100% sensitive and specific for differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, compared with conventional ELISA or microscopy. This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis is rapid, and specific for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica. The suitability for routine use of this assay in clinical diagnostic laboratories is discussed.

  6. The development of a qualitative real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, A.; Crowley, B.; Niesters, H.; Herra, C.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represents a favourable option for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed as a qualitative diagnostic screening method for the detection of HCV using the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection

  7. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

    2014-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  8. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for qualitative screening of neomycin in muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomun, B; Bilandzic, N; Varenina, I; Scortichini, G

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in food of animal origin (muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk) at levels corresponding to the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) set for this substance. The method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. In this regard, the following parameters were determined: detection capability (CCβ), specificity, detection limit (LOD), quantification limit (LOQ), recovery, precision, linearity and ruggedness. LODs ranged from 5.7 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 29.3 microg kg(-1) in milk; LOQs ranged from 11.4 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 59.7 microkg(-1) in eggs. The recoveries from spiked samples at the MRL, half the MRL and double the MRL levels ranged from 65.8% to 122.8%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) between 5.9% and 28.6%. The CCβ value was less than the MRL for all examined matrices. Moderate variations of some critical factors in the sample pretreatment for muscle, milk and eggs were deliberately introduced for ruggedness evaluation and had a slight but not statistically significant effect on method performance. The proposed method is suitable for qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in the above-mentioned food in conformity with current European Union performance requirements.

  9. A Novel Qualitative and Quantitative Biofilm Assay Based on 3D Soft Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Hakonen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictable in vitro methods to analyze antimicrobial activity could play a role in the development of resistance to antibiotics. Current used methods analyze planktonic cells but for the method to be clinically relevant, biofilm in in vivo like conditions ought to be studied. Hence, our group has developed a qualitative and quantitative method with in vivo like 3D tissue for prediction of antimicrobial activity in reality. Devices (wound dressings were applied on top of Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated Muller-Hinton (MH agar or 3D synthetic soft tissues (SST and incubated for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity was then analyzed visually and by viable counts. On MH agar two out of three silver containing devices showed zone of inhibitions (ZOI and on SST, ZOI were detected for all three. Corroborating results were found upon evaluating the bacterial load in SST and shown to be silver concentration dependent. In conclusion, a novel method was developed combining visual rapid screening and quantitative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity in both tissue and devices. It uses tissue allowing biofilm formation thus mimicking reality closely. These conditions are essential in order to predict antimicrobial activity of medical devices in the task to prevent device related infections.

  10. Qualitative detection of class IIa bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria from traditional Chinese fermented food using a YGNGV-motif-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Shi, John; Xue, Chaohui; Li, Hongbo; Jiao, Yuehua; Shigwedha, Nditange; Du, Ming; Han, Xue

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a YGNGV-motif-based assay was developed and applied. Given that there is an increasing demand for natural preservatives, we set out to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that produce bacteriocins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We here isolated 123 LAB strains from 5 types of traditional Chinese fermented food and screened them for the production of bacteriocins using the agar well diffusion assay (AWDA). Then, to acquire LAB producing class IIa bacteriocins, we used a YGNGV-motif-based assay that was based on 14 degenerate primers matching all class IIa bacteriocin-encoding genes currently deposited in NCBI. Eight of the LAB strains identified by AWDA could inhibit Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; 5 of these were YGNGV-amplicon positive. Among these 5 isolates, amplicons from 2 strains (Y31 and Y33) matched class IIa bacteriocin genes. Strain Y31 demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and the best match to a class IIa bacteriocin gene in NCBI, and was identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin from Enterococcus avium Y33 was 100% identical to enterocin P. Both of these strains produced bacteriocins with strong antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis, hence these bacteriocins hold promise as potential bio-preservatives in the food industry. These findings also indicated that the YGNGV-motif-based assay used in this study could identify novel class IIa bacteriocinogenic LAB, rapidly and specifically, saving time and labour by by-passing multiple separation and purification steps.

  11. Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2015-09-01

    Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an impact on human health as they might be allergenic. Since molecular methods do not require a culture step, they seem an excellent alternative for the monitoring of indoor fungal contaminations. As a case study, we developed a SYBR® green real-time PCR-based assay for the specific detection and identification of Aspergillus versicolor, which is frequently observed in indoor environment and known to be allergenic. The developed primers amplify a short region of the internal transcribed spacer 1 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex. Subsequently, the performance of this quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was assessed using specific criteria, including an evaluation of the selectivity, PCR efficiency, dynamic range, and repeatability. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 or 2 copies of genomic DNA of A. versicolor. In order to demonstrate that this SYBR® green qPCR assay is a valuable alternative for monitoring indoor fungal contamination with A. versicolor, environmental samples collected in contaminated houses were analyzed and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the traditional methods.

  12. Fluid-phase immunoradiometric assay for the detection of qualitative abnormalities of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor in variants of von Willebrand's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antigenic reactivity of F.VIII/WF in variants of von Willebrand's disease (vWd) was studied with both fluid-phase and solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. Two different (rabbit and goat) 125I-labeled specific antibodies against purified F.VIII/WF were used in both their divalent (lgG) and their monovalent (Fab fragment) forms. Dose-response curves obtained by reacting a constant amount of antibody with serial dilutions of plasmas from normal or homozygous vWd demonstrated the specificity of the test. The accuracy was significantly higher with 125I-Fab fragments of goat anti-F.VIII/WF antiserum than intact goat lgG or rabbit lgG or Fab fragments. The significant decrease of the slope of the dose-response curves obtained with plasma from variants of vWd has been interpreted as due to the presence of abnormal F.VIII/WF molecules with decreased antigenic reactivity. A similar anomaly was found in cryosupernatant prepared from normal plasma, paralleling similarities demonstrated between variants of vWd and cryosupernatant. Results of experiments performed by reacting constant plasma dilutions from control or variants of vWd and varying concentrations of anti-F.VIII/WF Fab fragments (rabbit or goat) confirmed the decreased antigenic reactivity of variant F.VIII/WF

  13. New Application of the Comet Assay: Chromosome–Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; DÁVILA-RODRÍGUEZ, MARTHA I.; Fernández, José Luís; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálbez, Altea; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay is a well-established, simple, versatile, visual, rapid, and sensitive tool used extensively to assess DNA damage and DNA repair quantitatively and qualitatively in single cells. The comet assay is most frequently used to analyze white blood cells or lymphocytes in human biomonitoring studies, although other cell types have been examined, including buccal, nasal, epithelial, and placental cells and even spermatozoa. This study was conducted to design a protocol that can be use...

  14. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...... the roots and paradigm of contemporary economic theory. But advances economics along a pathway to becoming a science. The book presents a strong set of core philosophical arguments directed toward making economics a true science. In short, this volume will lead to further debate and discussion of economics...... becoming a science. As all scientific inquiry should do - review data and information in order to create a new or different perspective. Part I reviews the philosophical roots of the Lifeworld tradition are primarily European. Lifeworld can be traced in order to set the stage for the interactionism...

  15. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific....

  16. Qualitative Research Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

    2011-01-01

    This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...

  17. Angiogenesis Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  18. Qualitative Research Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses about the several approaches and data collection methods of qualitative research.

  19. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  20. The qualitative research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  1. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  2. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  3. Computers and Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry; Jost, Muktha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of computers in qualitative research, including sources of information; collaboration; electronic discussion groups; Web sites; Internet search engines; electronic sources of data; data collection; communicating research results; desktop publishing; hypermedia and multimedia documents; electronic publishing; holistic and…

  4. Qualitative research, tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    a range of methodologies, but is usually contrasted with and seen in opposition to quantitative and deductive research, as it attempts to explore the complexity and fragmentary nature of the social world of tourism. This exploration can be carried out through ethnographic fieldwork and/or by applying......Qualitative research, tourism Qualitative research refers to research applying a range of qualitative methods in order to inductively explore, interpret, and understand a given field or object under study. Qualitative research in tourism takes its inspiration primarily from the cultural and social...... ethnography (nethnography). More recently, attempts have been made to explore relations between the performing arts and social science, e.g. through innovative methods such as poetry and virtual curating. Ontology, epistemology and methodology As a multidisciplinary field, tourism research has incorporated...

  5. Qualitative Robustness in Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of   qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.

  6. Disciplining Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…

  7. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  8. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  9. Demystifying Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Cilesiz, Sebnem; Hayes, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to demystify, through deconstruction, the concept of "interdisciplinarity" in the context of qualitative research to contribute to a new praxis of knowledge production through reflection on the possibilities and impossibilities of interdisciplinarity. A review and discussion of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity leads the…

  10. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assay. 866.3980 Section 866.3980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  11. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including the rese......The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...... the research focus component, data collection and the contribution component. They also describe several principles that may provide holistic guidance to both researchers and evaluators....

  12. QSMSR QUALITATIVE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software architecture design and requirement engineering are core and independent areas of engineering. A lot of research, education and practice are carried on Requirement elicitation and doing refine it, but it is a major issue of engineering. QSMSR model act as a bridge between requirement and design there is a huge gap between these two areas of software architecture and requirement engineering. The QSMSR model divide into two sub model qualitative model and Principal model in this research we focus on Qualitative model which further divide into two sub models fabricated model and classified model. Classified model make the sub groups of the role and match it with components. The Fabricated model link QSMSR Principal Model to an architecture design. At the end it provides the QSMSR Architecture model of the system as output.

  13. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  14. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  15. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  16. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  17. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  18. Comparison of several fixation methods for cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, J.L.; De Oña, M; Niubò, J; Villar, H.; Melón, S.; García, A.; Martín, R.

    1995-01-01

    Two fixation methods based on formaldehyde or acetone for qualitative cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay were evaluated on 405 consecutive blood samples. Cytomegalovirus was detected in 40 samples by the antigenemia assay: 36 were detected by formaldehyde fixation; 22, by acetone; and 18, by both methods. Differences were statistically significant (P = 0.0043). In addition, four fixation methods (two based on formalin [with and without permeabilization] and two using acetone at different fixat...

  19. A Qualitative Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT. The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients' needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child.

  20. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...

  1. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  2. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  3. Ethics and the practice of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted......Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted...

  4. Transgenic Animal Mutation Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chen; Ph.D.D.A.B.T.

    2005-01-01

    @@ The novel transgenic mouse and rat mutation assays have provided a tool for analyzing in vivo mutation in any tissue, thus permitting the direct comparison of cancer incidence with mutant frequency.

  5. Lateral flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea

    2016-06-30

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  6. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  7. New Rapid Spore Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  8. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  9. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  10. Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research. Examples of different ways to present data from interviews, observations, and focus groups are included. The paper concludes with guidance for publishing qualitative research and a checklist for authors and reviewers.

  11. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  12. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine(3H)-methyl. The O-methylated (3H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin-3H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin-3H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated (3H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  13. Quality assurance of qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Ángel; Barceló, Damiá; Buydens, Lutgarde;

    2003-01-01

    and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects involved in analytical quality assurance of qualitative analysis. This article shows the main conclusions reported in the document referring to the implementation of quality principles in qualitative analysis...

  14. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  15. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  18. Neutral Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Comet assay (or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay) is a sensitive technique to detect DNA damage at the level of an individual cell. This technique is based on micro-electrophoresis of cells DNA content. Briefly, cells are embedded in agarose, lysed and submitted to an electric field, before the staining step with a fluorescent DNA binding dye. Damaged DNA (charged DNA) migrates in this field, forming the tail of a “comet”, while undamaged DNA remained in the head of the “comet”. The ...

  19. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  20. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  1. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis Skovsgaard; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  3. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  4. Qualitative futures research for innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Duin, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This is about how commercial organisations use qualitative methods of futures research, such as scenarios, roadmapping and trend-analysis, in their innovation processes. The linkages etween innviation proceses and the methids can take place in different ways.

  5. Qualitative Capacities as Imprecise Possibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Didier; Prade, Henri; Rico, Agnés

    2013-01-01

    National audience This paper studies the structure of qualitative capacities, that is, monotonic set-functions, when they range on a finite totally ordered scale equipped with an order-reversing map. These set-functions correspond to general representations of uncertainty, as well as importance levels of groups of criteria in multicriteria decision-making. More specifically, we investigate the question whether these qualitative set-functions can be viewed as classes of simpler set-function...

  6. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  7. Qualitative Data Mining and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bratko, Ivan; Šuc, Dorian

    2003-01-01

    In machine learning from numerical data, usually the target concept is a numerical function that facilitates quantitative prediction. In contrast to this, we consider qualitative data mining which aims at finding qualitative patterns, or qualitative relationships in numerical data. We present one approach to qualitative data mining, in which the target concepts are expressed as qualitative decision trees. We reviewsome case studies in qualitative data mining, and discuss typical application s...

  8. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41......-65 years (n = 2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings...

  9. Radon assay for SNO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+

  10. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  11. Growth cone collapse assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  12. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  13. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.;

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive s...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin...

  14. Collective Analysis of Qualitative Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Friberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    What. Many students and practitioners do not know how to systematically process qualitative data once it is gathered—at least not as a collective effort. This chapter presents two workshop techniques, affinity diagramming and diagnostic mapping, that support collective analysis of large amounts...... of qualitative data. Affinity diagramming is used to make collective analysis and interpretations of qualitative data to identify core problems that need to be addressed in the design process. Diagnostic mapping supports collective interpretation and description of these problems and how to intervene in them. We...... explain the techniques through a case where they were used to analyze why a new elec- tronic medical record system introduced life-threatening situations for patients. Why. Collective analyses offer all participants a voice, visualize their contributions, combine different actors’ perspectives, and anchor...

  15. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do......This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based...... with relational, emotional, and ethical issues associated with interviewing and personal observation. Although the empirical setting of this case is Southeast Asia, the various discussions and interrelatedness of methodology, theory, and empirical reflections will prove applicable to field studies throughout...

  16. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  17. The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description. 

  18. Qualitative methods in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, Dmitrii

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises a set of tools which allow researchers and students to arrive at a qualitatively correct answer without undertaking lengthy calculations. In general, Qualitative Methods in Theoretical Physics is about combining approximate mathematical methods with fundamental principles of physics: conservation laws and symmetries. Readers will learn how to simplify problems, how to estimate results, and how to apply symmetry arguments and conduct dimensional analysis. A comprehensive problem set is included. The book will appeal to a wide range of students and researchers.

  19. Quantitative vs qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, M; Sinha, L; Biswas, M; Charles, M; Arora, N K

    2000-05-01

    Quantitative methods have been widely used because of the fact that things that can be measured or counted gain scientific credibility over the unmeasurable. But the extent of biological abnormality, severity, consequences and the impact of illness cannot be satisfactorily captured and answered by the quantitative research alone. In such situations qualitative methods take a holistic perspective preserving the complexities of human behavior by addressing the "why" and "how" questions. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the methods and also that a balanced mix of both qualitative as well as quantitative methods yield the most valid and reliable results.

  20. Commentary: Writing and evaluating qualitative research reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...

  1. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  2. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  3. Qualitative Assessment of Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert; Munson, April

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…

  4. Caregiving: A Qualitative Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Melinda; Mastel-Smith, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A common definition of caregiving does not exist. In an attempt to define the concept of caregiving, the authors used a hybrid qualitative model of concept development to analyze caregiving. The model consists of three phases: (a) theoretical, (b) fieldwork, and (c) analytical. The theoretical phase involves conducting an interdisciplinary…

  5. THE FUNCTION OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEYINK, JW; TYMSTRA, T

    1993-01-01

    Due to the prevailing positivistic view on science, qualitative research has only a modest place within the social sciences. There is, however, a growing awareness that a purely quantitative approach is not always satisfactory. This is for instance the case in the field of research into the quality

  6. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  7. Philosophical foundations of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C O

    1993-08-01

    Although new and still emerging for us, qualitative research approaches have been receiving considerable attention for some time in other disciplines. Along with philosophical debates, there are debates about whether there needs to be a debate. On a philosophical level, there is irreconcilable conflict between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms. It is important to recognize this conflict, avoiding illogical compromise. Yet, proponents of each paradigm need to applaud both the existence of the other and the hybrid paradigms that inevitably are born of conflict. An apt beginning would be broader definitions of what constitutes science and research in nursing, eliminating the sense-organ bias that is so contrary to our philosophy for practice. This alone would provide qualitative nurse researchers with the sanction they need to progress in their exploration of various approaches to creating a science and a body of knowledge in, for, and about nursing practice. In the chapters to follow, readers will be introduced to several qualitative research approaches. Each approach represents an interpretation of the qualitative paradigm in nursing research, grounded in the general perspective of phenomenological philosophy. This perspective focuses on phenomena as they appear and recognizes that reality is subjective and a matter of appearances for us in our social world. Subjectivity means that the world becomes real through our contact with it and acquires meaning through our interpretations of that contact. Truth, then, is a composite of realities, and access to truth is a problem of access to human subjectivity. This perspective guides the qualitative researcher in nursing to the subject matter of lived experiences, which are the original contacts with a world, and of the processes and content of interpretation--the meaning attributions that constitute realities and perspectives for a future of possibilities in the world. Other consequences of a phenomenological

  8. PathogenMip Assay: A Multiplex Pathogen Detection Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Akhras, Michael S.; Sreedevi Thiyagarajan; Villablanca, Andrea C.; Davis, Ronald W; Pål Nyrén; Nader Pourmand

    2007-01-01

    The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. Probe construction was based on a novel, cost-effective, ligase-based protocol. The ...

  9. Experience of fibromyalgia. Qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, M. C.; Brown, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore illness experiences of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Midsize city in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Seven patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. METHOD: Seven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the illness experience of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared...

  10. Qualitative theory of rubber friction

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, B.N.J.; E. Tosatti

    2000-01-01

    When rubber is slid on a hard, rough substrate, the surface asperities of the substrate exert oscillating forces on the rubber surface leading to energy "dissipation" via the internal friction of the rubber. We present a qualitative discussion of how the resulting friction force depends on the nature of the surface roughness and comment on the origin of the wear of sliding rubber surfaces. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(00)51404-4].

  11. Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. II: The Role of the Researcher in Qualitative Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Volume two of Qualitative Research Nexus focuses on the roles of qualitative researchers and their relationships within psychological studies. This book is a result of the presentations, discussions, and collaborations of participants at the second workshop "Qualitative Psychology" in October 2001 in Blaubeuren, Germany that was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology. The theme of the meeting was "the role of the researcher in qualitative psychology." Reading this volume of Qualit...

  12. Practical assay issues with the PERT/PBRT assay: a highly sensitive reverse transcriptase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A; Dusing, S

    2006-01-01

    Product safety testing for retroviruses can be achieved by a panel of screening assays, including electron microscopy, viral gene specific PCRs, virus propagation, and detection of reverse transciptase activity. The application of PCR-based reverse transcriptase assays (PERT) that are approximately a million-fold more sensitive than conventional nucleotide incorporation assays in the testing of biologicals is described. Use of PERT assays can be applied to three areas: (i) screening for adventitious retrovirus contamination; (ii) detecting and quantifying endogenous viral particle load and (iii) monitoring levels of infectious retrovirus generation in cell lines that contain endogenous retroviruses.

  13. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  14. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  15. Quantifying Qualitative Data Using Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherp, Hans-Ake

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show how substantial qualitative material consisting of graphic cognitive maps can be analysed by using digital CmapTools, Excel and SPSS. Evidence is provided of how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined in educational research by transforming qualitative data into quantitative data to facilitate…

  16. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  17. Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

  18. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  19. Designs, formats and applications of lateral flow assay: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sajid; Abdel-Nasser Kawde; Muhammad Daud

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript provides a brief overview of latest research involving the use of lateral flow assay for qualitative and quantitative analysis in different areas. The excellent features and versatility of detection formats make these strips an ideal choice for point of care applications. We outline and critically discuss detection formats, molecular recognition probes, labels, and detection systems used in lateral flow assay. Applications in different fields along with selected examples from ...

  20. Dye Labelled Monoclonal Antibody Assay for Detection of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin -1 from Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Javid Khojasteh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of study was to develop a rapid assay, dye labelled monoclonal antibody assay (DLMAA, using non-radioactive organic synthetic dyes for identification of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1 producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.Materials and Methods: The assay protocol required only two simple steps; addition of TSST-1 antigen to a nitrocellulose membrane and then adding a colloidal dye labelled antibody (D/A suspension detection reagent.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the assay was determined relative to positive and negative strains compared to an ELISA assay. Overall 100% agreement was found between both assays. The sensitivity for detection of TSST-1 was 30 ng.Conclusion: The DLMAA did not require handling and disposal of radioactive materials. It is a rapid qualitative technique for detection of TSST-1 toxin at room temperature within a short time.

  1. A System Supporting Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Todorova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available this paper presents a system aimed to be entirely located in the Internet. The database, server side, logic and user interface are accessible regardless the location and equipment of the working team members. The system supports qualitative analysis of large datasets, and the work can be distributed among several team members or teams. A modified mixed method for developing software projects is used, according to the peculiarities of our case, splitting the phase of code writing into two sub-phases each with different number of iterations.

  2. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  3. From Antenna to Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  4. A comparison of quantitative and qualitative superoxide dismutase assays for application to low temperature microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, P.J.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; van de Poll, W.H.; Gechev, T.S.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) play a key role in the removal of reactive oxygen species produced during visible and ultraviolet irradiance stress in microalgae and plants. However, little is known about the enzymatic antioxidative stress responses in ecologically important A

  5. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  6. Qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Terlevich, E; Fernandes, R Cid; Morales-Luis, A B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis, and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is of general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to HII galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. A number of byprodu...

  7. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  8. Comparison of chemosensitivity tests: clonogenic assay versus MTT assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawada K

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available When the development of chemotherapeutic agents reaches the clinical trial stage, it is necessary to perform drug sensitivity tests quickly in order to select the most promising agents for the treatment of cancer. In order to assess the possibility of using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay as a substitute for the human tumor clonogenic assay (HTCA, we evaluated the correlation between the results obtained by these 2 assays in 5 human lung cancer cell lines. The correlation coefficient between the results of the HTCA and the MTT assay was 0.673, indicating a relatively good correlation. The correlation was most prominent in platinum analogues (r = 0.939 and good in anthracyclines/anthracenedione (r = 0.611. However, no significant correlation was observed in vinca alkaloids, etoposide, irinotecan, SN-38 (an active metabolite of irinotecan, and rhizoxin. The results of the MTT assay showed a high degree of correlation with those of the HTCA in predicting the sensitivity of cancer cell lines to platinum analogues, and anthracyclines/anthracenedione. These results suggest that the MTT assay may be more convenient and quickly performed than the HTCA and can replace HTCA in evaluating the effects of anticancer agents, especially the platinum analogues and anthracyclines/anthracenedione.

  9. Calorimetric assay of minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, C.; Bracken, D.; Cremers, T.; Foster, L.A.; Ensslin, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews the principles of calorimetric assay and evaluates its potential application to the minor actinides (U-232-4, Am-241, Am- 243, Cm-245, Np-237). We conclude that calorimetry and high- resolution gamma-ray isotopic analysis can be used for the assay of minor actinides by adapting existing methodologies for Pu/Am-241 mixtures. In some cases, mixtures of special nuclear materials and minor actinides may require the development of new methodologies that involve a combination of destructive and nondestructive assay techniques.

  10. Calorimetric assay of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the principles of calorimetric assay and evaluates its potential application to the minor actinides (U-232-4, Am-241, Am- 243, Cm-245, Np-237). We conclude that calorimetry and high- resolution gamma-ray isotopic analysis can be used for the assay of minor actinides by adapting existing methodologies for Pu/Am-241 mixtures. In some cases, mixtures of special nuclear materials and minor actinides may require the development of new methodologies that involve a combination of destructive and nondestructive assay techniques

  11. Progetto QUADIS (Qualit di Servizio)

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, T; Vistoli, C

    1999-01-01

    Le applicazioni distribuite di nuova generazione richiedono servizi di rete garantiti. La rete Internet fornisce tuttora un servizio di tipo ³best effort² e perciò non adatto a soddisfare le nuove esigenze che provengono dalle $9 applicazioni. E' necessario studiare nuove architetture che facciano interagire applicazioni e rete in modo più stretto per ottenere più garanzie di affidabilit ed efficienza.Questo documento introduce i concetti base della qualit di $9 servizio sulla rete e i meccanismi in fase di studio o di sperimentazione finora esistenti. Definisce inoltre un programma di lavoro che prevede l'analisi di alcune applicazioni specifiche dell'INFN e la sperimentazione di servizi di $9 rete QoS adatti all'applicazione in esame.Questo documento è allegato al progetto "QUAdiS" di Gruppo V.

  12. Contradictions in qualitative management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Richard; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    role in the understanding of management ideas, work and practices. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is presented on consensus and dissensus orientated theories on contradictions and multiple and conflicting identities in a single individual in an ethnographic inquiry. The purpose...... for a more reflexive approach to analysis work in ethnographic accounts. Originality/value: By applying consensus and dissensus-oriented theories to a single account the authors point to conditions, phenomena and relations, which most current and historic management research streams fail to see. Multiple...... on the management work performed by the respondent. Keywords: Contradictions, Impression management, Qualitative research, Management research, Dissensus-oriented theories, Multiple identities Paper type: Research paper...

  13. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  14. Lateral flow (immuno) assay : its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno) assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food a

  15. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food an

  16. The Physcomitrella patens System for Transient Gene Expression Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, Johanne; Xu, Wenjia; Vaisman, Louise; Lepiniec, Loïc; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Dubos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression assays are valuable techniques to study in vivo the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. These methods allow to assess the transcriptional properties of a given transcription factor (TF) or a complex of regulatory proteins against specific DNA motifs, called cis-regulatory elements. Here, we describe a fast, efficient, and reliable method based on the use of Physcomitrella patens protoplasts that allows the study of gene expression in a qualitative and quantitative manner by combining the advantage of GFP (green fluorescent protein) as a marker of promoter activity with flow cytometry for accurate measurement of fluorescence in individual cells. PMID:27557766

  17. HTA and synthesis of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva Ulriksen; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Health technology assessment is no longer simply a question of efficacy and economics. Internationally there is growing interest in patient-related and organisational aspects and questions of why and how the technologies work. Qualitative research has established a role in answering...... these kinds of questions. Key challenges using qualitative research in HTA are related to the interpretive and small scale nature of qualitative research and how to synthesise qualitative research. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine and discuss the relevance of synthesis of qualitative...... research (SQR) in HTAs and to address its possibilities and limitations. Methods: SQR is described and discussed focusing on definition of synthesis and of qualitative versus quantitative methods, on questions of evidence and on the relevance for HTA. SQR is understood as an umbrella term for different...

  18. On reasoning in networks with qualitative uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Simon; Mamdani, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper some initial work towards a new approach to qualitative reasoning under uncertainty is presented. This method is not only applicable to qualitative probabilistic reasoning, as is the case with other methods, but also allows the qualitative propagation within networks of values based upon possibility theory and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The method is applied to two simple networks from which a large class of directed graphs may be constructed. The results of this analysis ...

  19. Qualitative research: resurgence, institutionalisation and application

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, NG

    2005-01-01

    The way that the social sciences developed in respect of methodological preferences, and differences between European and North American approaches, helps us to understand why secondary analysis has until recently been a limited practice in qualitative research. To unravel the developments that explain the differing circumstances of secondary analysis in quantitative and qualitative research, we will initially consider the early days of qualitative method, and comment on its location in the f...

  20. Conducting qualitative research in audiology : A tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Levesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E.; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. DESIGN: This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. RESULTS: We describe some available qua...

  1. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  2. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system has been created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady-state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  3. New Directions in Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing...... misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology...

  4. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.

  5. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.

  6. Research Methodologies in Science Education: Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the concepts and terminology of qualitative research methodologies in the context of science education. Discusses interviewing, observing, validity, reliability, and confirmability. (Author/MM)

  7. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-Ting; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence-based detection techniques are popular in high throughput screening due to sensitivity and cost-effectiveness. Four commonly used techniques exist, each with distinct characteristics. Fluorescence intensity assays are the simplest to run, but suffer the most from signal interference. Fluorescence polarization assays show less interference from the compounds or the instrument, but require a design that results in change of fluorophore-containing moiety size and usually have narrow assay signal window. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is commonly used for detecting protein-protein interactions and is constrained not by the sizes of binding partners, but rather by the distance between fluorophores. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), an advanced modification of FRET approach utilizes special fluorophores with long-lived fluorescence and earns its place near the top of fluorescent techniques list by its performance and robustness, characterized by larger assay window and minimized compound spectral interference. TR-FRET technology can be applied in biochemical or cell-based in vitro assays with ease. It is commonly used to detect modulation of protein-protein interactions and in detection of products of biochemical reactions and cellular activities. PMID:27316992

  8. Development and validation of qualitative SYBR®Green Real-Time PCR for detection and discrimination of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Yde, Marc; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H

    2012-01-01

    A combination of four qualitative SYBR®Green qPCR screening assays targeting two levels of discrimination: Listeria genus (except Listeria grayi) and Listeria monocytogenes, is presented. These assays have been developed to be run simultaneously using the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) programme. The paper also proposes a new validation procedure to specifically validate qPCR assays applied to food microbiology according to two guidelines: the ISO 22118 norm and the “Definition of minim...

  9. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  10. Qualitative Dermatoglyphics In Idiopathic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Priya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic aetiology has been proposed for both idiopathic epilepsy and dermatoglyphics. Hence, the present study has been undertaken to find out the existence of any correlation between dermatoglyphics and idiopathic epilepsy. Material consisted of 100 patients (58 males and 42 females and 100 controls (52 males and 48 females. Patient′s age ranged from 5 to 40 years and controls were between 18 and 25 years. Dermatoglyphics were obtained by painting method. Qualitative parameters observed were percentage frequency of fingerprint patterns (loops, whorls and arches,, patterns in hypothenar area/ interdigital are and flexion creases (Simian crease, sydney line. On comparison with controls, in males, with hands combined, loops (52.24% and arches (7.93% were increased and whorls (39.83% were decreased (p<0.05. In females, with hands combined, arches (13.1% and whorls (36.43% were increased and loops (50.48% were decreased (p< 0.03. Significant differences have not been observed for the patterns in hypothenar area /interdigital area and flexion creases. These dermatoglyphics features could be used as additional markers to evaluate patients of epilepsy.

  11. Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. VI: Qualitative psychology in the changing academic context

    OpenAIRE

    Maslo, Irina; Kiegelmann, Mechthild; Huber, Günter; Gento, Samuel; Medina, Antonio; Domínguez, Concepción; Herfort, Inge; Weiss, Andreas; Witzel, Andreas; Ullrich, Annette; Wood, Wendy; Cook, Leslie; Pigozne, Tamara; Sánchez Romero, Cristina; Surikova, Svetlana

    2008-01-01

    The sixth volume of the Qualitative Psychology Nexus comprises documents and contributions of the sixth international meeting on qualitative psychology, organized by EARLI SIG 17 "Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Learning and Instruction". The meeting was organised by the Centre for Qualitative Psychology and the University of Latvia to deepen our joint understanding of learning and instruction in the changing academic context. It took place in Riga (Latvia), October 20-22, 2006 as ...

  12. Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

    2011-01-01

    In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

  13. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  14. The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

  15. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  16. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  17. Qualitative Clinical Research with Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mary Lee; Quintana, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how qualitative research methods (QRMs) can augment the literature in child and adolescent clinical psychology by contributing to theory and hypothesis building. We discuss the utility of qualitative methods in examining the nature of clinical processes and obtaining deeper understandings about quantitative…

  18. Qualitative permanence of Lotka-Volterra equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Josef; Kon, Ryusuke; Saito, Yasuhisa

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we consider permanence of Lotka-Volterra equations. We investigate the sign structure of the interaction matrix that guarantees the permanence of a Lotka-Volterra equation whenever it has a positive equilibrium point. An interaction matrix with this property is said to be qualitatively permanent. Our results provide both necessary and sufficient conditions for qualitative permanence.

  19. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  20. Qualitative Research: Emerging Opportunity in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…

  1. The Qualitative Method of Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lawrence B.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses qualitative methods of impact analysis and provides an introductory treatment of one such approach. Combines an awareness of an alternative causal epistemology with current knowledge of qualitative methods of data collection and measurement to produce an approach to the analysis of impacts. (SLD)

  2. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  3. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  4. Assays for B lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondada, Subbarao; Robertson, Darrell A

    2003-11-01

    This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. The first basic protocol is a generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production and can accommodate various types of antigens under study. Secreted antibodies can then be measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other soluble-antibody detection systems. Alternatively, the number of antibody-producing cells can be quantified by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays presented in this unit: the Cunningham-Szenberg and the Jerne-Nordin techniques. Both methods employ specially prepared slide chambers, described here, in which the antibody-producing B cells are mixed with complement and indicator sheep red blood cells (SRBC), or with trinitrophenol-modified SRBC (TNP-SRBC), with subsequent lysis and counting of plaques. Because IgM antibodies fix complement efficiently, whereas IgG and IgA antibodies do not, unmodified PFC assays measure only IgM antibodies. The assay can be modified, however, to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells, as described in alternate protocols. Yet another method of measuring the number of antibody-producing B cells (in a class-specific fashion) is to use the ELISPOT technique described in UNIT 7.14. The resting B cells used in these procedures are prepared as described in the final support protocols for Percoll gradient centrifugation. PMID:18432909

  5. The Lumipulse G HBsAg-Quant assay for screening and quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Song, Guangjun; Guan, Wenli; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Lai

    2016-02-01

    Qualitative HBsAg assay is used to screen HBV infection for decades. The utility of quantitative assay is also rejuvenated recently. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of a novel ultra-sensitive and quantitative assay, the Lumipulse assay, with the Architect and Elecsys assays. As screening methods, specificity was compared using 2043 consecutive clinical routine samples. As quantitative assays, precision and accuracy were assessed. Sera from 112 treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients, four patients undergoing antiviral therapy and one patient with acute infection were tested to compare the correlations. Samples with concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs were also quantified. The Lumipulse assay precisely quantified ultra-low level of HBsAg (0.004 IU/mL). It identified additional 0.98% (20/2043) clinical samples with trance amount of HBsAg. Three assays displayed excellent linear correlations irrespective of genotypes and S-gene mutations (R(2)>0.95, PLumipulse assay did not yield higher HBsAg concentrations in samples with concomitant anti-HBs. Compared with other assays, the Lumipulse assay is sensitive and specific for detecting HBsAg. The interpretation of the extremely low-level results, however, is challenging. Quantitative HBsAg results by different assays are highly correlated, but they should be interpreted interchangeably only after conversion to eliminate the biases.

  6. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  7. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Andrew R; El Yamani, Naouale; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Brunborg, Gunnar; Azqueta, Amaya

    2014-01-01

    Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardizing the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of ...

  8. Qualitative knowledge engineering for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the TMI nuclear power plant accident, the two topics of plant safety and operational efficiency became more important areas of artificial intelligence, which have difference characteristics. Qualitative deep model is the recently prospective technology of AI, that can overcome several handicaps of the existing expert systems such as lack of common sense reasoning. The application of AI to the large and complex system like nuclear power plants is typically and effectively done through a module-based hierarchical system. As each module has to be built with suitable AI system. Through the experiences of hierarchical system construction, we aimed to develop basic AI application schemes for the power plant safety and operational efficiency as well as basic technologies for autonomous power plants. The goal of the research is to develop qualitative reasoning technologies for nuclear power plants. For this purpose, the development of qualitative modeling technologies and qualitative behaviour prediction technologies of the power plant are accomplished. In addition, the feasibility of application of typical qualitative reasoning technologies to power plants is studied . The goal of the application is to develop intelligent control technologies of power plants, support technologies. For these purposes, we analyzed the operation of power plants according to its operation purpose: power generation operation, shut-down and start-up operation. As a result, qualitative model of basic components were sketched, including pipes, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. Finally, plant behaviour prediction technologies through qualitative plant heat transfer model and design support technologies through 2nd-order differential equation were developed. For the construction of AI system of power plants, we have studied on the mixed module based hierarchical software. As a testbed, we have considered the spent fuel system and the feedwater system. We also studied the integration

  9. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid......Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  10. The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative reasoning about thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorstad, Gordon; Forbus, Ken

    1989-01-01

    One goal of qualitative physics is to capture the tacit knowledge of engineers and scientists. It is shown how Qualitative Process theory can be used to express concepts of engineering thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown how to integrate qualitative and quantitative knowledge to solve textbook problems involving thermodynamic cycles, such as gas turbine plants and steam power plants. These ideas were implemented in a program called SCHISM. Its analysis of a sample textbook problem is described and plans for future work are discussed.

  12. The skin-blanching assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.

  13. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. PMID:26608293

  14. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  15. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  16. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The use of the CBMN assay in in vitro genetic toxicology testing is well established and in fact it has become an accepted standard method to assess the genotoxic hazard of chemicals which led to the development of a special guideline by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, the OECD 487 guideline (Kirsch-Volders et al., 2014. The CBMN assay is an effective tool for the study of cellular and nuclear dysfunction caused by in vitro or in vivo aging, micronutrient deficiency or excess, genotoxins exposure and genetic defects in genome maintenance. It is also fruitful in the emerging fields of nutrigenomics and toxicogenomics and their combinations, as it becomes increasingly clear that nutrient status also impacts on sensitivity to exogenous genotoxins (Fenech, 2005, 2007. Many results obtained by this assay indicate the potential predictive value of the CBMN assay with respect to cancer risk and validate its use as a test for detecting nutritional, environmental and genetic factors that are potentially carcinogenic. Also it is used by pharmaceutical industry, human biomonitoring of genotoxic exposures and its increasing application in preventive medicine and nutrition and the increased investment in the automation of the CBMN assay are indicative of the increasing importance of this test (Fenech, 2007. The comet assay or single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE is a simple, sensitive method for detecting DNA-strand breaks. Cells embedded in agarose on a microscope slide are lysed with detergent and 2.5 M NaCl and fresh Triton X-100 to remove membranes and soluble cell constituents, including most histones, leaving the DNA, still supercoiled and attached to a nuclear matrix, as a nucleoid. A break in one strand of a DNA loop is enough to release the supercoiling, and during electrophoresis the relaxed loops are able to extend towards the anode (Fairbairn et al., 1995; Collins et al., 1997; Moller et al., 2000; Azqueta et al., 2009; Collins

  17. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history...... of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as “qualitative psychologists”, they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established...... itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening “McDonaldization” of qualitative research, while the potentials are related...

  18. QUALITATIVE STUDY FOR A CUBIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali.Elamin.M.Saeed

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses a non-Liénard type planar cubic system, and a complete qualitative analysis is given for the system, especially the conclusions for the non-existence, existence and uniqueness of limit cycles are obtained.

  19. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-06-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as "qualitative psychologists", they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening "McDonaldization" of qualitative research, while the potentials are related to proliferation of new forms of inquiry and a transcending of disciplinary boundaries.

  20. From Conditional Oughts to Qualitative Decision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl, Judea

    2013-01-01

    The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., "You ought to do A, if C") that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the...

  1. Autism and the Family: A Qualitative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, Paul William

    2001-01-01

    AUTISM AND THE FAMILY: A QUALITATIVE PERSPECTIVE Paul W. Glass (ABSTRACT) The focus of this dissertation was to gain a better understanding of autism, and its effects on family life. Studies have been done on the behavioral and cognitive effects of autism on the affected child, and how those effects manifest themselves into family life. No studies were found, however, that give a rich, qualitative account of what it is like to live with autism using first hand accounts as data, and ...

  2. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ladeira; Susana Viegas; Gomes, Manuel C.

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN) assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage; cytostasis and cytotoxicity-DNA damage events are scored specifically in once-divided binucleated cells. The endpoints possible to be measured are micronuclei (MN), a biomarker of chromosome breakage and/or whole chromosome loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), a biomarker of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end-fusions, and nuclear buds (NBUD), a biomarker of elimination of amplified DNA and/...

  3. Is qualitative research second class science? A quantitative longitudinal examination of qualitative research in medical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Shuval

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. DESIGN: A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998-2007. The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator by all original research articles published (denominator. We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research. FINDINGS: A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007. The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012; and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, P<0.001. Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075. The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies

  4. Les conditions de l’analyse qualitative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Paillé

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Les méthodes d’analyse des données qualitatives et le monde informatique étaient faits pour se rencontrer. Et en effet, la question est d’actualité et les outils informatiques nombreux et avancés. Ce phénomène ne saurait s’estomper, d’autant moins que l’analyse des données secondaires connaît en même temps des développements importants. Mais l’attrait pour les logiciels d’analyse peut devenir tel qu’on ne verrait plus trop à quel titre et pour quelles raisons on pourrait s’en passer. L’article tente de cerner une vision et une pratique de l’analyse qualitative qui, dans son essence, ne se prête pas à l’utilisation d’outils informatiques spécialisés. Il situe sa réflexion dans le cadre de la méthodologie qualitative (démarche qualitative, recherche qualitative, analyse qualitative, plus particulièrement au niveau de l’enquête qualitative de terrain.The conditions of qualitative analysisThe methods for analyzing qualitative data and the computer world were meant to meet. And, by that, the question is valid and computer tools numerous and advanced. This phenomenon will not slowdown, especially not since secondary data analysis experiences significant developments. But the attraction for analysis software could develop so that we would not see too much why and for what type of reasons we could part from them. This article attempts to define a vision and a practice of qualitative analysis that, in essence, does not use specialized computer tools. It situates its reflection within qualitative methodology (qualitative approaches, qualitative research, qualitative analysis and moreover in the level of qualitative fieldwork investigation.Las condiciones del análisis cualitativo. Reflexiones sobre la utilización de programas informáticosLos métodos de análisis de los datos cualitativos y el mundo de la informática han nacido para entenderse mutualmente. En efecto, la cuestión es actual y los

  5. The role of the researcher in qualitative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Volume two of Qualitative Research Nexus focuses on the roles of qualitative researchers and their relationships within psychological studies. This book is a result of the presentations, discussions, and collaborations of participants at the second workshop "Qualitative Psychology" in October 2001 in Blaubeuren, Germany that was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology. The theme of the meeting was "the role of the researcher in qualitative psychology." Reading this volume of Qualit...

  6. Newly established monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays for Schistosoma mansoni direct detection in areas of low endemicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current available methods for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni lack sufficient sensitivity, which results in underreporting of infectious in areas of low endemicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed three novel diagnostic methodologies for the direct detection of schistosome infection in serum samples. These three new methods were evaluated with positive patients from a low endemicity area in southeast Brazil. The basis of the assay was the production of monoclonal antibodies against the protein backbone of heavily glycosylated Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA. The antibodies were also selected for having no specificity to repeating poly-Lewis x units. Assays based on the detection CCA-protein should not encounter a limitation in sensitivity due to a biological background of this particular epitope. Three diagnostic methodologies were developed and validated, (i Immunomagnetic Separation based on improved incubation steps of non-diluted serum, (ii Direct Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and (iii Fluorescent Microscopy Analysis as a qualitative assay. The two quantitative assays presented high sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively and specificity (100%, equivalent to the analysis of 3 stool samples and 16 slides by Kato-Katz, showing promising results on the determination of cure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Immunomagnetic Separation technique showed excellent correlation with parasite burden by Cohen coefficient. The qualitative method detected 47 positive individuals out of 50 with the analysis of 3 slides. This easy-to-do method was capable of discriminating positive from negative cases, even for patients with low parasite burden.

  7. Designs, formats and applications of lateral flow assay: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript provides a brief overview of latest research involving the use of lateral flow assay for qualitative and quantitative analysis in different areas. The excellent features and versatility of detection formats make these strips an ideal choice for point of care applications. We outline and critically discuss detection formats, molecular recognition probes, labels, and detection systems used in lateral flow assay. Applications in different fields along with selected examples from the literature have been included to show analytical performance of these devices. At the end, we summarize accomplishments, weaknesses and future challenges in the area of lateral flow strips.

  8. Assessing cytotoxicity of boron nitride nanotubes: Interference with the MTT assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciofani, Gianni, E-mail: g.ciofani@sssup.it [Italian Institute of Technology, Smart Materials Lab, Center of MicroBioRobotics at Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio, 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa) (Italy); Danti, Serena; D' Alessandro, Delfo [Otology-Cochlear Implants, Cisanello Hospital, Via Paradisa 2, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Moscato, Stefania [Department of Human Morphology and Applied Biology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Menciassi, Arianna [Italian Institute of Technology, Smart Materials Lab, Center of MicroBioRobotics at Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio, 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa) (Italy); CRIM Lab, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio, 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa) (Italy)

    2010-04-02

    Thanks to a non-covalent wrapping with glycol-chitosan, highly biocompatible and highly concentrated dispersions of boron nitride nanotubes were obtained and tested on human neuroblastoma cells. A systematic investigation of the cytotoxicity of these nanovectors with several complementary qualitative and quantitative assays allowed a strong interference with the MTT metabolic assay to be highlighted, similar to a phenomenon already observed for carbon nanotubes, that would wrongly suggest toxicity of boron nitride nanotubes. These results confirm the high complexity of these new nanomaterials, and the needing of extensive investigations on their exciting potential applications in the biomedical field.

  9. Capture-S, a nontreponemal solid-phase erythrocyte adherence assay for serological detection of syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, D L; Moheng, M C; Rolih, S; Sinor, L T

    1997-01-01

    A solid-phase erythrocyte adherence assay has been developed for the serological detection of reagin antibodies in syphilis. Capture-S (Immucor, Inc., Norcross, Ga.) is a nontreponemal, qualitative screening test for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antilipid antibodies in serum or plasma samples from blood donors. The Capture-S assay utilizes a modified Venereal Disease Research Laboratory antigen bound to microtitration wells and anti-IgG- plus anti-IgM-coated indicator eryth...

  10. Serum indices: managing assay interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Christopher-John L; Carter, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    Clinical laboratories frequently encounter samples showing significant haemolysis, icterus or lipaemia. Technical advances, utilizing spectrophotometric measurements on automated chemistry analysers, allow rapid and accurate identification of such samples. However, accurate quantification of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference is of limited value if laboratories do not set rational alert limits, based on sound interference testing experiments. Furthermore, in the context of increasing consolidation of laboratories and the formation of laboratory networks, there is an increasing requirement for harmonization of the handling of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia-affected samples across different analytical platforms. Harmonization may be best achieved by considering both the analytical aspects of index measurement and the possible variations in the effects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interferences on assays from different manufacturers. Initial verification studies, followed up with ongoing quality control testing, can help a laboratory ensure the accuracy of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia index results, as well as assist in managing any biases in index results from analysers from different manufacturers. Similarities, and variations, in the effect of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference in assays from different manufacturers can often be predicted from the mechanism of interference. Nevertheless, interference testing is required to confirm expected similarities or to quantify differences. It is important that laboratories are familiar with a number of interference testing protocols and the particular strengths and weaknesses of each. A rigorous approach to all aspects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference testing allows the analytical progress in index measurement to be translated into improved patient care. PMID:27147624

  11. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  12. Proteasome Assay in Cell Lysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) mediates the majority of the proteolysis seen in the cytoplasm and nucleus of mammalian cells. As such it plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including tumorigenesis, inflammation and cell death (Ciechanover, 2005; Kisselev and Goldberg, 2001). A number of recent studies have shown that proteasome activity is decreased in a variety of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and stroke as well as during normal aging (Chung et al., 2001; Ciechanover and Brundin, 2003; Betarbet et al., 2005). This decrease in proteasome activity is thought to play a critical role in the accumulation of abnormal and oxidized proteins. Protein clearance by the UPS involves two sequential reactions. The first is the tagging of protein lysine residues with ubiquitin (Ub) and the second is the subsequent degradation of the tagged proteins by the proteasome. We herein describe an assay for the second of these two reactions (Valera et al., 2013). This assay uses fluorogenic substrates for each of the three activities of the proteasome: chymotrypsin-like activity, trypsin-like activity and caspase-like activity. Cleavage of the fluorophore from the substrate by the proteasome results in fluorescence that can be detected with a fluorescent plate reader.

  13. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2005-03-23

    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply a competitive reaction scheme, in which antioxidant and substrate compete for thermally generated peroxyl radicals through the decomposition of azo compounds. These assays include inhibition of induced low-density lipoprotein autoxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and crocin bleaching assays. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes color when reduced. The degree of color change is correlated with the sample's antioxidant concentrations. ET-based assays include the total phenols assay by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), "total antioxidant potential" assay using a Cu(II) complex as an oxidant, and DPPH. In addition, other assays intended to measure a sample's scavenging capacity of biologically relevant oxidants such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical are also summarized. On the basis of this analysis, it is suggested that the total phenols assay by FCR be used to quantify an antioxidant's reducing capacity and the ORAC assay to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. To comprehensively study different aspects of antioxidants, validated and specific assays are needed in addition to these two commonly accepted assays. PMID:15769103

  14. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A heparin assay is a device used to determine the level of the anticoagulant heparin in the...

  15. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert;

    2016-01-01

    ) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). METHODS: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7490 - Sulfhemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfhemoglobin assay. 864.7490 Section 864.7490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... assay. (a) Identification. A sulfhemoglobin assay is a device consisting of the reagents,...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythropoietin assay. 864.7250 Section 864.7250... assay. (a) Identification. A erythropoietin assay is a device that measures the concentration of erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7425 - Carboxyhemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carboxyhemoglobin assay. 864.7425 Section 864.7425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... assay. (a) Identification. A carboxyhemoglobin assay is a device used to determine the...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a) Identification. An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological techniques in whole blood. The device...

  20. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  1. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G. A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van, H.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food and environmental settings. We describe principles of current formats, applications, limitations and perspectives for quantitative monitoring. We illustrate the potentials and limitations of analysis...

  2. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research.

  3. Turning Points in Qualitative Research: Tying Knots in a Handkerchief. Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.

    The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…

  4. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  5. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  6. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  7. Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry: Possibilities and Tensions in Educational Research. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Carducci, Rozana, Ed.; Kuby, Candace R., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry" is an edited volume that examines the possibilities and tensions encountered by scholars who adopt disruptive qualitative approaches to the study of educational contexts, issues, and phenomena. It presents a collection of innovative and intellectually stimulating chapters which illustrate the potential…

  8. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  9. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  10. Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    studies on EM physicians were designed using the following strategies of inquiry: Ethnography, mixed methods, action research, grounded theory, phenomenology, content analysis, discourse analysis, and critical incident analysis. The reviewed studies were categorized into four main themes: Education......Aim: This study aims to systematically review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians in Emergency Departments (ED). Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that can be investigated...... with qualitative research. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references...

  11. Transitioning from Clinical to Qualitative Research Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.

  12. Leveraging Qualitative Reasoning to Learning Manipulation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedrich Wolter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning and planning are powerful AI methods that exhibit complementary strengths. While planning allows goal-directed actions to be computed when a reliable forward model is known, learning allows such models to be obtained autonomously. In this paper we describe how both methods can be combined using an expressive qualitative knowledge representation. We argue that the crucial step in this integration is to employ a representation based on a well-defined semantics. This article proposes the qualitative spatial logic QSL, a representation that combines qualitative abstraction with linear temporal logic, allowing us to represent relevant information about the learning task, possible actions, and their consequences. Doing so, we empower reasoning processes to enhance learning performance beyond the positive effects of learning in abstract state spaces. Proof-of-concept experiments in two simulation environments show that this approach can help to improve learning-based robotics by quicker convergence and leads to more reliable action planning.

  13. Propagating Qualitative Values Through Quantitative Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    1992-01-01

    In most practical problems where traditional numeric simulation is not adequate, one need to reason about a system with both qualitative and quantitative equations. In this paper, we address the problem of propagating qualitative values represented as interval values through quantitative equations. Previous research has produced exponential-time algorithms for approximate solution of the problem. These may not meet the stringent requirements of many real time applications. This paper advances the state of art by producing a linear-time algorithm that can propagate a qualitative value through a class of complex quantitative equations exactly and through arbitrary algebraic expressions approximately. The algorithm was found applicable to Space Shuttle Reaction Control System model.

  14. About Statistical Analysis of Qualitative Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Loehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gathered data is frequently not in a numerical form allowing immediate appliance of the quantitative mathematical-statistical methods. In this paper are some basic aspects examining how quantitative-based statistical methodology can be utilized in the analysis of qualitative data sets. The transformation of qualitative data into numeric values is considered as the entrance point to quantitative analysis. Concurrently related publications and impacts of scale transformations are discussed. Subsequently, it is shown how correlation coefficients are usable in conjunction with data aggregation constrains to construct relationship modelling matrices. For illustration, a case study is referenced at which ordinal type ordered qualitative survey answers are allocated to process defining procedures as aggregation levels. Finally options about measuring the adherence of the gathered empirical data to such kind of derived aggregation models are introduced and a statistically based reliability check approach to evaluate the reliability of the chosen model specification is outlined.

  15. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Establishment of Immunoradiometric Assay for Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies are used, one is coated on the microtiter plate, the other is labeled to make 125I-CEAMcAb. The one-step assay is established based on immunoradiometric assay(IRMA). The sensitivity of the assay is 0.5 μ g/L. The intra-assay CVs and the inter-assay CVs are lower than 10.0% and 15.0%, respectively. The analytical recoveries are ranged from 97.4% to 107.8%. The reference cut-out value of 35 normal serum is lower than

  17. Verification of uranium 238 quantity calculated using waste assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of 238U in uranium-contaminated waste drums generated in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is evaluated from γ-ray measurement. We used the γ-ray measurement system made from CANBERRA(Qualitative and Quantitative (Q2) Low Level Waste Assay Systems) and measured the waste drums. This system assumes uniform distribution of uranium. But, homogeneity can not be checked with real waste drums. Authors developed the new analysis technique which calculates the amount of uranium by correcting the influence of uneven distribution of the uranium. As a result of evaluating using the new analysis technique, the error which influences quantitative value of 238U has been evaluated. (author)

  18. Predictive Assay For Cancer Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Nguyen, C; Sorensen, K; Montgomery, J; Souza, B; Kulp, K; Dugan, L; Christian, A

    2005-09-19

    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  19. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of detonation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different sampling and different injection method were used during analyzing unknown detonation products in a obturator. The sample analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrum. Qualitative analysis was used with CO, NO, C2H2, C6H6 and so on, qualitative analysis was used with C3H5N, C10H10, C8H8N2 and so on. The method used in the article is feasible. The results show that the component of detonation in the study is negative oxygen balance, there were many pollutants in the detonation products. (authors)

  1. From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    1994-01-01

    The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

  2. The Qualitative Trajectory Calculus on Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Peter; van de Weghe, Nico; Cohn, Anthony G.; Witlox, Frank; de Maeyer, Philippe

    Moving objects are commonly handled using quantitative methods and information. However, in many cases, qualitative information can be more efficient and more meaningful than quantitative information. A lot of research has been done in generating, indexing, modelling and querying network-based moving objects, but little work has been done in building a calculus of relations between these objects in a qualitative way. In this paper, we introduce a formal definition of how to represent and reason about the relative trajectories of pairs of objects moving along a network.

  3. Qualitative research and the modern library

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Valeda Dent

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative Research and the Modern Library examines the present-day role and provides suggestions for areas that might be suited to this type of research for the purposes of evaluation. The author discusses how the results from such research might be applied, and the overall impact of using this type of research to inform development of a more user-centred organisation. The book provides a thoughtful look at the implications of using qualitative research to inform decision-making processes within libraries and is written by an author and library researcher with international experience in var

  4. Reasoning about energy in qualitative simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Pierre; Kuipers, Benjamin J.

    1992-01-01

    While possible behaviors of a mechanism that are consistent with an incomplete state of knowledge can be predicted through qualitative modeling and simulation, spurious behaviors corresponding to no solution of any ordinary differential equation consistent with the model may be generated. The present method for energy-related reasoning eliminates an important source of spurious behaviors, as demonstrated by its application to a nonlinear, proportional-integral controlled. It is shown that such qualitative properties of such a system as stability and zero-offset control are captured by the simulation.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative event-specific PCR detection methods for oxy-235 canola based on the 3' integration flanking sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Zhang, Haibo; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-03-26

    As more genetically modified plant events are approved for commercialization worldwide, the event-specific PCR method has become the key method for genetically modified organism (GMO) identification and quantification. This study reveals the 3' flanking sequence of the exogenous integration of Oxy-235 canola employing thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). On the basis of the revealed 3' flanking sequence, PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed and qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were established for Oxy-235 canola. The specificity and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of these two PCR assays were validated to as low as 0.1% for the relative LOD of qualitative PCR assay; the absolute LOD and LOQ were low to 10 and 20 copies of canola genomic DNA in quantitative PCR assay, respectively. Furthermore, ideal quantified results were obtained in the practical canola sample detection. All of the results indicate that the developed qualitative and quantitative PCR methods based on the revealed 3' integration flanking sequence are suitable for GM canola Oxy-235 identification and quantification.

  6. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  7. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

  8. Comet assay as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity of two human brain tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronucleus assay and comet assay were compared as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity of tumors. Two human brain tumor cell lines, Becker (derived from astrocytoma) and ONS76 (derived from medulloblastoma) were used. Colony methods as the gold standard showed ONS76 as radiosensitive and Becker as radioresistant cell lines. Micronucleus assay revealed no different radiosensitivity between them. With comet assay, Becker cells received irradiation showed less damage to the DNA and faster repair of the damage than ONS76 cells did. The results correlate with those from colony methods. Comet assay is simple and rapid method for clinical use and it has an advantage not to establish the primary culture. Moreover, the results of comet assay showed not only DNA damage but also repair from the damage. It is concluded that comet assay is a superior method than micronucleus assay and has a potent candidate for clinical predictive assay. (author)

  9. Qualität der Eizelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen der assistierten Reproduktion ist die Qualität der Eizelle ein entscheidendes Kriterium für den Erfolg einer Kinderwunschbehandlung. Die lichtmikroskopische Untersuchung morphologischer Kriterien stellte lange Zeit die einzige Möglichkeit zur Beurteilung der Eizellqualität dar und hat auch heute noch ihre Berechtigung. In zunehmendem Maße werden auch andere diagnostische Verfahren evaluiert. Neben der chromosomalen bzw. genetischen Integrität, die mit geeigneten Methoden bereits untersucht werden kann, stellt die nukleäre und die zytoplasmatische Reife der Eizellen ein wesentliches Qualitätsmerkmal dar. Bisher stehen insbesondere indirekte Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfügung, die zum Teil bereits in der klinischen Praxis eingesetzt werden, wie z. B. das Zonaimaging. Neueste Entwicklungen wie die Sauerstoff-Respirationsmessung oder die Genexpressionsanalyse befinden sich noch im Entwicklungsstadium und werden hinsichtlich ihrer Einsatzmöglichkeit im Laboralltag evaluiert. Für einige neue Parameter sind bei verschiedenen Eizellen zum Teil bereits erhebliche Unterschiede erkennbar, die als indirekter Hinweis auf qualitative Unterschiede angesehen werden können. Erst mit genügend sensitiven Untersuchungsmethoden werden die zum Teil geringen Unterschiede zwischen Eizellen verschiedener Qualität erkennbar.

  10. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion a

  11. Qualitative Investigation of Young Children's Music Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study examined young children's music preferences through group conversations with children, interviews with parents, and non-participant observation of classroom settings in daycare and elementary classrooms. Data were analyzed inductively to generate themes, and revealed that (1) children expressed distinct preferences for an…

  12. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  13. Dialectical Inquiry: A Structured Qualitative Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniker, Eli; McNabb, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Dialectical Inquiry (DI) as a structured qualitative research method for studying participant models of organizational processes. The method is applied to rich secondary anecdotal data on technology transfer, gathered by subject-matter experts in a large firm. DI assumes that the imposition of a dialectical structure will…

  14. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  15. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  16. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book contains:"Preface" (1…

  17. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Milošević; B. Bredeweg

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  18. A Qualitative Acceleration Model Based on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester MARTINEZ-MARTIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the way to autonomous service robots, spatial reasoning plays a main role since it properly deals with problems involving uncertainty. In particular, we are interested in knowing people's pose to avoid collisions. With that aim, in this paper, we present a qualitative acceleration model for robotic applications including representation, reasoning and a practical application.

  19. Innovative Data Collection Strategies in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during…

  20. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Data: An Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Anjoo; And Others

    Methodology from an ongoing research study to validate teaching techniques for deaf and blind students provides an example of the ways that several types of quantitative and qualitative data can be combined in analysis. Four teacher and student pairs were selected. The students were between 14 and 21 years old, had both auditory and visual…

  1. Why Students Procrastinate: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Grund, Axel; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we adopted an impartial view on academic procrastination in order to gain new insights for the development of intervention programs. Following a qualitative approach, we thereby explored antecedents of procrastination by attending to the actual voices and experiences of 29 students. Students' subjective theories were in line…

  2. A Novel Approach for Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophadt, Charles E.

    1974-01-01

    The design of a freshman chemistry laboratory program involving nontraditional qualitative investigations of metal ion properties is explained. Experiments are discussed which focus on synthesis of a metal salt, properties of metal ions and their separations, and oxidation states of metals. (DT)

  3. Facilitating Coherence across Qualitative Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…

  4. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  5. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  6. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  7. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Plus ID NAT assay for detection of HIV 1, HBV and HCV in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Procleix Ultrio Plusassay is a new-generation qualitative in vitro nucleic acid amplification test used to screen for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 RNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA and hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA in blood donors. This study was performed to compare the Procleix Ultrio assay with the new-generation Procleix Ultrio Plus Nucleic Acid Test (NAT assays. Materials and Methods: Ten thousand three hundred and two donor samples were run in parallel for ID NAT using the Procleix Ultrio and the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay. Simultaneously, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing was performed on an EVOLIS Walk away System for HIV, HCV, HBsAg and anti-HBc. Reactive samples were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the 10,302 samples tested during the study period, we identified 15 NAT yields, and all these revealed HBV DNA in the discriminatory assays. Eight of these were exclusive yields from the Ultrio Plus assay and the remaining seven cases were determined as HBV NAT yield, both by the Procleix Ultrio as well as the Ultrio Plus assays, i.e. "Combined" yields. No HCV or HIV 1 yields were detected during the study period by either of two assays. Conclusion: With an overall yield rate of 1 in 687 and an exclusive yield rate of 1 in 1287, the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay proved to be highly sensitive in detecting occult HBV infections.

  9. Zur Qualitätsausbildung und Qualitätserhaltung gartenbaulicher Produkte

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud, Alaa Abd El-Gaber Badawi

    2003-01-01

    Qualität wird nach ISO 8402 als Gesamtheit von Eigenschaften und Merkmalen eines Produktes, die sich auf deren Eignung zur Erfüllung festgelegter oder vorausgesetzter Erfordernisse beziehen, definiert. Produkte mit hohem Wassergehalt und großer Atmungsrate können erhebliche Qualitätsbeeinträchtigungen in der Nachernteperiode bis zum Verkauf bzw. Verzehr erleiden. Am Beispiel des Spargels, also junger und physiologisch sehr aktiver Pflanzensprosse, werden äußere und innere Qualitätsmerkmale ...

  10. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells ('Comet Assay') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6 deg. C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA 'Comet Assay'. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment

  11. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  12. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2004-10-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells ('Comet Assay') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6 deg. C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA 'Comet Assay'. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  13. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R.; Skandarajah, A.; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  14. Detection of irradiated onion by means of the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Carro Palacio, Sandra [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu; efprieto@ceaden.edu.cu; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora [Instituto de Investigacion para la Industria Alimenticia (IIIA), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)

    2007-07-01

    The ionizing radiations are used as a harmless alternative treatment that it substitutes the employment of chemical treatments, which after their application in the food products can remain residuals not desired that they come to be carcinogenic. With the food irradiation is eliminated microorganisms and the storage time is prolonged, which produces benefits for the Food Industry and the consumers. In many countries the search of sensitive detecting methods of irradiated foods is promoted by the necessity of the assurance of the consumption of foods with nutritional quality and to test directly the radiation processing, for which several techniques have been developed, these are based on the changes that induce the ionizing radiations in the food products. A recommended method is the Comet Assay of DNA, it is approved by the European Committee of Standardization (EN 13784). The DNA molecule is very sensitive to gamma radiations even at low radiation dose, where the modifications produced in the molecule can be monitored for this analytical technique well-known as Comet Assay of DNA or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated onions with the Comet Assay for several dose values, the onions were conserved at environment and refrigeration temperatures. The samples were irradiated in a self-shielding irradiator with {sup 60}Co source, dose rate of 20.45 Gy/min and absorbed dose values of 0.5; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. This detection method demonstrates to be one sensitive and quick technique for the qualitative detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  15. Detection of irradiated onion by means of the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionizing radiations are used as a harmless alternative treatment that it substitutes the employment of chemical treatments, which after their application in the food products can remain residuals not desired that they come to be carcinogenic. With the food irradiation is eliminated microorganisms and the storage time is prolonged, which produces benefits for the Food Industry and the consumers. In many countries the search of sensitive detecting methods of irradiated foods is promoted by the necessity of the assurance of the consumption of foods with nutritional quality and to test directly the radiation processing, for which several techniques have been developed, these are based on the changes that induce the ionizing radiations in the food products. A recommended method is the Comet Assay of DNA, it is approved by the European Committee of Standardization (EN 13784). The DNA molecule is very sensitive to gamma radiations even at low radiation dose, where the modifications produced in the molecule can be monitored for this analytical technique well-known as Comet Assay of DNA or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated onions with the Comet Assay for several dose values, the onions were conserved at environment and refrigeration temperatures. The samples were irradiated in a self-shielding irradiator with 60Co source, dose rate of 20.45 Gy/min and absorbed dose values of 0.5; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. This detection method demonstrates to be one sensitive and quick technique for the qualitative detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  16. LT-HSC Methylcellulose Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerenyi, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic differentiation is a highly complex process originating from an extraordinary population of cells called long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs). The unique feature of all stem cells, including HSCs, is their exceptional ability to divide asymmetrically giving rise to two different kinds of offspring. One daughter cell becomes an LT-HSC itself (self-renews) to maintain the LT-HSC pool, whereas the second daughter cell pursues a differentiation fate to ultimately give rise to terminally differentiated mature blood cells (Orkin and Zon, 2008). Quantification of phenotypic LT-HSCs can be performed by multi-color flow cytometry and the gold standard for assessment of LT-HSC self-renewal and function is competitive bone marrow transplantation (Miller et al., 2008). Although these methods are irreplaceable to determine LT-HSC abundance and functionality, they have their disadvantages and limitations. For example, competitive bone marrow transplantation is typically monitored as a function of peripheral blood donor contribution over 12–16 weeks. While reduced peripheral blood donor contribution by itself signifies impairment in the stem/progenitor cells compartment, it cannot unambiguously discriminate between reduced LT-HSC self-renewal, impaired LT-HSC differentiation or compromised progenitor cell differentiation. Here we describe an LT-HSCs methylcellulose colony-forming assay, as a fast complementary in vitro method to directly assess LT-HSC differentiation capacity. As described in Kerenyi et al. (2013), this technique acts as a powerful tool to differentiate between LT-HSC or progenitor cell differentiation defects.

  17. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...... into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate...... smartphone use within people’s practices, norms, and routines. This is of relevance both to studies focusing on smartphones as cultural objects in everyday life and studies that use such devices as proxies for social behaviour more generally. We argue that log data, for instance in in-depth interviews, may...

  18. Troubling Methods in Qualitative Inquiry and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This present paper troubles and literally ‘shakes’ the idea of methods as the founding ground of qualitative inquiry. It does so by addressing the real-time messiness of research and the retrospective character of research reports. While the paper is not as such opposed to methods, it does suggest...... suggestion is that these open-ended and flexible strategies allow for an innovative approach to the development of a qualitative psychology while also serving to trouble (at least for a moment) the current popularity of methods in research....... that many actual research practices do not follow defined and regular plans as the terminology of methods inclines. However, rather than seeing the messiness as a bias to be eliminated, a more constructive approach is suggested. With the intention of inviting more creative and thought-provoking research...

  19. Ensuring validity in qualitative international business research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how the validity issue related to qualitative research strategies within the IB field may be grasped from an at least partially subjectivist point of view. In section two, we will first assess via the aforementioned literature review the extent...... to which the validity issue has been treated in qualitative research contributions published in six leading English-language journals which publish IB research. Thereafter, in section three, we will discuss our findings and relate them to (a) various levels of a research project and (b) the existing...... literature on potential validity problems from a more subjectivist point of view. As a part of this step, we will demonstrate that the assumptions of objectivist and subjectivist ontologies and their corresponding epistemologies merit different canons for assessing research validity. In the subsequent...

  20. [Qualitative research: which priority for scientific journals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodella, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes. PMID:27093324

  1. Using qualitative maps to direct reactive robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Randolph; Pendleton, Tom

    1992-01-01

    The principal advantage of mobile robots is that they are able to go to specific locations to perform useful tasks rather than have the tasks brought to them. It is important therefore that the robot be used to reach desired locations efficiently and reliably. A mobile robot whose environment extends significantly beyond its sensory horizon must maintain a representation of the environment, a map, in order to attain these efficiency and reliability requirements. We believe that qualitative mapping methods provide useful and robust representation schemes and that such maps may be used to direct the actions of a reactively controlled robot. In this paper we describe our experience in employing qualitative maps to direct, through the selection of desired control strategies, a reactive-behavior based robot. This mapping capability represents the development of one aspect of a successful deliberative/reactive hybrid control architecture.

  2. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper......, reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies...

  3. Qualitative versus Quantitative Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel W. Belk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that at a time when wehave more quantitative data aboutconsumers than ever before – so-called “bigdata,” scanner data, loyalty programpurchase histories, trails of Internet searchesand social media activity, and much more –that businesses nevertheless increasinglydesire qualitative information. I am nottalking about the ubiquitous focus groupswhich have long been a staple in exploratorymarketing and advertising research. Suchfocus groups continue to be used, but theyare one of the weakest techniques inqualitative research. The sort of qualitativeconsumer research I have in mind insteadincludes ethnography, netnography, videography,qualitative data mining, projectivemethods, various types of observation, anddepth interviews. What these techniquespotentially provide is more naturalistic insight into how individual consumers andgroups of consumers behave in everyday life.

  4. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim; Sahota, Opinder;

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  5. Improving accuracy of transcripts in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne M; Meyer, Mechthild; Estable, Alma

    2004-01-01

    Everyone who has worked with qualitative interview data has run into problems with transcription error, even if they do the transcribing themselves. A thoughtful, accurate, reliable, multilingual transcriptionist with a quick turnaround time is worth her or his weight in gold. In this article, the authors examine some transcription circumstances that seem to bring about their own consistent set of problems. Based on their experiences, the authors examine the following issues: use of voice recognition systems; notation choices; processing and active listening versus touch typing; transcriptionist effect; emotionally loaded audiotaped material; class and/or cultural differences among interviewee, interviewer, and transcriptionist; and some errors that arise when working in a second language. The authors offer suggestions for working with transcriptionists as part of the qualitative research team.

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of donkeys responses to immunization by rabbits' IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study two apparently healthy donkeys were immunized with highly pure rabbit's 1gG using a revised protocol. Qualitative test using the same immuno gen was done as a primary test to eva lute the immune system response. However, the same 1gG was iodinated with 125I using chloramine T method and the labeled 1gG was used to quantitatively study the immune response. The two donkeys showed good response with the younger one having the best response. The obtained donkey anti rabbit sera was used as separating agent for RIA assay for human PRL. (Author)

  7. A Qualitative Exploration of Oral Communciations Apprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Marann; Flood, Barbara; Shanahan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has identified communication apprehension, or fear of communicating, as a major factor which inhibits an individual’s willingness to communicate and his/her capability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have measured oral communication apprehension of students, there has been little qualitative exploration of the phenomenon. This study was conducted by interviewing first-year business and accounting students at a higher education institution in ...

  8. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  9. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, R; Xue, Y.; Xue, F; Wu, Qiuwei; Yang, Guangya; Zhou, H; Ju, P.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the crit...

  10. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sabre J. Coleman; Zalk, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues b...

  11. Qualitative Research in Communication. Introductory remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Mireia Fernández-Ardèvol; Corina Daba-Buzoianu; Loredana Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century’s epistemological turn in social sciences (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994; Punch, 2013) acknowledged the importance of qualitative research methods. The need for this turn was also pointed out by Habermas (1979), who noticed that the way data was collected in social sciences affected the analysis and data interpretation. Research gained a comprehensive character and proposed a phenomenological approach of reality (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Willig, 2008; Lindlof & Taylor, 2011). Nowadays,...

  12. Living with Chronic Pancreatitis: A qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    CRONIN, PATRICIA; Begley, Cecily

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED OBJECTIVE: Recent literature acknowledges the impact of this progressive and debilitating disease on psychological and social well-being, but the plight of those with chronic pancreatitis remains unknown and hidden. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of what it means to live with chronic pancreatitis. DESIGN: Qualitative study based on philosophical hermeneutics using multiple unstructured interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen people with chronic...

  13. Qualitative factors in the healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu CICEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the efficiency of medical services is a broad social and economic concept, influenced by both numerical-quantitative and non-numerical-qualitative factors. The dynamic nature of technical progress and the accelerated pace of scientific discoveries in the field of health, enhances the size and complexity of economic issues related to assessing the efficiency of these social activities.

  14. Evaluating Qualitative Measures for Effective Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A.A.Chari; G. Sreedhar; Dr. V.V.Venkata Ramana

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to investigate and evaluate qualitative measures for improving the website design of various universities in India. The website of each university is scanned using W3C guidelines. The parameters such as download time, website size, broken links, etc., are considered in the procedure. Different kinds of tools are used to examine the components of website. These tools include: W3C Link Checker, W3C Markup Validation Service, Webpage Analyzer and Website Extract...

  15. First steps in qualitative data analysis: transcribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia

    2008-04-01

    Qualitative research in primary care deepens understanding of phenomena such as health, illness and health care encounters. Many qualitative studies collect audio or video data (e.g. recordings of interviews, focus groups or talk in consultation), and these are usually transcribed into written form for closer study. Transcribing appears to be a straightforward technical task, but in fact involves judgements about what level of detail to choose (e.g. omitting non-verbal dimensions of interaction), data interpretation (e.g. distinguishing 'I don't, no' from 'I don't know') and data representation (e.g. representing the verbalization 'hwarryuhh' as 'How are you?'). Representation of audible and visual data into written form is an interpretive process which is therefore the first step in analysing data. Different levels of detail and different representations of data will be required for projects with differing aims and methodological approaches. This article is a guide to practical and theoretical considerations for researchers new to qualitative data analysis. Data examples are given to illustrate decisions to be made when transcribing or assigning the task to others.

  16. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  17. A bioluminescent assay for measuring glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P; Karassina, Natasha; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Carlson, Coby; Cali, James J; Vidugiriene, Jolanta

    2016-07-15

    Identifying activators and inhibitors of glucose uptake is critical for both diabetes management and anticancer therapy. To facilitate such studies, easy-to-use nonradioactive assays are desired. Here we describe a bioluminescent glucose uptake assay for measuring glucose transport in cells. The assay is based on the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and the enzymatic detection of the 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate that accumulates. Uptake can be measured from a variety of cell types, it can be inhibited by known glucose transporter inhibitors, and the bioluminescent assay yields similar results when compared with the radioactive method. With HCT 116 cells, glucose uptake can be detected in as little as 5000 cells and remains linear up to 50,000 cells with signal-to-background values ranging from 5 to 45. The assay can be used to screen for glucose transporter inhibitors, or by multiplexing with viability readouts, changes in glucose uptake can be differentiated from overall effects on cell health. The assay also can provide a relevant end point for measuring insulin sensitivity. With adipocytes and myotubes, insulin-dependent increases in glucose uptake have been measured with 10- and 2-fold assay windows, respectively. Significant assay signals of 2-fold or more have also been measured with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and skeletal myoblasts. PMID:27130501

  18. Development of an upconverting chelate assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2005-04-01

    We report progress on performing a cell-based assay for the detection of EGFR on cell surfaces by using upconverting chelates. An upconversion microscope has been developed for performing assays and testing optical response. A431 cells are labeled with europium DOTA and imaged using this upconverting microscope.

  19. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G. (U.E.R. de Medecine, Sante et Biologie Humaine, 93 - Bobigny (France)); Simon, P. (Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, ..beta..-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising.

  20. Acellular comet assay: A tool for assessing variables influencing the alkaline comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, an acellular modification to the alkaline comet assay to further evaluate key variables within the assay that may influence the outcome of genotoxicity studies is described. This acellular comet assay can detect differences of 0.2 Gy of 60Co gamma-ray radiation between 0 and 1 Gy and differences of 1 Gy between 0 and 8 Gy; thus, this assay is applicable for a wide range of DNA damage levels. It is also shown that DNA damage from different radiation energies was not significantly different from 60Co gamma-ray. This assay displayed a statistical increase in DNA damage due to uncontrolled exposure to natural light; however, the slope of the dose-response curve for light-exposed samples was similar to that for samples protected from light. A comparison of the alkaline comet assay with the acellular comet assay allowed for the intrinsic repair capacity of the alkaline comet assay to be quantified. (authors)

  1. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida;

    2014-01-01

    Rare sequence variants in "high-risk" disease genes, often referred as unclassified variants (UVs), pose a serious challenge to genetic testing. However, UVs resulting in splicing alterations can be readily assessed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, analytical and clinical interpretation...... of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...... International Agency for Research on Cancer guidelines), we performed qPCR and/or minigene assays. The latter were performed with a new splicing vector (pSAD) developed by authors of the present manuscript (patent #P201231427 CSIC). We have identified three clinically relevant Class-5 variants (c.682-2A>G, c...

  2. Probabilistic interpretation of radioactive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-destructive assay of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities is required for assessing the disposal risks. Such assay is influenced by two distinct facts: the statistical uncertainty of the measurement and the spatial uncertainty due to the random or at least unknown spatial distribution of the assayed material in a waste container. In this paper a probabilistic interpretation procedure is presented for a single-detector assay system of nuclear waste by one-shot passive gamma technique. The key parameter for this study, the average escape probability for photons, has been obtained by a specific-purpose Monte Carlo code, MCRW. The code has been developed to simulate the entire pulse height spectral responses for point sources located within the compartment which is the basic idea describing the degree of spatial homogeneity of the nuclear and matrix materials. The methodology presented here can be extended to actual radioactive waste assay

  3. The haemolytic antibody isotope release (HAIR) assay; an efficient alternative technique to conventional plaque assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The haemolytic antibody isotope release (HAIR) assay quantitates antibody production by splenic antibody-producing cells by lysis of chromium-51-labelled sheep red blood cells. The amount of antibody quantitated by the HAIR assay directly correlates with the number of antibody-producing cells measured by a conventional plaque assay. The HAIR assay is an easy, sensitive, and reproducible technique that is especially useful when large numbers of animals are required for testing. (author)

  4. Determination of cell survival after irradiation via clonogenic assay versus multiple MTT Assay - A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Buch Karl; Peters Tanja; Nawroth Thomas; Sänger Markus; Schmidberger Heinz; Langguth Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water insoluble formazan dye by living cells was modified from a single-point towards a proliferation assay. This assay can be performed with a large number of samples in short time using multi-well-plates, assays can be performed semi-automatically with a microplate reader. Survival, the calc...

  5. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen (R) Assay System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MJ; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time, The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen(R) Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom,

  6. Application of Qualitative Methods in Health Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Upadhyaya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have often been conducted to answer the question “why” rather than “what”. A purpose of qualitative research is the construction of new understanding. Here, we present an overview of application of qualitative methods in health research. We have discussed here the different types of qualitative methods and how we and others have used them in different settings/scenarios; sample size and sampling techniques; analysis of qualitative data; validity in qualitative research; and ethical issues.

  7. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  8. Qualitative Research and Computer Analysis: New Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, AHK

    2000-01-01

    The use of computers for Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA) in qualitative research has been growing rapidly in the last decade. QDA programs are software packages developed explicitly for the purpose of analyzing qualitative data. A range of different kinds of program is available for the handling and analysis of qualitative data, such as Atlas/ti, HyperRESEARCH, and NUD*IST. With the development of new technologies, the QDA software has advanced from the efficient code-and-retrieve ability to ...

  9. Antioxidant activity evaluation by physiologically relevant assays based on haemoglobin peroxidase activity and cytochrome c-induced oxidation of liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mot, Augustin C; Bischin, Cristina; Muresan, Bianca; Parvu, Marcel; Damian, Grigore; Vlase, Laurian; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu

    2016-06-01

    Two new protocols for exploring antioxidant-related chemical composition and reactivity are described: one based on a chronometric variation of a haemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase assay and one based on cytochrome c-induced oxidation of lecithin liposomes. Detailed accounts are given on their design, application, critical correlations with established methods and mechanisms. These assays are proposed to be physiologically relevant and bring new information regarding a real sample, both qualitative and quantitative. The well-known assays used for evaluation of antioxidant (re)activity are revisited and compared with these new methods. Extracts of the Hedera helix L. are examined as test case, with focus on seasonal variation and on leaf, fruit and flower with respect to chromatographic, spectroscopic and reactivity properties. According to the set of assays performed, winter are the most antioxidant, followed by summer leaves, and then by flowers and fruits. PMID:26208459

  10. Extending Engineering Practice Research with Shared Qualitative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelyan, James

    2016-01-01

    Research on engineering practice is scarce and sharing of qualitative research data can reduce the effort required for an aspiring researcher to obtain enough data from engineering workplaces to draw generalizable conclusions, both qualitative and quantitative. This paper describes how a large shareable qualitative data set on engineering…

  11. How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

  12. Conducting Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Nancy K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…

  13. Research Commentary: The Promise of Qualitative Metasynthesis for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert Q., III.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics education has benefited from qualitative methodological approaches over the past 40 years across diverse topics. Although the number, type, and quality of qualitative research studies in mathematics education has changed, little is known about how a collective body of qualitative research findings contributes to our understanding of a…

  14. Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

  15. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  16. An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

  17. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  18. Simple UV spectrophotometric assay of Mefenamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Safila Naveed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mefenamic acid belongs to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID.. It is being used widely for the treatment of analgesia. It is also used as antirheumatic and antipyretic drug. Our aim of study is to develop a efficient least time consuming and simple spectrophotometric method for the assay of mefenamic acid. Comparision of assay of three different brands of mefenamic acid (mefnac,ponstan,dolar available in public medical store of Karachi, Pakistan has also been done. The assay is based on the ultraviolet UV absorbance maxima at about 288nm wavelength of mefenamic acid, water is used as solvent. A sample of drug was dissolved in water to produce a solution containing mefenamic acid. Similarly, a sample of ground tablets of different brand were dissolved in water and various dilutions were made. The absorbance of sample preparation was measured at 288nm against the solvent blank and the assay was determined by comparing with the absorbance of available brand. Our results reveals that among all the three brands of mefenamic acid (mefnac,ponstan,dolar rosulin and rovista shows highest percentage assay 107.5%. xplended and rosubar shows percent assay of 106.25% and 103.75% while rovactor shows lowest value for percentage assay 98.75%.

  19. Environmental herbicides and mycotoxin by inmunoraciochemical assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunochemical assays based on antigen antibody recognition, are at present very attractive analytical tools for determination of molecules present in different matrixes.Due to its specificity, sensitivity and easy application, the Immuno radiochemical assays have been adopted by international agencies for control procedures of environmental impact analytes. Optimization conditions for two contaminants, aflatoxin-B1 (AfB1, bacterial myco toxin from Aspergillus flavus) in dry food and atrazine (Atr, chloro-derivative triazine herbicides) in milk and water, by immunoradiometric assays based on the use of polyclonal antibodies for the mycotoxins and specific monoclonal antibody for the triazine derivatives, are presented.Liquid Chromatography is used as reference

  20. Radioreceptor assay of human growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioreceptor assay for human growth hormone (hGH) was developed. The receptor preparation was 25,000g pellet from the livers of pregnant rabbits. Iodination of GH with 125I was preformed by the methods of Lactoperoxidase and Iodogen. The sensitivity of assay was 0.67 ± 0.11 ng/ml serum. Serum hGH levels in 72 cases of normal subjects, 102 cases of acromegaly were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA), and the results were compared with those obtained by radioimmunoassay (RIA)

  1. Passive neutron assay of irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive neutron assay of irradiated nuclear fuel has been investigated by calculations and experiments as a simple, complementary technique to the gamma assay. From the calculations it is found that the neutron emission arises mainly from the curium isotopes, the neutrons exhibit very good penetrability of the assemblies, and the neutron multiplication is not affected by the burnup. From the experiments on BWR and PWR assemblies, it is found that the neutron emission rate is proportional to burnup raised to 3.4 power. Recent investigations indicate that the passive neutron assay is a simple and useful technique to determine the consistency of burnups between assemblies. 10 refs

  2. Passive neutron assay of irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive neutron assay of irradiated nuclear fuel has been investigated by calculations and experiments as a simple, complementary technique to the gamma assay. From the calculations it was found that the neutron emission arises mainly from the curium isotopes, the neutrons exhibit very good penetrability of the assemblies, and the neutron multiplication is not affected by the burnup. From the experiments on BWR and PWR assemblies, the neutron emission rate is proportional to burnup raised to 3.4 power. The investigations indicate that the passive neutron assay is a simple and useful technique to determine the consistency of burnups between assemblies

  3. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants

  4. A smartphone-readable barcode assay for the detection and quantitation of pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Wong, Jessica X H; Cui, Caie; Li, Xiaochun; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, we present a smartphone-readable barcode assay for the qualitative detection of methyl parathion residues, a toxic organophosphorus pesticide that is popularly used in agriculture worldwide. The detection principle is based on the irreversible inhibition of the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) by methyl parathion; AchE catalytically hydrolyzes acetylthiocholine iodine to thiocholine that in turn dissociates dithiobis-nitrobenzoate to produce a yellow product (deprotonated thio-nitrobenzoate). The yellow intensity of the product was confirmed to be inversely dependent on the concentration of the pesticide. We have designed a barcode-formatted assay chip by using a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) channel plate (as the reaction reservoir), situated under a printed partial barcode, to complete the whole barcode such that it can be directly read by a barcode scanning app installed on a smartphone. The app is able to qualitatively present the result of the pesticide test; the absence or a low concentration of methyl parathion results in the barcode reading as "-", identifying the test as negative for pesticides. Upon obtaining a positive result (the app reads a "+" character), the captured image can be further analyzed to quantitate the methyl parathion concentration in the sample. Besides the portability and simplicity, this mobile-app based colorimetric barcode assay compares favorably with the standard spectrophotometric method. PMID:26087169

  5. Qualität und Qualitätsmanagement in der universitären naturwissenschaftlichen Lehrerfortbildung

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorge-Grein, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Vor dem Hintergrund der politischen Entwicklungen in Hessen und der allgemeinen Debatte über Qualität im Bildungsbereich sollte im Lehrerfortbildungszentrum Chemie (lfbz-Chemie) der Universität Frankfurt am Main eine systematische Qualitätsentwicklung etabliert und dieses Vorhaben wissenschatflich begleitet werden. Die wissenschaftliche Arbeit besteht aus drei Säulen: - Eine erste, qualitative Studie sollte Qualitätskriterien und -indikatoren liefern. - In einer Fallstudie am lfbz-Chemie Fran...

  6. Determination of cell survival after irradiation via clonogenic assay versus multiple MTT Assay - A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water insoluble formazan dye by living cells was modified from a single-point towards a proliferation assay. This assay can be performed with a large number of samples in short time using multi-well-plates, assays can be performed semi-automatically with a microplate reader. Survival, the calculated parameter in this assay, is determined mathematically. Exponential growth in both control and irradiated groups was proven as the underlying basis of the applicability of the multiple MTT assay. The equivalence to a clonogenic survival assay with its disadvantages such as time consumption was proven in two setups including plating of cells before and after irradiation. Three cell lines (A 549, LN 229 and F 98) were included in the experiment to study its principal and general applicability

  7. Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilachis de Gialdino, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the p...

  8. Qualitative research methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of Software Engineering coexist two different research methods: 1 the quantitative that try to measure and analyze the casual relationship between the variables in a frame with free values, and 2 the qualitative that examine the creation process of meanings from which is generated new theorems or improve. Apply this methods separately in the research in software engineer makes evident that obtain results are incomplete and so is difficult to choose definitively wit which of them embark in a specific research. To approach this problem, in this article are described the quantitative methods as research methods to this engineer, and described its benefits and difficulties.

  9. How public perceive diabetes: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoli, Samereh; Mardanian, Leila; Mirzaei, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetes has a high prevalence in Iran, and its incidence is estimated to increase from 3.5 million adults in 2005 to 5.1 million by 2025. Given the high prevalence of diabetes in Iranians, it is surprising that little is known about understanding of diabetes in the general population. This study aimed to explore how people without diabetes interpreted the disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative content analysis, using unstructured and in-depth in...

  10. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.;

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust of...... these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is...

  11. Live-cell luciferase assay of drug resistant cells

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    To date, multiplexing cell-based assay is essential for high-throughput screening of molecular targets. Measuring multiple parameters of a single sample increases consistency and decrease time and cost of assay. Functional assay of living cell is useful as a first step of multiplexing assay, because live-cell assay allows following second assay using cell lysate or stained cell. However, live-cell assay of drug resistant cells that are highly activated of drug efflux mechanisms is sometimes u...

  12. Qualitative health psychology research: diversity, power, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-04-01

    This special issue showcases a range of qualitative research projects conducted by health psychologists with a view to promoting greater uptake and development of qualitative research methods in the field. It is timely because qualitative methods have become prominent across psychology and health research and because major health research funders are now inviting qualitative research to help give voice to patient experiences. As a whole, the papers demonstrate the diversity, power, and impact of qualitative research conducted in health-related settings and show how traditional health psychology methods and concepts can be enriched in the process.

  13. Stochastic modeling for the COMET-assay

    OpenAIRE

    Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Hösel, Volker; Liebscher, Volkmar

    2003-01-01

    We present a stochastic model for single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET-assay) data. Essential is the use of point process structures, renewal theory and reduction to intensity histograms for further data analysis.

  14. Proximity assays for sensitive quantification of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Greenwood

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximity assays are immunohistochemical tools that utilise two or more DNA-tagged aptamers or antibodies binding in close proximity to the same protein or protein complex. Amplification by PCR or isothermal methods and hybridisation of a labelled probe to its DNA target generates a signal that enables sensitive and robust detection of proteins, protein modifications or protein–protein interactions. Assays can be carried out in homogeneous or solid phase formats and in situ assays can visualise single protein molecules or complexes with high spatial accuracy. These properties highlight the potential of proximity assays in research, diagnostic, pharmacological and many other applications that require sensitive, specific and accurate assessments of protein expression.

  15. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  16. Qualitative Methodology in Analyzing Educational Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiological analysis of educational phenomena allow researchers access to a multidimensional universe of meanings that is represented by the school, not so much seen as an institution, but as a vector of social action through educational strategies. We consider education as a multidimensional phenomenon since its analysis allows the researcher to explore a variety of research hypotheses of different paradigmatic perspectives that converge in an educational finality. According to the author Simona Branc one of the most appropriate methods used in qualitative data analysis is Grounded Theory; this one assumes a systematic process of generating concepts and theories based on the data collected. Specialised literature defines Grounded Theory as an inductive approach that starts with general observations and during the analytical process creates conceptual categories that explain the theme explored. Research insist on the role of the sociologic theory of managing the research data and for providing ways of conceptualizing the descriptions and explanations.Qualitative content analysis is based on the constructivist paradigm (constructionist in the restricted sense that we used previously. It aims to create an “understanding of the latent meanings of the analyzed messages”. Quantitative content analysis involves a process of encoding and statistical analysis of data extracted from the content of the paper in the form of extractions like: frequencies, contingency analysis, etc

  17. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative.

  18. [Reflexivity as the ethos of qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to promote reflection on ethics in anthropological and qualitative research and emphasize the comprehensive, relational and reflective character of this process, as well as the advantages and problems that arise from different logic and often conflicting interests between researchers and their interlocutors. The text is divided into four parts and addresses the ethical: (a) significance of these approaches; (b) behavior of the researcher in the field; (c) analysis of the empirical material; and (d) considerations in the preparation of results of anthropological and qualitative studies, using some classic examples from the international literature. The paper concludes by reflecting on the distinction between the requirements of the Ethics Committee and the Ethics of research itself. It must be clear that the comprehensive sense of ethics which includes the responsibility of the researcher cannot be condensed in the instruments required for the judgment of projects because the following elements are involved in the development of research, namely the social significance of the work, the institutional relations with fund providers, how to treat staff and research students in academic work and commitments with the scientific community. PMID:24820593

  19. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  20. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  1. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis).

  2. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  3. A novel parameter in comet assay measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilova Milena; Ivanov Rumen; Miloshev George

    2005-01-01

    Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay is a very sensitive method for assessing damages in DNA on a single cell level. It has found many applications in fields where genotoxic activity could be an issue. In environmental monitoring, health care, food industry Comet assay is used with increasing popularity. For verifying the results obtained by this method many parameters could be monitored. To that end several software packages exist. In the conditions that we are suggesting on...

  4. The comet assay in nanotoxicology research.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Hanna L

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale particles can have impressive and useful characteristics, but the same properties may be problematic for human health. From this perspective it is critical to assess the ability of nanoparticles to cause DNA damage. This review focuses on the use of the comet assay in nanotoxicology research. In the alkaline version of the assay, DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites are detected and oxidatively damaged DNA can be analyzed using the enzyme formamidopyrimidine glycosylase. The ar...

  5. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E.; Neira, Hector D.; Daniel A Fletcher; Herr, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a “lateral e-flow assay” and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified captu...

  6. Automated optical sensing system for biochemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlan, Peter; Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new system called FOBIA that was developed and optimized with respect to automated operation of repetitive assay cycles with regenerable bioaffinity sensors. The reliability and precision of the new system is demonstrated by an application in a competitive assay for the detection of the triazine herbicide Atrazine. Using one sensor in more than 300 repetitive cycles, a signal precision better than 5% was achieved.

  7. Passive nondestructive assay of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term nondestructive assay (NDA) is applied to a series of measurement techniques for nuclear fuel materials. The techniques measure radiation induced or emitted spontaneously from the nuclear material; the measurements are nondestructive in that they do not alter the physical or chemical state of the nuclear material. NDA techniques are characterized as passive or active depending on whether they measure radiation from the spontaneous decay of the nuclear material or radiation induced by an external source. This book emphasizes passive NDA techniques, although certain active techniques like gamma-ray absorption densitometry and x-ray fluorescence are discussed here because of their intimate relation to passive assay techniques. The principal NDA techniques are classified as gamma-ray assay, neutron assay, and calorimetry. Gamma-ray assay techniques are treated in Chapters 1--10. Neutron assay techniques are the subject of Chapters 11--17. Chapters 11--13 cover the origin of neutrons, neutron interactions, and neutron detectors. Chapters 14--17 cover the theory and applications of total and coincidence neutron counting. Chapter 18 deals with the assay of irradiated nuclear fuel, which uses both gamma-ray and neutron assay techniques. Chapter 19 covers perimeter monitoring, which uses gamma-ray and neutron detectors of high sensitivity to check that no unauthorized nuclear material crosses a facility boundary. The subject of Chapter 20 is attribute and semiquantitative measurements. The goal of these measurements is a rapid verification of the contents of nuclear material containers to assist physical inventory verifications. Waste and holdup measurements are also treated in this chapter. Chapters 21 and 22 cover calorimetry theory and application, and Chapter 23 is a brief application guide to illustrate which techniques can be used to solve certain measurement problems

  8. Analysis of uncertainties in isotopic assay of UO2 pellets using thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Laboratory being a centralized analytical facility of NFC is responsible for isotopic assay of UO2 pellets by Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). TIMS is a precise and accurate technique for the determination of isotopic ratios. The present work involves the evaluation of uncertainty components affecting the measurement results. Qualitative and Quantitative Uncertainty factors have been evaluated. Qualitative factors mentioned are mostly related to technical competency of operators involved in the analysis; while quantitative factors have been evaluated. The isotope reference material selected as check standard is SRM U-005 Uranium Isotopic Standard with 235U (at%): 0.4833 ± 0.0005 and the Natural isotopic composition of 235U sample has been selected for analysis to calculate uncertainty sources effecting the obtained isotopic ratios

  9. Hepatitis C virus: Screening, diagnosis, and interpretation of laboratory assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 3% of the world population is infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route. The major modes of transmission of the virus include injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, blood transfusion etc. HCV causes chronic hepatitis in about 80% of those infected by it. The mainstay in diagnosing infection with HCV is to initially screen high risk groups for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV. The inclusion of serum to cut-off ratio (S/CO in recent guidelines is helpful in deciding the supplemental assay to be used to confirm initially reactive screening results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT are used as confirmatory tools, and also to determine viral load prior to initiating treatment. Quantitative NAT has replaced qualitative assays. Genotyping is an important tool in clinical management to predict the likelihood of response and determine the optimal duration of therapy. The impact of this infection has begun to emerge in India. The problem of professional blood donation despite an existing law against it, and flourishing unsafe injection practices, are potential sources for the spread of hepatitis C in our country. All health care practitioners need to understand how to establish or exclude a diagnosis of HCV infection and to interpret the tests correctly. In the absence of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine, and also of post-exposure prophylaxis against the virus, it is imperative to diagnose infection by HCV so as to prevent hepatic insult and the ensuing complications that follow, including primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This review aims to help blood bank staff regarding options for diagnosis and management of donors positive for HCV.

  10. Qualitative interaction trees: A tool to identify qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Mechelen, I. van

    2014-01-01

    When two alternative treatments (A and B) are available, some subgroup of patients may display a better outcome with treatment A than with B, whereas for another subgroup, the reverse may be true. If this is the case, a qualitative (i.e., disordinal) treatment-subgroup interaction is present. Such i

  11. How qualitative data analysis software may support the qualitative analysis process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, V.A.M.; Wester, F.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The last decades have shown large progress in the elaboration of procedures for qualitative data analysis and in the development of computer programs to support this kind of analysis. We believe, however, that the link between methodology and computer software tools is too loose, especially for a no

  12. Modeling of the motion of the actin filament on the myosin motility assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yuan; Shelley, Mike

    2007-11-01

    In motility assays, cytoskeletal actin filaments (actin filaments) glide over a surface coated with motor proteins, and the different modes of motion provide a simple measure of the force exerted by the motor proteins (Bourdieu, 1995). Motivated by these experiments, we consider the actin filament as a slender, elastic filament immersed in Stokesian flow, driven by a tangential forcing that mimics the force by the motor proteins. We find qualitative agreement on several points between our analysis and simulations and experimental observations. Furthermore, we study the correlation between filament transport and the characteristics of motion with the spatial pattern of motor protein density.

  13. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  14. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  15. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs.

  16. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  17. Feelings and Intersubjectivity in Qualitative Suicide Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally. PMID:25794522

  18. QUALITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH REGARDING THE MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂTĂLIN NICOLAE BULGĂREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Market research can be defined as an “active form through which, by means of different concepts, methods and techniques of scientific investigation, is carried out, systematically, the specification, the measurement, the collection, the analysis and the objective interpretation of marketing information for the management of the economic unit, in order to know better the company’s environment, to identify the opportunities, to evaluate the alternatives of marketing actions and their effects. The qualitative research seeks answers to questions like: “why?” and “how?”, in order to find the root causes of consumers' attitudes, motives, behaviours, preferences and opinions and also the subjective, emotional or unconscious elements behind them.

  19. A qualitative multiresolution model for counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul K.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a prototype model for exploring counterterrorism issues related to the recruiting effectiveness of organizations such as al Qaeda. The prototype demonstrates how a model can be built using qualitative input variables appropriate to representation of social-science knowledge, and how a multiresolution design can allow a user to think and operate at several levels - such as first conducting low-resolution exploratory analysis and then zooming into several layers of detail. The prototype also motivates and introduces a variety of nonlinear mathematical methods for representing how certain influences combine. This has value for, e.g., representing collapse phenomena underlying some theories of victory, and for explanations of historical results. The methodology is believed to be suitable for more extensive system modeling of terrorism and counterterrorism.

  20. Qualitative dynamics of wavepackets in turbulent jets

    CERN Document Server

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Pastur, Luc; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that turbulent jets comprise large-scale coherent structures, now more commonly referred to as "wavepackets". These structures exhibit a remarkable spatio-temporal organisation, despite turbulence. In this work we analyse, from a qualitative point of view, the temporal dynamics of axisymmetric wavepackets educed, experimentally, from subsonic iso-thermal jets. We use the data presented by, where time-series of the wavepackets are extracted at different streamwise locations. A thorough analysis is performed, statistical tools are used for estimating the embedding and correlation dimensions characterising the dynamical system. System identification is used for computing nonlinear surrogate models. Finally, control-oriented linear models are computed. The goal of the contribution is to assess the extent to which non-linear models are necessary, or appropriate, for description of the temporal wave-packet dynamics and to provide a complementary perspective to the current modelling.

  1. Nurse researchers in corrections: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferszt, Ginette G; Hickey, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The United States has more people, per capita, in prisons and jails than any other country in the world. Because the prison population is largely composed of people who have been economically and socially disadvantaged, a very high percentage enter correctional facilities in poor health. Because of the large concentrated numbers of women, men, and youth in prisons and jails, an exceptional opportunity exists for nurses and other researchers to conduct creative and innovative research to improve the health care of this hard-to-reach population. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse researchers who have been successful in conducting studies in different correctional settings. A qualitative descriptive design was used, and telephone interviews with 16 participants were completed. The participants described how they established credibility, the challenges they faced, and the unexpected personal and professional rewards they received. Recommendations for potential researchers will hopefully lead to an increase in research with this invisible population. PMID:24256982

  2. Qualitative Research in Communication. Introductory Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Yeomans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century’s epistemological turn in social sciences (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994; Punch, 2013 acknowledged the importance of qualitative research methods. The need for this turn was also pointed out by Habermas (1979, who noticed that the way data was collected in social sciences affected the analysis and data interpretation. Research gained a comprehensive character and proposed a phenomenological approach of reality (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Willig, 2008; Lindlof & Taylor, 2011. Nowadays, we notice a “more confident community of scholars” whose earlier endeavors had “opened up the study of cultures, meanings, symbolic performances, and social practices” (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002, p. xi.

  3. Troubling qualitative research/Troubling empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    This presentation aims to trouble the concept of empathy in qualitative inquiry from two perspectives having a phenomenological approach. As a supervisor I see students regard interviews as untouchable and be reluctant to bring in theory in their analysis because of empathy towards the interviewees....... As a researcher I experience problems interviewing nurses having focus on their “use of empathy” in the context of their institutional identity together with examining three other concepts: professional, personal and private. Concepts current in professions which focus on human relationships as – among others...... - nursing, teaching as well as the profession of psychologists. Thus, I want to problematize this dual perspective: empathy embedded in the method and as a theme or topic in interviews with professionals and the assumption that empathy might expand as well as limit the results of inquiry within different...

  4. Quality in Qualitative Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    functional actions within the practice of inter-organizational cost management. Together, the articles provide conceptual rigour with a complexity in content that can encompass the four dimensions of integration. Research limitations/implications: In providing a framework for analyzing practice relevance......Purpose: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the quality of Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management (QRAM) is manifested through the conceptualization of knowledge about functioning actions that are applicable for local management accounting practices. Design...... to the development of a performativity in management accounting topos that integrates facts, possibilities, value and communication. Findings: The analysis documents that the three QRAM articles on inter-organizational cost management make a common contribution to the knowledge related to what to do to make...

  5. Visual Information Processing Based on Qualitative Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; LIU Yongchang; LI Chao

    2007-01-01

    Visual information processing is not only an important research direction in fields of psychology,neuroscience and artificial intelligence etc,but also the research base on biological recognition theory and technology realization.Visual information processing in existence,e.g.visual information processing facing to nerve calculation,visual information processing using substance shape distilling and wavelet under high yawp,ANN visual information processing and etc,are very complex in comparison.Using qualitative Mapping,this text describes the specific attributes in the course of visual information processing and the results are more brief and straightforward.So the software program of vision recognition is probably easier to realize.

  6. Pregnancy diagnosis in dairy goats and cows using progesterone assay kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysius, D A

    1991-01-01

    Early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy goats and cows was studied using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) to measure progesterone concentrations in whole milk samples collected approximately 3 weeks after mating. Two qualitative on-farm assay kits and 2 quantitative assay kits, all designed for use in the dairy cow, were tested for their accuracy with goats milk samples. Accuracy of diagnosis of goat pregnancy ranged from 83 to 88%, and of non-pregnancy from 80 to 100%. Pregnancy diagnosis with samples of cows milk using 2 quantitative kits gave accuracies of 66 to 68% for pregnancy, and 90 to 91% for non-pregnancy. Possible causes of error in the early diagnosis of pregnancy with milk samples are discussed. PMID:2018450

  7. Detection of Phaeocystis globosa using sandwich hybridization integrated with nuclease protection assay (NPA-SH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yu; MI Tiezhu; YU Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel is one of the common harmful algae species in coastal waters of the southeastern China. In this study, sandwich hybridization integrated with nuclease protection assay (NPA-SH) was used to qualitatively and quantitatively detect P. globosa. Results showed that this method had good applicability and validity in analyzing the samples from laboratory cultures and from fields. The linear regression equation for P. globosa was obtained, and the lowest detection number of cells was 1.8×104 cells. Statistics showed that there was no distinct difference between the results of detecting the microalgae by NPA-SH and traditional microscopy. This technique has good reliability, accuracy, and can give a remarkably high sample processing rate. Sandwich hybridization integrated with nuclease protection assay will provide an efficient alternative to microscopic method for monitoring and investigating the bloom of P. globosa.

  8. Using the CPTAC Assay Portal to identify and implement highly characterized targeted proteomics assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Rodriguez, Henry; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-02-12

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as an open-source repository of well-characterized targeted proteomic assays. The portal is designed to curate and disseminate highly characterized, targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays by providing detailed assay performance characterization data, standard operating procedures, and access to reagents. Assay content is accessed via the portal through queries to find assays targeting proteins associated with specific cellular pathways, protein complexes, or specific chromosomal regions. The position of the peptide analytes for which there are available assays are mapped relative to other features of interest in the protein, such as sequence domains, isoforms, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and post-translational modifications. The overarching goals are to enable robust quantification of all human proteins and to standardize the quantification of targeted MS-based assays to ultimately enable harmonization of results over time and across laboratories.

  9. Using the CPTAC Assay Portal to identify and implement highly characterized targeted proteomics assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Halusa, Goran N; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John A; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Abbatiello, Susan E; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri R; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Fenyö, David; Hiltke, Tara; Ketchum, Karen A.; Kinsinger, Chris; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel C.; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael J; Qian, Wei-Jun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly V; Scott, Mitchell G; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani; Townsend, R. Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Rodriguez, Henry; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as an open-source repository of well-characterized targeted proteomic assays. The portal is designed to curate and disseminate highly characterized, targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays by providing detailed assay performance characterization data, standard operating procedures, and access to reagents. Assay content is accessed via the portal through queries to find assays targeting proteins associated with specific cellular pathways, protein complexes, or specific chromosomal regions. The position of the peptide analytes for which there are available assays are mapped relative to other features of interest in the protein, such as sequence domains, isoforms, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and post-translational modifications. The overarching goals are to enable robust quantification of all human proteins and to standardize the quantification of targeted MS-based assays to ultimately enable harmonization of results over time and across laboratories. PMID:26867747

  10. Identification of irradiated refrigerated poultry with the DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation could make a significant contribution to the reduction of food-borne diseases caused by harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and parasites. In fact these organisms cause an increasing number of diseases and eventually deaths all over the world, also in industrialized countries. Radiation processing has the advantage that in addition to eliminating pathogens, thereby enhancing food safety, it also extends shelf life through destruction of spoilage organisms. The DNA molecule because of its big size is an easy target for ionizing radiation, therefore, changes in DNA offer potential to be used as a detection method for the irradiation treatment. In our study, poultry has been irradiated and changes in DNA analyzed by the Comet Assay. Samples were packed in plastic bags and irradiated. Doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (4°C). Samples were analyzed 1 and 10 days after irradiation. This method proved to be an inexpensive and rapid screening technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  11. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  12. The micronucleus assay in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a standardised and validated technique for bio dosimetry. Automated scoring of micronuclei allows large scale applications as in population triage in case of radiation accidents or malevolent use of radioactive sources. The dose detection limit (95% confidence) of the micronucleus assay for individual dose assessment is restricted to 0.2 Gy but can be decreased to 0.1 Gy by scoring centromeres in micronuclei using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the past the micronucleus assay was applied for a number of large scale bio monitoring studies of nuclear power plant workers and hospital workers. Baseline micronucleus frequencies depend strongly on age and gender. The assay was also already used for bio dosimetry of radiation accidents. In a multiple endpoint bio dosimetry study for dose assessment of a worker exposed accidentally in 2003 to X-rays, a good agreement was obtained between dose estimates resulting from the micronucleus assay, the scoring of dicentrics and translocations. Automated scoring of micronuclei in combination with centromere signals, allowing systematic bio dosimetry of exposed populations, remains a challenge for the future.

  13. Methodological pluralism as a vehicle of qualitative generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative framework for making analytical generalizations in qualitative research. In order to achieve this purpose it contends that the multimethodological strategy, now readily accepted in many qualitative quarters, of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods...... analysis and interpretation of the same data material using the Q-methodological approach it is possible to overcome interpretive opacity – always the Achilles’ heel of an exclusively qualitative procedure of generalization. The proposal is substantiated empirically by applying the integrative approach...... by applying them one after the other in a sequential manner can be supplemented by a multimethod strategy which combines qualitative and quantitative in an integrative manner which synthesizes the two approaches into one empirical design. The article argues that by combining qualitative and quantitative...

  14. Value of qualitative research in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongxia; Liang Huiling; Gao Jingshu; Ma Hongli; Liu Jianping; Ng Hungyu Ernest; Billhult Annika

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aims to introduce the benefits of qualitative research and to discuss how such research can be applied to the study of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Data sources Relevant articles were published in English as of May 2013 from Pubmed.Terms "polycystic ovary syndrome/PCOS,qualitative research and methodology" were used for searching.Study selection Articles studying PCOS with qualitative methods were reviewed.Articles associated with the use of qualitative research in clinical research were cited.Results Six qualitative studies related to PCOS were found in the literature search.These studies addressed different aspects in PCOS women including their womanhood,lived experience,information need,and experience of treatment with acupuncture.Five of these six studies used phenomenology as guiding theory.Conclusion Quantitative research has been the dominant approach in the field so far,qualitative research is relevant to the advancement of PCOS.

  15. Travelling Methods: Tracing the Globalization of Qualitative Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing discussion of the relationships between globalization, communication research, and qualitative methods emphasizes two images: the challenges posed by globalization to existing communication theory and research methods, and the impact of post-colonial politics and ethics on qualitative research. We draw in this paper on a third image – qualitative research methods as artifacts of globalization – to explore the globalization of qualitative communication research methods. Following a review of literature which tentatively models this process, we discuss two case studies of qualitative research in the disciplinary subfields of intercultural communication and media audience studies. These cases elaborate the forces which influence the articulation of national, disciplinary, and methodological identities which mediate the globalization of qualitative communication research methods.

  16. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  17. Development of an integrated assay facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The I.R.I.S. concept proposed the use of passive examination and active interrogation techniques in an integrated assay facility. A linac would generate the interrogating gamma and neutron beams. Insufficiently detailed knowledge about active neutron and gamma interrogation of 500 litre drums of cement immobilised intermediate level waste led to a research programme which is now in its main experimental stage. Measurements of interrogation responses are being made using simulated waste drums containing actinide samples and calibration sources, in an experimental assay assembly. Results show that responses are generally consistent with theory, but that improvements are needed in some areas. A preliminary appraisal of the engineering and economic aspects of integrated assay shows that correct operational sequencing is required to achieve the short cycle time needed for high throughput. The main engineering features of a facility have been identified

  18. Monitoring environmental exposures with semen assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays

  19. Fungicide resistance assays for fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana V

    2012-01-01

    Fungicide resistance assays are useful to determine if a fungal pathogen has developed resistance to a fungicide used to manage the disease it causes. Laboratory assays are used to determine loss of sensitivity, or resistance, to a fungicide and can explain fungicide failures and for developing successful fungicide recommendations in the field. Laboratory assays for fungicide resistance are conducted by measuring reductions in growth or spore germination of fungi in the presence of fungicide, or by molecular procedures. This chapter describes two techniques for measuring fungicide resistance, using the sugarbeet leaf spot fungus Cercospora beticola as a model for the protocol. Two procedures are described for fungicides from two different classes; growth reduction for triazole (sterol demethylation inhibitor; DMI) fungicides, and inhibition of spore germination for quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides.

  20. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has been performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  1. Application of Qualitative Methods in Health Research: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Upadhyaya; Ganapathy Kalaiselvan; Pradeep R Deshmukh; Amol R Dongre

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research is type of formative research that includes specialized techniques for obtaining in-depth responses about what people think and how they feel. It is seen as the research that seeks answer to the questions in the real world. Qualitative researchers gather what they see, hear, read from people and places, from events and activities, with the purpose to learn about the community and to generate new understanding that can be used by the social world. Qualitative research have...

  2. Qualitätsmanagement im ambulanten Bereich – Teil 2

    OpenAIRE

    Czypionka, Thomas; Sigl, Clemens; Berger, Michael; Kronemann, Frank; Reiss, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Diese Ausgabe des HSW bildet die Fortsetzung der Ausgabe I-A 2014 zum Thema Qualitätsmanagement im ambulanten Bereich. Wurden im ersten Teil eine theoretische Einordnung und Instrumente des Qualitätsmanagement vorgestellt, so wird in diesem Teil auf internationale Qualitätsmanagement-Systeme eingegangen und abschließend ein Ausblick für Österreich gegeben.

  3. Using blogs in qualitative educational research: an exploration of method

    OpenAIRE

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet, for example, research on educational technologies or students' online behaviour. This paper demonstrates how ORMs can be useful in qualitative resea...

  4. QUALITATIVE OPERATION INDICES OF TRANSPORT COMPLEX OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. Pugachev; Yu. I. Kulikov; V. N. Sediukevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers existing qualitative indices of transport services. Indices for evaluation of qualitative operation indices of transport complex have been proposed in the paper. Special attention has been devoted to interaction and coordination of various types of transport as the highest level of qualitative operation of transport complexes. Operational coordination of transport facilities is considered as introduction of modern management, information and communication systems while usi...

  5. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, M Q

    1999-01-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, comp...

  6. Practical Qualitative Research Strategies: Training Interviewers and Coders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L Suzanne; Stage, Virginia C; Cooke, Natalie K

    2016-09-01

    The increased emphasis on incorporating qualitative methodologies into nutrition education development and evaluation underscores the importance of using rigorous protocols to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. A 5-phase protocol for training qualitative research assistants (data collectors and coders) was developed as an approach to increase the consistency of the data produced. This training provides exposure to the core principles of qualitative research and then asks the research assistant to apply those principles through practice in a setting structured on critical reflection.

  7. Detection of Eperythrozoon wenyoni by PCR assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian WANG; Yutao ZHU; Jianhua QIN; Fumei ZHANG; Yuelan ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a detection method for Eperythrozoon wenyoni infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay technique. A pair of primers was designed and synthesized according to the conservative sequence 16S rRNA. The PCR assay was performed with the primers. A 985-bp fragment was amplified by using PCR. The amplified fragments with the expected size were identified by EcoR I restriction digestion. The crossing-reaction, specific-reaction and duplicate-reaction indicated that the PCR method is a specific, sensitive, fast and effective method for diagnosing E. Wenyoni infection at group level.

  8. A new fluorescent assay for enalapril maleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los A Oliva, María; Sombra, Lorena L; Olsina, Roberto A; Masi, Adriana N

    2005-09-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method for the enalapril maleate monitoring was studied. Enalapril maleate was found to be highly photolabile. This drug was evaluated according to photodegradation assay at pH 2.5 and 6. Enalapril maleate was exposed to UVA-UVB radiations. Under these specific conditions was found as degradation product, the diketopiperazine. The modification of the fluorescent properties of enalapril maleate in solution after exposure UV-radiation and the degradation mechanisms were studied. The photodegradation was followed by the developed spectrofluorimetric assay.

  9. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  10. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  11. The Four Methods of Qualitative Research in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧

    1996-01-01

    "Research is a systematic investigation to find answers to a problem" ( Introduction to Research Methods in Deucation 1990:1). Educational research, like research in the other areas, includes quantitative and qualitative methods, both of which are equally important, but serve different roles. Qualitative research focuses on people' s behaviour, attitudes, opinions and so on. Then, what is the nature of qualitative research? Upon what assumption is it based? This paper will try to address four qualitative methods - survey, case study, action research and ethnography to look at how each of them works in educational research.

  12. Qualitative description - the poor cousin of health research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited.The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide exampl...... as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography or a narrative study when in fact it is not. Qualitative description might be a useful alternative approach to consider.......BACKGROUND: The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited.The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples...... of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients...

  13. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Englander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  14. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.

  15. The Role of Conceptual Frameworks in Collecting Multisite Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Linda S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the use of conceptual frameworks in collecting qualitative data from multiple sites. Presents strategies for devising frameworks that are flexible and general without sacrificing specificity. (JOW)

  16. Relationship between the radioisotopic footpad assay and other immunological assays in tumor bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KMT-17, a fibrosarcoma induced by 3-methylcholanthrene in a WKA rat, is a sensitive tumor to various kinds of immunological assays and is a suitable model tumor for the study of the immune status in tumor bearing hosts. The antitumor immune response of KMT-17 bearing rats was studied by a radioisotopic footpad assay (FPA) in comparison with other in vivo and in vitro assays. Delayed hypersensitivity to tumor antigens measured by the FPA was observed from the 8th day after transplantation of KMT-17 cells, reached a peak on the 12 - 15th day, and then declined in the late stage on the 17th day. The kinetics of the FPA correlated well with those of an in vivo Winn assay and of an in vitro lymphocyte cytotoxicity assay (51Cr-release assay). The appearance of an antitumor antibody detected by a complement dependent cytotoxicity test also correlated well with the kinetics of the FPA. A growth inhibition assay (GIA) for non-specific cell-mediated immunity also showed similar kinetics to that of the FPA. The delayed hypersensitivity footpad reaction to tumor cell extracts measured by this FPA was tumor-specific. These results suggest that the FPA is a simple and reliable in vivo assay for evaluating antitumor immunity in tumor bearing hosts. (author)

  17. Instructions for Uploading Data to the Assay Portal - Instructions for Uploading Data to the Assay Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides instructions for configuring and uploading data files to the CPTAC Assay Portal. It is divided into sections, with an overview checklist provided at the end. If help is needed at any stage of the process, please use the support page: https://assays.cancer.gov/support/

  18. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Un)expected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    OpenAIRE

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-01-01

    In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occu...

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  1. Serum Aminoglycoside Assay by Enzyme-Mediated Immunoassay (EMIT): Correlation with Radioimmunoassay, Fluoroimmunoassay, and Acetyltransferase and Microbiological Assays

    OpenAIRE

    White, L O; Scammell, L. M.; Reeves, D S

    1981-01-01

    Enzyme-mediated immunoassay (EMIT) serum aminoglycoside assay results were accurate and precise and correlated well with radioimmunoassay, fluoroimmunoassay, and acetyltransferase and microbiological assay determinations.

  2. Evaluierung eines Qualitäts- und Herkunftszeichens: Das Beispiel "Geprüfte Qualität - HESSEN"

    OpenAIRE

    Will, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Die Dissertation führt eine umfassende Erfolgskontrolle des Qualitäts- und Herkunftszeichens „Geprüfte Qualität – HESSEN“ (GQH) aus Sicht der verschiedenen Akteure durch. Die GQH ist ein regionales Qualitätssicherungssystem des hessischen Agrarmarketings. Da die Wirtschaftspartner zunehmend finanziell beteiligt sind, steigt die Erfolgsabhängigkeit des Marketings und Erfolgsanalysen sind von zunehmender Bedeutung. Auf Verbraucherebene erfolgt daher eine produktübergreifende Bewertung der Marke...

  3. Demonstration of a visual cell-based assay for screening glucose transporter 4 translocation modulators in real time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maleppillil Vavachan Vijayakumar; Amrendra Kumar Ajay; Manoj Kumar Bhat

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell membrane leading to glucose uptake is the rate-limiting step in diabetes. It is also a defined target of antidiabetic drug research. Existing GLUT4 translocation assays are based on time-consuming immunoassays and are hampered by assay variability and low sensitivity. We describe a real-time, visual, cell-based qualitative GLUT4 translocation assay using CHO-HIRc-myc-GLUT4eGFP cells that stably express myc- and eGFP-tagged GLUT4 in addition to human insulin receptor (HIRc). GLUT4 translocation is visualized by live cell imaging based on GFP fluorescence by employing a cooled charge-coupled device camera attached to a fluorescent microscope. This video imaging method and further quantitative analysis of GLUT4 on the cell membrane provide rapid and foolproof visual evidence that this method is suitable for screening GLUT4 translocation modulators.

  4. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Huang

    Full Text Available Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  5. Functionalized Nanofiber Meshes Enhance Immunosorbent Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Joseph S; Meller, Amit; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional substrates with high surface-to-volume ratios and subsequently large protein binding capacities are of interest for advanced immunosorbent assays utilizing integrated microfluidics and nanosensing elements. A library of bioactive and antifouling electrospun nanofiber substrates, which are composed of high-molecular-weight poly(oxanorbornene) derivatives, is described. Specifically, a set of copolymers are synthesized from three 7-oxanorbornene monomers to create a set of water insoluble copolymers with both biotin (bioactive) and triethylene glycol (TEG) (antifouling) functionality. Porous three-dimensional nanofiber meshes are electrospun from these copolymers with the ability to specifically bind streptavidin while minimizing the nonspecific binding of other proteins. Fluorescently labeled streptavidin is used to quantify the streptavidin binding capacity of each mesh type through confocal microscopy. A simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented to assess the protein binding capabilities and detection limits of these nanofiber meshes under both static conditions (26 h) and flow conditions (1 h) for a model target protein (i.e., mouse IgG) using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) colorimetric assay. Bioactive and antifouling nanofiber meshes outperform traditional streptavidin-coated polystyrene plates under flow, validating their use in future advanced immunosorbent assays and their compatibility with microfluidic-based biosensors.

  6. Enzymatic assay for methotrexate in erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H; Heinsvig, E M

    1985-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) accumulates in erythrocytes in MTX-treated patients. We present a modified enzymatic assay measuring MTX concentrations between 10 and 60 nmol/l in erythrocytes, adapted for a centrifugal analyser (Cobas Bio). About 40 patient's samples could be analysed within 1 h. The detection...

  7. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  8. Verification of prior measurements by nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emphasis in this report is placed on the factors affecting nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement accuracies and the selection of the appropriate NDA techniques for certain measurements based on these factors. Factors affecting measurement accuracies are operational characteristics, isotopic composition of SNM sample, response dependence on the SNM and matrix materials within sample, and composition and dimension of the container

  9. Calcium flux assay in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P M

    2001-05-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors of interest to neuroscientists induce transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which can be used as a convenient measure of receptor activation in a variety of applications. This unit describes a simple calcium flux assay applied to Xenopus oocytes. PMID:18428482

  10. Benzodiazepine Synthesis and Rapid Toxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James T.; Boriraj, Grit

    2010-01-01

    A second-year organic chemistry laboratory experiment to introduce students to general concepts of medicinal chemistry is described. Within a single three-hour time window, students experience the synthesis of a biologically active small molecule and the assaying of its biological toxicity. Benzodiazepine rings are commonly found in antidepressant…

  11. A novel fluorescent assay for sucrose transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gora Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a novel assay based on the ability of type I sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs to transport the fluorescent coumarin β-glucoside, esculin. Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used for the heterologous expression of SUTs and does not take up esculin. Results When type I sucrose transporters StSUT1 from potato or AtSUC2 from Arabidopsis were expressed in yeast, the cells were able to take up esculin and became brightly fluorescent. We tested a variety of incubation times, esculin concentrations, and buffer pH values and found that for these transporters, a 1 hr incubation at 0.1 to 1 mM esculin at pH 4.0 produced fluorescent cells that were easily distinguished from vector controls. Esculin uptake was assayed by several methods including fluorescence microscopy, spectrofluorometry and fluorescence-activiated cell sorting (FACS. Expression of the type II sucrose transporter OsSUT1 from rice did not result in increased esculin uptake under any conditions tested. Results were reproduced successfully in two distinct yeast strains, SEY6210 (an invertase mutant and BY4742. Conclusions The esculin uptake assay is rapid and sensitive and should be generally useful for preliminary tests of sucrose transporter function by heterologous expression in yeast. This assay is also suitable for selection of yeast showing esculin uptake activity using FACS.

  12. Diagnostic reasoning using qualitative causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of expert systems to reasoning problems involving real-time data from plant measurements has been a topic of much research, but few practical systems have been deployed. One obstacle to wider use of expert systems in applications involving real-time data is the lack of adequate knowledge representation methodologies for dynamic processes. Knowledge bases composed mainly of rules have disadvantages when applied to dynamic processes and real-time data. This paper describes a methodology for the development of qualitative causal models that can be used as knowledge bases for reasoning about process dynamic behavior. These models provide a systematic method for knowledge base construction, considerably reducing the engineering effort required. They also offer much better opportunities for verification and validation of the knowledge base, thus increasing the possibility of the application of expert systems to reasoning about mission critical systems. Starting with the Signed Directed Graph (SDG) method that has been successfully applied to describe the behavior of diverse dynamic processes, the paper shows how certain non-physical behaviors that result from abstraction may be eliminated by applying causal constraint to the models. The resulting Extended Signed Directed Graph (ESDG) may then be compiled to produce a model for use in process fault diagnosis. This model based reasoning methodology is used in the MOBIAS system being developed by Duke Power Company under EPRI sponsorship. 15 refs., 4 figs

  13. Qualitative and Asymptotic Theory of Detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2014-11-09

    Shock waves in reactive media possess very rich dynamics: from formation of cells in multiple dimensions to oscillating shock fronts in one-dimension. Because of the extreme complexity of the equations of combustion theory, most of the current understanding of unstable detonation waves relies on extensive numerical simulations of the reactive compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Attempts at a simplified theory have been made in the past, most of which are very successful in describing steady detonation waves. In this work we focus on obtaining simplified theories capable of capturing not only the steady, but also the unsteady behavior of detonation waves. The first part of this thesis is focused on qualitative theories of detonation, where ad hoc models are proposed and analyzed. We show that equations as simple as a forced Burgers equation can capture most of the complex phenomena observed in detonations. In the second part of this thesis we focus on rational theories, and derive a weakly nonlinear model of multi-dimensional detonations. We also show, by analysis and numerical simulations, that the asymptotic equations provide good quantitative predictions.

  14. Stigma in Cirrhotic Patients: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanloei, Reza; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Eesa; Dolatkhah, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Stigma is one of the main problems of patients suffering from cirrhosis, and it causes many challenges for the patients and their treatment. The present study aimed to discover and define the perceived stigma by cirrhotic patients. This qualitative study was conducted through a content analysis approach. The participants were 15 patients suffering from cirrhosis. Data were collected via semistructured, in-depth interviews and analyzed on the basis of methods described by Granheme and Landman. During data analysis, stigma was categorized into four categories and 13 subcategories: external representation of social stigma (others' avoidance behaviors, inadmissible tag, discriminative behaviors of treatment personnel, blaming behaviors), internal representation of social stigma (social ostracism, social isolation, curiosity to perceive people's perceptions), external representation of self-stigma (fear of disclosure of illness, threatening situation, difficult emotional relationships), and internal representation of self-stigma (condemned to suffer, self-punishment, self-alienation). Experiencing stigma is common among cirrhotic patients and may affect patients' coping with the illness and treatment. Thus, it is specifically important that treatment personnel know patients' perception, provide comprehensive support for these patients, and plan to enhance public awareness about the disease recommended. PMID:27258462

  15. Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to characterize the maintenance environment and processes in order to collect suitable and cost-effective data. Also, enacting such a program and getting usable data sets takes time. A short term substitute is therefore needed. We propose in this paper a characterization process aimed specifically at maintenance and based on a general qualitative analysis methodology. This process is rigorously defined in order to be repeatable and usable by people who are not acquainted with such analysis procedures. A basic feature of our approach is that actual implemented software changes are analyzed in order to understand the flaws in the maintenance process. Guidelines are provided and a case study is shown that demonstrates the usefulness of the approach.

  16. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators.Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held.The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs.The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers.

  17. Heliconia phenotypic diversity based on qualitative descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, W N R; Martins, L S S; Castro, C E F; Carvalho Filho, J L S; Loges, V

    2014-04-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize Heliconia genotypes phenotypically using 26 qualitative descriptors. The evaluations were conducted in five flowering stems per clump in three replicates of 22 Heliconia genotypes. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, the Mahalanobis dissimilarity measure was estimated, and the dendrogram was generated using the nearest neighbor method. From the values generated by the dissimilarity matrix and the clusters formed among the Heliconia genotypes studied, the phenotypic characterizations that best differentiated the genotypes were: pseudostem and wax green tone (light or dark green), leaf-wax petiole, the petiole hair, cleft margin at the base of the petiole, midrib underside shade of green, wax midrib underside, color sheet (light or dark green), unequal lamina base, torn limb, inflorescence-wax, position of inflorescence, bract leaf in apex, twisting of the rachis, and type of bloom. These results will be applied in the preparation of a catalog for Heliconia descriptors, in the selection of different genotypes with most promising characteristics for crosses, and for the characterization of new genotypes to be introduced in germplasm collections.

  18. [The narrative in qualitative research in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2014-04-01

    The marked interest of the human and social sciences in health in narrative studies has led to many forms of incorporation of these contributions in qualitative research in health. It is important to reflect on the contexts and characteristics of this incorporation. To accomplish this, we highlight the core theoretical issues involved and also situate this incorporation in the broader context of the scientific production in the human and social sciences in health. We also stress the contribution of the narrative studies for reflection upon the relations between social structure and action or between specific contexts of social interaction and broader societal contexts. This contribution can be identified in relations established through narrative between interpretation, experience and action throughout the health-disease-care process. It is argued that narratives not only organize interpretations, but can also represent a specific form of social agency. In this sense, the narrative interpretations and narrative performances can be seen as core elements in the social construction of experiences and trajectories of illness and care.

  19. Heliconia phenotypic diversity based on qualitative descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, W N R; Martins, L S S; Castro, C E F; Carvalho Filho, J L S; Loges, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Heliconia genotypes phenotypically using 26 qualitative descriptors. The evaluations were conducted in five flowering stems per clump in three replicates of 22 Heliconia genotypes. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, the Mahalanobis dissimilarity measure was estimated, and the dendrogram was generated using the nearest neighbor method. From the values generated by the dissimilarity matrix and the clusters formed among the Heliconia genotypes studied, the phenotypic characterizations that best differentiated the genotypes were: pseudostem and wax green tone (light or dark green), leaf-wax petiole, the petiole hair, cleft margin at the base of the petiole, midrib underside shade of green, wax midrib underside, color sheet (light or dark green), unequal lamina base, torn limb, inflorescence-wax, position of inflorescence, bract leaf in apex, twisting of the rachis, and type of bloom. These results will be applied in the preparation of a catalog for Heliconia descriptors, in the selection of different genotypes with most promising characteristics for crosses, and for the characterization of new genotypes to be introduced in germplasm collections. PMID:24782170

  20. Qualitätsmanagement in molekularbiologischen Laboratorien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Manuela

    Jedes Laboratorium führt Untersuchungen nach bestem Wissen und Gewissen durch, und jeder Analytiker weiß von sich, dass er/sie gute Arbeit macht. Trotzdem können Analysen des gleichen Probenmaterials in verschiedenen Laboren zu unterschiedlichen Ergebnissen führen. Sofern es sich dabei nicht um Untersuchungen im Bereich der Nachweisgrenze und damit letztlich um statistisch bedingte Unterschiede oder Inhomogenitäten im Probenmaterial handelt, trägt dies nicht zur Vertrauenswürdigkeit von analytischen Untersuchungsergebnissen bei. Mit der zunehmenden Globalisierung der Märkte rückt die gegenseitige Anerkennung von analytischen Resultaten immer stärker in den Vordergrund. Die Vergleichbarkeit von Laborresultaten wird erleichtert, wenn sich die Laboratorien auf die gleichen Richtlinien zur Vorgehensweise und Handhabung ihrer Arbeiten verständigen. Im Bereich der Laboruntersuchungen von Lebensmitteln, Futtermitteln und Saatgut ist als derartige Rischt-Schnur die EN ISO/IEC 17025 [1] anerkannt. Diese Norm enthält alle Anforderungen, die Prüflaboratorien erfüllen müssen, wenn sie nachweisen wollen, dass sie ein Qualitätsmanagementsystem betreiben, technisch (meint: fachlich) kompetent und fähig sind, fachlich fundierte Ergebnisse zu erzielen.

  1. Evaluation of a ganglioside immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, E; Svennerholm, A M; Holmgren, J; Möllby, R

    1979-12-01

    The GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA), an immunological method for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), was quantitatively and qualitatively compared with the conventional adrenal cell test for the identification of LT-producing strains. A micromodification model of the assay was developed. Enterotoxin preparations from 120 E. coli isolates from individuals with diarrhea, which had been previously shown to be enterotoxigenic by the adrenal cell test, and from 44 control strains of E. coli were compared in parallel by the two methods. Quantitatively the covariation of the enterotoxin titers was highly significant (RS = 0.98, P less than 0.001), the GM1-ELISA being somewhat more sensitive than the adrenal cell test. The methodological error was less than 5% in both tests. Qualitatively the overall agreement for positive and negative reactions for the two methods was 89%. The GM1-ELISA is practical for routine use in the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic E. coli, especially in laboratories without facilities for cell culture.

  2. Non-separation assay for glycohemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blincko, S; Edwards, R

    1998-06-01

    The determination of glycohemoglobin [HbA1c, HbA1, or total glycohemoglobin (GHb)] has become an established procedure in the management of diabetes mellitus. Here, we describe the development of a simple, fluorescence, non-separation assay for the percentage of GHb (%GHb). The fluorescence of an eosin-boronic acid derivative when it was mixed with hemolysates of unwashed erythrocytes was quenched in proportion to the percentage of glycohemoglobin. Measurement of the fluorescence intensity gave an estimate of GHb in the sample, and measurement of light absorbance gave an estimate of total hemoglobin. A combination of the two measurements gave the assay response. Comparison with HPLC (Menarini-Arkray HA-8140 fully automated analyzer) for the percentage of HbA1 (%HbA1) gave %GHb(NETRIA) = 1.1(SD +/-0.03)%HbA1 +0.6(SD +/-0.3), S(y/x) = 0.821, r = 0.972, n = 80; comparison for HbA1c gave %GHb(NETRIA) = 1.3(SD +/-0.04)%HbA1c + 1.8(SD +/-0.3), S(y/x) = 0.813, r = 0.973, n = 80. Precision, estimated as the percentage of the CV of the %GHb assay results, was <2% (intraassay, range 5-22% GHb) and <4.2% (interassay, range 4-16% GHb). Dilution of a high-percentage GHb sample lysate showed that the assay was linear, and addition of glucose (60 mmol/L), bilirubin (250 micromol/L), and triglycerides (14 mmol/L) to low, medium, and high %GHb samples showed no clinical interference in assay results. PMID:9625057

  3. Production and assay of forskolin antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, L.T.; Ho, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Forskolin (Fo), a cardiovascular active diterpene of plant origin, has been widely used as a research tool in regulation of the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase (AC). A linear relationship of Fo binding to plasma membrane with activation of AC has been reported. The present abstract describes the production and assay of Fo antibodies (AB). 7-0-Hemisuccinyl-7-deacetyl Fo, coupled to either human serum albumin or goat IgG, was injected into goats to elicit AB to Fo haptan. AB to Fo in antiserum or an isolated IgG fraction was tested by two assay methods, a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-Fo as a tracer and a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using horse radish peroxidase-rabbit anti goat IgG as indicator. The titers for Fo antiserum were 4000-10,000. In the defined assay condition, approximately 20-25% of the added /sup 3/H-Fo was found to bind to AB. The bound radioactivity was displaced by Fo-HSA or Fo-goat IgG or free unlabelled Fo ranging from 0.5-50 pmol/tube, or 5-500 nM. The IC/sub 50/ was approximately 8-10 pmol/tube or 80-100 nM. The binding of HRP-rabbit anti goat IgG in the ELISA was inhibited by proper Fo conjugate. The development of methods for production and assay for Fo AB may be useful in the study of mechanism of activation of AC by Fo and Fo-like compound.

  4. Production and assay of forskolin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forskolin (Fo), a cardiovascular active diterpene of plant origin, has been widely used as a research tool in regulation of the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase (AC). A linear relationship of Fo binding to plasma membrane with activation of AC has been reported. The present abstract describes the production and assay of Fo antibodies (AB). 7-0-Hemisuccinyl-7-deacetyl Fo, coupled to either human serum albumin or goat IgG, was injected into goats to elicit AB to Fo haptan. AB to Fo in antiserum or an isolated IgG fraction was tested by two assay methods, a radioimmunoassay using 3H-Fo as a tracer and a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using horse radish peroxidase-rabbit anti goat IgG as indicator. The titers for Fo antiserum were 4000-10,000. In the defined assay condition, approximately 20-25% of the added 3H-Fo was found to bind to AB. The bound radioactivity was displaced by Fo-HSA or Fo-goat IgG or free unlabelled Fo ranging from 0.5-50 pmol/tube, or 5-500 nM. The IC50 was approximately 8-10 pmol/tube or 80-100 nM. The binding of HRP-rabbit anti goat IgG in the ELISA was inhibited by proper Fo conjugate. The development of methods for production and assay for Fo AB may be useful in the study of mechanism of activation of AC by Fo and Fo-like compound

  5. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  6. The Use of Triangulation Methods in Qualitative Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, DeeDee

    2006-01-01

    Triangulation involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitative methods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and…

  7. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  8. A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration of Teachers' Experience With Nutrition Education

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education delivered by classroom teachers has become a popular intervention designed to combat childhood obesity. However, few qualitative studies have explored nutrition education with teachers Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore how elementary teachers describe their experience with nutrition education. Methods: A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Semistructured interviews, observations, and document analysis were conducted with 10 teachers ...

  9. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  10. Exploring School Counselors' Perceptions of Vicarious Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…

  11. Using Blogs in Qualitative Educational Research: An Exploration of Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…

  12. Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…

  13. Teaching Qualitative Research: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitative methods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitative methods course…

  14. Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

  15. Tech Tips: Using Video Management/ Analysis Technology in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Spiers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents tips on how to use video in qualitative research. The author states that, though there many complex and powerful computer programs for working with video, the work done in qualitative research does not require those programs. For this work, simple editing software is sufficient. Also presented is an easy and efficient method of transcribing video clips.

  16. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  17. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  18. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  19. Learning the Concept of Researcher as Instrument in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…

  20. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  1. How People Interpret Healthy Eating: Contributions of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…

  2. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  3. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  4. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  5. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.

  6. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  7. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  8. Caring for an Individual with Autism Disorder: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Kenneth W.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.; McCammon, Susan L.; Lamson, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caregivers in this qualitative study reported the multidimensional implications of having a child with autism on their family's lives and overall functioning. Method: The Effects of the Situation Questionnaire (Yatchmenoff, Koren, Friesen, Gordon, & Kinney, 1998) was used to gather qualitative data from 80 caregivers. Colaizzi's (1978)…

  9. A Qualitative Synthesis of Children's Participation in Custody Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This qualitative synthesis explores the voices of children in the context of child custody disputes over the last 20 years. The purpose was to (1) systematically retrieve qualitative studies to explore children's views and preferences in the context of decision making postseparation and divorce and (2) explore how children's voices are…

  10. Polish Qualitative Sociology. Insight into the future of postdisciplinary research

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The paper desctibes the definitions of following concepts: multidisiplinarity, interdisciplinarity, transdysciplinarity, postdisciplinarity. MOreover it discuss the meanings of a concept of discipline. It describes the place of the Polish qualitative sociology in the context of postdisciplinary research. The main question of paper is: Does the POlish Qualitative Sociology has entered the postdisciplinary phase of research? DGS, UL Krzysztof Konecki

  11. Qualitative Variation in Constructive Alignment in Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Constructive alignment has emerged as a powerful curriculum design idea, but little is known of the extent to which the effectiveness of this idea is a function of qualitative variation. This article introduces a model of qualitative variation in constructive alignment, and uses the results from known alignment studies to test the model. The…

  12. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  13. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864... reductase assay. (a) Identification. A glutathione reductase assay is a device used to determine the... fluorescence and photometry. The results of this assay are used in the diagnosis of liver disease,...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7455 - Fetal hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal hemoglobin assay. 864.7455 Section 864.7455... assay. (a) Identification. A fetal hemoglobin assay is a device that is used to determine the presence... hemoglobin present. The assay may be used to detect fetal red cells in the maternal circulation or to...

  15. Short communication. Microculture syncytia assay for bovine leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.S.; Castro, A.E.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Muscoplat, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    A microculture syncytia assay for the detection of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) has been described and compared with the conventional macroculture assay. The microculture assay required fewer indicator cells, was as sensitive as the macroculture assay and provided a reproducible test for the detection and titration of BLV.

  16. Comparative titers of egg assay against immunofluorescent assay of Chlamydia psittaci.

    OpenAIRE

    Tessler, J

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of titers was made between an egg assay and a direct fluorescent antibody assay of three chlamydial strains propagated in Vero cells with and without cortisone plus cytochalasin B. The titer of NJ-1 strain was similar in the egg titration and the fluorescent antibody assay in the untreated sample and a little lower for the sample treated with cytochalasin B and cortisone. The SCT and CDC strains had approximately the same titers in the egg titration and the fluorescent antibody a...

  17. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  18. [Phenomenography--a way to do qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoila, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and evaluate theoretical principles, possibilities and limits of the qualitative research method called phenomenography. The article is based on a literature review. Phenomenography is a research methodology initiated by Ference Marton and his research group in Sweden in the 1970s. Unlike phenomenology, phenomenography is not a philosophical school. It is a pragmatic method for doing qualitative research. In phenomenography, the aim of research is to describe the qualitatively different ways in which people perceive the world around them (the second-order perspective). The most common method of data collection is thematic interviewing. The results are categories of description representing the different conceptions of a phenomenon found among a certain population. Phenomenography is a useful method for qualitative analyses. However, it has also been criticized for a static view of human thought--a criticism that points toward the risks of relying on a single method in qualitative research. PMID:8484953

  19. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

  20. Purposive Selection and the Quality of Qualitative IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria...... for the evaluation of qualitative research, although equally important, have not received equal attention. Drawing on literature from behavioral and social science, this paper discusses methodological concepts of evaluating qualitative research by focusing on techniques to purposefully select data for analysis....... In particular, the technique of corpus construction will be introduced, which was specifically designed as an evaluation criterion for qualitative research. Adapted from linguistics, corpus construction offers an alternative that is functionally equivalent to statistical sampling techniques in terms...

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Integrated Modeling for Stochastic Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation and optimization of an actual physics system are usually constructed based on the stochastic models, which have both qualitative and quantitative characteristics inherently. Most modeling specifications and frameworks find it difficult to describe the qualitative model directly. In order to deal with the expert knowledge, uncertain reasoning, and other qualitative information, a qualitative and quantitative combined modeling specification was proposed based on a hierarchical model structure framework. The new modeling approach is based on a hierarchical model structure which includes the meta-meta model, the meta-model and the high-level model. A description logic system is defined for formal definition and verification of the new modeling specification. A stochastic defense simulation was developed to illustrate how to model the system and optimize the result. The result shows that the proposed method can describe the complex system more comprehensively, and the survival probability of the target is higher by introducing qualitative models into quantitative simulation.

  2. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold in...

  3. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  4. Academic impact of qualitative studies in healthcare: bibliometric analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Mori

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although qualitative studies are becoming more appreciated in healthcare, the number of publications of quality studies remains low. Little is known about the frequency and characteristics of citation in qualitative studies. OBJECTIVE: To compare the academic impact of qualitative studies to that of two quantitative studies: systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials. METHODS: Publications in BMJ between 1997 and 2006 (BMJ's median impact factor was 7.04 during this period employing qualitative methods were matched to two quantitative studies appearing the same year using PubMed. Using Web of Science, citations within a 24-month publication period were determined. Additionally, three hypotheses were examined: qualitative studies are 1 infrequently cited in original articles or reviews; 2 rarely cited by authors in non-English-speaking countries; and 3 more frequently cited in non-medical disciplines (e.g., psychology or sociology. RESULTS: A total of 121 qualitative studies, 270 systematic reviews, and 515 randomised controlled trials were retrieved. Qualitative studies were cited a total of 1,089 times, with a median of 7.00 times (range, 0-34 for each study. Matched systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were cited 2,411 times and 1,600 times, respectively. With respect to citing documents, original articles and reviews exceeded 60% for each study design. Relative to quantitative studies, qualitative studies were cited more often by authors in English-speaking countries. With respect to subject area, medical disciplines were more frequently cited than non-medical disciplines for all three study designs (>80%. CONCLUSION: The median number of citations for qualitative studies was almost the same as the median of BMJ's impact factor during the survey period. For a suitable evaluation of qualitative studies in healthcare, it will be necessary to develop a reporting framework and include explicit discussions of

  5. Is the Comet Assay a Sensitive Procedure for Detecting Genotoxicity?

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Yu F.; Satomi Kawaguchi; Takanori Nakamura; Gisho Honda; Ayumi Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Although the Comet assay, a procedure for quantitating DNA damage in mammalian cells, is considered sensitive, it has never been ascertained that its sensitivity is higher than the sensitivity of other genotoxicity assays in mammalian cells. To determine whether the power of the Comet assay to detect a low level of genotoxic potential is superior to those of other genotoxicity assays in mammalian cells, we compared the results of Comet assay with those of micronucleus test (MN test). WTK1 hum...

  6. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunofluorescence assay and a hemagglutination inhibition assay for detection of antibodies to K-papovavirus in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); H.W.J. Broeders; H.E.M. Spijkers (Ine)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe sensitivity of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibody to K virus was compared with the sensitivities of an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA). Specific pathogen-free BALB/c RIVM mice, 5 weeks old

  7. Development and validation of qualitative SYBR®Green real-time PCR for detection and discrimination of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Yde, Marc; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H

    2013-05-01

    A combination of four qualitative SYBR®Green qPCR screening assays targeting two levels of discrimination: Listeria genus (except Listeria grayi) and Listeria monocytogenes, is presented. These assays have been developed to be run simultaneously using the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) programme. The paper also proposes a new validation procedure to specifically validate qPCR assays applied to food microbiology according to two guidelines: the ISO 22118 norm and the "Definition of minimum performance requirements for analytical methods of GMO testing". The developed assays target the iap, prs and hlyA genes that belong to or neighbour the virulence cluster of Listeria spp. The selected primers were designed to amplify short fragments (60 to 103 bp) in order to obtain optimal PCR efficiency (between 97 and 107 % efficiency). The limit of detection of the SYBR®Green qPCR assays is two to five copies of target genes per qPCR reaction. These assays are highly accurate (98.08 and 100 % accuracy for the Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes assays, respectively).

  8. Development and validation of qualitative SYBR®Green real-time PCR for detection and discrimination of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Yde, Marc; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H

    2013-05-01

    A combination of four qualitative SYBR®Green qPCR screening assays targeting two levels of discrimination: Listeria genus (except Listeria grayi) and Listeria monocytogenes, is presented. These assays have been developed to be run simultaneously using the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) programme. The paper also proposes a new validation procedure to specifically validate qPCR assays applied to food microbiology according to two guidelines: the ISO 22118 norm and the "Definition of minimum performance requirements for analytical methods of GMO testing". The developed assays target the iap, prs and hlyA genes that belong to or neighbour the virulence cluster of Listeria spp. The selected primers were designed to amplify short fragments (60 to 103 bp) in order to obtain optimal PCR efficiency (between 97 and 107 % efficiency). The limit of detection of the SYBR®Green qPCR assays is two to five copies of target genes per qPCR reaction. These assays are highly accurate (98.08 and 100 % accuracy for the Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes assays, respectively). PMID:23086339

  9. Transient expression assays in tobacco protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bossche, Robin; Demedts, Brecht; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Goossens, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The sequence information generated through genome and transcriptome analysis from plant tissues has reached unprecedented sizes. Sequence homology-based annotations may provide hints for the possible function and roles of particular plant genes, but the functional annotation remains nonexistent or incomplete for many of them. To discover gene functions, transient expression assays are a valuable tool because they can be done more rapidly and at a higher scale than generating stably transformed tissues. Here, we describe a transient expression assay in protoplasts derived from suspension cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the study of the transactivation capacities of transcription factors. To enhance throughput and reproducibility, this method can be automated, allowing medium-throughput screening of interactions between large compendia of potential transcription factors and gene promoters.

  10. High-Throughput Cell Toxicity Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; McWilliams, Lisa; Wigglesworth, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Understanding compound-driven cell toxicity is vitally important for all drug discovery approaches. With high-throughput screening (HTS) being the key strategy to find hit and lead compounds for drug discovery projects in the pharmaceutical industry [1], an understanding of the cell toxicity profile of hit molecules from HTS activities is fundamentally important. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in phenotypic drug discovery and these cell-based assays are now being run in HTS labs on ever increasing numbers of compounds. As the use of cell assays increases the ability to measure toxicity of compounds on a large scale becomes increasingly important to ensure that false hits are not progressed and that compounds do not carry forward a toxic liability that may cause them to fail at later stages of a project. Here we describe methods employed in the AstraZeneca HTS laboratory to carry out very large scale cell toxicity screening. PMID:27317000

  11. Mobile nondestructive assay and examination instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact system that evaluates radioactive materials can furnish a big savings to taxpayers by ensuring that only properly identified nuclear waste is sent to a Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage area. The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Advanced Nuclear Technology Group has developed and field tested two easily transportable, self-contained modules: one x-rays the contents of special 208-iota shipment containers, the other assays the contents. The assay and evaluation system is a simple, portable solution to a complex problem that ensures that only properly packaged transuranic (TRU) waste is shipped to the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Caustic chemicals, liquids, and other objects or materials that could cause a container leak during shipment are the objects of an x-ray and video camera used in the system

  12. Developments in plutonium waste assay at AWE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T J

    2009-06-01

    In 2002 a paper was presented at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) on the assay of low level plutonium (Pu) in soft drummed waste (Miller 2002 INMM Ann. Meeting (Orlando, FL, 23-27 July 2002)). The technique described enabled the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), at Aldermaston in the UK, to meet the stringent Low Level Waste Repository at Drigg (LLWRD) conditions for acceptance for the first time. However, it was initially applied to only low density waste streams because it relied on measuring the relatively low energy (60 keV) photon yield from Am-241 during growth. This paper reviews the results achieved when using the technique to assay over 10,000 waste packages and presents the case for extending the range of application to denser waste streams. PMID:19454791

  13. Developments in plutonium waste assay at AWE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T J [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Timothy.Miller@awe.co.uk

    2009-06-15

    In 2002 a paper was presented at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) on the assay of low level plutonium (Pu) in soft drummed waste (Miller 2002 INMM Ann. Meeting (Orlando, FL, 23-27 July 2002)). The technique described enabled the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), at Aldermaston in the UK, to meet the stringent Low Level Waste Repository at Drigg (LLWRD) conditions for acceptance for the first time. However, it was initially applied to only low density waste streams because it relied on measuring the relatively low energy (60 keV) photon yield from Am-241 during growth. This paper reviews the results achieved when using the technique to assay over 10 000 waste packages and presents the case for extending the range of application to denser waste streams.

  14. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended

  15. Assay of 25-OH vitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified version of the competitive protein-binding assay for 25-OH vitamin D3 (25-OH D3) derived from the method of Belsey et al. is presented. The procedure does not include a chromatographic step, and it is performed on an alcoholic extract of 0.1 ml plasma or serum. Normal rat serum (1:20000) was used as binding protein. No β-lipoproteins were added to the assay buffer. A 10% displacement of the tracer was observed at 0.04 ng/tube and a 50% displacement at 0.15 ng/tube, allowing for the measurement of 25-OH D3 concentrations between 2 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. Mean values in a normal group were 23.1+-6.5 ng/ml (range 16-37 ng/ml, n=11). (author)

  16. Comparison of LC-MS Assay and HPLC Assay of Busulfan in Clinical Pharmacokinetics Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Lin; Susan Goodin; Strair, Roger K.; Robert S. DiPaola; Gounder, Murugesan K.

    2012-01-01

    Busulfan is used in preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation and timely busulfan plasma concentration reporting is critical for subsequent dose adjustment. We compared two sensitive methods for pharmacokinetics studies including LC-MS assay and HPLC precolumn derivatization assay. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Gemini C18 column. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used for plasma sample preparation. Busulfan and internal standard ([2H8]-busulfan) were d...

  17. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009). The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cel...

  18. Recent advances in sulfotransferase enzyme activity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Priscilla; Suwan, Jiraporn; Liu, Jian; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfotransferases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfo groups from a donor, for example 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate, to an acceptor, for example the amino or hydroxyl groups of a small molecule, xenobiotic, carbohydrate, or peptide. These enzymes are important targets in the design of novel therapeutics for treatment of a variety of diseases. This review examines assays used for this important class of enzyme, paying particular attention to sulfotransferases acting on car...

  19. SWEPP assay system software: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a new software package to control data acquisition and perform data analysis for a Passive/Active Neutron Assay system was reported at this conference in 1994. The software has undergone additional development including improvements to the user interface, additional data integrity checks and support for a shift register coincidence analyzer. An overview of this additional work is presented in this report

  20. A Quantitative Assay for Aggrecanase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Will, Horst; Dettloff, Matthias; Bendzkô, Peter; Sveshnikov, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Aggrecanase activities of ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) proteinases were measured with a recombinant aggrecan fragment and two monoclonal antibodies. Recombinant human aggrecan interglobular domain was first incubated in the presence of ADAMTS enzymes. The aggrecan peptide with the N-terminal sequence ARGSVIL released upon hydrolysis was then quantified in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with an anti-neoepitope antibody specific for the N...

  1. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  2. Two important Saudi crude assays updated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics

  3. Radioligand assay: current trends in automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using automatic equipment to perform routine RIA procedures can save time and money, improve precision, and free technologists to work on more-complex, non-routine assays. This article examines some of the instruments available for semiautomated and fully automated RIA testing. The pros and cons of automated testing are explored, and a framework for judging the true value and limitations of systems is presented

  4. Methods and devices for protein assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil (San Jose, CA); Cintron, Jose M. (Indianapolis, IN); Shediac, Renee (Oakland, CA)

    2009-11-03

    Methods and devices for protein assays based on Edman degradation in microfluidic channels are disclosed herein. As disclosed, the cleaved amino acid residues may be immobilized in an array format and identified by detectable labels, such as antibodies, which specifically bind given amino acid residues. Alternatively, the antibodies are immobilized in an array format and the cleaved amino acids are labeled identified by being bound by the antibodies in the array.

  5. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  6. Design of radiation dose tumor response assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficient utilization of animals in a radiation dose response assay for tumor control requires a definition of the goal, e.g., TCD50 or slope. A series of computer modelled ''experiments'' have been performed for each of a number of allocations of dose levels (DL) and number of animals/DL. The authors stipulated that the assumed TCD50 was .85 of true value; assumed slope was correct. They stipulated a binominal distribution of observed tumor control results at each dose level. A pilot assay used 6 tumors at 7 DL (from TCD1-TCD97). The second assay used 30 tumors assigned to 2,3,5 or 9 DL and to selected tumor control probabilities (TCP derived from the pilot run. Results from 100 test runs were combined with the pilot run for each of the combination of DL and TCP values. Logit regression lines were fitted through these ''data'' and the 95% CL around the TCD50 and the TCD37 values and the variances of the slopes were computed. These experiments were repeated using the method suggested by Porter (1980). Results show that a different strategy is needed depending upon the goal, viz. TCD50 or TCD37 vs slope. The differences between the two approaches are discussed

  7. Diagnostic Certified Assay: Neuromuscular and Cardiac Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Valaperta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the specific trinucleotide sequence, [CTG], is the molecular pathological mechanism responsible for the clinical manifestations of DM1. Many studies have described different molecular genetic techniques to detect DM1, but as yet there is no data on the analytical performances of techniques used so far in this disease. We therefore developed and validated a molecular method, “Myotonic Dystrophy SB kit,” to better characterize our DM1 population. 113 patients were examined: 20 DM1-positive, 11 DM1/DM2-negative, and13 DM1-negative/DM2-positive, who had a previous molecular diagnosis, while 69 were new cases. This assay correctly identified 113/113 patients, and all were confirmed by different homemade assays. Comparative analysis revealed that the sensitivity and the specificity of the new kit were very high (>99%. Same results were obtained using several extraction procedures and different concentrations of DNA. The distribution of pathologic alleles showed a prevalence of the “classical” form, while of the 96 nonexpanded alleles 19 different allelic types were observed. Cardiac and neuromuscular parameters were used to clinically characterize our patients and support the new genetic analysis. Our findings suggest that this assay appears to be a very robust and reliable molecular test, showing high reproducibility and giving an unambiguous interpretation of results.

  8. Quality control of antibodies for assay development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sarah; Seitz, Harald

    2016-09-25

    Antibodies are used as powerful tools in basic research, for example, in biomarker identification, and in various forms for diagnostics, for example, identification of allergies or autoimmune diseases. Due to their robustness and ease of handling, immunoassays are favourite methods for investigation of various biological or medical questions. Nevertheless in many cases, additional analyses such as mass spectrometry are used to validate or confirm the results of immunoassays. To minimize the workload and to increase confidence in immunoassays, there are urgent needs for antibodies which are both highly specific and well validated. Unfortunately many commercially available antibodies are neither well characterized nor fully tested for cross-reactivities. Adequate quality control and validation of an antibody is time-consuming and can be frustrating. Such validation needs to be performed for every assay/application. However, where an antibody validation is successful, a highly specific and stable reagent will be on hand. This article describes the validation processes of antibodies, including some often neglected factors, as well as unspecific binding to other sample compounds in a multiparameter diagnostic assay. The validation consists of different immunological methods, with important assay controls, and is performed in relation to the development of a diagnostic test. PMID:26873787

  9. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  10. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyse human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use 8 high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterwards. The

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  12. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  13. Bridging Conceptions of Quality in Moments of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Ravenek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment in qualitative research has been, and remains, a contentious issue. The qualitative literature contains a diversity of opinions on definitions of and criteria for quality. This article attempts to organize this diversity, drawing on several examples of existing quality criteria, into four main approaches: qualitative as quantitative criteria, paradigm-specific criteria, individualized assessment, and bridging criteria. These different approaches can be mapped onto the historical transitions, or moments, in qualitative research presented by Denzin and Lincoln and, as such, they are presented alongside the various criteria reviewed. Socio-political conditions that have led us to a fractured future, where the value and significance of qualitative work may be marginalized, support the adoption of bridging criteria. These broadly applicable criteria provide means to assess quality and can be flexibly applied among the diversity of qualitative approaches used by researchers. Five categories that summarize the language used within bridging criteria are presented as a means to move forward in developing an approach to quality assessment that fosters communication and connections within the diversity of qualitative research, while simultaneously respecting and valuing paradigmatic and methodological diversity.

  14. Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, M Q

    1999-12-01

    Varying philosophical and theoretical orientations to qualitative inquiry remind us that issues of quality and credibility intersect with audience and intended research purposes. This overview examines ways of enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis by dealing with three distinct but related inquiry concerns: rigorous techniques and methods for gathering and analyzing qualitative data, including attention to validity, reliability, and triangulation; the credibility, competence, and perceived trustworthiness of the qualitative researcher; and the philosophical beliefs of evaluation users about such paradigm-based preferences as objectivity versus subjectivity, truth versus perspective, and generalizations versus extrapolations. Although this overview examines some general approaches to issues of credibility and data quality in qualitative analysis, it is important to acknowledge that particular philosophical underpinnings, specific paradigms, and special purposes for qualitative inquiry will typically include additional or substitute criteria for assuring and judging quality, validity, and credibility. Moreover, the context for these considerations has evolved. In early literature on evaluation methods the debate between qualitative and quantitative methodologists was often strident. In recent years the debate has softened. A consensus has gradually emerged that the important challenge is to match appropriately the methods to empirical questions and issues, and not to universally advocate any single methodological approach for all problems. PMID:10591279

  15. The myth of induction in qualitative nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M

    2015-04-01

    In nursing today, it remains unclear what constitutes a good foundation for qualitative scientific inquiry. There is a tendency to define qualitative research as a form of inductive inquiry; deductive practice is seldom discussed, and when it is, this usually occurs in the context of data analysis. We will look at how the terms 'induction' and 'deduction' are used in qualitative nursing science and by qualitative research theorists, and relate these uses to the traditional definitions of these terms by Popper and other philosophers of science. We will also question the assertion that qualitative research is or should be inductive. The position we defend here is that qualitative research should use deductive methods. We also see a need to understand the difference between the creative process needed to create theory and the justification of a theory. Our position is that misunderstandings regarding the philosophy of science and the role of inductive and deductive logic and science are still harming the development of nursing theory and science. The purpose of this article is to discuss and reflect upon inductive and deductive views of science as well as inductive and deductive analyses in qualitative research. We start by describing inductive and deductive methods and logic from a philosophy of science perspective, and we examine how the concepts of induction and deduction are often described and used in qualitative methods and nursing research. Finally, we attempt to provide a theoretical perspective that reconciles the misunderstandings regarding induction and deduction. Our conclusion is that openness towards deductive thinking and testing hypotheses is needed in qualitative nursing research. We must also realize that strict induction will not create theory; to generate theory, a creative leap is needed.

  16. Rapid qualitative urinary tract infection pathogen identification by SeptiFast real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz E Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent in outpatients. Fast pathogen identification is mandatory for shortening the time of discomfort and preventing serious complications. Urine culture needs up to 48 hours until pathogen identification. Consequently, the initial antibiotic regimen is empirical. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of qualitative urine pathogen identification by a commercially available real-time PCR blood pathogen test (SeptiFast® and to compare the results with dipslide and microbiological culture. DESIGN OF STUDY: Pilot study with prospectively collected urine samples. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: 82 prospectively collected urine samples from 81 patients with suspected UTI were included. Dipslide urine culture was followed by microbiological pathogen identification in dipslide positive samples. In parallel, qualitative DNA based pathogen identification (SeptiFast® was performed in all samples. RESULTS: 61 samples were SeptiFast® positive, whereas 67 samples were dipslide culture positive. The inter-methodological concordance of positive and negative findings in the gram+, gram- and fungi sector was 371/410 (90%, 477/492 (97% and 238/246 (97%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the SeptiFast® test for the detection of an infection was 0.82 and 0.60, respectively. SeptiFast® pathogen identifications were available at least 43 hours prior to culture results. CONCLUSION: The SeptiFast® platform identified bacterial DNA in urine specimens considerably faster compared to conventional culture. For UTI diagnosis sensitivity and specificity is limited by its present qualitative setup which does not allow pathogen quantification. Future quantitative assays may hold promise for PCR based UTI pathogen identification as a supplementation of conventional culture methods.

  17. L'analyse qualitative comme approche multiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’exemple de l’enquête historique, visant à identifier les caractéristiques de la naissance et du développement d’une science et des lectures qu’elle donne des événements sociaux, est des plus originaux. Toute méthodologie historique non seulement débouche sur une pure et simple masse d’épisodes et d’événements, mais est également une narration et une élaboration critique de ces mêmes faits. Michael Postan écrit à juste titre que la complexité des données historiques est cependant de telle nature, et les différences et les similitudes tellement difficiles à cerner, que les efforts des historiens et des sociologues pour construire des comparaisons explicites se sont soldées, pour la plupart, par des tentatives grossières et naïves. La leçon des Annales a contribué en effet à construire l’idée d’une histoire qui puisse lire et expliquer ce qui est uniforme et ce qui est singulier. Rien de plus naturel que la réunion d’« êtres psychiques », à l’instar de l’assemblage des cellules en un organisme, en un « être psychique » nouveau et différent. Un tournant s’impose donc vers une expérimentation empirique plus ample et plus correcte, afin de disposer des instruments adéquats, capables de garantir à la méthodologie micro, qualitative et biographique, une fiabilité suffisante.Historical approach offers a relevant contribution in order to find the features of birth and development of a science which analyses social events. Historical methodology produces not only a lot of data but also a narrative, and an interpretation of facts. According to Michael Postan, history and sociology have made many efforts to compare data that are complex but similar and different at the same time. And the results seem to be naïf. Thanks to Les Annales suggestion it is possible to read and to explain what is uniform and what is singular. To put together “psychical beings”, like organic cells, in a new

  18. QBone University and Lab Interconnect Testbed (QUALIT). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, Benjamin

    2001-10-19

    The QUALIT grant funded two broad categories of work: (1) Project-wide QBone engineering, instrumentation, and integration; (2) Focused workshops and measurement work relating specifically to advanced university/DOE connectivity. Significant progress has been made in both areas and, to both, QUALIT funding has been a key enabling resource. This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the QUALIT project and explains changes to the technical focus of the project that, while significant, remained true to the overall project goal: to research, test, and deploy IP layer traffic differentiation to redress congestion-related end-to-end performance problems on key university-DOE lab paths.

  19. CONCEPTUAL MECHANICAL DESIGN METHOD BASED ON QUALITATIVE SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jianming; Yang Ping; Zou Bailong; Yang Chengsan

    2005-01-01

    A model for conceptual design of mechanical devices is studied based on qualitative simulation. In this model, the desired functions are expressed by state-transit-diagrams(ST-diagrams)and design space is represented by qualitative-state-curves(QS-curves). The first design idea, called seeds idea, is proposed by the designer and then is abstracted into QS-curves. The qualitative simulation is implemented based on the QS-curves. By changing the motion of acting parts, the connection of parts and the motion of driving part, new design ideas are generated. With this model, a series of new design ideas derived from the seeds idea can be achieved.

  20. Do we really want a future as qualitative psychologists?

    OpenAIRE

    Fasulo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    In this article I pick up some threads from the contributions in the previous special issue of IPSB dedicated to the future of qualitative psychology, and elaborate on them around two main points. The first is the status of qualitative psychology as a social and institutional category; the second is what we mean by experience. As concerns the first point, I argue that using the label of qualitative psychology may separate us from the rest of psychology, also creating a false impression of hom...

  1. Interpreting scratch assays using pair density dynamics and approximate Bayesian computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean; Binder, Benjamin J; Ross, Joshua V

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying the impact of biochemical compounds on collective cell spreading is an essential element of drug design, with various applications including developing treatments for chronic wounds and cancer. Scratch assays are a technically simple and inexpensive method used to study collective cell spreading; however, most previous interpretations of scratch assays are qualitative and do not provide estimates of the cell diffusivity, D, or the cell proliferation rate, λ. Estimating D and λ is important for investigating the efficacy of a potential treatment and provides insight into the mechanism through which the potential treatment acts. While a few methods for estimating D and λ have been proposed, these previous methods lead to point estimates of D and λ, and provide no insight into the uncertainty in these estimates. Here, we compare various types of information that can be extracted from images of a scratch assay, and quantify D and λ using discrete computational simulations and approximate Bayesian computation. We show that it is possible to robustly recover estimates of D and λ from synthetic data, as well as a new set of experimental data. For the first time, our approach also provides a method to estimate the uncertainty in our estimates of D and λ. We anticipate that our approach can be generalized to deal with more realistic experimental scenarios in which we are interested in estimating D and λ, as well as additional relevant parameters such as the strength of cell-to-cell adhesion or the strength of cell-to-substrate adhesion.

  2. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references

  3. Prospects for cellular mutational assays in human populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1984-06-29

    Practical, sensitive, and effective human cellular assays for detecting somatic and germinal mutations would have great value in environmental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis studies. Such assays would fill the void between human mutagenicity and the data that exist from short-term tests and from mutagenicity in other species. This paper discusses the following possible human cellular assays: (1) HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) somatic cell mutation based on 6-thioguanine resistance; (2) hemoglobin somatic cell mutation assay; (3) glycophorin somatic cell mutation assay; and (4) LDH-X sperm cell mutation assay. 18 references.

  4. Des hommes de qualité à la qualité des hommes dans les écrits de Guicciardini

    OpenAIRE

    Fournel, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    A partir de l'étude du lexique politique utilisé par Guicciardini cet article montre comment entre ses premiers textes et ses oeuvres majeures (Ricordi, Dialogue sur la façon de régir Florence et Histoire d'Italie, notamment) le lexique de la "qualité" passe de la définition de la condition sociale de l'individu (cf "l'homme de qualité") à celle de ses compétences spécifiques ("la qualité des hommes") notamment dans le domaine de la gestion de la crise politico-historique.

  5. Evaluation of Chikungunya diagnostic assays: differences in sensitivity of serology assays in two independent outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Yap

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sensitivity and specificity of two in-house MAC-ELISA assays were tested and compared with the performance of commercially-available CTK lateral flow rapid test and EUROIMMUN IFA assays for the detection of anti-Chikungunya virus (CHIKV IgM. Each MAC-ELISA assay used a whole virus-based antigen derived from genetically distinct CHIKV strains involved in two chikungunya disease outbreaks in Singapore (2008; a January outbreak strain with alanine at amino acid residue 226 of the E1 glycoprotein (CHIKV-A226 and a May-to-September outbreak strain that possessed valine at the same residue (CHIKV-226V. We report differences in IgM detection efficacy of different assays between the two outbreaks. The sensitivities of two PCR protocols were also tested. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For sera from January outbreak, the average detection threshold of CTK lateral flow test, MAC-ELISAs and EUROIMMUN IFA assays was 3.75, 4.38 and 4.88 days post fever onset respectively. In contrast, IgM detection using CTK lateral flow test was delayed to more than 7 days after fever onset in the second outbreak sera. However, MAC-ELISA using CHIKV-226V detected IgM in the second outbreak sera 3.96 days after fever onset, which was approximately one day earlier compared to the same assay using CHIKV-A226 (4.86 days. Specificity was 100% for both commercial assays, and 95.6% for the in-house MAC-ELISAs. For sensitivity determination of the PCR protocols, the probe-based real time RT-PCR method was found to be 10 times more sensitive than one based on SYBR Green. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that the two strains of CHIKV using variants A226 and 226V resulted in variation in sensitivities of the assays evaluated. We postulated that the observed difference in antigen efficacy could be due to the amino acid substitution differences in viral E1 and E2 envelope proteins, especially the E1-A226V substitution. This evaluation demonstrates the importance of appraisal of

  6. Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

  7. What role for qualitative methods in randomized experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role to quantit......The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role...... to quantitative methods, little attention has been paid to the possibility of randomized experiments that allow a primary role to qualitative methods. This paper assesses whether a range of qualitative methods compromise the internal and external validity criteria of randomized experiments. It suggests that life...

  8. The Craft of Doing Qualitative Research in Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Beyens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the characteristics, challenges and added value of qualitative prison research in a Belgian context. As the many dynamics and challenges of qualitative research are often underreported in academic publications, we pay particular attention to the research processes and the pains and gains of qualitative prison research. Firstly, drawing on experiences from several prison studies, we describe the different steps of gaining access to the field as a constant process of negotiation. Secondly, we discuss some of the dilemmas of prison research based on two ethnographic studies of prison staff. We end with discussion of the value added by a qualitative research approach to facilitate understanding of what is at stake in prisons and how this fits with a critical research position.

  9. Injecting equipment schemes for injecting drug users : qualitative evidence review

    OpenAIRE

    Cattan, Mima; Bagnall, Anne-Marie; Akhionbare, Kate; Burrell, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This review of the qualitative literature about needle and syringe programmes (NSPs) for injecting drug users (IDUs) complements the review of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. It aims to provide a more situated narrative perspective on the overall guidance questions.

  10. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology (Special Issue)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas Schjødt

    2015-01-01

    of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, the need was stressed to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher......In May 2014, a workshop on ”The future of qualitative research in psychology” took place at Aalborg University, Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann...... (Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light...

  11. Ensuring Quality in qualitative cross-cultural research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been an increasing call for qualitative research in cross-cultural psychology. Despite this general openness, there seems to be some confusion about how to evaluate the quality of such research. This has been partly due to the heterogeneity of the field...... and the epistemological underpinnings of qualitative research that do not allow for standard criteria of rigor as in the traditional psychological research. Nevertheless, there is an emerging canon of recognized standards of good practice in qualitative research which the present paper will briefly discuss. The paper...... aims at motivating cross-cultural psychologists to produce high quality qualitative research that will contribute to the further advancement of the field....

  12. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  13. Relating confidence to information uncertainty in qualitative reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-02

    Qualitative reasoning makes use of qualitative assessments provided by subject matter experts to model factors such as security risk. Confidence in a result is important and useful when comparing competing security risk results. Quantifying the confidence in an evidential reasoning result must be consistent and based on the available information. A novel method is proposed to determine a qualitative measure of confidence in a qualitative reasoning result from the available information uncertainty in the result using membership values in the fuzzy sets of confidence. In this study information uncertainty is quantified through measures of non-specificity and conflict. Fuzzy values for confidence are established from information uncertainty values that lie between the measured minimum and maximum information uncertainty values. Measured values of information uncertainty in each result is used to obtain the confidence. The determined confidence values are used to compare competing scenarios and understand the influences on the desired result.

  14. Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Problems Using Qualitative Reasoning Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zhou; Siegfried F.Stiemer

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue failures are often encountered in steel structures under heavy cyclic loadings.This paper presents metal fatigue problems in structural engineering using outcomes of recent advancements in numerical qualitative reasoning.Qualitative reasoning provides an effective and sound technique for solving complex and uncertain scenarios,regardless of the uncertainty or linearity of the design parameters and their constraints.This paper introduces the algorithms behind a software platform,built upon numerical qualitative reasoning for engineering applications.The software expresses the results of the analysis in variable ranges and diagrams showing a two-dimensional design space.The capability of representing design parameters and outcomes in solution spaces provides a practical way for engineers to leverage their existing knowledge and experience.Case studies in metal fatigue design are given to reflect on the capability of qualitative reasoning in engineering applications.

  15. Validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Høstrup, Helle; Lyngsø, Elin Egholm;

    2012-01-01

    schou l., høstrup h., lyngsø e.e., larsen s. & poulsen i. (2011) Validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles. Journal of Advanced Nursing00(0), 000-000. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05898.x ABSTRACT: Aim.  This paper presents the development and validation of a new...... assessment tool for qualitative research articles, which could assess trustworthiness of qualitative research articles as defined by Guba and at the same time aid clinicians in their assessment. Background.  There are more than 100 sets of proposals for quality criteria for qualitative research. However, we...... are not aware of an assessment tool that is validated and applicable, not only for researchers but also for clinicians with different levels of training and experience in reading research articles. Method.  In three phases from 2007 to 2009 we delevoped and tested such an assessment tool called VAKS, which...

  16. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  17. Using qualitative evidence to optimize child PTSD treatment guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesel, F. van; Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of patients’ perspectives in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly emphasized in recent years. However, qualitative evidence regarding these perspectives, is not systematically included in treatment guidelines. The possibilities of adding systematically

  18. “Slow Food” Post-Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term “qualitative methods” researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same...... thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons’ unique experience. In light of the risk of “Mc......Donaldization” in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to ‘move on...

  19. Qualitätsentwicklung in der Weiterbildung : zum Stand der Anwendung von Qualitätssicherungs- und Qualitätsmanagementsystemen bei Weiterbildungsanbietern

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    "Das Thema 'Weiterbildungsqualität' war in der Vergangenheit aufgrund jeweils unterschiedlicher Anlässe aktuell (Kritik in den Medien, Finanzierungsprobleme, Förderung des Verbraucherschutzes u.v.m.). Bei der Fachdiskussion des Themas standen theorieorientierte Beiträge (Ansätze, Modelle, Normen) im Vordergrund. 'Qualität' ist inzwischen zum Dauerthema geworden. Offen war aber immer noch die Frage: Wie sieht die Praxis der Qualitätssicherung der Weiterbildung aus? Welche Schwerpunkte, Ansätze...

  20. Genotoxic effect of gamma radiation in vivo rats as evaluated by comet assay and micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA is one of the most critical site of damage induced by UV, gamma radiation and other the environmental chemical pollutants. Genotoxic evaluation of environmental agents is generally carried out using cytogenetic markers like chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei formation. During the recent years Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis/Comet Assay, has emerged as one of the most powerful assays to detect DNA damage at molecular level in any eukaryotic cell. Present studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of gamma radiation at DNA and chromosomal level using comet assay and micronucleus test. Female Wistar rats were exposed to gamma radiation using 60Co Teletherapy machine; 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 Gy at a dose rate of 0.33 Gy/min. Blood and bone marrow samples were processed for comet assay using the standard protocol. Bone marrow cells from femur bone were also processed for micronucleus assay. Results of these studies indicated a dose dependent increase in DNA damage as indicated by increase in tail length (TL), tail moment (TM) and % DNA in tail (% DNA- T). Similarly, a dose dependent increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mn-PCEs) was also observed. A good correlation between, DNA damage and the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes was observed. (author)

  1. Mobile nondestructive assay and examination instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact system that evaluates radioactive materials can furnish a big savings to taxpayers by ensuring that only properly identified nuclear waste is sent to a Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste storage area. The Los Alamos National Laboratory's Advanced Nuclear Technology Group has developed and field tested two esily transportable, self-contained modules: one x-rays the contents of special 208-l shipment containers, the other assays the contents. The assay and evaluation system is a simple, portable solution to a complex problem that ensures that only properly packaged transuranic (TRU) wste is shipped to the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Caustic chemicals, liquids, and other objects or materials tht could cause a container leak during shipment are the objects of an x-ray and video camera used in the system. The camera inspects the contents of 208-l drums that are brought into the system on a conveyor and rotated, one at a time, in front of the x-ray source. Free liquids can be detected by shaking the drum; the sloshing liquid is visible on the video screen. After the drum is x-rayed, it is conveyed to the assay module where precision instruments measure the amounts of TRU isotopes present in the waste. If the drum contains fissile TRU isotopes above the safety limit, it is rejected and sent to an appropriate facility for repackaging; if the drum contains less than the 100 nCi/g lower-level limit for TRU, it is rejected and sent to a low-level nuclear waste burial site. Drums whose contents fall between these limits are accepted and certified for shipment to the WIPP. Made to fit on flatbed trailers, the entire system can be transported to a DOE facility and be ready for operations within 5 hours after arrival

  2. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  3. Protein kinase profiling assays: a technology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuren; Ma, Haiching

    2015-11-01

    Protein kinases have become one of the most intensively pursued classes of drug targets for many diseases such as cancers and inflammatory diseases. Kinase profiling work seeks to understand general selectivity trends of lead compounds across the kinome, which help with target selection, compound prioritization, and potential implications in toxicity. Under the current drug discovery process, screening of compounds against comprehensive panels of kinases and their mutants has become the standard approach. Many screening assays and technologies which are compatible for high-throughput screening (HTS) against kinases have been extensively pursued and developed.

  4. A New Version of Comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Chernigina; T.G. Shcherbatyuk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the availability of ozone to induce DNA damage in individual cells when analyzing them using the Comet assay. Materials and Methods. Experimental studies were performed on whole blood leukocytes of white non-linear intact male rats (n=16) weighing 250±25 g. Two series of experiments were made to induce DNA damage in leukocytes. During the first series the samples were exposed to gamma-radiation, and during the second series the slides wer...

  5. Lipase turbidimetric assay and acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orda, R; Orda, S; Baron, J; Wiznitzer, T

    1984-04-01

    The simplified turbidimetric assay for lipase activity was used for the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Serum lipase levels were found to be increased in a group of 17 patients in whom acute pancreatitis was clinically suspected and confirmed by a high ACCR and decreased uptake of the radionuclide in the pancreas scan. The lipase levels were within normal limits in a control group of 14 patients suffering from diseases other than acute pancreatitis. The turbidimetric test was helpful for rapid quantitative determination of serum lipase and thus for the early and accurate diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:6200277

  6. Massage for Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Qualitative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, Sara L.; E. Anne Lown; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Dunn, Elizabeth A.; Abrams, Donald I; Horn, Biljana N.; Marcia Degelman; Cowan, Morton J.; Mehling, Wolf E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both p...

  7. Qualitative interviewing of respondents in large representative surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Groh-Samberg, Olaf; Tucci, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    "Large representative surveys are using mixed methods to an ever-increasing degree. Biomarkers, register data, and experiments, for example, provide different types of data that can be linked with survey data. The use of qualitative interviewing of participants in longitudinal surveys is still rare, however, in the social sciences. Yet qualitative methods have proven just as valuable as quantitative methods in providing insights into social reality by reflecting the multidimensionality of ind...

  8. Using Qualitative Research Methods to Improve Home Telemonitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanfar, Ramesh; Finkelstein, Joseph; Friedman, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This study explores to what extent qualitative research methods provide effective tools in improving telemedicine systems aimed at monitoring patients at home. Using qualitative methods we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews in 13 patients using Telephone-Linked Care for Diet Adherence in Dyslipidemia (TLC-DietAid) and Home Asthma Telemonitoring (HAT) systems. Our results demonstrated that the data derived from the in-depth interviews conducted with patients/users enabled the invest...

  9. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clin...

  10. Mining qualitative data on human information behaviour from the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Huvila, Isto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach of collecting qualitative data on human information behaviour that is based on mining web data using search engines. The approach is technically the same that has been used for some time in webometric research to make statistical inferences on web data, but the present paper shows how the same tools and data collecting methods can be used to gather data for qualitative data analysis on human information behaviour. Library 2.0 - a new participatory context

  11. Being a Parent with a Learning Disability: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shewan, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This research portfolio aims to further explore the issues faced by parents with a learning disability. Firstly, a systematic review of qualitative research into the social support of parents with a learning disability is presented. This not only indicated that a range of social support is provided to parents with a learning disability and received with different perceptions, but also highlighted the need for further qualitative research in the area, to gain a better insight...

  12. Planning Robot-Control Parameters With Qualitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen F.

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative-reasoning planning algorithm helps to determine quantitative parameters controlling motion of robot. Algorithm regarded as performing search in multidimensional space of control parameters from starting point to goal region in which desired result of robotic manipulation achieved. Makes use of directed graph representing qualitative physical equations describing task, and interacts, at each sampling period, with history of quantitative control parameters and sensory data, to narrow search for reliable values of quantitative control parameters.

  13. A Practical Qualitative+Quantitative Method-S-ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Wei; SHEN Jin-sheng; LI Peng-fei

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a practical qualitative +quantitative method named S-ANN is proposed as a forecasting tool, in which the artificial neural network (ANN) of AI is used to handle the quantitative knowledge and the SCENARIO method of systems engineering is used to handle the qualitative knowledge respectively. As a case study, S-ANN method is employed to forecast the ridership of Beijing public transportation, the results show that S-ANN method possesses advantages of feasibility and easily to operate.

  14. Ensuring Quality in qualitative cross-cultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years, there has been an increasing call for qualitative research in cross-cultural psychology. Despite this general openness, there seems to be some confusion about how to evaluate the quality of such research. This has been partly due to the heterogeneity of the field and the epistemological underpinnings of qualitative research that do not allow for standard criteria of rigor as in thetraditional psychological research. Nevertheless, there is an emerging canon of recognized s...

  15. Quality assurance of qualitative research: a review of the discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds Joanna; Kizito James; Ezumah Nkoli; Mangesho Peter; Allen Elizabeth; Chandler Clare

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing debates ...

  16. Quality assurance of qualitative research: a review of the discourse.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J; Kizito, J; Ezumah, N; Mangesho, P; Allen, E; Chandler, C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for qualitative research within global health has emerged alongside increasing demand for demonstration of quality of research, in line with the evidence-based model of medicine. In quantitative health sciences research, in particular clinical trials, there exist clear and widely-recognised guidelines for conducting quality assurance of research. However, no comparable guidelines exist for qualitative research and although there are long-standing deb...

  17. The new AP Physics exams: Integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elby, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    When physics instructors and education researchers emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative reasoning in problem solving, they usually mean using those types of reasoning serially and separately: first students should analyze the physical situation qualitatively/conceptually to figure out the relevant equations, then they should process those equations quantitatively to generate a solution, and finally they should use qualitative reasoning to check that answer for plausibility (Heller, Keith, & Anderson, 1992). The new AP Physics 1 and 2 exams will, of course, reward this approach to problem solving. But one kind of free response question will demand and reward a further integration of qualitative and quantitative reasoning, namely mathematical modeling and sense-making--inventing new equations to capture a physical situation and focusing on proportionalities, inverse proportionalities, and other functional relations to infer what the equation ``says'' about the physical world. In this talk, I discuss examples of these qualitative-quantitative translation questions, highlighting how they differ from both standard quantitative and standard qualitative questions. I then discuss the kinds of modeling activities that can help AP and college students develop these skills and habits of mind.

  18. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challen...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.......This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...

  19. Qualitative methods in radiography research: a proposed framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: While radiography is currently developing a research base, which is important in terms of professional development and informing practice and policy issues in the field, the amount of research published by radiographers remains limited. However, a range of qualitative methods offer further opportunities for radiography research. Purpose: This paper briefly introduces a number of key qualitative methods (qualitative interviews, focus groups, observational methods, diary methods and document/text analysis) and sketches one possible framework for future qualitative work in radiography research. The framework focuses upon three areas for study: intra-professional issues; inter-professional issues; and clinical practice, patient and health delivery issues. While the paper outlines broad areas for future focus rather than providing a detailed protocol for how individual pieces of research should be conducted, a few research questions have been chosen and examples of possible qualitative methods required to answer such questions are outlined for each area. Conclusion: Given the challenges and opportunities currently facing the development of a research base within radiography, the outline of key qualitative methods and broad areas suitable for their application is offered as a useful tool for those within the profession looking to embark upon or enhance their research career

  20. Radioactive waste package assay facility. Volume 1. Application of assay technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, in three volumes, covers the work carried out by Taylor Woodrow Construction Ltd., and two major sub-contractors: Harwell Laboratory (AEA Technology) and Siemens Plessey Controls Ltd., on the development of a radioactive waste package assay facility, for cemented 500 litre intermediate level waste drums. In volume 1, the reasons for assay are considered together with the various techniques that can be used, and the information that can be obtained. The practical problems associated with the use of the various techniques in an integrated assay facility are identified, and the key parameters defined. Engineering and operational features are examined and provisional designs proposed for facilities at three throughput levels: 15,000, 750 and 30 drums per year respectively. The capital and operating costs for such facilities have been estimated. A number of recommendations are made for further work. 16 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs