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Sample records for assaying qualitative

  1. Application of statistical process control to qualitative molecular diagnostic assays

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Cathal P.

    2014-11-01

    Modern pathology laboratories and in particular high throughput laboratories such as clinical chemistry have developed a reliable system for statistical process control (SPC). Such a system is absent from the majority of molecular laboratories and where present is confined to quantitative assays. As the inability to apply SPC to an assay is an obvious disadvantage this study aimed to solve this problem by using a frequency estimate coupled with a confidence interval calculation to detect deviations from an expected mutation frequency. The results of this study demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and highlight minimum sample number requirements. Notably, assays with low mutation frequencies and detection of small deviations from an expected value require greater sample numbers to mitigate a protracted time to detection. Modeled laboratory data was also used to highlight how this approach might be applied in a routine molecular laboratory. This article is the first to describe the application of SPC to qualitative laboratory data.

  2. Application of statistical process control to qualitative molecular diagnostic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathal P O'brien

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern pathology laboratories and in particular high throughput laboratories such as clinical chemistry have developed a reliable system for statistical process control. Such a system is absent from the majority of molecular laboratories and where present is confined to quantitative assays. As the inability to apply statistical process control to assay is an obvious disadvantage this study aimed to solve this problem by using a frequency estimate coupled with a confidence interval calculation to detect deviations from an expected mutation frequency. The results of this study demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach and highlight minimum sample number requirements. Notably, assays with low mutation frequencies and detection of small deviations from an expected value require greater samples with a resultant protracted time to detection. Modelled laboratory data was also used to highlight how this approach might be applied in a routine molecular laboratory. This article is the first to describe the application of statistical process control to qualitative laboratory data.

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Assays for Detection and Characterization of Protein Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, M Heath; Ford, Kara A; Doyle, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Initial evaluations of large microbial libraries for potential producers of novel antimicrobial proteins require both qualitative and quantitative methods to screen for target enzymes prior to investing greater research effort and resources. The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate two complementary assays for conducting these initial evaluations. The microslide diffusion assay provides an initial or simple detection screen to enable the qualitative and rapid assessment of proteolytic activity against an array of both viable and heat-killed bacterial target substrates. As a counterpart, the increased sensitivity and reproducibility of the dye-release assay provides a quantitative platform for evaluating and comparing environmental influences affecting the hydrolytic activity of protein antimicrobials. The ability to label specific heat-killed cell culture substrates with Remazol brilliant blue R dye expands this capability to tailor the dye-release assay to characterize enzymatic activity of interest.

  4. How Do Detergents Work? A Qualitative Assay to Measure Amylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, M. Teresa; Casanoves, Marina; Garcia-Vallvé, Santi; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We present a practical activity focusing on two main goals: to give learners the opportunity to experience how the scientific method works and to increase their knowledge about enzymes in everyday situations. The exercise consists of determining the amylase activity of commercial detergents. The methodology is based on a qualitative assay using a…

  5. Real-time PCR assay for rapid qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Erika; Perkátai, Katalin; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Farkas, Agnes; Kucsera, István

    2012-12-01

    Simple real-time PCR assay with one set of primer and probe for rapid, sensitive qualitative and quantitative detection of Entamoeba histolytica has been used. Consensus sequences were used to amplify a species-specific region of the 16S rRNA gene, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer hybridization probes were used for detection in a LightCycler platform (Roche). The anchor probe sequence was designed to be a perfect match for the 16S rRNA gene of Entamoeba species, while the acceptor probe sequence was designed for Entamoeba histolytica, which allowed differentiation. The performed characteristics of the real-time PCR assay were compared with ELISA antigen and microscopical detection from 77 samples of individuals with suspected clinical diagnosis of imported E. histolytica infection. Stool and liver abscess pus samples were examined with analytical sensitivity of 5 parasites per PCR reaction. The melting curve means Tms (standard deviation) in clinical isolates were 54°C. The real-time assay was 100% sensitive and specific for differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, compared with conventional ELISA or microscopy. This real-time PCR assay with melting curve analysis is rapid, and specific for the detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica. The suitability for routine use of this assay in clinical diagnostic laboratories is discussed.

  6. The development of a qualitative real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, A.; Crowley, B.; Niesters, H.; Herra, C.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represents a favourable option for the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed as a qualitative diagnostic screening method for the detection of HCV using the ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection

  7. Using the overlay assay to qualitatively measure bacterial production of and sensitivity to pneumococcal bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Natalie; Dawid, Suzanne

    2014-09-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the highly diverse polymicrobial community of the nasopharynx where it must compete with resident organisms. We have shown that bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins) dictate the outcome of these competitive interactions. All fully-sequenced pneumococcal strains harbor a bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) locus. The blp locus encodes for a range of diverse bacteriocins and all of the highly conserved components needed for their regulation, processing, and secretion. The diversity of the bacteriocins found in the bacteriocin immunity region (BIR) of the locus is a major contributor of pneumococcal competition. Along with the bacteriocins, immunity genes are found in the BIR and are needed to protect the producer cell from the effects of its own bacteriocin. The overlay assay is a quick method for examining a large number of strains for competitive interactions mediated by bacteriocins. The overlay assay also allows for the characterization of bacteriocin-specific immunity, and detection of secreted quorum sensing peptides. The assay is performed by pre-inoculating an agar plate with a strain to be tested for bacteriocin production followed by application of a soft agar overlay containing a strain to be tested for bacteriocin sensitivity. A zone of clearance surrounding the stab indicates that the overlay strain is sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by the pre-inoculated strain. If no zone of clearance is observed, either the overlay strain is immune to the bacteriocins being produced or the pre-inoculated strain does not produce bacteriocins. To determine if the blp locus is functional in a given strain, the overlay assay can be adapted to evaluate for peptide pheromone secretion by the pre-inoculated strain. In this case, a series of four lacZ-reporter strains with different pheromone specificity are used in the overlay.

  8. Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for qualitative screening of neomycin in muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomun, B; Bilandzic, N; Varenina, I; Scortichini, G

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in food of animal origin (muscle, liver, kidney, eggs and milk) at levels corresponding to the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) set for this substance. The method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC established for qualitative screening methods. In this regard, the following parameters were determined: detection capability (CCβ), specificity, detection limit (LOD), quantification limit (LOQ), recovery, precision, linearity and ruggedness. LODs ranged from 5.7 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 29.3 microg kg(-1) in milk; LOQs ranged from 11.4 microg kg(-1) in kidney to 59.7 microkg(-1) in eggs. The recoveries from spiked samples at the MRL, half the MRL and double the MRL levels ranged from 65.8% to 122.8%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) between 5.9% and 28.6%. The CCβ value was less than the MRL for all examined matrices. Moderate variations of some critical factors in the sample pretreatment for muscle, milk and eggs were deliberately introduced for ruggedness evaluation and had a slight but not statistically significant effect on method performance. The proposed method is suitable for qualitative screening analysis of neomycin in the above-mentioned food in conformity with current European Union performance requirements.

  9. Identification of Moraxella bovis and related species from calves with IBK and goats by qualitative genetic transformation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjo, A; Exbrayat, P; Richard, Y

    1994-07-01

    Eight Moraxella bovis strains isolated from bovine pink eye, 16 Moraxella bovis related strains isolated from healthy goats nasal flora, one nonhemolytic Moraxella sp. isolated from bovine conjunctivitis and different collection strains of Moraxella and Branhamella genus were studied through the combined use of qualitative genetic transformation assay and the ability to grow on a moraxella bovis defined medium (medium MB). Crude DNA extracted from the strains studied were used to transform two mutant auxotroph competent strains of Moraxella bovis CIP 103741 and CIP 103743. Non-specific positive transformation was obtained with mutant assay strain CIP 103743 when treated with DNA from caprine or bovine Moraxella strains, collection strains of Moraxella bovis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens and strains of Branhamella genus, whereas specific transformation was observed with mutant assay CIP 103741 when treated only with DNA from all the Moraxella bovis (collection and clinical isolates) and 14 of the 16 caprine Moraxella bovis related strains. The specificity and the simplicity of the test make it suitable for use in clinical laboratories.

  10. A Novel Qualitative and Quantitative Biofilm Assay Based on 3D Soft Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Hakonen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictable in vitro methods to analyze antimicrobial activity could play a role in the development of resistance to antibiotics. Current used methods analyze planktonic cells but for the method to be clinically relevant, biofilm in in vivo like conditions ought to be studied. Hence, our group has developed a qualitative and quantitative method with in vivo like 3D tissue for prediction of antimicrobial activity in reality. Devices (wound dressings were applied on top of Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated Muller-Hinton (MH agar or 3D synthetic soft tissues (SST and incubated for 24 hours. The antibacterial activity was then analyzed visually and by viable counts. On MH agar two out of three silver containing devices showed zone of inhibitions (ZOI and on SST, ZOI were detected for all three. Corroborating results were found upon evaluating the bacterial load in SST and shown to be silver concentration dependent. In conclusion, a novel method was developed combining visual rapid screening and quantitative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity in both tissue and devices. It uses tissue allowing biofilm formation thus mimicking reality closely. These conditions are essential in order to predict antimicrobial activity of medical devices in the task to prevent device related infections.

  11. Validation of the Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A; McMillion, Takesha; Nelson, Julie A E; Miller, William C

    2013-12-01

    The qualitative Roche HIV-1 DNA Amplicor assay has been used for the past 20 years to diagnose HIV infection in infants and young children but is being phased out; hence, alternative assays must be found. The Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is currently the only FDA-cleared HIV-1 nucleic acid assay approved for diagnosis, but data on the use of this assay with infant plasma are limited. We assessed Aptima's performance using control material for reproducibility and limit of detection and 394 plasma samples (0.2 to 0.5 ml) from HIV-exposed infected and uninfected infants and children for analytical sensitivity and specificity. Assays to assess within-run repeatability and between-run reproducibility indicated that the controls with 10,000 (5 of 5), 200 (5 of 5), 100 (16 of 16), 50 (12 of 12), and 25 (20 of 20) HIV-1 RNA copies/ml (cp/ml) were always positive, and negatives were always negative (20 of 20). The limit of detection was 14 cp/ml, as determined by probit analysis. The analytic sensitivity of the assay was 99.5% (189/190 samples; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 99.9%) and specificity was 99.5% (199/200 samples; 95% CI, 97.2 to 99.9%). These results suggest that the assay is suitable for early infant diagnosis of HIV-1.

  12. Development and evaluation of an affordable real-time qualitative assay for determining HIV-1 virological failure in plasma and dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Susan C; Kliphuis, Aletta; Bronze, Michelle; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Balinda, Sheila; Stevens, Wendy; Spieker, Nicole; de Oliveira, Tulio; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2013-06-01

    Virological failure (VF) has been identified as the earliest, most predictive determinant of HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure. Due to the high cost and complexity of virological monitoring, VF assays are rarely performed in resource-limited settings (RLS). Rather, ART failure is determined by clinical monitoring and to a large extent immunological monitoring. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost, dried blood spot (DBS)-compatible qualitative assay to determine VF, in accordance with current WHO guideline recommendations for therapy switching in RLS. The assay described here is an internally controlled qualitative real-time PCR targeting the conserved long terminal repeat domain of HIV-1. This assay was applied to HIV-1 subtypes A to H and further evaluated on HIV-1 clinical plasma samples from South Africa (n = 191) and Tanzania (n = 42). Field evaluation was performed in Uganda using local clinical plasma samples (n = 176). Furthermore, assay performance was evaluated for DBS. This assay is able to identify VF for all major HIV-1 group M subtypes with equal specificity and has a lower detection limit of 1.00E+03 copies/ml for plasma samples and 5.00E+03 copies/ml for DBS. Comparative testing yielded accurate VF determination for therapy switching in 89% to 96% of samples compared to gold standards. The assay is robust and flexible, allowing for "open platform" applications and producing results comparable to those of commercial assays. Assay design enables application in laboratories that can accommodate real-time PCR equipment, allowing decentralization of testing to some extent. Compatibility with DBS extends access of sampling and thus access to this test to remote settings.

  13. Downfall of the current antibody correlates of influenza vaccine response in yearly vaccinated subjects: Toward qualitative rather than quantitative assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigi, Alberto; Cotugno, Nicola; Rinaldi, Stefano; Santilli, Veronica; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Response to seasonal influenza vaccination is currently evaluated by antibody correlates that estimate vaccine seroconversion as well as immune protection. These correlates rely on the general dogmas surrounding seasonal influenza vaccination; that is, that vaccine-induced antibodies would exclusively generate immunity to influenza vaccine strains and that protective immunity would wane before the next season. Here, we summarize recently reported data on immunity to seasonal influenza in healthy individuals and rediscuss results on yearly vaccinated pediatric immunocompromised patients that together highlight the need for revision of the current correlates of vaccine response to shift from quantitative to qualitative measurements.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative results of interferon-γ release assays for monitoring the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, I-Nae; Shim, Tae Sun

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims The usefulness of interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) in monitoring to responses to anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment is controversial. We compared the results of two IGRAs before and after anti-TB treatment in same patients with active TB. Methods From a retrospective review, we selected patients with active TB who underwent repeated QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFN-Gold, Cellestis Limited) and T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec) assays before and after anti-TB treatment with first-line drugs. Both tests were performed prior to the start of anti-TB treatment or within 1 week after the start of anti-TB treatment and after completion of treatment. Results A total of 33 active TB patients were included in the study. On the QFN-Gold test, at baseline, 23 cases (70%) were early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein 6 (ESAT-6) or culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) positive. On the T-SPOT. TB test, at baseline, 31 cases (94%) were ESAT-6 or CFP-10 positive. Most of patients remained both test-positive after anti-TB treatment. Although changes in interferon-γ release responses over time were highly variable in both tests, there was a mean decline of 27 and 24 spot-forming counts for ESAT-6 and CFP-10, respectively on the T-SPOT.TB test (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Although limited by the small number of patients and a short-term follow-up, there was significant decline in the quantitative result of the T-SPOT. TB test with treatment. However, both commercial IGRAs may not provide evidence regarding the cure of disease in Korea, a country where the prevalence of TB is within the intermediate range. PMID:27951621

  15. Uranium in surface soils: an easy-and-quick assay combining X-ray diffraction and fluorescence qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Batista, M. J.; Leote, J.; Ferreira, M. L.; Limpo, V.

    2009-04-01

    Portugal has been a uranium-producer since the beginning of the last century. The uranium-rich area of Alto Alentejo, East-central Portugal, was identified more than fifty years ago [1]. Almost all the uranium-bearing mineralization occurs in schistose rocks of the contact metamorphic aureole produced by intrusion of the Hercynian monzonitic granite of Alto Alentejo into the pre-Ordovitian schist-greywacke complex forming deposits of vein and dissemination type. The Nisa uranium-reservoir, situated at the sharp border of a large and arch shaped granite pluton, was identified in 1957 [2] but its exploitation was considered economically impracticable until recently. However, its existence and the accumulated detritus of these prospect efforts are a concern for local populations [3]. A study of the near-surface soils close to the Nisa reservoir was therefore undertaken to assess the uranium retention by adsorption on clay components under the form of uranyl ions, [UO2]2+ [4-6] and its eventual release into the aquifer groundwater. As an attempt to very quickly appraise the presence of uranium in as-collected near-surface sediment samples a combination of laboratory X-ray techniques was designed: X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify the mineral phases and roughly estimate its relative proportion plus X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in wavelength dispersive mode (XRF-WDS) to ascertain the presence of uranium and tentatively evaluate its content by comparison with selected chemical components of the soil. A description of the experimental methodology adopted for the implemented easy-and-quick uranium assay is presented. Obtained results compare quite well to the data of certified time-consuming analytical tests of uranium in those soil samples. [1] L. Pilar (1966) Conditions of formation of Nisa uranium deposit (in Portuguese). Comunic. Serv. Geol. Portugal, tomo L, 50-85. [2] C. Gonçalves & J.V. Teixeira Lopes (1971) Uranium deposit of Nisa: geological aspects of its

  16. Qualitative detection of class IIa bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria from traditional Chinese fermented food using a YGNGV-motif-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Lanwei; Yi, Huaxi; Shi, John; Xue, Chaohui; Li, Hongbo; Jiao, Yuehua; Shigwedha, Nditange; Du, Ming; Han, Xue

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, a YGNGV-motif-based assay was developed and applied. Given that there is an increasing demand for natural preservatives, we set out to obtain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that produce bacteriocins against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We here isolated 123 LAB strains from 5 types of traditional Chinese fermented food and screened them for the production of bacteriocins using the agar well diffusion assay (AWDA). Then, to acquire LAB producing class IIa bacteriocins, we used a YGNGV-motif-based assay that was based on 14 degenerate primers matching all class IIa bacteriocin-encoding genes currently deposited in NCBI. Eight of the LAB strains identified by AWDA could inhibit Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; 5 of these were YGNGV-amplicon positive. Among these 5 isolates, amplicons from 2 strains (Y31 and Y33) matched class IIa bacteriocin genes. Strain Y31 demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity and the best match to a class IIa bacteriocin gene in NCBI, and was identified as Enterococcus faecium. The bacteriocin from Enterococcus avium Y33 was 100% identical to enterocin P. Both of these strains produced bacteriocins with strong antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis, hence these bacteriocins hold promise as potential bio-preservatives in the food industry. These findings also indicated that the YGNGV-motif-based assay used in this study could identify novel class IIa bacteriocinogenic LAB, rapidly and specifically, saving time and labour by by-passing multiple separation and purification steps.

  17. Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2015-09-01

    Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an impact on human health as they might be allergenic. Since molecular methods do not require a culture step, they seem an excellent alternative for the monitoring of indoor fungal contaminations. As a case study, we developed a SYBR® green real-time PCR-based assay for the specific detection and identification of Aspergillus versicolor, which is frequently observed in indoor environment and known to be allergenic. The developed primers amplify a short region of the internal transcribed spacer 1 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex. Subsequently, the performance of this quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was assessed using specific criteria, including an evaluation of the selectivity, PCR efficiency, dynamic range, and repeatability. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 or 2 copies of genomic DNA of A. versicolor. In order to demonstrate that this SYBR® green qPCR assay is a valuable alternative for monitoring indoor fungal contamination with A. versicolor, environmental samples collected in contaminated houses were analyzed and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the traditional methods.

  18. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-10-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of "G-quadruplex" in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched "G-quadruplex lanterns" were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10(-17) M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  19. Qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  20. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with i...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific.......This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...

  1. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...... of science There is a “disconnection” between economics which focuses on structures and universal laws from those that are in contrast with the everyday of life of business activity, which are processual and dynamic. This discussion is the central issue in the paper, and is discussed from the perspective...

  2. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  3. Enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  4. Qualitative research in health

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr; Carl Kendall

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research and health has become extremely popular in the last 30 years. Since the 80’s, more and more health professionals have engaged in qualitative research. Discriminating a “qualitative research” from quantitative research, though, is a misnomer, since all research is at least part qualitative. After all, when epidemiologists or biostatisticians count something, that category is a qualitative “something”.

  5. Qualitative Research Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

    2011-01-01

    This article provides with an overview of the qualitative research methods. Over last few decades, qualitative research is getting very popular in the fields of business, sociology, psychology and others. This article, in its introduction, gives a general idea about the qualitative research. Then it discusses the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. The article also discusses about the ethical issues important for qualitative research. Lastly it discusses ab...

  6. The qualitative research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    H Klopper

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation c...

  7. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    hypotheses and statistical generalisations [23], qualitative research does not usually employ statistical procedures or other means of quantification...16]. As already discussed, qualitative research aims towards analytical generalisation, as opposed to statistical generalisation usually aimed at...Seeing the Data Through the Analysis. In: 5th Conference on Qualitative Research in IT, Brisbane: 29-30 Nov 10. Boeije, H. (2002) A Purposeful Approach

  8. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  9. Computer supported qualitative research

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...

  10. The qualitative research proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopper, H

    2008-12-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i) What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii) What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  11. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  12. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  13. Overview of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.

  14. Urine Cytology and NMP22 Qualitative Assay in Diagnosis of Recurrent Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma%核基质蛋白22定量分析及尿液细胞学检查评估膀胱癌复发的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓晖; 梁培育; 欧善际; 祖雄兵

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toassesstheaccuracyofurinecytologyandurinarynuclearmatrixorotein22(NMP22)quali-tativeassayinthediagnosisofrecurrentbladdertransitionalcellcarcinoma(TCC).Methods From2008to2012,144oa-tients with suoerficial bladder TCC were included in Affiliated Hosoital of Hainan Medical University. Each oatient orovided,ev-ery day,3 voided urine samoles for cytology and 1 for NMP22 qualitative assay within 3 d orior to urethrocystoscooy. The sensi-tivityandsoecificityofurinecytologyandNMP22testweredetermined.Results In144oatients,52cases(36.1%)weredi-agnosed as recurrent bladder TCC. The sensitivity,soecificity,oositive oredictive value,negative oredictive value were 78. 8%(41/52),69. 6%(64/92),59. 4%(41/69),85. 3%(64/75),resoectively,in NMP22 test,and 44. 2%(23/52), 83. 7%(77/92),60. 5%(23/38),72. 6%(77/106),resoectively,in urine cytology,the difference in sensitivity and soecificity was significant(χ2 =6. 58,5. 40;P=0. 01,0. 02),that in oositive or negative oredictive values was not(χ2 =3. 13,0. 50;P=0. 08,0. 48). There was difference in sensitivity at different stages,grades,risk stratification between NMP22 qualitative assay and urine cytology(P<0. 05). The sensitivities of NMP22 qualitative assay combined with urine cytol-ogy,NMP22 qualitative assay with cystoscooy,urine cytology with cystoscooy were 88. 5%(46 /52),98. 1%(51/52),94. 2%(49/52),resoectively,indiagnosisofrecurrenceTCC.Conclusion NMP22qualitativeassaycanbeusedtodiagnoserecurrence of TCC,esoecially in low-to-moderate risk grouos. But this assay is restricted in use due to its low soecificity.%目的:评估核基质蛋白22(NMP22)定量分析与尿液细胞学检查对膀胱癌复发的诊断价值。方法选取2008-2012年在海南医学院附属医院住院的浅表性膀胱癌患者144例。在膀胱镜检查之前患者均在3 d内连续每天提供3份用于尿液细胞学检查的尿液样本以及1份用于NMP22定量分析的尿液样本。以病理组织活检作为金标准,对NMP22

  15. Part two: Qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J; Hall, S

    2015-01-01

    This second article in the series Spotlight on Research focuses on qualitative research, its applications, principles and methodologies. It provides an insight into how this approach can be used within the perioperative setting and gives advice for practitioners looking to undertake a qualitative research study.

  16. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  17. Qualitative research in thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carverhill, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    A new research paradigm has been emerging which holds significant potential for the field of death studies. The qualitative project is a diverse collection of methodologies that focuses its interests on the words, narratives, and stories of individuals and groups. Part of its appeal may lie in the inherent closeness of fit between qualitative inquiry and applied work with the dying and the bereaved. The author introduces the individual articles in this special issue and outlines the development of the project as well as some current issues in qualitative research in thanatology.

  18. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  19. Demystifying Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Cilesiz, Sebnem; Hayes, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to demystify, through deconstruction, the concept of "interdisciplinarity" in the context of qualitative research to contribute to a new praxis of knowledge production through reflection on the possibilities and impossibilities of interdisciplinarity. A review and discussion of disciplinarity and interdisciplinarity leads the…

  20. Interviews in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  1. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  2. Colorimetric protein assay techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapan, C V; Lundblad, R L; Price, N C

    1999-04-01

    There has been an increase in the number of colorimetric assay techniques for the determination of protein concentration over the past 20 years. This has resulted in a perceived increase in sensitivity and accuracy with the advent of new techniques. The present review considers these advances with emphasis on the potential use of such technologies in the assay of biopharmaceuticals. The techniques reviewed include Coomassie Blue G-250 dye binding (the Bradford assay), the Lowry assay, the bicinchoninic acid assay and the biuret assay. It is shown that each assay has advantages and disadvantages relative to sensitivity, ease of performance, acceptance in the literature, accuracy and reproducibility/coefficient of variation/laboratory-to-laboratory variation. A comparison of the use of several assays with the same sample population is presented. It is suggested that the most critical issue in the use of a chromogenic protein assay for the characterization of a biopharmaceutical is the selection of a standard for the calibration of the assay; it is crucial that the standard be representative of the sample. If it is not possible to match the standard with the sample from the perspective of protein composition, then it is preferable to use an assay that is not sensitive to the composition of the protein such as a micro-Kjeldahl technique, quantitative amino acid analysis or the biuret assay. In a complex mixture it might be inappropriate to focus on a general method of protein determination and much more informative to use specific methods relating to the protein(s) of particular interest, using either specific assays or antibody-based methods. The key point is that whatever method is adopted as the 'gold standard' for a given protein, this method needs to be used routinely for calibration.

  3. Ecosystems and People: Qualitative Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are crucial in researching human impacts from ecological changes. This matches the importance of ?mixed methods? approaches in other disciplines. Qualitative research helps explore the relevancy and transferability of the foundational ...

  4. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  5. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...

  8. A Qualitative Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT. The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients' needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child.

  9. Qualitative research, tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    various methods, which seek to deploy more inductive and explorative approaches. Such methods include interviews, participant or non-participatory observations, focus groups, text and discourse analysis, photo and video documentation or elicitation, semiotic studies, autoethnography, and virtual......) as an intermingle of social and business research, teaching, funding, publishing, as well as other practical and “applied” activities all of which engage with and construct tourism research as a field of practice. The future for qualitative tourism research As divided fractions in tourism and research reconcile...... systematic reflections on how their impacts shape and perform the industry and global society at large hold promise for the further development of tourism-based methods and their future integration into a larger body of social and cultural research. See also: Epistemology; methodology, multidisciplinarity...

  10. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating......In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  11. Qualitative Value Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Bjerre, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative value profiling (QVP) is a relatively unknown method of strategic analysis for companies in international business-to-business settings. The purpose of QVP is to reduce the information complexity that is faced by international companies in dealing with business partners. The QVP method...... allows the development of 1) profiles of the target country in which operations are to take place, 2) profiles of the buying center (i.e. the group of decision makers) in the partner company, and 3) profiles of the product/service offering. It also allows the development of a semantic scaling method...... for deeper analysis of all involved factors. This paper presents the method and compares and contrasts it with other similar methods like the PESTELE method known from corporate strategy, the STEEPAL method known from scenario analysis, and the Politics-Institutions-Economy (PIE) framework known from...

  12. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  13. Detection of Giardia lamblia Antigens in Human Fecal Specimens by a Solid-Phase Qualitative Immunochromatographic Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Lynne S.; Garcia, John Paul

    2006-01-01

    The SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay (Medical Chemical Corporation) is a solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay that detects Giardia lamblia in aqueous extracts of human fecal specimens. Testing 106 Giardia-positive and 104 Giardia-negative stool specimens yielded a sensitivity of 97.2% and a specificity of 100% for the SIMPLE-READ Giardia rapid assay.

  14. Ethics and the practice of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted......Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted...

  15. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  16. Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help authors to think about ways to present qualitative research papers in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. It also discusses methods for reviewers to assess the rigour, quality, and usefulness of qualitative research. Examples of different ways to present data from interviews, observations, and focus groups are included. The paper concludes with guidance for publishing qualitative research and a checklist for authors and reviewers.

  17. Transgenic Animal Mutation Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chen; Ph.D.D.A.B.T.

    2005-01-01

    @@ The novel transgenic mouse and rat mutation assays have provided a tool for analyzing in vivo mutation in any tissue, thus permitting the direct comparison of cancer incidence with mutant frequency.

  18. Tube-Forming Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  19. Cell viability assays: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of cell viability plays a fundamental role in all forms of cell culture. Sometimes it is the main purpose of the experiment, such as in toxicity assays. Alternatively, cell viability can be used to -correlate cell behaviour to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of, for example, anabolic -activity. There are wide arrays of cell viability methods which range from the most routine trypan blue dye exclusion assay to highly complex analysis of individual cells, such as using RAMAN microscopy. The cost, speed, and complexity of equipment required will all play a role in determining the assay used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of many of the assays available today.

  20. Qualitative research in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, E; Lane, S

    2011-10-01

    Transfusion medicine research has traditionally employed quantitative methods to answer clinical research questions. Increasingly, qualitative research methods are being used in the field to address a wide variety of research questions in areas such as blood donation, transfusion practices and policy development. This article describes the key characteristics, methodologies and methods of qualitative research and draws on examples to show how qualitative research approaches have been applied in the field of transfusion medicine. It is hoped that this overview will inform and encourage the application of qualitative research in the field of transfusion medicine.

  1. New Rapid Spore Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  2. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  3. Qualitative Analysis of Somitogenesis Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maschke-Dutz E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recently the properties of a single somite cell oscillator have been intensively investigated, the system-level nature of the segmentation clock remains largely unknown. To elaborate qualitatively this question, we examine the possibility to transform a well-known time delay somite cell oscillator to dynamical system of differential equations allowing qualitative analysis.

  4. CAQDAS and Qualitative Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bryda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is methodological reflection on dialectical relationship between the qualitative research process and the process of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis. Basing on many years of experience in the work with various CAQDAS tools, the author tries to show the impact they have on shifting the way of thinking on methodology, the process of data analysis and conducting qualitative research. The specificity of CAQDAS usage in research practice requires methodological rigor in the process of collection and archiving of data, as well as the accuracy and precision in the process of coding, analyzing, and visualizing data. The use of computer-aided analysis of qualitative data in research practice not only shapes a framework for the sociological interpretation but also changes the way of perceiving research problems. The essence of this process is a specific interaction between new technologies and traditional methodology, data analysis, and qualitative research. In this sense, the use of CAQDAS in qualitative research practice is shaping the personality and identity of qualitative researcher, his/her style of work, data analysis, and conducting the fieldwork; it develops his or her new analytical and computer skills without which it is difficult to imagine a modern qualitative sociological research.

  5. Using Numbers in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

  6. Lump corrections for radioactive waste assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T J

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that automated radioactive waste assay techniques, such as segmented gamma scanner (SGS) and automated qualitative and quantitative (AQ2), have severely underestimated fissile material due to either the malfunction or absence of appropriate lump correction routines. This paper examines the application of manual techniques, such as Monte Carlo N particle (MCNP) and spectral non-destructive assay platform (SNAP) software, to lump corrections in plutonium (Pu), enriched uranium (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) waste streams. Excellent results have been obtained when comparing MCNP with SNAP and applying the SNAP lump correction routine to a range of simulated and typical wastes containing various Pu and EU lump sizes. It has been concluded that the need for lump corrections was relatively rare and usually apparent from abnormal gamma ray peak area ratios, since most AWE waste streams are only lightly shielded.

  7. Quality assurance of qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Ángel; Barceló, Damiá; Buydens, Lutgarde

    2003-01-01

    The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology......: traceability, reliability (uncertainty), validation, and internal/external quality control for qualitative methods.......The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology...... and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects involved in analytical quality assurance of qualitative analysis. This article shows the main conclusions reported in the document referring to the implementation of quality principles in qualitative analysis...

  8. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors.

  9. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  10. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is /sup 125/I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed.

  12. CTL ELISPOT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Elena; Popescu, Iulia; Gigante, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (Elispot) is a quantitative method for measuring relevant parameters of T cell activation. The sensitivity of Elispot allows the detection of low-frequency antigen-specific T cells that secrete cytokines and effector molecules, such as granzyme B and perforin. Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) studies have taken advantage with this high-throughput technology by providing insights into quantity and immune kinetics. Accuracy, sensitivity, reproducibility, and robustness of Elispot resulted in a wide range of applications in research as well as in diagnostic field. Actually, CTL monitoring by Elispot is a gold standard for the evaluation of antigen-specific T cell immunity in clinical trials and vaccine candidates where the ability to detect rare antigen-specific T cells is of relevance for immune diagnostic. The most utilized Elispot assay is the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) test, a marker for CD8(+) CTL activation, but Elispot can also be used to distinguish different subsets of activated T cells by using other cytokines such as T-helper (Th) 1-type cells (characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-21, and TNF-α), Th2 (producing cytokines like IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13), and Th17 (IL-17) cells. The reliability of Elispot-generated data, by the evaluation of T cell frequency recognizing individual antigen/peptide, is the core of this method currently applied widely to investigate specific immune responses in cancer, infections, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. The Elispot assay is competing with other methods measuring single-cell cytokine production, e.g., intracellular cytokine by FACS or Miltenyi cytokine secretion assay. Other types of lymphocyte frequency and function assays include limiting dilution assay (LDA), cytotoxic T cell assay (CTL), and tetramer staining. Compared with respect to sensitivity the Elispot assay is outranking other methods to define frequency of antigen-specific lymphocytes. The method

  13. Positivism and qualitative nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, J

    2001-01-01

    Despite the hostility to positivism shown by qualitative methodologists in nursing, as in other disciplines, the epistemological and ontological instincts of qualitative researchers seem to coincide with those of the positivists, especially Bayesian positivists. This article suggests that positivists and qualitative researchers alike are pro-observation, proinduction, pro-plausibility and pro-subjectivity. They are also anti-cause, anti-realist, anti-explanation, anti-correspondence, anti-truth. In only one respect is there a significant difference between positivist and qualitative methodologists: most positivists have believed that, methodologically, the natural sciences and the social sciences are the same; most qualitative researchers are adamant that they are not. However, if positivism fails as a philosophy of the natural sciences (which it probably does), it might well succeed as a philosophy of the social sciences, just because there is a methodological watershed between the two. Reflex antagonism to positivism might therefore be a major obstacle to understanding the real reasons why qualitative research and the natural sciences are methodologically divergent; and less hostility on the part of qualitative nurse researchers might bring certain advantages in its wake.

  14. Introduction: Qualitative Research in Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Meuser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a brief overview of research traditions that paved the way for qualitative methods in criminological research (labeling approach and critical criminology. In addition, it outlines recent trends in qualitative criminology. The potentials and the limits of a perspective of "understanding from within" ("Verstehen" on deviance and social control are discussed. The contributions to the volume—examples of qualitative criminological research from German speaking countries—are introduced in reference to some current trends of conceptual and methodological discussions in criminology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201129

  15. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based...... on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do...

  16. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  17. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  18. New oligosaccharyltransferase assay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Daisuke; Yamada, Masaki; Igura, Mayumi; Kamishikiryo, Jun; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2007-11-01

    We developed a new in vitro assay for oligosaccharyltransferase (OST), which catalyzes the transfer of preassembled oligosaccharides on lipid carriers onto asparagine residues in polypeptide chains. The asparagine residues reside in the sequon, Asn-X-Thr/Ser, where X can be any amino acid residue except Pro. We demonstrate the potency of our assay using the OST from yeast. In our method, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is used to separate the glycopeptide products from the peptide substrates. The substrate peptide is fluorescently labeled and the formation of glycopeptides is analyzed by fluorescence gel imaging. Two in vitro OST assay methods are now widely used, but both the methods depend on previous knowledge of the oligosaccharide moiety: One method uses lectin binding as the separation mechanism and the other method uses biosynthetically or chemoenzymatically synthesized lipid-linked oligosaccharides as donors. N-linked protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life, but little is known about the N-glycosylation in Archaea. Thus, our new assay, which does not require a priori knowledge of the oligosaccharides, will be useful in such cases. Indeed, we have detected the OST activity in the membrane fraction from a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus.

  19. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  20. Collective Analysis of Qualitative Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Friberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    What. Many students and practitioners do not know how to systematically process qualitative data once it is gathered—at least not as a collective effort. This chapter presents two workshop techniques, affinity diagramming and diagnostic mapping, that support collective analysis of large amounts...... of qualitative data. Affinity diagramming is used to make collective analysis and interpretations of qualitative data to identify core problems that need to be addressed in the design process. Diagnostic mapping supports collective interpretation and description of these problems and how to intervene in them. We....... In particular, collective analysis can be used to identify, understand, and act on complex design problems that emerge, for example, after the introduction of new tech- nologies. Such problems might be hard to clarify, and the basis for the analysis often involves large amounts of unstructured qualitative data...

  1. Qualitative futures research for innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Duin, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This is about how commercial organisations use qualitative methods of futures research, such as scenarios, roadmapping and trend-analysis, in their innovation processes. The linkages etween innviation proceses and the methids can take place in different ways.

  2. Qualitative Research: Methods and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gabb, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of qualitative LGBTQ research. It begins by mapping out the qualities and character of studies that use this approach with particular attention to psycho-social research. It then highlights how reflexivity, the iterative process of self-identity making, has informed qualitative research, influencing both understandings of sexualities and also the underlying methodologies and research methods used. Finally, it considers how “the everyday” and a practices approac...

  3. Qualitative methods for assessing risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hannaman, G.W. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Kryska, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) non-nuclear facilities generally require only a qualitative accident analysis to assess facility risks in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System. Achieving a meaningful qualitative assessment of risk necessarily requires the use of suitable non-numerical assessment criteria. Typically, the methods and criteria for assigning facility-specific accident scenarios to the qualitative severity and likelihood classification system in the DOE order requires significant judgment in many applications. Systematic methods for more consistently assigning the total accident scenario frequency and associated consequences are required to substantiate and enhance future risk ranking between various activities at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL`s Risk Management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Department has developed an improved methodology for performing qualitative risk assessments in accordance wi the DOE order requirements. Products of this effort are an improved set of qualitative description that permit (1) definition of the severity for both technical and programmatic consequences that may result from a variety of accident scenarios, and (2) qualitative representation of the likelihood of occurrence. These sets of descriptions are intended to facilitate proper application of DOE criteria for assessing facility risks.

  4. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  5. The corneal pocket assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The cornea in most species is physiologically avascular, and thus this assay allows the measurement of newly formed vessels. The continuous monitoring of neovascular growth in the same animal allows the evaluation of drugs acting as suppressors or stimulators of angiogenesis. Under anesthesia a micropocket is produced in the cornea thickness and the angiogenesis stimulus (tumor tissue, cell suspension, growth factor) is placed into the pocket in order to induce vascular outgrowth from the limbal capillaries. Neovascular development and progression can be modified by the presence of locally released or applied inhibitory factors or by systemic treatments. In this chapter the experimental details of the avascular cornea assay, the technical challenges, and advantages and disadvantages in different species are discussed. Protocols for local drug treatment and tissue sampling for histology and pharmacokinetic profile are reported.

  6. Qualitative Data Mining and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bratko, Ivan; Šuc, Dorian

    2003-01-01

    In machine learning from numerical data, usually the target concept is a numerical function that facilitates quantitative prediction. In contrast to this, we consider qualitative data mining which aims at finding qualitative patterns, or qualitative relationships in numerical data. We present one approach to qualitative data mining, in which the target concepts are expressed as qualitative decision trees. We reviewsome case studies in qualitative data mining, and discuss typical application s...

  7. B cell helper assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrignani, Sergio; Tonti, Elena; Casorati, Giulia; Dellabona, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Activation, proliferation and differentiation of naïve B lymphocytes into memory B cells and plasma cells requires engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) coupled to T-cell help (1, 2). T cells deliver help in cognate fashion when they are activated upon recognition of specific MHC-peptide complexes presented by B cells. T cells can also deliver help in a non-cognate or bystander fashion, when they do not find specific MHC-peptide complexes on B cells and are activated by alternative mechanisms. T-cell dependent activation of B cells can be studied in vitro by experimental models called "B cell helper assays" that are based on the co-culture of B cells with activated T cells. These assays allow to decipher the molecular bases for productive T-dependent B cell responses. We show here examples of B cell helper assays in vitro, which can be reproduced with any subset of T lymphocytes that displays the appropriate helper signals.

  8. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  9. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  10. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  11. Growth cone collapse assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Geoffrey M W; Jareonsettasin, Prem; Keynes, Roger J

    2014-01-01

    The growth cone collapse assay has proved invaluable in detecting and purifying axonal repellents. Glycoproteins/proteins present in detergent extracts of biological tissues are incorporated into liposomes, added to growth cones in culture and changes in morphology are then assessed. Alternatively purified or recombinant molecules in aqueous solution may be added directly to the cultures. In both cases after a defined period of time (up to 1 h), the cultures are fixed and then assessed by inverted phase contrast microscopy for the percentage of growth cones showing a collapsed profile with loss of flattened morphology, filopodia, and lamellipodia.

  12. "Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y

    1994-01-01

    Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing.

  13. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  14. The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description. 

  15. Use of laminar flow patterning for miniaturised biochemical assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Krühne, Ulrich; Beyer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Laminar flow in microfluidic chambers was used to construct low (one dimensional) density arrays suitable for miniaturized biochemical assays. By varying the ratio of flows of two guiding streams flanking a sample stream, precise focusing and positioning of the latter was achieved, and reactive...... species carried in the sample stream were deposited on functionalized chip surfaces as discrete 50 mm wide lanes. Using different model systems we have confirmed the method's suitability for qualitative screening and quantification tasks in receptor-ligand assays, recording biotin......-streptavidin interactions, DNA-hybridization and DNA-triplex formation. The system is simple, fast, reproducible, flexible, and has small sample requirements....

  16. Qualitative methods in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, Dmitrii

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises a set of tools which allow researchers and students to arrive at a qualitatively correct answer without undertaking lengthy calculations. In general, Qualitative Methods in Theoretical Physics is about combining approximate mathematical methods with fundamental principles of physics: conservation laws and symmetries. Readers will learn how to simplify problems, how to estimate results, and how to apply symmetry arguments and conduct dimensional analysis. A comprehensive problem set is included. The book will appeal to a wide range of students and researchers.

  17. Quantitative vs qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, M; Sinha, L; Biswas, M; Charles, M; Arora, N K

    2000-05-01

    Quantitative methods have been widely used because of the fact that things that can be measured or counted gain scientific credibility over the unmeasurable. But the extent of biological abnormality, severity, consequences and the impact of illness cannot be satisfactorily captured and answered by the quantitative research alone. In such situations qualitative methods take a holistic perspective preserving the complexities of human behavior by addressing the "why" and "how" questions. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the methods and also that a balanced mix of both qualitative as well as quantitative methods yield the most valid and reliable results.

  18. Commentary: Writing and evaluating qualitative research reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...

  19. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  20. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  1. The chemical plant management qualitative support system

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to capture the benefits of common sense qualitative reasoning about process phenomena as displayed in the human behavior mental model. The control features of qualitative modeling and simulation were qualitative variable description and logic rules for manipulating variable values between systematic states. The additional measure of qualitative information value was introduced. This study is the first report in the literature showing the measure of qualitative inform...

  2. Determining Validity in Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Miller, Dana L.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that the choice of validity procedures in qualitative inquiry is governed by two perspectives: the lens researchers choose to validate their studies and the researchers' paradigm assumptions. The article advances a two-dimensional framework to help researchers identify appropriate validity procedures for their studies. Nine validity…

  3. Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

  4. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  5. THE FUNCTION OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEYINK, JW; TYMSTRA, T

    1993-01-01

    Due to the prevailing positivistic view on science, qualitative research has only a modest place within the social sciences. There is, however, a growing awareness that a purely quantitative approach is not always satisfactory. This is for instance the case in the field of research into the quality

  6. Qualitative Assessment of Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert; Munson, April

    2008-01-01

    Exploring the complicated issues of assessment in the arts, the authors discuss assessment of arts education and arts programs from a qualitative perspective: experiential, naturalistic, and ethnographic interpretation. With special attention to the practices of teaching, learning, and administration of education in the arts, quality is sought…

  7. Bacterial assays for recombinagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, G R

    1992-12-01

    Two principal strategies have been used for studying recombinagenic effects of chemicals and radiation in bacteria: (1) measurement of homologous recombination involving defined alleles in a partially diploid strain, and (2) measurement of the formation and loss of genetic duplications in the bacterial chromosome. In the former category, most methods involve one allele in the bacterial chromosome and another in a plasmid, but it is also possible to detect recombination between two chromosomal alleles or between two extrachromosomal alleles. This review summarizes methods that use each of these approaches for detecting recombination and tabulates data on agents that have been found to be recombinagenic in bacteria. The assays are discussed with respect to their effectiveness in testing for recombinagens and their potential for elucidating mechanisms underlying recombinagenic effects.

  8. Herbicide resistance screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joan M

    2009-01-01

    Herbicide resistance screening is a method that can be used not only to determine presence of the enzyme, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, encoded by either the Bar or the Pat gene in transgenic maize, but also to assess the inheritance ratio of those genes in a segregating population. Herbicide screening can also be used to study linkage of a transgene of interest that was cotransformed with the herbicide resistance marker gene. By combining the herbicide screen assay with a PCR-based screen of leaf tissue DNA for the presence of both the Bar or the Pat gene marker and a cotransformed transgene of interest from the same seedling tissue and maintaining that seedling identity, the researcher can identify linkage or the possible breakdown in linkage of the marker gene and the transgene of interest. Further, the occurrence of "DNA silencing" can be evaluated if an individual seedling that was susceptible to the applied herbicide nonetheless gave PCR data that indicated presence of the gene responsible for herbicide resistance. Similarly, "DNA silencing" of the gene of interest may be investigated if the seeds can be screened and scored for that phenotypic trait in a nondestructive manner prior to planting.

  9. Qualitative Psychology Nexus, Vol. II: The Role of the Researcher in Qualitative Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Volume two of Qualitative Research Nexus focuses on the roles of qualitative researchers and their relationships within psychological studies. This book is a result of the presentations, discussions, and collaborations of participants at the second workshop "Qualitative Psychology" in October 2001 in Blaubeuren, Germany that was organized by the Center for Qualitative Psychology. The theme of the meeting was "the role of the researcher in qualitative psychology." Reading this volume of Qualit...

  10. Qualitative Methods in Drug Utilization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....

  11. [Evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of six qualitative serological methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doweck, J; Quintana, C; Barrios, A; Monastra, L; Lopetegui, G; Zerbo, O; Schenone, L; Giordano, A; Valero, J; Kogan, Z; Bartellini, M A; Corti, R

    1997-01-01

    Screening tests for IG g antibodies against Helicobacter pylori are usefull for a long follow up of patients who were well eradicated. The aim of this study was to determinate and compared sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of six qualitative serological tests for IG g antibodies detection in the diagnosis of H. Pylori infections. Between May and October 1996 52 patients (30 males and 22 females; median age 42.4 years, range 21-68) with H. Pylori infection assessed on two antral and two corpus biopsies by means of Giema stain and a rapid urease test were tested for IG g antibodies detection. The serological tests used were: Inmunocomb II (Orgenics) Enzimo Inmuno Assay Inmunoadsorbent qualitative, Flex Pack (Smith Kline Diagnostics, Abbott) inmunocromatographic cualitative, Pylori Stat test (Biowhittaker) Enzimo Inmuno Assay (ELISA) qualitative, Premier (Meridian Diagnostics) Enzimo Inmuno Assay ELISA) qualitative. Pyloristest (Orion Diagnóstica) latex aglutination qualitative, H. Pylori (Bio Tre) Enzimo Inmuno Assay cualitative. 10 healthy subjects with negative gastric biopsies and negative rapid ureasa test were used as control group. The six evaluated serological tests have a comparable sensibility (89-95%) and specificity (77-83%) for the diagnosis of HP infection. The presence of specific HP antibodies in infected patients revealed a strong correlation with the histological demonstration of the microrganisms. We can recommend this qualitative serological tests due to their high sensibility and specificity, simplicity and low cost.

  12. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  13. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  14. Quantifying Qualitative Data Using Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherp, Hans-Ake

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article is to show how substantial qualitative material consisting of graphic cognitive maps can be analysed by using digital CmapTools, Excel and SPSS. Evidence is provided of how qualitative and quantitative methods can be combined in educational research by transforming qualitative data into quantitative data to facilitate…

  15. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  16. Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

  17. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  18. Practical assay issues with the PERT/PBRT assay: a highly sensitive reverse transcriptase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A; Dusing, S

    2006-01-01

    Product safety testing for retroviruses can be achieved by a panel of screening assays, including electron microscopy, viral gene specific PCRs, virus propagation, and detection of reverse transciptase activity. The application of PCR-based reverse transcriptase assays (PERT) that are approximately a million-fold more sensitive than conventional nucleotide incorporation assays in the testing of biologicals is described. Use of PERT assays can be applied to three areas: (i) screening for adventitious retrovirus contamination; (ii) detecting and quantifying endogenous viral particle load and (iii) monitoring levels of infectious retrovirus generation in cell lines that contain endogenous retroviruses.

  19. Contradictions in qualitative management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Richard; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    – Contradictory accounts in empirical material are often perceived as deliberate “lies” or “misleading deceptions” performed in acts of impression management, or they are simply neglected. When observed in the material collected empirically, methods have been developed in order to identify...... and remove them from the analytical work. The purpose of this paper is to re-visit and re-introduce a dissensus-based management research strategy in order to analytically be able to work with what appear to be contradictions and misinformation in qualitative research accounts, and give them a more profound...

  20. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...... of clinical language for IT-development of clinical documents is a well-known challenge to health care authorities and to clinical users. The theoretical foundation of the method is the critical hermeneutic of Paul Ricoeur (1978, 1981, 1988, 2002), Don Ihde (1996) Inger Lytje (2000), and Joseph Dunne (1993...

  1. A System Supporting Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Todorova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available this paper presents a system aimed to be entirely located in the Internet. The database, server side, logic and user interface are accessible regardless the location and equipment of the working team members. The system supports qualitative analysis of large datasets, and the work can be distributed among several team members or teams. A modified mixed method for developing software projects is used, according to the peculiarities of our case, splitting the phase of code writing into two sub-phases each with different number of iterations.

  2. Dye Labelled Monoclonal Antibody Assay for Detection of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin -1 from Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Javid Khojasteh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of study was to develop a rapid assay, dye labelled monoclonal antibody assay (DLMAA, using non-radioactive organic synthetic dyes for identification of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 (TSST-1 producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.Materials and Methods: The assay protocol required only two simple steps; addition of TSST-1 antigen to a nitrocellulose membrane and then adding a colloidal dye labelled antibody (D/A suspension detection reagent.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the assay was determined relative to positive and negative strains compared to an ELISA assay. Overall 100% agreement was found between both assays. The sensitivity for detection of TSST-1 was 30 ng.Conclusion: The DLMAA did not require handling and disposal of radioactive materials. It is a rapid qualitative technique for detection of TSST-1 toxin at room temperature within a short time.

  3. Qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Terlevich, E; Fernandes, R Cid; Morales-Luis, A B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis, and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is of general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to HII galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. A number of byprodu...

  4. What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Riley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In an article published in Prolegomena 2006, Christoph Schmidt-Petri has defended his interpretation and attacked mine of Mill’s idea that higher kinds of pleasure are superior in quality to lower kinds, regardless of quantity. Millian qualitative superiorities as I understand them are infinite superiorities. In this paper, I clarify my interpretation and show how Schmidt-Petri has misrepresented it and ignored the obvious textual support for it. As a result, he fails to understand how genuine Millian qualitative superiorities determine the novel structure of Mill’s pluralistic utilitarianism, in which a social code of justice that distributes equal rights and duties takes absolute priority over competing considerations. Schmidt-Petri’s own interpretation is a non-starter, because it does noteven recognize that Mill is talking about different kinds of pleasant feelings, such that the higher kinds are intrinsically more valuable than the lower. I conclude by outlining why my interpretation is free of any metaphysical commitment to the “essence” of pleasure.

  5. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  6. A comparison of quantitative and qualitative superoxide dismutase assays for application to low temperature microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, P.J.; Rijstenbil, J.W.; van de Poll, W.H.; Gechev, T.S.; Buma, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) play a key role in the removal of reactive oxygen species produced during visible and ultraviolet irradiance stress in microalgae and plants. However, little is known about the enzymatic antioxidative stress responses in ecologically important A

  7. Fuzzy-logic based strategy for validation of multiplex methods: example with qualitative GMO assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellocchi, Gianni; Bertholet, Vincent; Hamels, Sandrine; Moens, W; Remacle, José; Van den Eede, Guy

    2010-02-01

    This paper illustrates the advantages that a fuzzy-based aggregation method could bring into the validation of a multiplex method for GMO detection (DualChip GMO kit, Eppendorf). Guidelines for validation of chemical, bio-chemical, pharmaceutical and genetic methods have been developed and ad hoc validation statistics are available and routinely used, for in-house and inter-laboratory testing, and decision-making. Fuzzy logic allows summarising the information obtained by independent validation statistics into one synthetic indicator of overall method performance. The microarray technology, introduced for simultaneous identification of multiple GMOs, poses specific validation issues (patterns of performance for a variety of GMOs at different concentrations). A fuzzy-based indicator for overall evaluation is illustrated in this paper, and applied to validation data for different genetically modified elements. Remarks were drawn on the analytical results. The fuzzy-logic based rules were shown to be applicable to improve interpretation of results and facilitate overall evaluation of the multiplex method.

  8. Development of a Rapid Qualitative Assay for Determining Elevated Antibody Levels to Periodontopathic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    another report, showed no elevation in IgM or IgA in these patients, with some-elevation of total~lgG (Rahney et’aL. 1981)’. Murray & Genco (1980) found...leukotoxic activity compared to 24% of normal, 39%of adult periodontitis,.,and 38% of ANUG sera. Genco et at. (1980b) found that.89% of LJP patients...Aactinomycetemcomitans have been notedin patients with rapidly progressive disease ( Genco et al. 1985). Theserum antibody response in adult periodontitis is more

  9. Transporter assays and assay ontologies: useful tools for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Chichester, Christine; Zander Balderud, Linda; Engkvist, Ola; Gaulton, Anna; Overington, John P

    2014-06-01

    Transport proteins represent an eminent class of drug targets and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) associated genes. There exists a large number of distinct activity assays for transport proteins, depending on not only the measurement needed (e.g. transport activity, strength of ligand–protein interaction), but also due to heterogeneous assay setups used by different research groups. Efforts to systematically organize this (divergent) bioassay data have large potential impact in Public-Private partnership and conventional commercial drug discovery. In this short review, we highlight some of the frequently used high-throughput assays for transport proteins, and we discuss emerging assay ontologies and their application to this field. Focusing on human P-glycoprotein (Multidrug resistance protein 1; gene name: ABCB1, MDR1), we exemplify how annotation of bioassay data per target class could improve and add to existing ontologies, and we propose to include an additional layer of metadata supporting data fusion across different bioassays.

  10. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.

  11. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    -specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned.......In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......, and contributing to creative processes in their everyday organizational life. The theoretical framework includes a description of actor’s sensemaking in the everyday enactment of problems calling for their participation in creative processes. However, in this conference paper we will focus on developing domain...

  12. Progetto QUADIS (Qualit di Servizio)

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, T; Vistoli, C

    1999-01-01

    Le applicazioni distribuite di nuova generazione richiedono servizi di rete garantiti. La rete Internet fornisce tuttora un servizio di tipo ³best effort² e perciò non adatto a soddisfare le nuove esigenze che provengono dalle $9 applicazioni. E' necessario studiare nuove architetture che facciano interagire applicazioni e rete in modo più stretto per ottenere più garanzie di affidabilit ed efficienza.Questo documento introduce i concetti base della qualit di $9 servizio sulla rete e i meccanismi in fase di studio o di sperimentazione finora esistenti. Definisce inoltre un programma di lavoro che prevede l'analisi di alcune applicazioni specifiche dell'INFN e la sperimentazione di servizi di $9 rete QoS adatti all'applicazione in esame.Questo documento è allegato al progetto "QUAdiS" di Gruppo V.

  13. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSAY FOR VITAMIN B

    OpenAIRE

    Bishnoi Kapil*, , ,; Kataria Mahesh; Singhal Vipin; Gupta Deepika

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrients added to foods are analyzed using various procedures depending on their nature and properties. The microbiological assays are better than chemical method because any suitable change in vitamin molecule which may not be detected by chemical method will be revealed by change in microbial activity. The microbiological assay of vitamins is based upon the comparison of the stimulation of growth of bacteria by measured concentration of vitamin with that produced by known concentratio...

  15. The use of saturation in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janiece L

    2012-01-01

    Understanding qualitative research is an important component of cardiovascular nurses' practice and allows them to understand the experiences, stories, and perceptions of patients with cardiovascular conditions. In understanding qualitative research methods, it is essential that the cardiovascular nurse understands the process of saturation within qualitative methods. Saturation is a tool used for ensuring that adequate and quality data are collected to support the study. Saturation is frequently reported in qualitative research and may be the gold standard. However, the use of saturation within methods has varied. Hence, the purpose of this column is to provide insight for the cardiovascular nurse regarding the use of saturation by reviewing the recommendations for which qualitative research methods it is appropriate to use and how to know when saturation is achieved. In understanding saturation, the cardiovascular nurse can be a better consumer of qualitative research.

  16. HTA and synthesis of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva Ulriksen; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2007-01-01

    research (SQR) in HTAs and to address its possibilities and limitations. Methods: SQR is described and discussed focusing on definition of synthesis and of qualitative versus quantitative methods, on questions of evidence and on the relevance for HTA. SQR is understood as an umbrella term for different......Introduction: Health technology assessment is no longer simply a question of efficacy and economics. Internationally there is growing interest in patient-related and organisational aspects and questions of why and how the technologies work. Qualitative research has established a role in answering...... these kinds of questions. Key challenges using qualitative research in HTA are related to the interpretive and small scale nature of qualitative research and how to synthesise qualitative research. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine and discuss the relevance of synthesis of qualitative...

  17. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays for the analysis of DNA-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Manon; Gingras, Marie-Eve; Lessard, Maryse; Leclerc, Steeve; Guérin, Sylvain L

    2009-01-01

    Electromobility shift assay is a simple, efficient, and rapid method for the study of specific DNA-protein interactions. It relies on the reduction in the electrophoretic mobility conferred to a DNA fragment by an interacting protein. The technique is suitable to qualitative, quantitative, and kinetic analyses. It can also be used to analyze conformational changes.

  18. Lateral flow (immuno) assay : its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno) assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food a

  19. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food an

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  1. On reasoning in networks with qualitative uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Simon; Mamdani, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper some initial work towards a new approach to qualitative reasoning under uncertainty is presented. This method is not only applicable to qualitative probabilistic reasoning, as is the case with other methods, but also allows the qualitative propagation within networks of values based upon possibility theory and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The method is applied to two simple networks from which a large class of directed graphs may be constructed. The results of this analysis ...

  2. Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In general practice, qualitative research contributes as significantly as quantitative research, in particular regarding psycho-social aspects of patient-care, health services provision, policy setting, and health administrations. In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative research as a whole has been constantly critiqued, if not disparaged, by the lack of consensus for assessing its quality and robustness. This article illustrates with five published studies how qualitative research c...

  3. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-01-01

    Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...

  4. Qualitative Business Surveys: Signal or Noise?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Lui; James Mitchell; Martin Weale

    2008-01-01

    This papers identifies the information content at the firm-level of qualitative business survey data by first examining the consistency between these data and the quantitative data provided by the same respondents to the UK’s ONS in official surveys. Since the qualitative data are published ahead of the quantitative data the paper then assesses the ability of the qualitative data to predict (or nowcast) the firm-level quantitative data.

  5. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-01-01

    The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small nu...

  6. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  7. Evaluating Qualitative Research for Social Work Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Lietz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of social work expects practitioners remain well informed regarding research advances in their respective areas. Research studies conducted through the lens of qualitative inquiry provide important contributions to the social work knowledge base. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide practitioners some orientation regarding qualitative research methods and to highlight potential strategies researchers may use to enhance the trustworthiness and quality of their research. Specifically, the concept of trustworthiness is defined in the context of qualitative inquiry and questions social work practitioners can ask when evaluating the quality and applicability of a qualitative research study are provided.

  8. Research Methodologies in Science Education: Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the concepts and terminology of qualitative research methodologies in the context of science education. Discusses interviewing, observing, validity, reliability, and confirmability. (Author/MM)

  9. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.

  10. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  11. New Directions in Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing...... misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology...

  12. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  13. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.

  14. β-Glucuronidase-coupled assays of glucuronoyl esterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraňová, Lucia; Puchart, Vladimír; Biely, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Glucuronoyl esterases (GEs) are microbial enzymes with potential to cleave the ester bonds between lignin alcohols and xylan-bound 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid in plant cell walls. This activity renders GEs attractive research targets for biotechnological applications. One of the factors impeding the progress in GE research is the lack of suitable substrates. In this work, we report a facile preparation of methyl esters of chromogenic 4-nitrophenyl and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl β-D-glucuronides for qualitative and quantitative GE assay coupled with β-glucuronidase as the auxiliary enzyme. The indolyl derivative affording a blue indigo-type product is suitable for rapid and sensitive assay of GE in commercial preparations as well as for high throughput screening of microorganisms and genomic and metagenomic libraries.

  15. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  16. Qualitative Dermatoglyphics In Idiopathic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Priya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic aetiology has been proposed for both idiopathic epilepsy and dermatoglyphics. Hence, the present study has been undertaken to find out the existence of any correlation between dermatoglyphics and idiopathic epilepsy. Material consisted of 100 patients (58 males and 42 females and 100 controls (52 males and 48 females. Patient′s age ranged from 5 to 40 years and controls were between 18 and 25 years. Dermatoglyphics were obtained by painting method. Qualitative parameters observed were percentage frequency of fingerprint patterns (loops, whorls and arches,, patterns in hypothenar area/ interdigital are and flexion creases (Simian crease, sydney line. On comparison with controls, in males, with hands combined, loops (52.24% and arches (7.93% were increased and whorls (39.83% were decreased (p<0.05. In females, with hands combined, arches (13.1% and whorls (36.43% were increased and loops (50.48% were decreased (p< 0.03. Significant differences have not been observed for the patterns in hypothenar area /interdigital area and flexion creases. These dermatoglyphics features could be used as additional markers to evaluate patients of epilepsy.

  17. [Changes in serum vitamin D assay usage and the need for evidence-based recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, Antoine; Lim, Soo-Kyung; Guéchot, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Result of renewed interest due to the large amount of literature that reported numerous epidemiological data demonstrating the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, the number of prescriptions of serum vitamin D assays has grown exponentially in recent years with a cost for health insurance that increased almost fivefold in four years. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of assays carried out from 2007 to 2011 in a French university adult short-stay hospital shows changes in practices not only quantitatively but also qualitatively resulting in an overtime increase in the frequency of prescriptions in patients younger, less vitamin D deficient and more frequently male. In the absence of French guidelines, this development cannot be qualified as deviant but justifies the urgent need to establish evidence-based recommendations for good prescriptions and adequate assays of blood vitamin D.

  18. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  19. Radioreceptor assay method for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K.F.; Wood, R.J. (Bureau of Drug Research, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Health Protection Branch)

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive practical radioreceptor assay method for pharmaceutical insulin products has been developed with partially purified rat liver plasma membranes and the optimal conditions under which the best overall assay performance is obtainable have been defined. Intra- and inter-assay variations of the method averaged 7.3 and 12.2% of the man, respectively, when expressed as the coefficient of variation. Potency estimates of an insulin product obtained with the proposed method correlated well with those determined by the mouse convulsion bioassay method. Liver membranes prepared according to the method could be stored for up to ten weeks at 4/sup 0/C and for 6 months or more at -18/sup 0/C without losing insulin-binding ability.

  20. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the...

  1. The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

  2. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  3. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  4. Validity in Qualitative Research: Application of Safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daytner, Katrina M.

    2006-01-01

    The construct of validity has received considerable attention in qualitative methods literature (Denzin, 1989; Erickson, 1986; Geertz, 1973; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984; Howe & Eisenhart, 1990; Maxwell, 1992; Smith & Glass, 1987). Much of the attention has been focused upon the issue of whether qualitative results and interpretations accurately reflect…

  5. Ten Standard Responses to Qualitative Research Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, Steinar

    Qualitative research evokes rather stereotyped responses from the mainstream of social science. The following 10 standardized responses to the stimulus "qualitative research interview" (QRI) are discussed: (1) it is not scientific, only common sense; (2) it is not objective, but subjective; (3) it is not trustworthy, but biased; (4) it is not…

  6. Enhance Your Team-Based Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Fernald, Douglas H.; Duclos, Christine W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE Qualitative research projects often involve the collaborative efforts of a research team. Challenges inherent in teamwork include changes in membership and differences in analytical style, philosophy, training, experience, and skill. This article discusses teamwork issues and tools and techniques used to improve team-based qualitative research.

  7. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  8. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  9. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  10. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-01-01

    of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as “qualitative psychologists”, they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established...

  11. Qualitative permanence of Lotka-Volterra equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Josef; Kon, Ryusuke; Saito, Yasuhisa

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we consider permanence of Lotka-Volterra equations. We investigate the sign structure of the interaction matrix that guarantees the permanence of a Lotka-Volterra equation whenever it has a positive equilibrium point. An interaction matrix with this property is said to be qualitatively permanent. Our results provide both necessary and sufficient conditions for qualitative permanence.

  12. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  13. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...

  14. Qualitative Research: Emerging Opportunity in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaytan, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…

  15. Quantitative and qualitative research: beyond the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelo, Omar; Braakmann, Diana; Benetka, Gerhard

    2008-09-01

    Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative and qualitative approaches. This article outlines and discusses quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research approaches with specific reference to their (1) philosophical foundations (i.e. basic sets of beliefs that ground inquiry), (2) methodological assumptions (i.e. principles and formal conditions which guide scientific investigation), and (3) research methods (i.e. concrete procedures for data collection, analysis and interpretation). We conclude that MMR may reasonably overcome the limitation of purely quantitative and purely qualitative approaches at each of these levels, providing a fruitful context for a more comprehensive psychological research.

  16. Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    with qualitative research. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references......Aim: This study aims to systematically review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians in Emergency Departments (ED). Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that can be investigated...... were reviewed. The key words used were emergency medicine, qualitative, ethnography, observation, interview, video, anthropology, simulation, and simulation-based. Results: 820 papers were identified and 46 studies were included in this review. This literature review found that the reviewed qualitative...

  17. Catching goldfish: quality in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, R; Murphy, E; Watson, P; Greatbatch, D; Parker, S

    1998-07-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of qualitative methods to health services research (HSR) and discusses some of the issues involved in recognizing quality in such work. The place of qualitative work is first defined by reference to Archie Cochrane's agenda for HSR and the limitations of the recent focus on randomized trials as the standard method. Health care practice involves large elements of improvisation which cannot be captured by evidence-based approaches. Qualitative methods offer ways of understanding this improvisation and of identifying more efficient and effective practices, as well as considering the traditional topics of equity and humanity. The methodological procedures of qualitative work reflect a long-established inductive tradition in scientific practice. The logic of grounded theory provides a contemporary specification. In its application, it is quite different from the methodological anarchy of postmodernism. The use of qualitative research and the theoretically stated generalizations which arise from it inform reflective work by health service managers, planners and clinicians.

  18. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  19. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four ass...

  20. Antibacterial activity and qualitative phytochemical analysis of Vitex mollis fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Vargas Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulp of the Vitex mollis fruit is edible and traditionally used to treat diarrhoea. The antibacterial activity of this fruit is reported here for the first time. The fruit pulp was extracted with methanol (ME and the extract was fractionated with solvents. ME and their fractions [hexanic (HF, chloroformic (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF] were assayed against human pathogenic bacteria (microdilution test and their phytochemicals determined (qualitative chemical determinations. The samples (i.e., ME, HE, CF, EAF and AqF showed antibacterial activity; EAF was the most active, showing such activity against Shigella dysenteriae [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC=2 mg/ml]. Phenolics were mainly found in ME and EAF; compounds of this chemical family are well known for their antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities. The reported antibacterial activity and phenolics content of V. mollis fruit could be associated with its use in the treatment of diarrhoea.

  1. Development of a Fibrinogen-Specific Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Microarray Assay for Distinguishing Between Blood Plasma and Serum Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Zhang, Qibin; Zangar, Richard C.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2011-07-01

    We have developed a fibrinogen-specific sandwich ELISA microarray assay for use in qualitatively distinguishing between blood plasma and serum samples. Three capture antibodies, 49D2, HPA001900, and F8512, were evaluated in conjunction with 1D6 as detection antibody, and the data show that 49D2 and, to a lesser extent, F8512 successfully identify previously unknown plasma and serum samples based upon a ~28-fold difference in signal intensity between the sample types. This assay has utility in rapidly identifying previously archived clinical samples with incomplete annotation in a high throughput manner prior to proteomics analyses.

  2. [Methodology, method, and quality of qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Jörg; Rennie, David L

    2006-05-01

    Over the last ten years qualitative research approaches have been increasingly recognized and applied to the fields of psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine in German-speaking countries, although this development has lagged behind what has occurred at the same time in English-speaking countries. In the former, especially, a misunderstanding prevails that qualitative research methods are at best preliminary to real science. This misunderstanding has roots in the philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge. It comes from the lack of recognition that the human sciences, unlike the natural sciences, entail a double rather than single hermeneutic and that qualitative research methods are logically coherent ways of working systematically and rigorously with this double hermeneutic. Indeed, this nature of qualitative research is generally not well understood by many qualitative researchers themselves. In this article, the need for qualitative research is shown and its methodology is seen as an integration of method and hermeneutics, or methodical hermeneutics, which in turn is distinguished from alternative qualitative research methodologies. The article closes with considerations of quality criteria and publication standards.

  3. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  4. Qualitative knowledge engineering for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Kim, Ko R.; Lee, Jae C.

    1996-01-01

    After the TMI nuclear power plant accident, the two topics of plant safety and operational efficiency became more important areas of artificial intelligence, which have difference characteristics. Qualitative deep model is the recently prospective technology of AI, that can overcome several handicaps of the existing expert systems such as lack of common sense reasoning. The application of AI to the large and complex system like nuclear power plants is typically and effectively done through a module-based hierarchical system. As each module has to be built with suitable AI system. Through the experiences of hierarchical system construction, we aimed to develop basic AI application schemes for the power plant safety and operational efficiency as well as basic technologies for autonomous power plants. The goal of the research is to develop qualitative reasoning technologies for nuclear power plants. For this purpose, the development of qualitative modeling technologies and qualitative behaviour prediction technologies of the power plant are accomplished. In addition, the feasibility of application of typical qualitative reasoning technologies to power plants is studied . The goal of the application is to develop intelligent control technologies of power plants, support technologies. For these purposes, we analyzed the operation of power plants according to its operation purpose: power generation operation, shut-down and start-up operation. As a result, qualitative model of basic components were sketched, including pipes, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. Finally, plant behaviour prediction technologies through qualitative plant heat transfer model and design support technologies through 2nd-order differential equation were developed. For the construction of AI system of power plants, we have studied on the mixed module based hierarchical software. As a testbed, we have considered the spent fuel system and the feedwater system. We also studied the integration

  5. The Lumipulse G HBsAg-Quant assay for screening and quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Song, Guangjun; Guan, Wenli; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Lai

    2016-02-01

    Qualitative HBsAg assay is used to screen HBV infection for decades. The utility of quantitative assay is also rejuvenated recently. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of a novel ultra-sensitive and quantitative assay, the Lumipulse assay, with the Architect and Elecsys assays. As screening methods, specificity was compared using 2043 consecutive clinical routine samples. As quantitative assays, precision and accuracy were assessed. Sera from 112 treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients, four patients undergoing antiviral therapy and one patient with acute infection were tested to compare the correlations. Samples with concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs were also quantified. The Lumipulse assay precisely quantified ultra-low level of HBsAg (0.004 IU/mL). It identified additional 0.98% (20/2043) clinical samples with trance amount of HBsAg. Three assays displayed excellent linear correlations irrespective of genotypes and S-gene mutations (R(2)>0.95, PLumipulse assay did not yield higher HBsAg concentrations in samples with concomitant anti-HBs. Compared with other assays, the Lumipulse assay is sensitive and specific for detecting HBsAg. The interpretation of the extremely low-level results, however, is challenging. Quantitative HBsAg results by different assays are highly correlated, but they should be interpreted interchangeably only after conversion to eliminate the biases.

  6. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  7. Editorial: Qualitative Research and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Otten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces to the thematic scope and the articles of this special issue and it explains some important terminological distinctions of the intercultural research field. The overall aim of this issue is to explore the manifold ways to apply and to reflect upon qualitative research methods in the context of intercultural communication. This implies both a discussion of genuine characteristics of intercultural qualitative research as well as attempts to identify common features and linkages of this special area with more general interpretative research traditions under the "umbrella" of qualitative social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901342

  8. The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative reasoning about thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorstad, Gordon; Forbus, Ken

    1989-01-01

    One goal of qualitative physics is to capture the tacit knowledge of engineers and scientists. It is shown how Qualitative Process theory can be used to express concepts of engineering thermodynamics. In particular, it is shown how to integrate qualitative and quantitative knowledge to solve textbook problems involving thermodynamic cycles, such as gas turbine plants and steam power plants. These ideas were implemented in a program called SCHISM. Its analysis of a sample textbook problem is described and plans for future work are discussed.

  10. Researcher Interjecting in Qualitative Race Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Mizock

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In qualitative interviews, moments when the researcher departs from the research script can highlight how researcher-participant race interactions may differentially affect results. In the present study, 40 qualitative interviews between Black- and White-identified researchers and participants were analyzed to assess the influence of researcher race in deviations from the interview script. Excerpts from these mono-racial and cross-racial research dyads are presented to highlight the function and value of researcher interjecting in multicultural research. Suggestions and implications for future qualitative research on issues of race, ethnicity, and culture are delineated. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102134

  11. The skin-blanching assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B

    2012-10-01

    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.

  12. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  13. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  14. Bioluminescence assay for cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, G Yu; Modestova, Yu A; Ugarova, N N

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical aspects of the adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay based on the use of the firefly luciferin-luciferase system are considered, as well as its application for assessing cell viability in microbiology, sanitation, medicine, and ecology. Various approaches for the analysis of individual or mixed cultures of microorganisms are presented, and capabilities of the method for investigation of biological processes in live cells including necrosis, apoptosis, as well as for investigation of the dynamics of metabolism are described.

  15. Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    In general practice, qualitative research contributes as significantly as quantitative research, in particular regarding psycho-social aspects of patient-care, health services provision, policy setting, and health administrations. In contrast to quantitative research, qualitative research as a whole has been constantly critiqued, if not disparaged, by the lack of consensus for assessing its quality and robustness. This article illustrates with five published studies how qualitative research can impact and reshape the discipline of primary care, spiraling out from clinic-based health screening to community-based disease monitoring, evaluation of out-of-hours triage services to provincial psychiatric care pathways model and finally, national legislation of core measures for children's healthcare insurance. Fundamental concepts of validity, reliability, and generalizability as applicable to qualitative research are then addressed with an update on the current views and controversies.

  16. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-06-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as "qualitative psychologists", they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening "McDonaldization" of qualitative research, while the potentials are related to proliferation of new forms of inquiry and a transcending of disciplinary boundaries.

  17. From Conditional Oughts to Qualitative Decision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pearl, Judea

    2013-01-01

    The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., "You ought to do A, if C") that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the...

  18. Evaluating Qualitative Research for Social Work Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The field of social work expects practitioners remain well informed regarding research advances in their respective areas. Research studies conducted through the lens of qualitative inquiry provide important contributions to the social work knowledge base. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide practitioners some orientation regarding qualitative research methods and to highlight potential strategies researchers may use to enhance the trustworthiness and quality of their research. Speci...

  19. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  20. Is qualitative research second class science? A quantitative longitudinal examination of qualitative research in medical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Shuval

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. DESIGN: A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998-2007. The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator by all original research articles published (denominator. We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research. FINDINGS: A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007. The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012; and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, P<0.001. Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075. The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies

  1. Les conditions de l’analyse qualitative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Paillé

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Les méthodes d’analyse des données qualitatives et le monde informatique étaient faits pour se rencontrer. Et en effet, la question est d’actualité et les outils informatiques nombreux et avancés. Ce phénomène ne saurait s’estomper, d’autant moins que l’analyse des données secondaires connaît en même temps des développements importants. Mais l’attrait pour les logiciels d’analyse peut devenir tel qu’on ne verrait plus trop à quel titre et pour quelles raisons on pourrait s’en passer. L’article tente de cerner une vision et une pratique de l’analyse qualitative qui, dans son essence, ne se prête pas à l’utilisation d’outils informatiques spécialisés. Il situe sa réflexion dans le cadre de la méthodologie qualitative (démarche qualitative, recherche qualitative, analyse qualitative, plus particulièrement au niveau de l’enquête qualitative de terrain.The conditions of qualitative analysisThe methods for analyzing qualitative data and the computer world were meant to meet. And, by that, the question is valid and computer tools numerous and advanced. This phenomenon will not slowdown, especially not since secondary data analysis experiences significant developments. But the attraction for analysis software could develop so that we would not see too much why and for what type of reasons we could part from them. This article attempts to define a vision and a practice of qualitative analysis that, in essence, does not use specialized computer tools. It situates its reflection within qualitative methodology (qualitative approaches, qualitative research, qualitative analysis and moreover in the level of qualitative fieldwork investigation.Las condiciones del análisis cualitativo. Reflexiones sobre la utilización de programas informáticosLos métodos de análisis de los datos cualitativos y el mundo de la informática han nacido para entenderse mutualmente. En efecto, la cuestión es actual y los

  2. Doing qualitative research in dentistry and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, S; Brown, G

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assist dental researchers to develop their expertise in qualitative research. It sketches the key characteristics of qualitative research; summarises theoretical perspectives; outlines the core skills of qualitative data collection and the procedures which underlie three methods of qualitative research: interviewing, focus groups and concept maps. The paper offers some guidance on writing qualitative research and provides examples of qualitative research drawn from dentistry and dental education.

  3. Orientation among multiple truths: An introduction to qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Christen Erlingsson; Petra Brysiewicz

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide some guidance for the researcher unfamiliar with qualitative research, this article compares quantitative and qualitative research, and introduces a number of qualitative methods. Aspects of methodological rigor are also presented as well as an example of qualitative data analysis using content analysis. Qualitative research methods explore, in a holistic fashion, the complex reality constructed by individuals in the context of their everyday worlds. Qualitative research i...

  4. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ladeira; Susana Viegas; Manuel C. Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN) assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage; cytostasis and cytotoxicity-DNA damage events are scored specifically in once-divided binucleated cells. The endpoints possible to be measured are micronuclei (MN), a biomarker of chromosome breakage and/or whole chromosome loss, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), a biomarker of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end-fusions, and nuclear buds (NBUD), a biomarker of elimination of amplified DNA and/...

  5. Newly established monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays for Schistosoma mansoni direct detection in areas of low endemicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current available methods for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni lack sufficient sensitivity, which results in underreporting of infectious in areas of low endemicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed three novel diagnostic methodologies for the direct detection of schistosome infection in serum samples. These three new methods were evaluated with positive patients from a low endemicity area in southeast Brazil. The basis of the assay was the production of monoclonal antibodies against the protein backbone of heavily glycosylated Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA. The antibodies were also selected for having no specificity to repeating poly-Lewis x units. Assays based on the detection CCA-protein should not encounter a limitation in sensitivity due to a biological background of this particular epitope. Three diagnostic methodologies were developed and validated, (i Immunomagnetic Separation based on improved incubation steps of non-diluted serum, (ii Direct Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and (iii Fluorescent Microscopy Analysis as a qualitative assay. The two quantitative assays presented high sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively and specificity (100%, equivalent to the analysis of 3 stool samples and 16 slides by Kato-Katz, showing promising results on the determination of cure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Immunomagnetic Separation technique showed excellent correlation with parasite burden by Cohen coefficient. The qualitative method detected 47 positive individuals out of 50 with the analysis of 3 slides. This easy-to-do method was capable of discriminating positive from negative cases, even for patients with low parasite burden.

  6. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  7. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  8. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research.

  9. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  10. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  11. Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry: Possibilities and Tensions in Educational Research. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Carducci, Rozana, Ed.; Kuby, Candace R., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "Disrupting Qualitative Inquiry" is an edited volume that examines the possibilities and tensions encountered by scholars who adopt disruptive qualitative approaches to the study of educational contexts, issues, and phenomena. It presents a collection of innovative and intellectually stimulating chapters which illustrate the potential…

  12. About Statistical Analysis of Qualitative Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Loehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gathered data is frequently not in a numerical form allowing immediate appliance of the quantitative mathematical-statistical methods. In this paper are some basic aspects examining how quantitative-based statistical methodology can be utilized in the analysis of qualitative data sets. The transformation of qualitative data into numeric values is considered as the entrance point to quantitative analysis. Concurrently related publications and impacts of scale transformations are discussed. Subsequently, it is shown how correlation coefficients are usable in conjunction with data aggregation constrains to construct relationship modelling matrices. For illustration, a case study is referenced at which ordinal type ordered qualitative survey answers are allocated to process defining procedures as aggregation levels. Finally options about measuring the adherence of the gathered empirical data to such kind of derived aggregation models are introduced and a statistically based reliability check approach to evaluate the reliability of the chosen model specification is outlined.

  13. [Special methodology, qualitative methods and abstract concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana R

    2010-08-01

    Generally speaking, this paper comments on the role of qualitative methods in scientific psychology. To begin with, general and special methodology are defined; then, the main uses of qualitative methods are described and the focus of the paper on the study of meaning and of abstract concepts in the context of embodied cognition is justified. It is emphasized that three uses of qualitative methods converge in the study of embodied cognition: (1) classification, given that it is centered on concepts, (2) discovery, because theories are not yet well articulated and inductive effort is required, and (3) the study of meaning. The final recommendation is to profit from the opportunity of constructing special techniques that the transformation of cognitive psychology is favoring; in this context, varieties of emotion become a privileged object of study.

  14. Transitioning from Clinical to Qualitative Research Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.

  15. Transcending chronic liver disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, S P

    1997-01-01

    This study explores and describes experiences of chronic liver disease from the patient's perspective. No qualitative research studies appear to have examined the experiences of these patients. In-depth focused interviews and grounded theory data collection and data analysis methods were used. A two-stage theoretical framework (becoming ill, and not living) of the experience of transcending chronic liver disease is presented. Sociological and psychological literature on common sense models of health and illness are briefly reviewed. Several suggestions for further research are made. The way in which this qualitative research study is leading to a quantitative and qualitative appraisal of the psychological adjustment in end-stage chronic liver disease patients is outlined.

  16. Ensuring validity in qualitative international business research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how the validity issue related to qualitative research strategies within the IB field may be grasped from an at least partially subjectivist point of view. In section two, we will first assess via the aforementioned literature review the extent...... to which the validity issue has been treated in qualitative research contributions published in six leading English-language journals which publish IB research. Thereafter, in section three, we will discuss our findings and relate them to (a) various levels of a research project and (b) the existing...... five, we will summarise our arguments and their implications for the processes of understanding and explaining in future qualitative IB research....

  17. Propagating Qualitative Values Through Quantitative Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepak

    1992-01-01

    In most practical problems where traditional numeric simulation is not adequate, one need to reason about a system with both qualitative and quantitative equations. In this paper, we address the problem of propagating qualitative values represented as interval values through quantitative equations. Previous research has produced exponential-time algorithms for approximate solution of the problem. These may not meet the stringent requirements of many real time applications. This paper advances the state of art by producing a linear-time algorithm that can propagate a qualitative value through a class of complex quantitative equations exactly and through arbitrary algebraic expressions approximately. The algorithm was found applicable to Space Shuttle Reaction Control System model.

  18. Leveraging Qualitative Reasoning to Learning Manipulation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedrich Wolter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning and planning are powerful AI methods that exhibit complementary strengths. While planning allows goal-directed actions to be computed when a reliable forward model is known, learning allows such models to be obtained autonomously. In this paper we describe how both methods can be combined using an expressive qualitative knowledge representation. We argue that the crucial step in this integration is to employ a representation based on a well-defined semantics. This article proposes the qualitative spatial logic QSL, a representation that combines qualitative abstraction with linear temporal logic, allowing us to represent relevant information about the learning task, possible actions, and their consequences. Doing so, we empower reasoning processes to enhance learning performance beyond the positive effects of learning in abstract state spaces. Proof-of-concept experiments in two simulation environments show that this approach can help to improve learning-based robotics by quicker convergence and leads to more reliable action planning.

  19. A colorimetric assay for cytokinin oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libreros-Minotta, C A; Tipton, P A

    1995-11-01

    A simple and rapid colorimetric assay for cytokinin oxidase is described. The assay is based on the formation of a Schiff base between the enzymatic reaction product 3-methyl-2-butenal and p-aminophenol. The assay is effective in the submicromolar concentration range and can be used in crude plant extracts as well as in more highly purified preparations.

  20. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida;

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  1. 21 CFR 864.7525 - Heparin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heparin assay. 864.7525 Section 864.7525 Food and... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7525 Heparin assay. (a) Identification. A heparin assay is a device used to determine the level of the anticoagulant heparin in the...

  2. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert;

    2016-01-01

    ) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). METHODS: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3210 - Endotoxin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endotoxin assay. 866.3210 Section 866.3210 Food... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3210 Endotoxin assay. (a) Identification. An endotoxin assay is a device that uses serological techniques in whole blood. The device...

  4. Reasoning about energy in qualitative simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouche, Pierre; Kuipers, Benjamin J.

    1992-01-01

    While possible behaviors of a mechanism that are consistent with an incomplete state of knowledge can be predicted through qualitative modeling and simulation, spurious behaviors corresponding to no solution of any ordinary differential equation consistent with the model may be generated. The present method for energy-related reasoning eliminates an important source of spurious behaviors, as demonstrated by its application to a nonlinear, proportional-integral controlled. It is shown that such qualitative properties of such a system as stability and zero-offset control are captured by the simulation.

  5. Qualitative research and the modern library

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Valeda Dent

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative Research and the Modern Library examines the present-day role and provides suggestions for areas that might be suited to this type of research for the purposes of evaluation. The author discusses how the results from such research might be applied, and the overall impact of using this type of research to inform development of a more user-centred organisation. The book provides a thoughtful look at the implications of using qualitative research to inform decision-making processes within libraries and is written by an author and library researcher with international experience in var

  6. From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    1994-01-01

    The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

  7. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

  8. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  9. Steroid assays in paediatric endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honour, John W

    2010-01-01

    Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation.

  10. Predictive Assay For Cancer Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Nguyen, C; Sorensen, K; Montgomery, J; Souza, B; Kulp, K; Dugan, L; Christian, A

    2005-09-19

    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  11. Dialog on a country path: the qualitative research journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M; Cangelosi, Pamela R; Dinkins, Christine S

    2014-03-01

    There is little information in the literature describing how students learn qualitative research. This article describes an approach to learning that is based on the pedagogical approach of Dinkins' Socratic-Hermeneutic Shared Inquiry. This approach integrates shared dialog as an essential aspect of learning. The qualitative pedagogy described in this article focused on three questions: What is knowing in qualitative research? How do we come to know qualitative research? What can we do with qualitative research? Students learned the basics of qualitative research within a context that fostered interpretive inquiry. In this way, the course framework mirrored the combination of interviewing, storytelling, and journeying toward understanding that constitute qualitative research.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative event-specific PCR detection methods for oxy-235 canola based on the 3' integration flanking sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Zhang, Haibo; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-03-26

    As more genetically modified plant events are approved for commercialization worldwide, the event-specific PCR method has become the key method for genetically modified organism (GMO) identification and quantification. This study reveals the 3' flanking sequence of the exogenous integration of Oxy-235 canola employing thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). On the basis of the revealed 3' flanking sequence, PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed and qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were established for Oxy-235 canola. The specificity and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of these two PCR assays were validated to as low as 0.1% for the relative LOD of qualitative PCR assay; the absolute LOD and LOQ were low to 10 and 20 copies of canola genomic DNA in quantitative PCR assay, respectively. Furthermore, ideal quantified results were obtained in the practical canola sample detection. All of the results indicate that the developed qualitative and quantitative PCR methods based on the revealed 3' integration flanking sequence are suitable for GM canola Oxy-235 identification and quantification.

  13. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  14. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Regina Taquette; Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo; Adriana de Oliveira Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized t...

  15. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Kohlbacher

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic introduction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Finally the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is ...

  16. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  17. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is oft...

  18. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  19. School Improvement Teams: A Qualitative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, Robert W.; Fischetti, John C.

    1985-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss four components of teamwork in the Boston Secondary Schools Project: team viewpoints, team roles and power, team projects, and team continuity. The discussion is based on findings from a variety of qualitative and research techniques including interviews, participant observations studies, and content analysis of…

  20. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Data: An Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Anjoo; And Others

    Methodology from an ongoing research study to validate teaching techniques for deaf and blind students provides an example of the ways that several types of quantitative and qualitative data can be combined in analysis. Four teacher and student pairs were selected. The students were between 14 and 21 years old, had both auditory and visual…

  1. Martini Qualitative Research: Shaken, Not Stirred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of qualitative research studies has boomed in recent years, close observation reveals that often the research designs and methodological considerations and approaches have developed a type of configuration that does not adhere to purist definitions of the labels attached. Very often so called interpretivist studies are not…

  2. Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

  3. Facilitating Coherence across Qualitative Research Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…

  4. The mathematical bases for qualitative reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagnanam, Jayant; Simon, Herbert A.; Iwasaki, Yumi

    1991-01-01

    The practices of researchers in many fields who use qualitative reasoning are summarized and explained. The goal is to gain an understanding of the formal assumptions and mechanisms that underlie this kind of analysis. The explanations given are based on standard mathematical formalisms, particularly on ordinal properties, continuous differentiable functions, and the mathematics of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  5. The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robley, Lois R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)

  6. Peer Helpers in Hungary: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Jozsef; Lacko, Zsuzsa

    2008-01-01

    Hungary is a country in transition that has no real tradition of peer helping. A qualitative study was carried out involving 13 peer helpers of two kinds (a) age-based peers, and (b) way-of-life-based peers (fellow helpers). The motivations for and the processes of becoming a peer helper were analyzed. Results showed the largest difference being…

  7. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion a

  8. Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

    This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

  9. Dilemmas and Further Debates in Qualitative Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.; Hay-Gibson, Naomi V.

    2009-01-01

    Newcomers to the qualitative method encounter a seemingly bewildering array of issues when taking their first steps in tackling a project of this type. Novices may well be confused by matters on which even expert commentators disagree and may find themselves confronting situations in which they realise that, by attending to one criterion, their…

  10. Using Qualitative Methods to Inform Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Noell; Wulff, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the process by which one study utilized qualitative methods to create items for a multi dimensional scale to measure twelve step program affiliation. The process included interviewing fourteen addicted persons while in twelve step focused treatment about specific pros (things they like or would miss out on by not being…

  11. Enhancing Institutional Assessment Efforts through Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Banta, Trudy W.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative methods can do much to describe context and illuminate the why behind patterns encountered in institutional assessment. Alone, or in combination with quantitative methods, they should be the approach of choice for many of the most important assessment questions. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. A Novel Approach for Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophadt, Charles E.

    1974-01-01

    The design of a freshman chemistry laboratory program involving nontraditional qualitative investigations of metal ion properties is explained. Experiments are discussed which focus on synthesis of a metal salt, properties of metal ions and their separations, and oxidation states of metals. (DT)

  13. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  14. Dialectical Inquiry: A Structured Qualitative Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniker, Eli; McNabb, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Dialectical Inquiry (DI) as a structured qualitative research method for studying participant models of organizational processes. The method is applied to rich secondary anecdotal data on technology transfer, gathered by subject-matter experts in a large firm. DI assumes that the imposition of a dialectical structure will…

  15. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  16. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  17. Qualität der Eizelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montag M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Im Rahmen der assistierten Reproduktion ist die Qualität der Eizelle ein entscheidendes Kriterium für den Erfolg einer Kinderwunschbehandlung. Die lichtmikroskopische Untersuchung morphologischer Kriterien stellte lange Zeit die einzige Möglichkeit zur Beurteilung der Eizellqualität dar und hat auch heute noch ihre Berechtigung. In zunehmendem Maße werden auch andere diagnostische Verfahren evaluiert. Neben der chromosomalen bzw. genetischen Integrität, die mit geeigneten Methoden bereits untersucht werden kann, stellt die nukleäre und die zytoplasmatische Reife der Eizellen ein wesentliches Qualitätsmerkmal dar. Bisher stehen insbesondere indirekte Untersuchungsmethoden zur Verfügung, die zum Teil bereits in der klinischen Praxis eingesetzt werden, wie z. B. das Zonaimaging. Neueste Entwicklungen wie die Sauerstoff-Respirationsmessung oder die Genexpressionsanalyse befinden sich noch im Entwicklungsstadium und werden hinsichtlich ihrer Einsatzmöglichkeit im Laboralltag evaluiert. Für einige neue Parameter sind bei verschiedenen Eizellen zum Teil bereits erhebliche Unterschiede erkennbar, die als indirekter Hinweis auf qualitative Unterschiede angesehen werden können. Erst mit genügend sensitiven Untersuchungsmethoden werden die zum Teil geringen Unterschiede zwischen Eizellen verschiedener Qualität erkennbar.

  18. Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, K.; Czabanowska, K.; Brand, H.

    2015-01-01

    [PDF] Developing Health Literate Businesses: A Qualitative Study K Sørensen, K Czabanowska, H Brand - Occup Med Health Aff, 2015 ... Corresponding author: Kristine Sørensen, Assistant Professor, Department of International Health/CAPHRI, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.Tel: +31433881717; Fax

  19. Innovative Data Collection Strategies in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an innovative meta-framework comprising strategies designed to guide qualitative data collection in the 21st century. We present a meta-framework comprising strategies for collecting data from interviews, focus groups, observations, and documents/material culture. We present a template for collecting nonverbal data during…

  20. A Qualitative Acceleration Model Based on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester MARTINEZ-MARTIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the way to autonomous service robots, spatial reasoning plays a main role since it properly deals with problems involving uncertainty. In particular, we are interested in knowing people's pose to avoid collisions. With that aim, in this paper, we present a qualitative acceleration model for robotic applications including representation, reasoning and a practical application.

  1. Qualitative Research in Education: A User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    This book provides those new to the field with a blend of practical and theoretical information. The author addresses a spectrum of recent information about the process of qualitative educational research and brings together in one volume the essential elements of all aspects of the field. The text: (1) Introduces traditions and influences in the…

  2. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  3. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, M.M. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2004-10-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells ('Comet Assay') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6 deg. C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA 'Comet Assay'. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  4. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Plus ID NAT assay for detection of HIV 1, HBV and HCV in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Procleix Ultrio Plusassay is a new-generation qualitative in vitro nucleic acid amplification test used to screen for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 RNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV RNA and hepatitis B virus (HBV DNA in blood donors. This study was performed to compare the Procleix Ultrio assay with the new-generation Procleix Ultrio Plus Nucleic Acid Test (NAT assays. Materials and Methods: Ten thousand three hundred and two donor samples were run in parallel for ID NAT using the Procleix Ultrio and the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay. Simultaneously, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing was performed on an EVOLIS Walk away System for HIV, HCV, HBsAg and anti-HBc. Reactive samples were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Results: In the 10,302 samples tested during the study period, we identified 15 NAT yields, and all these revealed HBV DNA in the discriminatory assays. Eight of these were exclusive yields from the Ultrio Plus assay and the remaining seven cases were determined as HBV NAT yield, both by the Procleix Ultrio as well as the Ultrio Plus assays, i.e. "Combined" yields. No HCV or HIV 1 yields were detected during the study period by either of two assays. Conclusion: With an overall yield rate of 1 in 687 and an exclusive yield rate of 1 in 1287, the Procleix Ultrio Plus assay proved to be highly sensitive in detecting occult HBV infections.

  5. Development and application of assays for serotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, I.F.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis, two assays for serotonin were developed, validated, and used to investigate the relationship between platelet aggregation, serotonin levels and sodium status and serotonin levels and platelet function in patients with cardiovascular disease. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) using an (/sup 125/I)-labelled tracer was developed and validated for the measurement of serotonin in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and rat serum. Antisera were raised against N-succinamylserotonin conjugated to bovine albumin and, to improve assay sensitivity, the analyte was made chemically similar to the immunogen by conversion to N-acetylserotonin prior to assay, using the specific amino reagent N-acetoxysuccinimide. An assay for serotonin using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) was developed, and used to validate the RIA. The RIA can be used to assay up to 100 samples/day compared with 10-20/day by the HPLC-ECD assay.

  6. Glucuronoyl Esterase Screening and Characterization Assays Utilizing Commercially Available Benzyl Glucuronic Acid Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampus Sunner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on glucuronoyl esterases (GEs has been hampered by the lack of enzyme assays based on easily obtainable substrates. While benzyl d-glucuronic acid ester (BnGlcA is a commercially available substrate that can be used for GE assays, several considerations regarding substrate instability, limited solubility and low apparent affinities should be made. In this work we discuss the factors that are important when using BnGlcA for assaying GE activity and show how these can be applied when designing BnGlcA-based GE assays for different applications: a thin-layer chromatography assay for qualitative activity detection, a coupled-enzyme spectrophotometric assay that can be used for high-throughput screening or general activity determinations and a HPLC-based detection method allowing kinetic determinations. The three-level experimental procedure not merely facilitates routine, fast and simple biochemical characterizations but it can also give rise to the discovery of different GEs through an extensive screening of heterologous Genomic and Metagenomic expression libraries.

  7. Direct Spectrophotometric Assay for Benzaldehyde Lyase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzaldehyde lyase from Pseudomonas fluorescens Biovar I. (BAL, EC 4.1.2.38 is a versatile catalyst for the organic synthesis of chiral α-hydroxy ketones. To allow fast assessment of enzyme activity, a direct spectrophotometric assay is desirable. Here, a new robust and easy-to-handle assay based on UV absorption is presented. The assay developed is based on the ligation of the α-hydroxy ketone (R-2,2′-furoin from 2-furaldehyde. A robust assay with direct monitoring of the product is facilitated with a convenient concentration working range minimising experimental associated with low concentrations.

  8. Conceptual foundations of qualitative life course research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Heinz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing biographies is a main field of qualitative social research that studies individuals’ sensemaking in regard to transitions and life projects. The paper presents concepts for linking the macrosocial and micro-social levels in life course analysis. First, the concept of “status passage” is reviewed, with a focus on social structure, institutions, and biography. Second, the concept of “selfsocialization” is introduced, highlighting the notion of the “biographical actor”. Third, recent elaborations of the concept of “agency” in life course research are discussed. Fourth, two examples of qualitative longitudinal research are presented: one on occupational careers, another on the process of family formation. Finally, methodological implications are sketched.

  9. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...... into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate...... smartphone use within people’s practices, norms, and routines. This is of relevance both to studies focusing on smartphones as cultural objects in everyday life and studies that use such devices as proxies for social behaviour more generally. We argue that log data, for instance in in-depth interviews, may...

  10. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    , the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas. Objectives and ethical considerations: First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant’s decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  11. Improving accuracy of transcripts in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne M; Meyer, Mechthild; Estable, Alma

    2004-01-01

    Everyone who has worked with qualitative interview data has run into problems with transcription error, even if they do the transcribing themselves. A thoughtful, accurate, reliable, multilingual transcriptionist with a quick turnaround time is worth her or his weight in gold. In this article, the authors examine some transcription circumstances that seem to bring about their own consistent set of problems. Based on their experiences, the authors examine the following issues: use of voice recognition systems; notation choices; processing and active listening versus touch typing; transcriptionist effect; emotionally loaded audiotaped material; class and/or cultural differences among interviewee, interviewer, and transcriptionist; and some errors that arise when working in a second language. The authors offer suggestions for working with transcriptionists as part of the qualitative research team.

  12. Troubling Methods in Qualitative Inquiry and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This present paper troubles and literally ‘shakes’ the idea of methods as the founding ground of qualitative inquiry. It does so by addressing the real-time messiness of research and the retrospective character of research reports. While the paper is not as such opposed to methods, it does suggest...... suggestion is that these open-ended and flexible strategies allow for an innovative approach to the development of a qualitative psychology while also serving to trouble (at least for a moment) the current popularity of methods in research....... that many actual research practices do not follow defined and regular plans as the terminology of methods inclines. However, rather than seeing the messiness as a bias to be eliminated, a more constructive approach is suggested. With the intention of inviting more creative and thought-provoking research...

  13. Qualitative versus Quantitative Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russel W. Belk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that at a time when wehave more quantitative data aboutconsumers than ever before – so-called “bigdata,” scanner data, loyalty programpurchase histories, trails of Internet searchesand social media activity, and much more –that businesses nevertheless increasinglydesire qualitative information. I am nottalking about the ubiquitous focus groupswhich have long been a staple in exploratorymarketing and advertising research. Suchfocus groups continue to be used, but theyare one of the weakest techniques inqualitative research. The sort of qualitativeconsumer research I have in mind insteadincludes ethnography, netnography, videography,qualitative data mining, projectivemethods, various types of observation, anddepth interviews. What these techniquespotentially provide is more naturalistic insight into how individual consumers andgroups of consumers behave in everyday life.

  14. Qualitative System Identification from Imperfect Data

    CERN Document Server

    Coghill, George M; Srinivasan, Ashwin; 10.1613/jair.2374

    2011-01-01

    Experience in the physical sciences suggests that the only realistic means of understanding complex systems is through the use of mathematical models. Typically, this has come to mean the identification of quantitative models expressed as differential equations. Quantitative modelling works best when the structure of the model (i.e., the form of the equations) is known; and the primary concern is one of estimating the values of the parameters in the model. For complex biological systems, the model-structure is rarely known and the modeler has to deal with both model-identification and parameter-estimation. In this paper we are concerned with providing automated assistance to the first of these problems. Specifically, we examine the identification by machine of the structural relationships between experimentally observed variables. These relationship will be expressed in the form of qualitative abstractions of a quantitative model. Such qualitative models may not only provide clues to the precise quantitative ...

  15. Qualitative Reasoning for Additional Die Casting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller; Dehua Cui; Yuming Ma

    2003-05-28

    If manufacturing incompatibility of a product can be evaluated at the early product design stage, the designers can modify their design to reduce the effect of potential manufacturing problems. This will result in fewer manufacturing problems, less redsign, less expensive tooling, lower cost, better quality, and shorter development time. For a given design, geometric reasoning can predict qualitatively the behaviors of a physical manufacturing process by representing and reasoning with incomplete knowledge of the physical phenomena. It integrates a design with manufacturing processes to help designers simultaneously consider design goals and manufacturing constraints during the early design stage. The geometric reasoning approach can encourage design engineers to qualitatively evaluate the compatibility of their design with manufacturing limitations and requirements.

  16. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper......, reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies...

  17. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...... performed with 14 patients recruited from two English university hospitals and 12 patients from a Danish university hospital. Critical psychology was used as a theoretical framework for the data analysis, which aimed at shedding light on patients' ways of conducting everyday life with osteoporosis....... The themes that emerged from the analysis showed that life conditions influenced the way in which risk, pain and osteoporosis were handled. Everyday life was also influenced by patients' attitude to treatment. The patients who were experiencing emotional difficulties in handling osteoporosis were not those...

  18. Detection of irradiated onion by means of the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Carro Palacio, Sandra [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: damaris@ceaden.edu.cu; efprieto@ceaden.edu.cu; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora [Instituto de Investigacion para la Industria Alimenticia (IIIA), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)

    2007-07-01

    The ionizing radiations are used as a harmless alternative treatment that it substitutes the employment of chemical treatments, which after their application in the food products can remain residuals not desired that they come to be carcinogenic. With the food irradiation is eliminated microorganisms and the storage time is prolonged, which produces benefits for the Food Industry and the consumers. In many countries the search of sensitive detecting methods of irradiated foods is promoted by the necessity of the assurance of the consumption of foods with nutritional quality and to test directly the radiation processing, for which several techniques have been developed, these are based on the changes that induce the ionizing radiations in the food products. A recommended method is the Comet Assay of DNA, it is approved by the European Committee of Standardization (EN 13784). The DNA molecule is very sensitive to gamma radiations even at low radiation dose, where the modifications produced in the molecule can be monitored for this analytical technique well-known as Comet Assay of DNA or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated onions with the Comet Assay for several dose values, the onions were conserved at environment and refrigeration temperatures. The samples were irradiated in a self-shielding irradiator with {sup 60}Co source, dose rate of 20.45 Gy/min and absorbed dose values of 0.5; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. This detection method demonstrates to be one sensitive and quick technique for the qualitative detection of irradiated onions. (author)

  19. Validity and reliability in qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. Meticulous attention to these two aspects can make the difference between good research and poor research and can help to assure that fellow scientists accept findings as credible and trustworthy. This is particularly vital in qualitative work, where the researcher’s subjectivity can so readily cloud the interpretation of the data, and where research findings are often questioned or viewed with scepticism by the scientific community.

  20. Validity and reliability in qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. L. Brink

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Validity and reliability are key aspects of all research. Meticulous attention to these two aspects can make the difference between good research and poor research and can help to assure that fellow scientists accept findings as credible and trustworthy. This is particularly vital in qualitative work, where the researcher’s subjectivity can so readily cloud the interpretation of the data, and where research findings are often questioned or viewed with scepticism by the scientific community.

  1. Validity and reliability in qualitative researches

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract   Today science world changes sharply in a high speed. In a way that in all areas such as research methods these changes are obvious. Although concepts such as validity and reliability in Positivist methodology have been used with distinct and general rules, in post positivist period in which they have paid much more attention to qualitative research, these principles have lost their general form. In one hand some thinkers stress on applying common validity and reliability quantitati...

  2. Exploring Conflict Management Using Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid, Zaleha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on qualitative methods in researching the area of conflict management, specifically in Self-Managed Project Team (SMPT). The research aims to explore the evolvement of conflict management strategies in SMPT as this type of team is given the responsibility to solve problems and make decision by themselves. The inductive approach will overcome the limitation of quantitative method in management research as one of its objectives is to explain the different elements of the expl...

  3. Qualitative differential games with two targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, W. M.; Leitmann, G.

    1977-01-01

    So-called differential games of kind (qualitative games) were considered involving two or more players each of whom possesses a target toward which he wished to steer the response of a dynamical system that was under the control of all players. Sufficient conditions were derived, which assure termination on a particular player's target. In general, these conditions were constructive in that they permited construction of a winning (terminating) strategy for a player. The theory is illustrated by a pursuit-evasion problem.

  4. Qualitative factors in the healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu CICEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the efficiency of medical services is a broad social and economic concept, influenced by both numerical-quantitative and non-numerical-qualitative factors. The dynamic nature of technical progress and the accelerated pace of scientific discoveries in the field of health, enhances the size and complexity of economic issues related to assessing the efficiency of these social activities.

  5. First steps in qualitative data analysis: transcribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia

    2008-04-01

    Qualitative research in primary care deepens understanding of phenomena such as health, illness and health care encounters. Many qualitative studies collect audio or video data (e.g. recordings of interviews, focus groups or talk in consultation), and these are usually transcribed into written form for closer study. Transcribing appears to be a straightforward technical task, but in fact involves judgements about what level of detail to choose (e.g. omitting non-verbal dimensions of interaction), data interpretation (e.g. distinguishing 'I don't, no' from 'I don't know') and data representation (e.g. representing the verbalization 'hwarryuhh' as 'How are you?'). Representation of audible and visual data into written form is an interpretive process which is therefore the first step in analysing data. Different levels of detail and different representations of data will be required for projects with differing aims and methodological approaches. This article is a guide to practical and theoretical considerations for researchers new to qualitative data analysis. Data examples are given to illustrate decisions to be made when transcribing or assigning the task to others.

  6. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  7. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  8. Qualitative Description of Spatial Quality in Inclusive Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla; Kajita, Masashi; Sørensen, Rene

    2016-01-01

    as reflects an applied method for producing the qualitative description of selected buildings that embody UD through creative solutions. The qualitative description of collected examples appears to be effective in delineating sensory aspects of spatial experience; however the systematic development...

  9. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  10. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G. (U.E.R. de Medecine, Sante et Biologie Humaine, 93 - Bobigny (France)); Simon, P. (Faculte de Medecine Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, ..beta..-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising.

  11. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF QUANTITATIVE RECEPTOR ASSAYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMISTEROVA, J; ENSING, K; DEZEEUW, RA

    1994-01-01

    Receptor assays occupy a particular position in the methods used in bioanalysis, as they do not exploit the physico-chemical properties of the analyte. These assays make use of the property of the analyte to bind to the specific binding site (receptor) and to competitively replace a labelled ligand

  12. Acellular comet assay: a tool for assessing variables influencing the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Erin K; McNamee, James P; Prud'homme Lalonde, Louise; Jones, Trevor; Wilkinson, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an acellular modification to the alkaline comet assay to further evaluate key variables within the assay that may influence the outcome of genotoxicity studies is described. This acellular comet assay can detect differences of 0.2 Gy of (60)Co gamma-ray radiation between 0 and 1 Gy and differences of 1 Gy between 0 and 8 Gy; thus, this assay is applicable for a wide range of DNA damage levels. It is also shown that DNA damage from different radiation energies was not significantly different from (60)Co gamma-ray. This assay displayed a statistical increase in DNA damage due to uncontrolled exposure to natural light; however, the slope of the dose-response curve for light-exposed samples was similar to that for samples protected from light. A comparison of the alkaline comet assay with the acellular comet assay allowed for the intrinsic repair capacity of the alkaline comet assay to be quantified.

  13. PRIORITY RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN THE AREA OF QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The basic directions of modern theoretical and practical research in the area of qualitative methodology in Russia are discussed in the article. The complexity of research is considered from three points of view: the development of methodology of qualitative analysis, qualitative methods, and verbal and nonverbal projective techniques. The authors present an integrative model of the qualitative analysis, the research on specificity of the use of discourse-analysis method and projective techni...

  14. Assays for Determination of Protein Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Bradley J S C

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical analysis of proteins relies on accurate quantification of protein concentration. Detailed in this appendix are some commonly used methods for protein analysis, e.g., Lowry, Bradford, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), UV spectroscopic, and 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) assays. The primary focus of this report is assay selection, emphasizing sample and buffer compatibility. The fundamentals of generating protein assay standard curves and of data processing are considered, as are high-throughput adaptations of the more commonly used protein assays. Also included is a rapid, inexpensive, and reliable BCA assay of total protein in SDS-PAGE sample buffer that is used for equal loading of SDS-PAGE gels. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. [Why to have a dossier on qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Brugnolli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Why a dossier on qualitative research. The main reasons for a dossier on qualitative research are presented, together with strengths and weaknesses of qualitative research compared to quantitative. The different perspectives offered by the two methods on the exploration and interpretation of phenomena are briefly described.

  16. Conducting Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Nancy K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…

  17. Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

  18. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  19. An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

  20. Research Commentary: The Promise of Qualitative Metasynthesis for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert Q., III.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics education has benefited from qualitative methodological approaches over the past 40 years across diverse topics. Although the number, type, and quality of qualitative research studies in mathematics education has changed, little is known about how a collective body of qualitative research findings contributes to our understanding of a…

  1. Ontologies and Methods of Qualitative Research in Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rabino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research can produce vast amounts of data and uses analytical categories to describe and explain social phenomena; several software packages are designed for qualitative data analysis and enable a complex organization of data. The study tests the capacity of new technology to build a formal ontology from qualitative data, in urban planning.

  2. Inclusion of Qualitative Research: Content Analysis of ACA Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    This paper provides descriptive statistics related to published articles which utilized qualitative methodologies in research studies, as well as conceptual articles pertaining to qualitative research methodologies. The articles examined covered the years 1967-1999. During the 32-year time period, 15 qualitative research articles were published.…

  3. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  4. Extending Engineering Practice Research with Shared Qualitative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevelyan, James

    2016-01-01

    Research on engineering practice is scarce and sharing of qualitative research data can reduce the effort required for an aspiring researcher to obtain enough data from engineering workplaces to draw generalizable conclusions, both qualitative and quantitative. This paper describes how a large shareable qualitative data set on engineering…

  5. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  6. How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drisko, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

  7. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen (R) Assay System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MJ; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time, The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen(R) Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom,

  8. From molecular networks to qualitative cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneur, Julien; Casari, Georg

    2005-03-21

    Adaptation and behavior are characteristics of life which are fundamentally dynamic. If we want to model the living cell we have to describe it as a dynamic system. Typical dynamic models are based on quantitative differential equations requiring very detailed kinetic knowledge. Alternative modeling techniques for less fine-grained information are better suited to available functional genomics data. As such, constraint-based techniques and qualitative modeling have proven themselves to be valid approaches in cell biology. These approaches offer formal support to check the consistency of molecular networks against phenotypic observations in the light of dynamic systems.

  9. Qualitative research methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of Software Engineering coexist two different research methods: 1 the quantitative that try to measure and analyze the casual relationship between the variables in a frame with free values, and 2 the qualitative that examine the creation process of meanings from which is generated new theorems or improve. Apply this methods separately in the research in software engineer makes evident that obtain results are incomplete and so is difficult to choose definitively wit which of them embark in a specific research. To approach this problem, in this article are described the quantitative methods as research methods to this engineer, and described its benefits and difficulties.

  10. Assurance qualité des huileries tunisiennes

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi Ines; Issaoui Manel; Mehri Sounira; Hammami Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    L’huile d’olive est largement appréciée dans le monde entier pour ses qualités nutritionnelles, ses effets bénéfiques sur la santé et ses caractères organoleptiques. En Tunisie, l’huile d’olive est un produit stratégique d’exportation. Il joue un rôle économique, social et environnemental important en contribuant à la réalisation des objectifs nationaux de sécurité alimentaire, de création d’emploi, d’équilibre de la balance com...

  11. Qualitative Mapping of Structural Different Polypeptide Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Jensen, Jason; Castillo, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    that it is possible to distinguish between these three types of structures using this method. Further, an agreement between the detected signal and the structure of the hollow peptide was demonstrated; however only qualitative agreement with the mathematical expressing of the tubes is shown.......Biological self-assembled structures are receiving increasing focus within micro- and nanotechnology, for example, as sensing devices, due to the fact that they are cheap to produce and easy to functionalize. Therefore, methods for the characterization of these structures are much needed...

  12. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BOBWHITE QUAIL POPULATION MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先义; 朱德明

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the qualitative behavior of solutions of the bobwhite quail pop-ulation modelwhere 0 < a < 1 < a + b,p,c ∈ (0, ∞) and k is a nonnegative integer, is investigated.Some necessary and suficient as well as sufficient conditions for all solutions of the modelto oscillate and some sufficient conditions for all positive solutions of the model to benonoscillatory and the convergence of nonoscillatory solutions are derived. Furthermore,the permanence of every positive solution of the model is also showed. Many known resultsare improved and extended and some new results are obtained for G. Ladas' open problems.

  13. Mobile non-destructive assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colarusso, A.P.; Audas, J.H.; Bieri, J.M.; Herrera, G.C.; Hastings, R.D.; Horton, W.S.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Medvick, P.A.; Vogel, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    A mobile system for non-destructive assay (NDA), developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides accurate and sensitive measurements for transuranic (TRU) isotopes contained in 208-iota drums of miscellaneous nuclear wastes. The NDA unit consists of four major subsystems: an assay chamber, counting and digital electronics, data acquisition, and a neutron generator. It performs both active and passive neutron waste measurements. The former determines the amount of fissile isotopes at a sensitivity level of 1 mg plutonium. The latter determines spontaneous fission and ..cap alpha..,n) isotopes at a comparable level. A complete assay consists of sequential active and passive measurements. The assay measurement and other supporting data are incorporated in a commercial spreadsheet program (Lotus 1,2,3) for further analysis, which includes various matrix corrections and a determination of whether or not the drum exceeds the 100-nCi/g threshold for TRU wastes. Field tests have been performed on three separate occasions, accomplishing more than 1800 waste drum assays. These waste drum assays are discussed, especially those comparing passive and active neutron measurements with independent segmented gamma scan assays. Results obtained with a set of 15 drums containing plutonium prepared from standards and actual hot waste matrices are also reviewed.

  14. Nano-immunosafety: issues in assay validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boraschi, Diana; Italiani, Paola [Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Oostingh, Gertie J; Duschl, Albert [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Casals, Eudald; Puntes, Victor F [Institut Catala de Nanotecnologia, Campus de la UAB - Facultat de Ciencies, Edifici CM7, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Nelissen, Inge, E-mail: diana.boraschi@itb.cnr.it [VITO NV, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-07-06

    Assessing the safety of engineered nanomaterials for human health must include a thorough evaluation of their effects on the immune system, which is responsible for defending the integrity of our body from damage and disease. An array of robust and representative assays should be set up and validated, which could be predictive of the effects of nanomaterials on immune responses. In a trans-European collaborative work, in vitro assays have been developed to this end. In vitro tests have been preferred for their suitability to standardisation and easier applicability. Adapting classical assays to testing the immunotoxicological effects of nanoparticulate materials has raised a series of issues that needed to be appropriately addressed in order to ensure reliability of results. Besides the exquisitely immunological problem of selecting representative endpoints predictive of the risk of developing disease, assay results turned out to be significantly biased by artefactual interference of the nanomaterials or contaminating agents with the assay protocol. Having addressed such problems, a series of robust and representative assays have been developed that describe the effects of engineered nanoparticles on professional and non-professional human defence cells. Two of such assays are described here, one based on primary human monocytes and the other employing human lung epithelial cells transfected with a reporter gene.

  15. Qualitative health psychology research: diversity, power, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-04-01

    This special issue showcases a range of qualitative research projects conducted by health psychologists with a view to promoting greater uptake and development of qualitative research methods in the field. It is timely because qualitative methods have become prominent across psychology and health research and because major health research funders are now inviting qualitative research to help give voice to patient experiences. As a whole, the papers demonstrate the diversity, power, and impact of qualitative research conducted in health-related settings and show how traditional health psychology methods and concepts can be enriched in the process.

  16. Role of receptor occupancy assays by flow cytometry in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer J; Green, Cherie L; Jones, Nicholas; Liang, Meina; Xu, Yuanxin; Wilkins, Danice E C; Moulard, Maxime; Czechowska, Kamila; Lanham, David; McCloskey, Thomas W; Ferbas, John; van der Strate, Barry W A; Högerkorp, Carl-Magnus; Wyant, Timothy; Lackey, Alan; Litwin, Virginia

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of the binding of a biotherapeutic to its cellular target, receptor occupancy (RO), is increasingly important in development of biologically-based therapeutic agents. Receptor occupancy (RO) assays by flow cytometry describe the qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of the binding of a therapeutic agent to its cell surface target. Such RO assays can be as simple as measuring the number of cell surface receptors bound by an antireceptor therapeutic agent or can be designed to address more complicated scenarios such as internalization or shedding events once a receptor engages the administered therapeutic agent. Data generated from RO assays can also be used to model whether given doses of an experimental therapeutic agent and their administration schedules lead to predicted levels of receptor occupancy and whether the receptor is modulated (up or down) on cells engaged by the therapeutic agent. There are a variety of approaches that can be used when undertaking RO assays and with the ability to measure distinct subsets in heterogeneous populations, flow cytometry is ideally suited to RO measurements. This article highlights the importance of RO assays on the flow cytometric platform in the development of biotherapeutic agents.

  17. What is Comet assay not telling us: AFLP reveals wider aspects of genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrut, Maja; Štambuk, Anamaria; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2013-06-01

    DNA damage detected by genotoxicity biomarkers such as the Comet assay is not always a reliable indicator of the consequences that genotoxic agents can have on the genome integrity of the exposed organisms. Therefore, to reveal the existence of more permanent alterations of DNA structure after genotoxic stress, the RTG-2 rainbow trout cell line was exposed for 3 days to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P, 0.1-10 μM) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS, 0.1-1mM) followed by 3 days of recovery period. Primary DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay and DNA alterations were assessed using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism). Qualitative and quantitative modifications in AFLP profiles were analyzed in order to detect genetic alterations arising from mutation events and/or DNA damage. Significant induction in DNA damage measured by the Comet assay was noticed after B[a]P treatment at all concentrations but values returned to the control level after recovery. Exposure to EMS induced significant DNA damage only at the highest concentration and damage persisted after the recovery period. AFLP profiles detected DNA alterations even when Comet assay indicated complete DNA repair, revealing more persistent damage. Since such DNA damage can impair its structure and function, Comet assay results should preferably be supplemented with other methods in order to predict the consequences of genotoxic insult more accurately.

  18. Determination of cell survival after irradiation via clonogenic assay versus multiple MTT Assay - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buch Karl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water insoluble formazan dye by living cells was modified from a single-point towards a proliferation assay. This assay can be performed with a large number of samples in short time using multi-well-plates, assays can be performed semi-automatically with a microplate reader. Survival, the calculated parameter in this assay, is determined mathematically. Exponential growth in both control and irradiated groups was proven as the underlying basis of the applicability of the multiple MTT assay. The equivalence to a clonogenic survival assay with its disadvantages such as time consumption was proven in two setups including plating of cells before and after irradiation. Three cell lines (A 549, LN 229 and F 98 were included in the experiment to study its principal and general applicability.

  19. The Constant Comparative Method of Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the general approaches to the analysis of qualitative data are these:1. If the analyst wishes to convert qualitative data into crudely quantifiable form so that he can provisionally test a hypothesis, he codes the data first and then analyzes it. He makes an effort to code “all relevant data [that] can be brought to bear on a point,” and then systematically assembles, assesses and analyzes these data in a fashion that will “constitute proof for a given proposition.”i2. If the analyst wishes only to generate theoretical ideasnew categories and their properties, hypotheses and interrelated hypotheses- he cannot be confined to the practice of coding first and then analyzing the data since, in generating theory, he is constantly redesigning and reintegrating his theoretical notions as he reviews his material.ii Analysis with his purpose, but the explicit coding itself often seems an unnecessary, burdensome task. As a result, the analyst merely inspects his data for new properties of his theoretical categories, and writes memos on these properties.We wish to suggest a third approach

  20. [Qualitative analysis: theory, steps and reliability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This essay seeks to conduct in-depth analysis of qualitative research, based on benchmark authors and the author's own experience. The hypothesis is that in order for an analysis to be considered reliable, it needs to be based on structuring terms of qualitative research, namely the verbs 'comprehend' and 'interpret', and the nouns 'experience', 'common sense' and 'social action'. The 10 steps begin with the construction of the scientific object by its inclusion on the national and international agenda; the development of tools that make the theoretical concepts tangible; conducting field work that involves the researcher empathetically with the participants in the use of various techniques and approaches, making it possible to build relationships, observations and a narrative with perspective. Finally, the author deals with the analysis proper, showing how the object, which has already been studied in all the previous steps, should become a second-order construct, in which the logic of the actors in their diversity and not merely their speech predominates. The final report must be a theoretic, contextual, concise and clear narrative.

  1. Sensing qualitative events to control manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Polly K.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1992-11-01

    Dexterous robotic hands have numerous sensors distributed over a flexible high-degree-of- freedom framework. Control of these hands often relies on a detailed task description that is either specified a priori or computed on-line from sensory feedback. Such controllers are complex and may use unnecessary precision. In contrast, one can incorporate plan cues that provide a contextual backdrop in order to simplify the control task. To demonstrate, a Utah/MIT dexterous hand mounted on a Puma 760 arm flips a plastic egg, using the finger tendon tensions as the sole control signal. The completion of each subtask, such as picking up the spatula, finding the pan, and sliding the spatula under the egg, is detected by sensing tension states. The strategy depends on the task context but does not require precise positioning knowledge. We term this qualitative manipulation to draw a parallel with qualitative vision strategies. The approach is to design closed-loop programs that detect significant events to control manipulation but ignore inessential details. The strategy is generalized by analyzing the robot state dynamics during teleoperated hand actions to reveal the essential features that control each action.

  2. Qualitative Methodology in Analyzing Educational Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiological analysis of educational phenomena allow researchers access to a multidimensional universe of meanings that is represented by the school, not so much seen as an institution, but as a vector of social action through educational strategies. We consider education as a multidimensional phenomenon since its analysis allows the researcher to explore a variety of research hypotheses of different paradigmatic perspectives that converge in an educational finality. According to the author Simona Branc one of the most appropriate methods used in qualitative data analysis is Grounded Theory; this one assumes a systematic process of generating concepts and theories based on the data collected. Specialised literature defines Grounded Theory as an inductive approach that starts with general observations and during the analytical process creates conceptual categories that explain the theme explored. Research insist on the role of the sociologic theory of managing the research data and for providing ways of conceptualizing the descriptions and explanations.Qualitative content analysis is based on the constructivist paradigm (constructionist in the restricted sense that we used previously. It aims to create an “understanding of the latent meanings of the analyzed messages”. Quantitative content analysis involves a process of encoding and statistical analysis of data extracted from the content of the paper in the form of extractions like: frequencies, contingency analysis, etc

  3. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  4. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis).

  5. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2016-09-14

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principle investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  6. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  7. 21 CFR 864.7250 - Erythropoietin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... erythropoietin (an enzyme that regulates the production of red blood cells) in serum or urine. This assay provides diagnostic information for the evaluation of erythrocytosis (increased total red cell mass)...

  8. Qualitative interaction trees: A tool to identify qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Mechelen, I. van

    2014-01-01

    When two alternative treatments (A and B) are available, some subgroup of patients may display a better outcome with treatment A than with B, whereas for another subgroup, the reverse may be true. If this is the case, a qualitative (i.e., disordinal) treatment-subgroup interaction is present. Such i

  9. How qualitative data analysis software may support the qualitative analysis process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, V.A.M.; Wester, F.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The last decades have shown large progress in the elaboration of procedures for qualitative data analysis and in the development of computer programs to support this kind of analysis. We believe, however, that the link between methodology and computer software tools is too loose, especially for a no

  10. Variables Affecting Two Electron Transport System Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, G. Allen; Lanza, Guy R.

    1986-01-01

    Several methodological variables were critical in two commonly used electron transport activity assays. The dehydrogenase assay based on triphenyl formazan production exhibited a nonlinear relationship between formazan production (dehydrogenase activity) and sediment dilution, and linear formazan production occurred for 1 h in sediment slurries. Activity decreased with increased time of sediment storage at 4°C. Extraction efficiencies of formazan from sediment varied with alcohol type; methan...

  11. Electrochemical Assay of Gold-Plating Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, R.

    1982-01-01

    Gold content of plating solution is assayed by simple method that required only ordinary electrochemical laboratory equipment and materials. Technique involves electrodeposition of gold from solution onto electrode, the weight gain of which is measured. Suitable fast assay methods are economically and practically necessary in electronics and decorative-plating industries. If gold content in plating bath is too low, poor plating may result, with consequent economic loss to user.

  12. The comet assay: a heavenly method!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue of Mutagenesis have been selected to cover the main research areas served by the comet assay, namely genotoxicology, environmental toxicology, human biomonitoring and fundamental investigations into mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. Innovative methods are described, technical issues are explored, and guidelines are given for venturing into relatively new or unexploited areas of research. The popularity of the comet assay in a historical context is illustrated by a bibliometric survey.

  13. Hepatitis C virus: Screening, diagnosis, and interpretation of laboratory assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An estimated 3% of the world population is infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV, a hepatotropic RNA virus, transmitted primarily via the blood route. The major modes of transmission of the virus include injection drug use, unsafe injection practices, blood transfusion etc. HCV causes chronic hepatitis in about 80% of those infected by it. The mainstay in diagnosing infection with HCV is to initially screen high risk groups for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV. The inclusion of serum to cut-off ratio (S/CO in recent guidelines is helpful in deciding the supplemental assay to be used to confirm initially reactive screening results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAT are used as confirmatory tools, and also to determine viral load prior to initiating treatment. Quantitative NAT has replaced qualitative assays. Genotyping is an important tool in clinical management to predict the likelihood of response and determine the optimal duration of therapy. The impact of this infection has begun to emerge in India. The problem of professional blood donation despite an existing law against it, and flourishing unsafe injection practices, are potential sources for the spread of hepatitis C in our country. All health care practitioners need to understand how to establish or exclude a diagnosis of HCV infection and to interpret the tests correctly. In the absence of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine, and also of post-exposure prophylaxis against the virus, it is imperative to diagnose infection by HCV so as to prevent hepatic insult and the ensuing complications that follow, including primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This review aims to help blood bank staff regarding options for diagnosis and management of donors positive for HCV.

  14. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.

    2006-01-01

    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  15. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs.

  16. Qualitative Research in Communication. Introductory Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Yeomans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century’s epistemological turn in social sciences (Denzin & Lincoln, 1994; Punch, 2013 acknowledged the importance of qualitative research methods. The need for this turn was also pointed out by Habermas (1979, who noticed that the way data was collected in social sciences affected the analysis and data interpretation. Research gained a comprehensive character and proposed a phenomenological approach of reality (Guba & Lincoln, 1994; Willig, 2008; Lindlof & Taylor, 2011. Nowadays, we notice a “more confident community of scholars” whose earlier endeavors had “opened up the study of cultures, meanings, symbolic performances, and social practices” (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002, p. xi.

  17. Visual Information Processing Based on Qualitative Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; LIU Yongchang; LI Chao

    2007-01-01

    Visual information processing is not only an important research direction in fields of psychology,neuroscience and artificial intelligence etc,but also the research base on biological recognition theory and technology realization.Visual information processing in existence,e.g.visual information processing facing to nerve calculation,visual information processing using substance shape distilling and wavelet under high yawp,ANN visual information processing and etc,are very complex in comparison.Using qualitative Mapping,this text describes the specific attributes in the course of visual information processing and the results are more brief and straightforward.So the software program of vision recognition is probably easier to realize.

  18. Qualitative dynamics of wavepackets in turbulent jets

    CERN Document Server

    Semeraro, Onofrio; Pastur, Luc; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that turbulent jets comprise large-scale coherent structures, now more commonly referred to as "wavepackets". These structures exhibit a remarkable spatio-temporal organisation, despite turbulence. In this work we analyse, from a qualitative point of view, the temporal dynamics of axisymmetric wavepackets educed, experimentally, from subsonic iso-thermal jets. We use the data presented by, where time-series of the wavepackets are extracted at different streamwise locations. A thorough analysis is performed, statistical tools are used for estimating the embedding and correlation dimensions characterising the dynamical system. System identification is used for computing nonlinear surrogate models. Finally, control-oriented linear models are computed. The goal of the contribution is to assess the extent to which non-linear models are necessary, or appropriate, for description of the temporal wave-packet dynamics and to provide a complementary perspective to the current modelling.

  19. The qualitative indicators in human resource accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zámečník

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article. The paper focuses on one of the “non-traditional” fields of the Human Resources Management System – i.e. Human Resource Accounting (hereinafter referred to as “HRA”. It presents HRA as an integral part of the Human Resources Management System and an important tool for measuring Human Resources Key Performance Indicators (hereinafter referred to as “HR KPIs” in an enterprise. The focal point of this paper is the analysis of the possibilities of using the qualitative indicators of HRA in a selected industrial enterprise. The measurement of these qualitative values and their enumeration is one of the main problems of HRA, e.g. motivation, employees’ satisfaction, the quality of individual employees’ competencies, or performance assessments of employees can be ranked among such instruments. Therefore, the paper discusses problems related with the use of the mathematical-statistical analysis methods for measurement of these qualitative values that have been chosen very carefully. The fundamental tool used in this process is a cluster analysis and its use when preparing motivational programs. The paper will also deal with an outline of motivational factors analysis methods in a selected industrial enterprise. The results of the analysis. The result of the study indicates that when solving the problems from above we can use the selected mathematical-statistical methods, or combination of these, e.g. using the factor and cluster analysis at once. We are planning to concentrate on the following topics when working on another research in the near future: 1. The use of Spearman’s correlation coefficient (evaluation of the statistical correlation importance for the purposes mentioned below: - comparison of employees’motivational structure in various fields of industry; - comparison of employees’ motivational structure in enterprises of the same field of industry - wood processing industry and furniture

  20. Qualitative inquiries into social representations of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, U

    2000-05-01

    Concepts of health and illness have been a major topic for social representations research. Whereas studies on cognitive representations of health and illness develop a general, decontextualized schema of illness, social representations research focuses on the diversity of lay concepts of health and illness and how health and illness are socially constructed in different contexts. Two qualitative studies about the social representations of health are presented. The episodic interview and theoretical coding were used to study health concepts of nurses and clerks in East and West Germany and among Portuguese and German women. Results in both studies show different forms of awareness of health as the core of the health concepts in the various groups. Social representations theory connects these differences back to the political and cultural backgrounds of the study participants.

  1. Feelings and Intersubjectivity in Qualitative Suicide Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally.

  2. [The relationship between qualitative research and positivism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-I; Lee, Li-Hung; Tzeng, Wen-Chii

    2008-10-01

    Historically, positivism has been the dominant approach in the philosophy of science. In nursing, most quantitative researchers tend to employ positivism as their epistemological underpinning, which could be why positivism has long been identified as the epistemology of quantitative research. It can be argued, however, that some of the procedures of qualitative research reflect the perspectives on which positivists insist. This article takes grounded theory and phenomenology as examples, in order to observe how positivism influences their methodologies, evidence obtained is then used to support the aruthors' arguments. The article, furthermore encourages beginning researchers to familiarize themselves with background knowledge of philosophy of social sciences, especially epistemologies and methodologies, in order to make clear the philosophical context in which their research is conducted.

  3. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  4. Troubling qualitative research/Troubling empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    This presentation aims to trouble the concept of empathy in qualitative inquiry from two perspectives having a phenomenological approach. As a supervisor I see students regard interviews as untouchable and be reluctant to bring in theory in their analysis because of empathy towards the interviewees....... As a researcher I experience problems interviewing nurses having focus on their “use of empathy” in the context of their institutional identity together with examining three other concepts: professional, personal and private. Concepts current in professions which focus on human relationships as – among others...... - nursing, teaching as well as the profession of psychologists. Thus, I want to problematize this dual perspective: empathy embedded in the method and as a theme or topic in interviews with professionals and the assumption that empathy might expand as well as limit the results of inquiry within different...

  5. Qualité et DRG : mariage impossible ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Les DRG, Diagnosis Related Groups, sont une classification permettant de regrouper les hospitalisations de soins aigus en fonction des affections traitées et des coûts engendrés. Ils ont été développes dans les années 70 à l'université de Yale aux Etats-Unis par le professeur Robert Fetter dans le but de standardiser les clientèles hospitalières dans un objectif de contrôle qualité. En Suisse, le financement en APDRG a commencé comme un projet pilote à Lausanne en 2002. Ce dernier a été re...

  6. Quality in Qualitative Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the quality of Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management (QRAM) is manifested through the conceptualization of knowledge about functioning actions that are applicable for local management accounting practices. Design...... to the development of a performativity in management accounting topos that integrates facts, possibilities, value and communication. Findings: The analysis documents that the three QRAM articles on inter-organizational cost management make a common contribution to the knowledge related to what to do to make......, the paper has implications for contemporary discussions on doing research that is relevant for practice. Originality/value: The paper provides novel insight into the analysis of quality in management accounting research. Additionally, it provides a framework for reflecting on the accumulation of practice...

  7. Comparative qualitative research in Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis......The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... of situated social interaction with ethnographic procedures that address the sociocultural embeddedness of these interactional practices. We illustrate this approach by examining analyses drawn on a comparative study program conducted on middle class families in Los Angeles and Rome. Finally, we will discuss...

  8. Cardinal Direction Relations in Qualitative Spatial Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman L. Sabharwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Representation and reasoning with spatial information is a fundamental aspect of artificial intelligence. Qualitative methods have become prominent in spatial reasoning. In geophysical explorations, one of the aspects is to determine compass direction between the regions. In this paper, we present an efficient approach to cardinal directions between free form regions. The development is very simple, mathematically sound and can be implemented efficiently. The extension to 3D is seamless; it needs no additional formulation for transition from 2D to 3D.It has no adverse impact on the computational efficiency, as the technique is akin to 2D. This work is directly applicable to geographical information systems for location determination, robot navigation, and spatio-temporal networks databases where direction changes frequently

  9. Cell-based semiquantitative assay for sulfated glycosaminoglycans facilitating the identification of chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ching-Yu; Wu, Yu-Wei; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Yeh, Min-I; Lin, Yi-Ming; Lee, Sheng-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), in particular chondroitin sulfate, are an accepted marker of chondrogenic cells. In this study, a cell-based sulfated GAG assay for identifying the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells was developed. Based on fluorescent staining using safranin O and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), this method was highly sensitive. The results were both qualitative and quantitative. The method is suitable for identifying the chondrogenic process and also for screening compounds. The method may be helpful for discovering novel bioactive compounds for cartilage regeneration.

  10. Adherence measured by microtiter assay as a virulence marker for Staphylococcus epidermidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deighton, M A; Balkau, B

    1990-11-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from clinical sources showed a wide range of abilities to adhere to glass and plastic materials. The degree of adherence depended on a number of factors, most notably, the composition of the growth medium. Adherence was enhanced by the addition of glucose or oleic acid to the growth medium and inhibited by serum. We have demonstrated a statistically significant association between the quantitative assessment of adherence to polystyrene tissue culture plates and clinical relevance. No such association was found when adherence was assessed by the qualitative adherence assay. Possible new approaches for assessing the clinical relevance of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates are discussed.

  11. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  12. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  13. Value of qualitative research in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hongxia; Liang Huiling; Gao Jingshu; Ma Hongli; Liu Jianping; Ng Hungyu Ernest; Billhult Annika

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article aims to introduce the benefits of qualitative research and to discuss how such research can be applied to the study of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Data sources Relevant articles were published in English as of May 2013 from Pubmed.Terms "polycystic ovary syndrome/PCOS,qualitative research and methodology" were used for searching.Study selection Articles studying PCOS with qualitative methods were reviewed.Articles associated with the use of qualitative research in clinical research were cited.Results Six qualitative studies related to PCOS were found in the literature search.These studies addressed different aspects in PCOS women including their womanhood,lived experience,information need,and experience of treatment with acupuncture.Five of these six studies used phenomenology as guiding theory.Conclusion Quantitative research has been the dominant approach in the field so far,qualitative research is relevant to the advancement of PCOS.

  14. Combination and Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I am going to outline ways of combining qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis on five levels. On the technical level, programs for the computer-aided analysis of qualitative data offer various combinations. Where the data are concerned, the employment of categories (for instance by using qualitative content analysis allows for combining qualitative and quantitative forms of data analysis. On the individual level, the creation of types and the inductive generalisation of cases allow for proceeding from individual case material to quantitative generalisations. As for research design, different models can be distinguished (preliminary study, generalisation, elaboration, triangulation which combine qualitative and quantitative steps of analysis. Where the logic of research is concerned, it can be shown that an extended process model which combined qualitative and quantitative research can be appropriate and thus lead to an integration of the two approaches. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs010162

  15. Methodological pluralism as a vehicle of qualitative generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative framework for making analytical generalizations in qualitative research. In order to achieve this purpose it contends that the multimethodological strategy, now readily accepted in many qualitative quarters, of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods...... by applying them one after the other in a sequential manner can be supplemented by a multimethod strategy which combines qualitative and quantitative in an integrative manner which synthesizes the two approaches into one empirical design. The article argues that by combining qualitative and quantitative...... analysis and interpretation of the same data material using the Q-methodological approach it is possible to overcome interpretive opacity – always the Achilles’ heel of an exclusively qualitative procedure of generalization. The proposal is substantiated empirically by applying the integrative approach...

  16. Travelling Methods: Tracing the Globalization of Qualitative Communication Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan C. Taylor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Existing discussion of the relationships between globalization, communication research, and qualitative methods emphasizes two images: the challenges posed by globalization to existing communication theory and research methods, and the impact of post-colonial politics and ethics on qualitative research. We draw in this paper on a third image – qualitative research methods as artifacts of globalization – to explore the globalization of qualitative communication research methods. Following a review of literature which tentatively models this process, we discuss two case studies of qualitative research in the disciplinary subfields of intercultural communication and media audience studies. These cases elaborate the forces which influence the articulation of national, disciplinary, and methodological identities which mediate the globalization of qualitative communication research methods.

  17. Detection of Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan with A Monoclonal Antibody Qualitative ELISA in Urine of Tuberculous Meningitis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Rachmayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis. The diagnostic approach of tuberculous meningitis is difficult. Combination of clinical, laboratory and radiological criteria were used in diagnostic approach of tuberculous meningitis. Urinary mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM antigen detection is a promising diagnostic tool. Detection of mycobacterial antigen in concentrated urine sample is predicted to improve the positivity rate of the qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA diagnostic tool. The purpose of this study is to examine the detection ability of a monoclonal antibody qualitative ELISA in concentrated and unconcentrated urine of tuberculous meningitis patients. METHODS: This research is a descriptive, cross-sectionally designed. The study was conducted in the Clinical Pathology Department laboratory of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital, in July-October 2014. A total of 27 patients diagnosed as tuberculous meningitis patients were included and the subjects were classified into possible and probable criteria according to consensus criteria. The subjects were classified as definite if the cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive for Mycobacterial tuberculosis growth. The subjects were examined for the presence of LAM in unconcentrated and concentrated urine with a monoclonal antibody qualitative ELISA method. RESULTS: Unconcentrated urinary LAM examination positivity was 0% while in concentrated urine was 14.8%. The positivity of concentrated urinary LAM were higher among the definite criteria group. CONCLUSION: Concentrating urine sample increase the positivity rate of urinary LAM detection with ELISA method as high as 14.8%. The urinary antigen detection is higher among the definite tuberculous meningitis patients. KEYWORDS: LAM, concentrated urine, tuberculous meningitis, qualitative ELISA

  18. Detection of Phaeocystis globosa using sandwich hybridization integrated with nuclease protection assay (NPA-SH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN Yu; MI Tiezhu; YU Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel is one of the common harmful algae species in coastal waters of the southeastern China. In this study, sandwich hybridization integrated with nuclease protection assay (NPA-SH) was used to qualitatively and quantitatively detect P. globosa. Results showed that this method had good applicability and validity in analyzing the samples from laboratory cultures and from fields. The linear regression equation for P. globosa was obtained, and the lowest detection number of cells was 1.8×104 cells. Statistics showed that there was no distinct difference between the results of detecting the microalgae by NPA-SH and traditional microscopy. This technique has good reliability, accuracy, and can give a remarkably high sample processing rate. Sandwich hybridization integrated with nuclease protection assay will provide an efficient alternative to microscopic method for monitoring and investigating the bloom of P. globosa.

  19. Impedance Analysis of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles in Chromatography Paper for Quantitation of an Immunochromatographic Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Fumitaka; Harada, Yuji; Kuretake, Tatsumi; Uno, Shigeyasu

    2016-01-01

    A detection method of gold nanoparticles in chromatography paper has been developed for a simple, cost-effective and reliable quantitation of immunochromatographic strip test. The time courses of the solution resistance in chromatography paper with the gold nanoparticles solution are electrochemically measured by chrono-impedimetry. The dependence of the solution resistance on the concentration of gold nanoparticles has been successfully observed. The main factor to increase the solution resistance may be obstruction of the ion transport due to the presence of gold nanoparticles. The existence of gold nanoparticles with 1.92 × 10(9) particles/mL in an indistinctly-colored chromatography paper is also identified by a solution resistance measurement. This indicates that the solution resistance assay has the potential to lower the detection limit of the conventional qualitative assay.

  20. Action of tumor initiators and promoters in the Syrian hamster embryo cell transformation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.A.; Huberman, E.

    1986-06-01

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay is unique among the rodent fibroblast transformation systems in that it uses normal, diploid cells. Alteration in the control of growth in carcinogen-treated cultures is used to indicate the onset of neoplastic development. An evaluation of the SHE assay for screening carcinogens is reported. Using coded chemicals, the degree of intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with the system was evaluated. Overall, there was a good qualitative correlation between the carcinogenicity of the chemicals and their ability to induce morphological cell transformation. Unfortunately, the low level of response and lack of good dose-response relationships with certain chemical are still major constraints to the use of this system in routine testing. Further consideration needs to be given to developing procedures that select for, or amplify, expression of the transformed phenotype. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Design and analysis of Q-RT-PCR assays for haematological malignancies using mixed effects models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgsted, Martin; Mandrup, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders;

    research use and needs qualit control for accuracy and precision. Especially the identification of experimental variations and statistical analysis has recently created discussions. The standard analytical technique is to use the Delta-Delta-Ct method. Although this method accounts for sample specific...... variations such as RNA purification, it does not account for other experimental effects as variations in cDNA synthesis, amplification efficiency and assay variations. To obtain an assessment of the accuracy and precision of the assays a novel approach for the statistical analysis of Q-RT-PCR has been...... developed based on a linear mixed effects model for factorial designs. The model consists of an analysis of variance where the variation of each fixed effect of interest and identified experimental and biological nuisance variations are split. Hereby it accounts for varying efficiency, inhomogeneous...

  2. Using the CPTAC Assay Portal to identify and implement highly characterized targeted proteomics assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R; Halusa, Goran N; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John A; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Abbatiello, Susan E; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri R; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Fenyö, David; Hiltke, Tara; Ketchum, Karen A.; Kinsinger, Chris; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel C.; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael J; Qian, Wei-Jun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly V; Scott, Mitchell G; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani; Townsend, R. Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Rodriguez, Henry; Paulovich, Amanda G

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as an open-source repository of well-characterized targeted proteomic assays. The portal is designed to curate and disseminate highly characterized, targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays by providing detailed assay performance characterization data, standard operating procedures, and access to reagents. Assay content is accessed via the portal through queries to find assays targeting proteins associated with specific cellular pathways, protein complexes, or specific chromosomal regions. The position of the peptide analytes for which there are available assays are mapped relative to other features of interest in the protein, such as sequence domains, isoforms, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and post-translational modifications. The overarching goals are to enable robust quantification of all human proteins and to standardize the quantification of targeted MS-based assays to ultimately enable harmonization of results over time and across laboratories. PMID:26867747

  3. Using the CPTAC Assay Portal to identify and implement highly characterized targeted proteomics assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Rodriguez, Henry; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2016-02-12

    The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as an open-source repository of well-characterized targeted proteomic assays. The portal is designed to curate and disseminate highly characterized, targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based assays by providing detailed assay performance characterization data, standard operating procedures, and access to reagents. Assay content is accessed via the portal through queries to find assays targeting proteins associated with specific cellular pathways, protein complexes, or specific chromosomal regions. The position of the peptide analytes for which there are available assays are mapped relative to other features of interest in the protein, such as sequence domains, isoforms, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and post-translational modifications. The overarching goals are to enable robust quantification of all human proteins and to standardize the quantification of targeted MS-based assays to ultimately enable harmonization of results over time and across laboratories.

  4. Identification of irradiated refrigerated poultry with the DNA comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Araujo, M.M.; Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2004-10-01

    Food irradiation could make a significant contribution to the reduction of food-borne diseases caused by harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and parasites. In fact these organisms cause an increasing number of diseases and eventually deaths all over the world, also in industrialized countries. Radiation processing has the advantage that in addition to eliminating pathogens, thereby enhancing food safety, it also extends shelf life through destruction of spoilage organisms. The DNA molecule because of its big size is an easy target for ionizing radiation, therefore, changes in DNA offer potential to be used as a detection method for the irradiation treatment. In our study, poultry has been irradiated and changes in DNA analyzed by the Comet Assay. Samples were packed in plastic bags and irradiated. Doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (4 deg. C). Samples were analyzed 1 and 10 days after irradiation. This method proved to be an inexpensive and rapid screening technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  5. Identification of irradiated refrigerated poultry with the DNA comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation could make a significant contribution to the reduction of food-borne diseases caused by harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and parasites. In fact these organisms cause an increasing number of diseases and eventually deaths all over the world, also in industrialized countries. Radiation processing has the advantage that in addition to eliminating pathogens, thereby enhancing food safety, it also extends shelf life through destruction of spoilage organisms. The DNA molecule because of its big size is an easy target for ionizing radiation, therefore, changes in DNA offer potential to be used as a detection method for the irradiation treatment. In our study, poultry has been irradiated and changes in DNA analyzed by the Comet Assay. Samples were packed in plastic bags and irradiated. Doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (4°C). Samples were analyzed 1 and 10 days after irradiation. This method proved to be an inexpensive and rapid screening technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  6. Research highlights: digital assays on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wei, Qingshan; Kong, Janay Elise; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-01-07

    The ability to break up a volume of fluid into smaller pieces that are confined or separated to prevent molecular communication/transport is a key capability intrinsic to microfluidic systems. This capability has been used to develop or implement digital versions of traditional molecular analysis assays, including digital PCR and digital immunoassays/ELISA. In these digital versions, the concentration of the target analyte is in a range such that, when sampled into smaller fluid volumes, either a single molecule or no molecule may be present. Subsequent amplification is sensitive enough to obtain a digital readout of the presence of these target molecules. Advantages of such approaches that are claimed include quantification without calibration and robustness to variations in reaction conditions or times because the digital readout is less sensitive to absolute signal intensity levels. Weaknesses of digital approaches include a lower dynamic range of concentrations over which the assay is sensitive, which depends on the total volume that can be analyzed. We highlight recent efforts to expand the dynamic range of digital assays based on exploiting reaction/diffusion phenomena. A side-by-side study that evaluates the strengths of digital assays reveals that the majority of these claims are supported, with specific caveats. Finally, we highlight approaches to apply digital assays to analyze new types of reactions, including the active transport of protons across membranes by ATPases at the single protein level - perhaps opening up new biophysical understanding and screening opportunities, similar to widely deployed single-molecule ion channel analysis.

  7. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  8. An Introduction to Qualitative Research for Food and Nutrition Professionals.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article defines qualitative research as applied in the field of dietetics to increase knowledge and competency in evaluating this type of research. The authors explain the design of qualitative studies, explore congruence with quantitative research, and provide examples of applications in dietetics, stressing the importance of ensuring validity and reliability of qualitative measures. The article aims to help food and nutrition professionals add to the body of peer-reviewed, dietetics-re...

  9. Practical Qualitative Research Strategies: Training Interviewers and Coders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L Suzanne; Stage, Virginia C; Cooke, Natalie K

    2016-09-01

    The increased emphasis on incorporating qualitative methodologies into nutrition education development and evaluation underscores the importance of using rigorous protocols to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings. A 5-phase protocol for training qualitative research assistants (data collectors and coders) was developed as an approach to increase the consistency of the data produced. This training provides exposure to the core principles of qualitative research and then asks the research assistant to apply those principles through practice in a setting structured on critical reflection.

  10. Understanding the Processes of Translation and Transliteration in Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Krishna; Naidoo, Jennie; Pilkington, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of qualitative methods in health research amongst health and social care professionals. Good qualitative cross-cultural research analysis is not an easy task as it involves knowledge of different approaches, techniques and command of the appropriate languages. This article aims to discuss and explore some of the key processes and concepts involved in conducting translation and transliteration of qualitative research.

  11. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  12. Qualitative research and consumer psychology: alternatives for application

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia Morales, Andrea; López López, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative research is a research strategy used to analyze the reality. When applied to consumer psychology, it allows a deeper knowledge about consumer’s behavior and associated emotions and motivations. Qualitative research goes beyond the description of buyers’ behavior and shows information about how and why that behavior is produced.The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how qualitative research is relevant for the knowledge and the understanding of consumers’ behavior and how, thr...

  13. The quantitative/qualitative watershed for rules of uncertain inference

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, James; Makinson, David C.

    2007-01-01

    We chart the ways in which closure properties of consequence relations for uncertain inference take on different forms according to whether the relations are generated in a quantitative or a qualitative manner. Among the main themes are: the identification of watershed conditions between probabilistically and qualitatively sound rules; failsafe and classicality transforms of qualitatively sound rules; non-Horn conditions satisfied by probabilistic consequence; representation and completeness ...

  14. Understanding the Processes of Translation and Transliteration in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Regmi FHEA, MPH, PGDip, PGCert. PhD Researcher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in the use of qualitative methods in health research amongst health and social care professionals. Good qualitative cross-cultural research analysis is not an easy task as it involves knowledge of different approaches, techniques and command of the appropriate languages. This article aims to discuss and explore some of the key processes and concepts involved in conducting translation and transliteration of qualitative research.

  15. The Four Methods of Qualitative Research in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧

    1996-01-01

    "Research is a systematic investigation to find answers to a problem" ( Introduction to Research Methods in Deucation 1990:1). Educational research, like research in the other areas, includes quantitative and qualitative methods, both of which are equally important, but serve different roles. Qualitative research focuses on people' s behaviour, attitudes, opinions and so on. Then, what is the nature of qualitative research? Upon what assumption is it based? This paper will try to address four qualitative methods - survey, case study, action research and ethnography to look at how each of them works in educational research.

  16. Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie

    2003-07-01

    Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology study is a double challenge because of the emergent nature of qualitative research design and because a methodology study entails describing a process to produce a process. How the authors addressed this challenge is shown in the annotated text of the grant proposal--"Analytic Techniques for Qualitative Metasynthesis"--funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. Appealing qualitative research proposals adhere to principles that engage writers and readers in an informative and mutually respectful interaction.

  17. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.

  18. Promoting and evaluating scientific rigour in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-15

    This article explores perspectives on qualitative research and the variety of views concerning rigour in the research process. Evaluating and ensuring the quality of research are essential considerations for practitioners who are appraising evidence to inform their practice or research. Several criteria and principles for evaluating quality in qualitative research are presented, recognising that their application in practice is influenced by the qualitative methodology used. The article examines a range of techniques that a qualitative researcher can use to promote rigour and apply it to practice.

  19. African Primary Care Research: qualitative data analysis and writing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Govender, Indiran; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African primary care research and gives practical guidance on qualitative data analysis and the presentation of qualitative findings. After an overview of qualitative methods and analytical approaches, the article focuses particularly on content analysis, using the framework method as an example. The steps of familiarisation, creating a thematic index, indexing, charting, interpretation and confirmation are described. Key concepts with regard to establishing the quality and trustworthiness of data analysis are described. Finally, an approach to the presentation of qualitative findings is given.

  20. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  1. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  2. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Englander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  3. Fungicide resistance assays for fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana V

    2012-01-01

    Fungicide resistance assays are useful to determine if a fungal pathogen has developed resistance to a fungicide used to manage the disease it causes. Laboratory assays are used to determine loss of sensitivity, or resistance, to a fungicide and can explain fungicide failures and for developing successful fungicide recommendations in the field. Laboratory assays for fungicide resistance are conducted by measuring reductions in growth or spore germination of fungi in the presence of fungicide, or by molecular procedures. This chapter describes two techniques for measuring fungicide resistance, using the sugarbeet leaf spot fungus Cercospora beticola as a model for the protocol. Two procedures are described for fungicides from two different classes; growth reduction for triazole (sterol demethylation inhibitor; DMI) fungicides, and inhibition of spore germination for quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides.

  4. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  5. EDTA interference in electrochemiluminescence ACTH assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprak, Burak; Yalcin, Hulya; Arı, Elif; Colak, Ayfer

    2016-11-01

    Background As plasma is the recommended sample type for Roche adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) assay, we evaluated the effect of EDTA concentration on Cobas ACTH assay. Methods Samples containing twofold and fourfold higher concentrations of EDTA were prepared by adding plasma to empty K2EDTA tubes and by making under-filled EDTA tubes. All measurements were performed with four replicates. Results Increased EDTA concentration resulted in a significant decrease in ACTH concentration. Fifty-per cent-filled EDTA tube showed 19% decrease in ACTH concentration and 25% filled EDTA tube showed 50% decrease in ACTH concentration. Conclusion We recommend that inadequately filled EDTA specimens should be rejected when using Cobas ACTH assay.

  6. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  7. Detection of Eperythrozoon wenyoni by PCR assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian WANG; Yutao ZHU; Jianhua QIN; Fumei ZHANG; Yuelan ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a detection method for Eperythrozoon wenyoni infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay technique. A pair of primers was designed and synthesized according to the conservative sequence 16S rRNA. The PCR assay was performed with the primers. A 985-bp fragment was amplified by using PCR. The amplified fragments with the expected size were identified by EcoR I restriction digestion. The crossing-reaction, specific-reaction and duplicate-reaction indicated that the PCR method is a specific, sensitive, fast and effective method for diagnosing E. Wenyoni infection at group level.

  8. Instructions for Uploading Data to the Assay Portal - Instructions for Uploading Data to the Assay Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides instructions for configuring and uploading data files to the CPTAC Assay Portal. It is divided into sections, with an overview checklist provided at the end. If help is needed at any stage of the process, please use the support page: https://assays.cancer.gov/support/

  9. Nurses, the Oppressed Oppressors: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooddehghan, Zahra; ParsaYekta, Zohreh; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht

    2015-03-18

    Healthcare equity, defined as rightful and fair care provision, is a key objective in all health systems. Nurses commonly experience cases of equity/inequity when caring for patients. The present study was the first to explain nurses' experience of equal care. A qualitative study sought to describe the experiences of 18 clinical nurses and nurse managers who were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were the nurses' familiarity with the subject of the study and willingness to participate. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, face-to-face interviews. The sampling continued up to data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and then transcribed word by word. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The major theme extracted in this study was the equation between submissiveness and oppression in nurses. It had two subthemes, namely the oppressed nurse and the oppressive nurse. The first subtheme comprised three categories including nurses' occupational dissatisfaction, discrimination between nursing personnel, and favoring physicians over nurses. The second subtheme consisted of three categories, namely habit-oriented care provision, inappropriate care delegation, and care rationing while neglecting patient needs. When equal care provision was concerned, the participating nurses fluctuated between states of oppression and submissiveness. Hence, equal conditions for nurses are essential to equal care provision. In fact, fair behavior toward nurses would lead to equity nursing care provision and increase satisfaction with the healthcare system.

  10. Qualitative Analysis for Maintenance Process Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Lionel; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio; Seaman, Carolyn; Basili, Victor

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve software maintenance processes, we first need to be able to characterize and assess them. These tasks must be performed in depth and with objectivity since the problems are complex. One approach is to set up a measurement-based software process improvement program specifically aimed at maintenance. However, establishing a measurement program requires that one understands the problems to be addressed by the measurement program and is able to characterize the maintenance environment and processes in order to collect suitable and cost-effective data. Also, enacting such a program and getting usable data sets takes time. A short term substitute is therefore needed. We propose in this paper a characterization process aimed specifically at maintenance and based on a general qualitative analysis methodology. This process is rigorously defined in order to be repeatable and usable by people who are not acquainted with such analysis procedures. A basic feature of our approach is that actual implemented software changes are analyzed in order to understand the flaws in the maintenance process. Guidelines are provided and a case study is shown that demonstrates the usefulness of the approach.

  11. [The narrative in qualitative research in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2014-04-01

    The marked interest of the human and social sciences in health in narrative studies has led to many forms of incorporation of these contributions in qualitative research in health. It is important to reflect on the contexts and characteristics of this incorporation. To accomplish this, we highlight the core theoretical issues involved and also situate this incorporation in the broader context of the scientific production in the human and social sciences in health. We also stress the contribution of the narrative studies for reflection upon the relations between social structure and action or between specific contexts of social interaction and broader societal contexts. This contribution can be identified in relations established through narrative between interpretation, experience and action throughout the health-disease-care process. It is argued that narratives not only organize interpretations, but can also represent a specific form of social agency. In this sense, the narrative interpretations and narrative performances can be seen as core elements in the social construction of experiences and trajectories of illness and care.

  12. Experiences of Kratom Users: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swogger, Marc T; Hart, Elaine; Erowid, Fire; Erowid, Earth; Trabold, Nicole; Yee, Kaila; Parkhurst, Kimberly A; Priddy, Brittany M; Walsh, Zach

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a psychoactive plant that has been used since at least 1836 in folk medicine in Southeast Asian countries. More recently, kratom has become widely available in the West and is used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. There has, however, been little scientific research into the short- and long-term effects of kratom in humans, and much of the information available is anecdotal. To supplement the increasing scientific understanding of kratom's pharmacology and research into its effects in animals, we report the results of a qualitative analysis of first-hand descriptions of human kratom use that were submitted to, and published by, a psychoactive substance information website (Erowid.org). Themes that emerged from these experience reports indicate that kratom may be useful for analgesia, mood elevation, anxiety reduction, and may aid opioid withdrawal management. Negative response themes also emerged, indicating potential problems and unfavorable "side" effects, especially stomach upset and vomiting. Based on our analyses, we present preliminary hypotheses for future examination in controlled, quantitative studies of kratom.

  13. Methodology for qualitative urban flooding risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João P; Almeida, Maria do Céu; Simões, Nuno E; Martins, André

    2013-01-01

    Pluvial or surface flooding can cause significant damage and disruption as it often affects highly urbanised areas. Therefore it is essential to accurately identify consequences and assess the risks associated with such phenomena. The aim of this study is to present the results and investigate the applicability of a qualitative flood risk assessment methodology in urban areas. This methodology benefits from recent developments in urban flood modelling, such as the dual-drainage modelling concept, namely one-dimensional automatic overland flow network delineation tools (e.g. AOFD) and 1D/1D models incorporating both surface and sewer drainage systems. To assess flood risk, the consequences can be estimated using hydraulic model results, such as water velocities and water depth results; the likelihood was estimated based on the return period of historical rainfall events. To test the methodology two rainfall events with return periods of 350 and 2 years observed in Alcântara (Lisbon, Portugal) were used and three consequence dimensions were considered: affected public transportation services, affected properties and pedestrian safety. The most affected areas in terms of flooding were easily identified; the presented methodology was shown to be easy to implement and effective to assess flooding risk in urban areas, despite the common difficulties in obtaining data.

  14. Heliconia phenotypic diversity based on qualitative descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, W N R; Martins, L S S; Castro, C E F; Carvalho Filho, J L S; Loges, V

    2014-04-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize Heliconia genotypes phenotypically using 26 qualitative descriptors. The evaluations were conducted in five flowering stems per clump in three replicates of 22 Heliconia genotypes. Data were subjected to multivariate analysis, the Mahalanobis dissimilarity measure was estimated, and the dendrogram was generated using the nearest neighbor method. From the values generated by the dissimilarity matrix and the clusters formed among the Heliconia genotypes studied, the phenotypic characterizations that best differentiated the genotypes were: pseudostem and wax green tone (light or dark green), leaf-wax petiole, the petiole hair, cleft margin at the base of the petiole, midrib underside shade of green, wax midrib underside, color sheet (light or dark green), unequal lamina base, torn limb, inflorescence-wax, position of inflorescence, bract leaf in apex, twisting of the rachis, and type of bloom. These results will be applied in the preparation of a catalog for Heliconia descriptors, in the selection of different genotypes with most promising characteristics for crosses, and for the characterization of new genotypes to be introduced in germplasm collections.

  15. Qualitative and Asymptotic Theory of Detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2014-11-09

    Shock waves in reactive media possess very rich dynamics: from formation of cells in multiple dimensions to oscillating shock fronts in one-dimension. Because of the extreme complexity of the equations of combustion theory, most of the current understanding of unstable detonation waves relies on extensive numerical simulations of the reactive compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Attempts at a simplified theory have been made in the past, most of which are very successful in describing steady detonation waves. In this work we focus on obtaining simplified theories capable of capturing not only the steady, but also the unsteady behavior of detonation waves. The first part of this thesis is focused on qualitative theories of detonation, where ad hoc models are proposed and analyzed. We show that equations as simple as a forced Burgers equation can capture most of the complex phenomena observed in detonations. In the second part of this thesis we focus on rational theories, and derive a weakly nonlinear model of multi-dimensional detonations. We also show, by analysis and numerical simulations, that the asymptotic equations provide good quantitative predictions.

  16. Peer Education: Participatory Qualitative Educational Needs Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators.Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held.The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs.The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers.

  17. Qualitative research: adding drive and dimension to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinová, Katerĭna; Pochard, Frédéric; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chaize, Marine; Azoulay, Elie

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative research and its methods stem from the social sciences and can be used to describe and interpret complex phenomena that involve individuals' views, beliefs, preferences, and subjective responses to places and people. Thus, qualitative research explores the many subjective factors that may influence patient outcomes, staff well-being, and healthcare quality, yet fail to lend themselves to the hypothesis-testing approach that characterizes quantitative research. Qualitative research is valuable in the intensive care unit to explore organizational and cultural issues and to gain insight into social interactions, healthcare delivery processes, and communication. Qualitative research generates explanatory models and theories, which can then serve to devise interventions, whose efficacy can be studied quantitatively. Thus, qualitative research works synergistically with quantitative research, providing new impetus to the research process and a new dimension to research findings. Qualitative research starts with conceptualizing the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, and designing the study; rigorous methods specifically designed for qualitative research are then used to conduct the study, analyze the data, and verify the findings. The researcher is the data-collecting instrument, and the data are the participants' words and behaviors. Data coding methods are used to describe experiences, discover themes, and build theories. In this review, we outline the rationale and methods for conducting qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of available qualitative methods and explain how they can work in close synergy with quantitative methods. To illustrate the effectiveness of combining different research methods, we will refer to recent qualitative studies conducted in the intensive care unit.

  18. Colloidal Gold Probe-Based Immunochromatographic Strip Assay for the Rapid Detection of Microbial Transglutaminase in Frozen Surimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding microbial transglutaminase (MTGase to frozen surimi to enable the surimi to be sold as a higher-grade product at a higher price defrauds surimi product manufacturers and undercuts legitimate industry prices. Therefore, it is important to develop an accurate method of detecting the presence of MTGase in surimi. In this study, an immunochromatographic strip assay with a colloidal gold antibody probe was successfully developed and used to rapidly and qualitatively detect MTGase in surimi samples. The results were obtained in less than 10 min. The limit for the qualitative detection of MTGase using the immunochromatographic strip assay was identified as 1.0 μg/mL. The results of the immunochromatographic strip analysis of frozen surimi samples were verified by comparison with the results of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The colloidal gold probe-based immunochromatographic strip assay was thus found to be a rapid, economical, and user friendly method of detecting MTGase in surimi.

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as "gold standard" for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  1. Demonstration of a visual cell-based assay for screening glucose transporter 4 translocation modulators in real time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maleppillil Vavachan Vijayakumar; Amrendra Kumar Ajay; Manoj Kumar Bhat

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell membrane leading to glucose uptake is the rate-limiting step in diabetes. It is also a defined target of antidiabetic drug research. Existing GLUT4 translocation assays are based on time-consuming immunoassays and are hampered by assay variability and low sensitivity. We describe a real-time, visual, cell-based qualitative GLUT4 translocation assay using CHO-HIRc-myc-GLUT4eGFP cells that stably express myc- and eGFP-tagged GLUT4 in addition to human insulin receptor (HIRc). GLUT4 translocation is visualized by live cell imaging based on GFP fluorescence by employing a cooled charge-coupled device camera attached to a fluorescent microscope. This video imaging method and further quantitative analysis of GLUT4 on the cell membrane provide rapid and foolproof visual evidence that this method is suitable for screening GLUT4 translocation modulators.

  2. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  3. Drugs and brain death: drug assay perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R G

    1996-08-01

    The ability to make any meaningful interpretation of a drug assay result is very dependent upon a knowledge of the limitations of the method(s) used (sensitivity, specificity etc.), and the concentration that may be measured in plasma and its relationship to CNS effects. We need more information about 'critical' concentrations for each drug and sedation in the setting of the brain-injured patient before meaningful interpretation can be applied to such data. While the above discussion is critical of screen-type assays, the alternative specific assays are not easily provided for, as obviously the resourcing of laboratories to be able to deliver such specialized services for a range of therapeutic drugs, in addition to 'social' drugs or other toxins (e.g. glues, pesticides, solvents, environmental substances etc), becomes an increasingly complex issue in the current economic climate. Hence, the analytical laboratory can offer valuable support to the clinical team however, the interpretation of such results must be assessed in the light of many limitations of such assay methods and not seen as the 'gold standard' for assessment of brain function.

  4. Functionalized Nanofiber Meshes Enhance Immunosorbent Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Joseph S; Meller, Amit; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional substrates with high surface-to-volume ratios and subsequently large protein binding capacities are of interest for advanced immunosorbent assays utilizing integrated microfluidics and nanosensing elements. A library of bioactive and antifouling electrospun nanofiber substrates, which are composed of high-molecular-weight poly(oxanorbornene) derivatives, is described. Specifically, a set of copolymers are synthesized from three 7-oxanorbornene monomers to create a set of water insoluble copolymers with both biotin (bioactive) and triethylene glycol (TEG) (antifouling) functionality. Porous three-dimensional nanofiber meshes are electrospun from these copolymers with the ability to specifically bind streptavidin while minimizing the nonspecific binding of other proteins. Fluorescently labeled streptavidin is used to quantify the streptavidin binding capacity of each mesh type through confocal microscopy. A simplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is presented to assess the protein binding capabilities and detection limits of these nanofiber meshes under both static conditions (26 h) and flow conditions (1 h) for a model target protein (i.e., mouse IgG) using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) colorimetric assay. Bioactive and antifouling nanofiber meshes outperform traditional streptavidin-coated polystyrene plates under flow, validating their use in future advanced immunosorbent assays and their compatibility with microfluidic-based biosensors.

  5. Benzodiazepine Synthesis and Rapid Toxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James T.; Boriraj, Grit

    2010-01-01

    A second-year organic chemistry laboratory experiment to introduce students to general concepts of medicinal chemistry is described. Within a single three-hour time window, students experience the synthesis of a biologically active small molecule and the assaying of its biological toxicity. Benzodiazepine rings are commonly found in antidepressant…

  6. Qualitative description - the poor cousin of health research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2009-01-01

    of use. DISCUSSION: Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed method research, in questionnaire development and in research projects aiming to gain firsthand knowledge of patients...

  7. Teaching Qualitative Research: Using Theory to Inform Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how theories of instructional scaffolding--which call for a skilled expert to teach a novice a new task by breaking it into smaller pieces--might be employed in graduate-level qualitative methods courses. The author discusses how she used instructional scaffolding in the design and delivery of a qualitative methods course…

  8. Using Blogs in Qualitative Educational Research: An Exploration of Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harricharan, Michelle; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    When compared with wider social research, qualitative educational research has been relatively slow to take up online research methods (ORMs). There is some very notable research in the area but, in general, ORMs have not achieved wide applicability in qualitative educational contexts apart from research that is inherently linked to the Internet,…

  9. Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…

  10. The Wiki as a Virtual Space for Qualitative Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanos, Carolina; Piercy, Fred P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors make a case for using wiki technology in qualitative research. A wiki is an online database that allows users to create, edit, and/or reflect on the content of a web page. Thus, wiki technology can support qualitative research that attempts to understand the shared thinking of participants. To illustrate the use of the wiki for this…

  11. A Critical Review of Qualitative Interviews in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article asks what applied linguistics can learn from related disciplines with regard to the collection, analysis and representation of qualitative interviews. It assesses the contributions of qualitative sociology, anthropology, discursive psychology and outlines four "discourse dilemmas" which might provide the basis for a more critical and…

  12. Beyond Constant Comparison Qualitative Data Analysis: Using NVivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to outline seven types of qualitative data analysis techniques, to present step-by-step guidance for conducting these analyses via a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software program (i.e., NVivo9), and to present screenshots of the data analysis process. Specifically, the following seven analyses are…

  13. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  14. Learning the Concept of Researcher as Instrument in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…

  15. Qualitative Research in PBL in Health Sciences Education: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Bridges, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Context: Qualitative methodologies are relatively new in health sciences education research, especially in the area of problem-based learning (PBL). A key advantage of qualitative approaches is the ability to gain in-depth, textured insights into educational phenomena. Key methodological issues arise, however, in terms of the strategies of…

  16. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  17. The Importance of Qualitative Research for Causal Explanation in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of causation has long been controversial in qualitative research, and many qualitative researchers have rejected causal explanation as incompatible with an interpretivist or constructivist approach. This rejection conflates causation with the positivist "theory" of causation, and ignores an alternative understanding of causation,…

  18. How People Interpret Healthy Eating: Contributions of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Carole A.; Jastran, Margaret; Seligson, Marc; Thompson, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify how qualitative research has contributed to understanding the ways people in developed countries interpret healthy eating. Design: Bibliographic database searches identified reports of qualitative, empirical studies published in English, peer-reviewed journals since 1995. Data Analysis: Authors coded, discussed, recoded, and…

  19. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  20. Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

  1. Somatic Sensitivity and Reflexivity as Validity Tools in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Validity is a key concept in qualitative educational research. Yet, it is often not addressed in methodological writing about dance. This essay explores validity in a postmodern world of diverse approaches to scholarship, by looking at the changing face of validity in educational qualitative research and at how new understandings of the concept…

  2. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  3. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  4. Orthogonal Series Methods for Both Qualitative and Quantitative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Peter

    1983-01-01

    We introduce and describe orthogonal series methods for estimating the density of qualitative, quantitative or mixed data. The techniques are completely nonparametric in character, and so may be used in situations where parametric models are difficult to construct. Just this situation arises in the context of mixed--both qualitative and quantitative--data, where there are few parametric models.

  5. The Use of Triangulation Methods in Qualitative Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Allen, DeeDee

    2006-01-01

    Triangulation involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitative methods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and…

  6. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  7. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  8. Tech Tips: Using Video Management/ Analysis Technology in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Spiers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents tips on how to use video in qualitative research. The author states that, though there many complex and powerful computer programs for working with video, the work done in qualitative research does not require those programs. For this work, simple editing software is sufficient. Also presented is an easy and efficient method of transcribing video clips.

  9. Validation of a new assessment tool for qualitative research articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Lone; Høstrup, Helle; Lyngsø, Elin Egholm

    2012-01-01

    is the Danish acronym for Appraisal of Qualitative Studies. Phase 1 was to develop the tool based on a literature review and on consultation with qualitative researchers. Phase 2 was an inter-rater reliability test in which 40 health professionals participated. Phase 3 was an inter-rater reliability test among...

  10. Qualitative Variation in Constructive Alignment in Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Keith; Prosser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Constructive alignment has emerged as a powerful curriculum design idea, but little is known of the extent to which the effectiveness of this idea is a function of qualitative variation. This article introduces a model of qualitative variation in constructive alignment, and uses the results from known alignment studies to test the model. The…

  11. The perceptions of medical researchers on qualitative methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to verify doctor's perception of the qualitative research method, via a qualitative study of interviews with questions on the academic profile of doctors and on the methodology. We interviewed 42 professionals, of which 18 had experience with the qualitative method and 24 with the quantitative method. The results showed that knowledge on the qualitative method was virtually nil among "quantitative researchers", who did not value qualitative research, although some of those realized that it would be important to be more accepting in clinical practice. Others only considered the method as subsidiary to quantitative. The majority considered qualitative methods as lacking academic structure, taking too long to conduct empirical studies, and being difficult to publish. All of them criticized the misuse of the method, and the "quantitatives" pointed out the problem of being unable to reproduce. We concluded that widening the use of the qualitative method by doctors requires investment from the beginning of the academic career and participation in qualitative research projects.

  12. Solicited diary studies of psychotherapy in qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...... their pertinence to the field. Limitations and potential critiques regarding the use of diaries are also addressed....

  13. Myths and Misconceptions about Using Qualitative Methods in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.; Kuh, George D.

    2007-01-01

    The value of qualitative assessment approaches has been underestimated primarily because they are often juxtaposed against long-standing quantitative traditions and the widely accepted premise that the best research produces generalizable and statistically significant findings. Institutional researchers avoid qualitative methods for at least three…

  14. Quality in Qualitative Evaluation: Issues and Possible Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative evaluation studies can differ markedly from quantitative ones in both purpose and method and therefore must be understood and evaluated on their own terms. This article defines qualitative evaluation research and describes key parameters of quality to be considered when conducting and evaluating these studies in terms that take their…

  15. A Qualitative Synthesis of Children's Participation in Custody Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This qualitative synthesis explores the voices of children in the context of child custody disputes over the last 20 years. The purpose was to (1) systematically retrieve qualitative studies to explore children's views and preferences in the context of decision making postseparation and divorce and (2) explore how children's voices are…

  16. Exploring School Counselors' Perceptions of Vicarious Trauma: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mashone; Henfield, Malik S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine school counselors' perceptions of vicarious trauma. Consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology was used. Six school counselors were interviewed. Three primary domains emerged from the data: (a) ambiguous vicarious trauma, (b) support system significance, and (c) importance of level of…

  17. The Role of Qualitative Research in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devetak, Iztok; Glazar, Sasa A.; Vogrinc, Janez

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the qualitative research in which the researcher has been directly involved, and has himself been examining the research phenomenon in the studied environment, is presented. The aim of this qualitative study is to gather data in the form of rich content-based descriptions of people, events, and situations by using different,…

  18. Defining Leadership: Collegiate Women's Learning Circles: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2017-01-01

    The researchers employed qualitative methods to evaluate first-year female students' definition of "leadership" through involvement in the Women's Learning Circle. The findings revealed that students defined leadership in two dimensions: traits and behaviors. The qualitative findings explore a multidimensional approach to the voices of…

  19. A rapid colorimetric assay for the quantitation of the viability of free-living larvae of nematodes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Catherine E; Davey, Mary W

    2007-09-01

    With increasing drug resistance in gastrointestinal parasites, identification of new anthelmintics is essential. The non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used extensively as a model to identify drug targets and potential novel anthelmintics because it can be readily cultured in vitro. Traditionally, the assessment of worm viability has relied on labour-intensive developmental and behavioral assays. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide-formazan (MTT-formazan) colorimetric assay uses metabolic activity as a marker of viability in mammalian cell culture systems and has been applied for use with filarial nematodes. In the present study, this assay has been optimized and validated to rapidly assess the viability of C. elegans after drug treatment. Living, but not dead, C. elegans take up MTT and reduce it to the blue formazan, providing visual, qualitative, and quantitative assessment of viability. MTT at a concentration of 5 mg/ml with 3 h incubation was optimal for detecting changes in viability with drug treatment. We have applied this assay to quantitate the effects of ivermectin and short-chain alcohols on the viability of C. elegans. This assay is also applicable to first-stage larvae of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. The advantage of this assay is the rapid quantitation in screening drugs to identify potential anthelmintics.

  20. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Huang

    Full Text Available Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  1. Production and assay of forskolin antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, L.T.; Ho, R.J.

    1986-05-01

    Forskolin (Fo), a cardiovascular active diterpene of plant origin, has been widely used as a research tool in regulation of the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase (AC). A linear relationship of Fo binding to plasma membrane with activation of AC has been reported. The present abstract describes the production and assay of Fo antibodies (AB). 7-0-Hemisuccinyl-7-deacetyl Fo, coupled to either human serum albumin or goat IgG, was injected into goats to elicit AB to Fo haptan. AB to Fo in antiserum or an isolated IgG fraction was tested by two assay methods, a radioimmunoassay using /sup 3/H-Fo as a tracer and a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using horse radish peroxidase-rabbit anti goat IgG as indicator. The titers for Fo antiserum were 4000-10,000. In the defined assay condition, approximately 20-25% of the added /sup 3/H-Fo was found to bind to AB. The bound radioactivity was displaced by Fo-HSA or Fo-goat IgG or free unlabelled Fo ranging from 0.5-50 pmol/tube, or 5-500 nM. The IC/sub 50/ was approximately 8-10 pmol/tube or 80-100 nM. The binding of HRP-rabbit anti goat IgG in the ELISA was inhibited by proper Fo conjugate. The development of methods for production and assay for Fo AB may be useful in the study of mechanism of activation of AC by Fo and Fo-like compound.

  2. Evaluation of a ganglioside immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, E; Svennerholm, A M; Holmgren, J; Möllby, R

    1979-12-01

    The GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA), an immunological method for detection of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), was quantitatively and qualitatively compared with the conventional adrenal cell test for the identification of LT-producing strains. A micromodification model of the assay was developed. Enterotoxin preparations from 120 E. coli isolates from individuals with diarrhea, which had been previously shown to be enterotoxigenic by the adrenal cell test, and from 44 control strains of E. coli were compared in parallel by the two methods. Quantitatively the covariation of the enterotoxin titers was highly significant (RS = 0.98, P less than 0.001), the GM1-ELISA being somewhat more sensitive than the adrenal cell test. The methodological error was less than 5% in both tests. Qualitatively the overall agreement for positive and negative reactions for the two methods was 89%. The GM1-ELISA is practical for routine use in the diagnosis of enterotoxigenic E. coli, especially in laboratories without facilities for cell culture.

  3. Beyond PICO: the SPIDER tool for qualitative evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Alison; Smith, Debbie; Booth, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Standardized systematic search strategies facilitate rigor in research. Current search tools focus on retrieval of quantitative research. In this article we address issues relating to using existing search strategy tools, most typically the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) formulation for defining key elements of a review question, when searching for qualitative and mixed methods research studies. An alternative search strategy tool for qualitative/mixed methods research is outlined: SPIDER (Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type). We used both the SPIDER and PICO search strategy tools with a qualitative research question. We have used the SPIDER tool to advance thinking beyond PICO in its suitable application to qualitative and mixed methods research. However, we have highlighted once more the need for improved indexing of qualitative articles in databases. To constitute a viable alternative to PICO, SPIDER needs to be refined and tested on a wider range of topics.

  4. Notions of quality and standards for qualitative research reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Lockwood, Craig; Aromataris, Ed

    2015-10-01

    The utility of qualitative research findings in the health sciences has been the subject of considerable debate, particularly with the advent of qualitative systematic reviews in recent years. There has been a significant investment in the production of guidance to improve the reporting of quantitative research; however, comparatively little time has been spent on developing the same for qualitative research reporting. This paper sets out to examine the possibility of developing a framework for refereed journals to utilize when guiding authors on how to report the results of qualitative studies in the hope that this will improve the quality of reports and subsequently their inclusion in qualitative syntheses and guidelines to inform practice at the point of care.

  5. Promises and pitfalls of data sharing in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kohrt, Brandon A; Matthews, Lynn T; Betancourt, Theresa S; Lee, Jooyoung K; Papachristos, Andrew V; Weiser, Sheri D; Dworkin, Shari L

    2016-11-01

    The movement for research transparency has gained irresistible momentum over the past decade. Although qualitative research is rarely published in the high-impact journals that have adopted, or are most likely to adopt, data sharing policies, qualitative researchers who publish work in these and similar venues will likely encounter questions about data sharing within the next few years. The fundamental ways in which qualitative and quantitative data differ should be considered when assessing the extent to which qualitative and mixed methods researchers should be expected to adhere to data sharing policies developed with quantitative studies in mind. We outline several of the most critical concerns below, while also suggesting possible modifications that may help to reduce the probability of unintended adverse consequences and to ensure that the sharing of qualitative data is consistent with ethical standards in research.

  6. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

  7. Purposive Selection and the Quality of Qualitative IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila

    2013-01-01

    As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria for the ev......As qualitative research has found broad acceptance within the IS community, the methodological discourse has turned its attention to questions concerning the quality of qualitative research mostly emphasizing the development of how-to guidelines for good practice. By contrast, criteria....... In particular, the technique of corpus construction will be introduced, which was specifically designed as an evaluation criterion for qualitative research. Adapted from linguistics, corpus construction offers an alternative that is functionally equivalent to statistical sampling techniques in terms...

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Integrated Modeling for Stochastic Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation and optimization of an actual physics system are usually constructed based on the stochastic models, which have both qualitative and quantitative characteristics inherently. Most modeling specifications and frameworks find it difficult to describe the qualitative model directly. In order to deal with the expert knowledge, uncertain reasoning, and other qualitative information, a qualitative and quantitative combined modeling specification was proposed based on a hierarchical model structure framework. The new modeling approach is based on a hierarchical model structure which includes the meta-meta model, the meta-model and the high-level model. A description logic system is defined for formal definition and verification of the new modeling specification. A stochastic defense simulation was developed to illustrate how to model the system and optimize the result. The result shows that the proposed method can describe the complex system more comprehensively, and the survival probability of the target is higher by introducing qualitative models into quantitative simulation.

  9. Breastfeeding practices in mothers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanis S. Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the WHO and UNICEF recommendations, the well-known breastfeeding benefits, and the efforts to promote and support breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding by Indonesian mothers remains low and contributes to high infant mortality rates. Objective To elucidate the factors that influence mothers’ choices for infant feeding Methods This qualitative study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey. The study included 36 in-depth interviews of mothers with infants aged 0-11 months, and health care professionals, including general practitioners, pediatricians, and midwives. This study was performed between October – November 2010 in both rural and urban areas of 4 provinces in Indonesia. Results We found that most mothers intended to breastfeed and had positive perceptions of breastfeeding. However, mothers faced many challenges in the practice of exclusive and proper breastfeeding. Additionally, the perceived definition of exclusive breastfeeding varied among the participants, leading to non-exclusive breastfeeding attitudes. The most frequent reasons for mothers to introduce additional milk formula or food were the perception of an inadequate milk supply, infant dissatisfaction or fussiness after feeding. Different perceptions were also demonstrated in different regions and the varying levels of socioeconomic status. Health care practitioners (HCPs were the most reliable source for giving adequate information, but unfortunately, they were not easily accessible and provided inconsistent information. Consequently, closely-related family members were the major contributors of information to a mother’s choice of infant feeding, because they were easily accessible. Conclusion Factors influencing mothers in their breastfeeding practices are their basic knowledge, demographic and socio-economic status, as well as the availability of support from closely-related family members, friends, and HCPs. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:35-41.].

  10. Development of an Easy and High-Throughput Cell Assay System with a Culture Chip and an Assay Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kanako; Kaji, Noritada; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

    High throughput cell assay is significantly important in drug screening, assessment of toxicity etc. Cell assay with a microchip is one of the candidates for high throughput cell assay. However, reported cell assay system with the microchip requires expensive apparatus for refluxing medium and investigation of optimum experimental condition for steady data. For an inexpensive, easy and high throughput cell assay, we introduce a new cell assay system combined with a culture chip and an assay chip made of poly(dimethyl siloxane). Cell culture chips enabled cell to proliferate along the microchannel without refluxing medium and permitted to prepare cell patterning easily. Also, assay chips formed concentration gradient inside the chip and allowed the cell assay with different concentrations of drug at the same time. Thus, our developed cell assay system can overcome the problems of the present cell assay and would promote the drug discovery, assessment of toxicity etc.

  11. A cross-reactive sensor array for the fluorescence qualitative analysis of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaizhi; Lin, Liping; Rong, Mingcong; Chen, Xi

    2014-11-01

    A cross-reactive sensor array using mercaptopropionic acid modified cadmium telluride (CdTe), glutathione modified CdTe, poly(methacrylic acid) modified silver nanoclusters, bovine serum albumin modified gold nanoclusters, rhodamine derivative and calcein blue as fluorescent indicators has been designed for the detection of seven heavy metal ions (Ag(+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+) and Cd(2+)). The discriminatory capacity of the sensor array to different heavy metal ions in different pH solutions has been tested and the results have been analyzed with linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that the sensor array could be used to qualitatively analyze the selected heavy metal ions. The array performance was also evaluated in the identification of known and unknown samples and the preliminary results suggested the promising practicability of the designed sensor assay.

  12. A quantitative and qualitative method to control chemotherapeutic preparations by Fourier transform infrared-ultraviolet spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziopa, Florian; Galy, Guillaume; Bauler, Stephanie; Vincent, Benoit; Crochon, Sarah; Tall, Mamadou Lamine; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Chemotherapy products in hospitals include a reconstitution step of manufactured drugs providing an adapted dosage to each patient. The administration of highly iatrogenic drugs raises the question of patients' safety and treatment efficiency. In order to reduce administration errors due to faulty preparations, we introduced a new qualitative and quantitative routine control based on Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. This automated method enabled fast and specific control for 14 anticancer drugs. A 1.2 mL sample was used to assay and identify each preparation in less than 90 sec. Over a two-year period, 9370 controlled infusion bags showed a 1.49% nonconformity rate, under 15% tolerance from the theoretical concentration and 96% minimum identification matching factor. This study evaluated the reliability of the control process, as well as its accordance to chemotherapy deliverance requirements. Thus, corrective measures were defined to improve the control process.

  13. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyse human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use 8 high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterwards. The

  14. Qualitative Analysis of Emotions: Fear and Thrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Ralf C

    2016-01-01

    People can speak, and this provides opportunities to analyze human emotions using perceived experiences communicated via language, as well as through measurement and imaging techniques that are also applicable to other higher animal species. Here I compare four qualitative methodological approaches to test if, and how, thrill depends on fear. I use eight high-risk, high-skill, real-life outdoor adventure recreation activities to provide the test circumstances. I present data from: >4000 person-days of participant observation; interviews with 40 expert practitioners; retrospective autoethnography of 50 critical incidents over 4 decades; and experimental autoethnography of 60 events. Results from different methods are congruent, but different approaches yield different insights. The principal findings are as follows. Individuals differ in their fear and thrill responses. The same individual may have different responses on different occasions. Fear boosts performance, but panic causes paralysis. Anxiety or apprehension prior to a risky action or event differs from fear experienced during the event itself. The intensity of pre-event fear generally increases with the immediacy of risk to life, and time to contemplate that risk. Fear must be faced, assessed and overcome in order to act. Thrill can occur either during or after a high-risk event. Thrill can occur without fear, and fear without thrill. Below a lower threshold of perceived risk, thrill can occur without fear. Between a lower and upper threshold, thrill increases with fear. Beyond the upper threshold, thrill vanishes but fear remains. This there is a sawtooth relation between fear and thrill. Perceived danger generates intense focus and awareness. Fear and other emotions can disappear during intense concentration and focus. Under high risk, the usual emotional sequence is fear before the action or event, then focus during the action or event, then thrill, relief, or triumph afterward. The emotionless state

  15. Strategies for Disseminating Qualitative Research Findings: Three Exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Keen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Assuming there are those who do pay attention to the dissemination of qualitative research findings, what can we learn from them? For this article, we searched for examples of qualitative research where findings have been disseminated beyond the journal article and/or conference presentation. The rationale for pursuing examples of how good qualitative research has been disseminated is that we pay attention to both scientific and communicative concerns. All three exemplars in this article go beyond the forms of dissemination that traditionally serve academic communities and attempt to address the communicative concern of qualitative research findings. This is not to say that these modes of dissemination replace the scholarship of qualitative research and/or the peer-reviewed journal manuscript—far from it. In disseminating qualitative data, researchers have an array of presentational styles and formats to choose from that best fit their research purposes, such as drama, dance, poetry, websites, video and evocative forms of writing. We conclude by considering the ethical issues that may be involved in these forms of disseminating qualitative research, as well as the challenges for evaluating the impact of such strategies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703174

  16. Bridging Conceptions of Quality in Moments of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Ravenek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment in qualitative research has been, and remains, a contentious issue. The qualitative literature contains a diversity of opinions on definitions of and criteria for quality. This article attempts to organize this diversity, drawing on several examples of existing quality criteria, into four main approaches: qualitative as quantitative criteria, paradigm-specific criteria, individualized assessment, and bridging criteria. These different approaches can be mapped onto the historical transitions, or moments, in qualitative research presented by Denzin and Lincoln and, as such, they are presented alongside the various criteria reviewed. Socio-political conditions that have led us to a fractured future, where the value and significance of qualitative work may be marginalized, support the adoption of bridging criteria. These broadly applicable criteria provide means to assess quality and can be flexibly applied among the diversity of qualitative approaches used by researchers. Five categories that summarize the language used within bridging criteria are presented as a means to move forward in developing an approach to quality assessment that fosters communication and connections within the diversity of qualitative research, while simultaneously respecting and valuing paradigmatic and methodological diversity.

  17. Review: Adrian Holliday (2007. Doing and Writing Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish K. Thakur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The book fruitfully combines discussions on qualitative research methods with the craft of academic writing. While detailing different stages involved in qualitative research, it accords appreciable attention to the fundamental epistemological premises of different qualitative research genres. Yet, its central concern is to demonstrate ways and means to manage researcher’s subjectivity in the writing of qualitative research. The book looks at the act of writing as crucial to the twin concerns of rigor and validity in qualitative research. It privileges writing as an important methodological resource that qualitative researchers employ to make the workings of their research procedures transparent and establish their accountability in relation to specificities of a given research setting. Given this focus, the eight chapters of the book discuss at length issues such as authorial voice, the trials and tribulations of transition from data to written study, the reflexivity of the researcher as writer, and the demanding expectations of cautious detachment in reporting the people, setting, and the worlds and sensitivities that are part of any qualitative research enterprise. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090198

  18. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-11-29

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF.

  19. How Qualitative Methods Can be Used to Inform Model Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Samantha; Jowett, Susan; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-03-20

    Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modellers find most challenging. Further, it is important that modelling methods and related guidance are continually updated in light of any new approaches that could potentially enhance model credibility. The objective of this article was to highlight the ways in which qualitative methods have been used and recommended to inform decision-analytic model development and enhance modelling practices. With reference to the literature, the article discusses two key ways in which qualitative methods can be, and have been, applied. The first approach involves using qualitative methods to understand and inform general and future processes of model development, and the second, using qualitative techniques to directly inform the development of individual models. The literature suggests that qualitative methods can improve the validity and credibility of modelling processes by providing a means to understand existing modelling approaches that identifies where problems are occurring and further guidance is needed. It can also be applied within model development to facilitate the input of experts to structural development. We recommend that current and future model development would benefit from the greater integration of qualitative methods, specifically by studying 'real' modelling processes, and by developing recommendations around how qualitative methods can be adopted within everyday modelling practice.

  20. Transient expression assays in tobacco protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bossche, Robin; Demedts, Brecht; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Goossens, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The sequence information generated through genome and transcriptome analysis from plant tissues has reached unprecedented sizes. Sequence homology-based annotations may provide hints for the possible function and roles of particular plant genes, but the functional annotation remains nonexistent or incomplete for many of them. To discover gene functions, transient expression assays are a valuable tool because they can be done more rapidly and at a higher scale than generating stably transformed tissues. Here, we describe a transient expression assay in protoplasts derived from suspension cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the study of the transactivation capacities of transcription factors. To enhance throughput and reproducibility, this method can be automated, allowing medium-throughput screening of interactions between large compendia of potential transcription factors and gene promoters.

  1. Posttranslational Modification Assays on Functional Protein Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiswinger, Johnathan; Uzoma, Ijeoma; Cox, Eric; Rho, HeeSool; Jeong, Jun Seop; Zhu, Heng

    2016-10-03

    Protein microarray technology provides a straightforward yet powerful strategy for identifying substrates of posttranslational modifications (PTMs) and studying the specificity of the enzymes that catalyze these reactions. Protein microarray assays can be designed for individual enzymes or a mixture to establish connections between enzymes and substrates. Assays for four well-known PTMs-phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitylation, and SUMOylation-have been developed and are described here for use on functional protein microarrays. Phosphorylation and acetylation require a single enzyme and are easily adapted for use on an array. The ubiquitylation and SUMOylation cascades are very similar, and the combination of the E1, E2, and E3 enzymes plus ubiquitin or SUMO protein and ATP is sufficient for in vitro modification of many substrates.

  2. Delivery of High-Quality Biomarker Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian N. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarker measurements now support key decisions throughout the drug development process, from lead optimization to regulatory approvals. They are essential for documenting exposure-response relationships, specificity and potency toward the molecular target, untoward effects, and therapeutic applications. In a broader sense, biomarkers constitute the basis of clinical pathology and laboratory medicine. The utility of biomarkers is limited by their specificity and sensitivity toward the drug or disease process and by their overall variability. Understanding and controlling sources of variability is not only imperative for delivering high-quality assay results, but ultimately for controlling the size and expense of research studies. Variability in biomarker measurements is affected by: biological and environmental factors (e.g., gender, age, posture, diet and biorhythms, sample collection factors (e.g., preservatives, transport and storage conditions, and collection technique, and analytical factors (e.g., purity of reference material, pipetting precision, and antibody specificity. The quality standards for biomarker assays used in support of nonclinical safety studies fall under GLP (FDA regulations, whereas, those assays used to support human diagnostics and healthcare are established by CLIA (CMS regulations and accrediting organizations such as the College of American Pathologists. While most research applications of biomarkers are not regulated, biomarker laboratories in all settings are adopting similar laboratory practices in order to deliver high-quality data. Because of the escalation in demand for biomarker measurements, the highly-parallel (multi-plexed assay platforms that have fueled the rise of genomics will likely evolve into the analytical engines that drive the biomarker laboratories of tomorrow.

  3. Methods and devices for protein assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Swapnil; Cintron, Jose M.; Shediac, Renee

    2009-11-03

    Methods and devices for protein assays based on Edman degradation in microfluidic channels are disclosed herein. As disclosed, the cleaved amino acid residues may be immobilized in an array format and identified by detectable labels, such as antibodies, which specifically bind given amino acid residues. Alternatively, the antibodies are immobilized in an array format and the cleaved amino acids are labeled identified by being bound by the antibodies in the array.

  4. Immunoreagents and competitive assays to fludioxonil

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Fuentes, Antonio; Agulló, Consuelo; Esteve Turrillas, Francesc Albert; Abad Somovilla, Antonio; Mercader Badia, Josep Vicent

    2014-01-01

    Fludioxonil is a new-generation fungicide widely used for postharvest fruit protection. The aim of this study was to produce hitherto unreported immunoreagents for Fludioxonil analysis by immunoassay. Derivatives of this agrochemical were synthesized with different linker tethering sites. Those functionalized haptens were activated, and the purified active esters were efficiently conjugated to different carrier proteins for immunogen and assay antigen preparation. Antibodies to Fludioxonil we...

  5. A new fluorescent assay for sialyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Y; Kamitani, T; Sakakibara, T

    2001-04-23

    A new fluorescent assay for the sialyltransferase reaction was established. After incubation of the sialyltransferase reaction, the sialyloligosaccharide obtained was treated by acid hydrolysis, and then the NeuAc that was released was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxibenzene. The fluorescent-labeled NeuAc could be estimated by HPLC (excitation: 373 nm; emission: 448 nm) and a Lineweaver-Burk plot could be plotted with the data from this analysis.

  6. Kinetic viability assays using DRAQ7 probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodkowic, Donald; Akagi, Jin; Dobrucki, Jurek; Errington, Rachel; Smith, Paul J; Takeda, Kazuo; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2013-07-01

    Cell death within cell populations is a stochastic process where cell-to-cell variation in temporal progression through the various stages of cell death arises from asynchrony of subtle fluctuations in the signaling pathways. Most cell death assays rely on detection of the specific marker of cell demise at the end-point of cell culturing. Such an approach cannot account for the asynchrony and the stochastic nature of cell response to the death-inducing signal. There is a need therefore for rapid and high-throughput bioassays capable of continuously tracking viability of individual cells from the time of encountering a stress signal up to final stages of their demise. In this context, a new anthracycline derivative, DRAQ7, is gaining increasing interest as an easy-to-use marker capable of long-term monitoring of cell death in real-time. This novel probe neither penetrates the plasma membrane of living cells nor does it affect the cells' susceptibility to the death-inducing agents. However, when the membrane integrity is compromised, DRAQ7 enters cells undergoing demise and binds readily to nuclear DNA to report cell death. Here, we provide three sets of protocols for viability assays using DRAQ7 probe. The first protocol describes the innovative use of single-color DRAQ7 real-time assay to dynamically track cell viability. The second protocol outlines a simplified end-point DRAQ7 staining approach. The final protocol highlights the real-time and multiparametric apoptosis assay utilizing DRAQ7 dye concurrently with tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), the mitochondrial trans-membrane electrochemical potential (ΔΨm) sensing probe.

  7. Cell based assay for hypoglycemic drugs screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZHANG; Juan-juanHU; Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a cell based assay for hypoglyc emicdrugs. METHODS: The five cell lines, BALB/c3T3, HepG2, NIH3T3, Be17402, and L929 were incubated with insulin (0-125n mol/L) for 48 h. Their sensitivities to insulin were studied by detecting glucose consumption. The dose-response and time-response relationship between the sensitive cell line (BALB/c 3T3)

  8. The myth of induction in qualitative nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, Elisabeth; Berterö, Carina M

    2015-04-01

    In nursing today, it remains unclear what constitutes a good foundation for qualitative scientific inquiry. There is a tendency to define qualitative research as a form of inductive inquiry; deductive practice is seldom discussed, and when it is, this usually occurs in the context of data analysis. We will look at how the terms 'induction' and 'deduction' are used in qualitative nursing science and by qualitative research theorists, and relate these uses to the traditional definitions of these terms by Popper and other philosophers of science. We will also question the assertion that qualitative research is or should be inductive. The position we defend here is that qualitative research should use deductive methods. We also see a need to understand the difference between the creative process needed to create theory and the justification of a theory. Our position is that misunderstandings regarding the philosophy of science and the role of inductive and deductive logic and science are still harming the development of nursing theory and science. The purpose of this article is to discuss and reflect upon inductive and deductive views of science as well as inductive and deductive analyses in qualitative research. We start by describing inductive and deductive methods and logic from a philosophy of science perspective, and we examine how the concepts of induction and deduction are often described and used in qualitative methods and nursing research. Finally, we attempt to provide a theoretical perspective that reconciles the misunderstandings regarding induction and deduction. Our conclusion is that openness towards deductive thinking and testing hypotheses is needed in qualitative nursing research. We must also realize that strict induction will not create theory; to generate theory, a creative leap is needed.

  9. Development and validation of qualitative SYBR®Green real-time PCR for detection and discrimination of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Yde, Marc; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H

    2013-05-01

    A combination of four qualitative SYBR®Green qPCR screening assays targeting two levels of discrimination: Listeria genus (except Listeria grayi) and Listeria monocytogenes, is presented. These assays have been developed to be run simultaneously using the same polymerase chain reaction (PCR) programme. The paper also proposes a new validation procedure to specifically validate qPCR assays applied to food microbiology according to two guidelines: the ISO 22118 norm and the "Definition of minimum performance requirements for analytical methods of GMO testing". The developed assays target the iap, prs and hlyA genes that belong to or neighbour the virulence cluster of Listeria spp. The selected primers were designed to amplify short fragments (60 to 103 bp) in order to obtain optimal PCR efficiency (between 97 and 107 % efficiency). The limit of detection of the SYBR®Green qPCR assays is two to five copies of target genes per qPCR reaction. These assays are highly accurate (98.08 and 100 % accuracy for the Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes assays, respectively).

  10. Diagnostic Certified Assay: Neuromuscular and Cardiac Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea Valaperta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the specific trinucleotide sequence, [CTG], is the molecular pathological mechanism responsible for the clinical manifestations of DM1. Many studies have described different molecular genetic techniques to detect DM1, but as yet there is no data on the analytical performances of techniques used so far in this disease. We therefore developed and validated a molecular method, “Myotonic Dystrophy SB kit,” to better characterize our DM1 population. 113 patients were examined: 20 DM1-positive, 11 DM1/DM2-negative, and13 DM1-negative/DM2-positive, who had a previous molecular diagnosis, while 69 were new cases. This assay correctly identified 113/113 patients, and all were confirmed by different homemade assays. Comparative analysis revealed that the sensitivity and the specificity of the new kit were very high (>99%. Same results were obtained using several extraction procedures and different concentrations of DNA. The distribution of pathologic alleles showed a prevalence of the “classical” form, while of the 96 nonexpanded alleles 19 different allelic types were observed. Cardiac and neuromuscular parameters were used to clinically characterize our patients and support the new genetic analysis. Our findings suggest that this assay appears to be a very robust and reliable molecular test, showing high reproducibility and giving an unambiguous interpretation of results.

  11. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed.

  12. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  13. L'analyse qualitative comme approche multiple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Cipriani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L’exemple de l’enquête historique, visant à identifier les caractéristiques de la naissance et du développement d’une science et des lectures qu’elle donne des événements sociaux, est des plus originaux. Toute méthodologie historique non seulement débouche sur une pure et simple masse d’épisodes et d’événements, mais est également une narration et une élaboration critique de ces mêmes faits. Michael Postan écrit à juste titre que la complexité des données historiques est cependant de telle nature, et les différences et les similitudes tellement difficiles à cerner, que les efforts des historiens et des sociologues pour construire des comparaisons explicites se sont soldées, pour la plupart, par des tentatives grossières et naïves. La leçon des Annales a contribué en effet à construire l’idée d’une histoire qui puisse lire et expliquer ce qui est uniforme et ce qui est singulier. Rien de plus naturel que la réunion d’« êtres psychiques », à l’instar de l’assemblage des cellules en un organisme, en un « être psychique » nouveau et différent. Un tournant s’impose donc vers une expérimentation empirique plus ample et plus correcte, afin de disposer des instruments adéquats, capables de garantir à la méthodologie micro, qualitative et biographique, une fiabilité suffisante.Historical approach offers a relevant contribution in order to find the features of birth and development of a science which analyses social events. Historical methodology produces not only a lot of data but also a narrative, and an interpretation of facts. According to Michael Postan, history and sociology have made many efforts to compare data that are complex but similar and different at the same time. And the results seem to be naïf. Thanks to Les Annales suggestion it is possible to read and to explain what is uniform and what is singular. To put together “psychical beings”, like organic cells, in a new

  14. Validation of quantitative and qualitative methods for detecting allergenic ingredients in processed foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko

    2013-06-19

    A labeling system for food allergenic ingredients was established in Japan in April 2002. To monitor the labeling, the Japanese government announced official methods for detecting allergens in processed foods in November 2002. The official methods consist of quantitative screening tests using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and qualitative confirmation tests using Western blotting or polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In addition, the Japanese government designated 10 μg protein/g food (the corresponding allergenic ingredient soluble protein weight/food weight), determined by ELISA, as the labeling threshold. To standardize the official methods, the criteria for the validation protocol were described in the official guidelines. This paper, which was presented at the Advances in Food Allergen Detection Symposium, ACS National Meeting and Expo, San Diego, CA, Spring 2012, describes the validation protocol outlined in the official Japanese guidelines, the results of interlaboratory studies for the quantitative detection method (ELISA for crustacean proteins) and the qualitative detection method (PCR for shrimp and crab DNAs), and the reliability of the detection methods.

  15. CONCEPTUAL MECHANICAL DESIGN METHOD BASED ON QUALITATIVE SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jianming; Yang Ping; Zou Bailong; Yang Chengsan

    2005-01-01

    A model for conceptual design of mechanical devices is studied based on qualitative simulation. In this model, the desired functions are expressed by state-transit-diagrams(ST-diagrams)and design space is represented by qualitative-state-curves(QS-curves). The first design idea, called seeds idea, is proposed by the designer and then is abstracted into QS-curves. The qualitative simulation is implemented based on the QS-curves. By changing the motion of acting parts, the connection of parts and the motion of driving part, new design ideas are generated. With this model, a series of new design ideas derived from the seeds idea can be achieved.

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of Supervision in SAC Minuteman ICBM Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    8217~44IAA A -’ ff3 4% At S. ~ At .~ 4 ’ 󈧦k (A444 4 qg~ 1 ~ ~ H St P /4 .4.,* 4’ SN, h$ A 4., 4,f A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN Master’s Thesis SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE 4. PERFORMING o1. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...112-83 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SUPERVISION IN SAC MINUTEMAN ICBM MAINTENANCE A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and Logistics

  17. QBone University and Lab Interconnect Testbed (QUALIT). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, Benjamin

    2001-10-19

    The QUALIT grant funded two broad categories of work: (1) Project-wide QBone engineering, instrumentation, and integration; (2) Focused workshops and measurement work relating specifically to advanced university/DOE connectivity. Significant progress has been made in both areas and, to both, QUALIT funding has been a key enabling resource. This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the QUALIT project and explains changes to the technical focus of the project that, while significant, remained true to the overall project goal: to research, test, and deploy IP layer traffic differentiation to redress congestion-related end-to-end performance problems on key university-DOE lab paths.

  18. Qualitative risk assessment: a conceptual context and three diverse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsea, K.J.; Conger, D.S. (Conger and Elsea, Inc., Woodstock, GA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Risk is defined as the probability of an occurrence multiplied by the consequences of that occurrence. Such a definition implies a quantitative or at least a mathematical operation. However, qualitative uses of risk have proved useful tools in incident investigation and management decision making. This paper provides a conceptual context for qualitative risk assessment and discusses three efforts at subject organizations (an aerospace firm, a US Department of Energy weapons-related facility, and a commercial nuclear reactor) that have applied qualitative risk techniques for different uses and with different results. A lessons-learned section summarizes and provides future direction.

  19. Boys in white: a classic of qualitative research turns 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte; de Barros, Nelson Filice

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes Boys in white: student culture in medical schoolby Howard S. Becker, Blanche Geer, Everett C. Hughes and Anselm Strauss, considered a model of qualitative research in sociology. The analysis investigates the trajectories of the authors, the book, qualitative analysis, and the medical students, emphasizing their importance in the origins of medical sociology and the sociology of medical education. In the trajectory of the authors, bibliographical information is given. The trajectory of qualitative research focuses on how this methodology influences the construction of the field. The investigation of the students' trajectory shows how they progress through their first years at medical school to build their own student culture.

  20. HIERARCHY OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS IN FINANCIAL REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia-Elena GRIGORAȘ-ICHIM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the qualitative characteristics of information from the annual financial statements must not be ignored also within the interim financial statements, given that their development is determined primarily by the utility and appropriateness of information and data provided to internal and external users. This article focuses on those aspects of a qualitative nature that concentre on professional accountants in the preparation of financial reporting and the challenges they face are based on professional judgment. The article also compares the Romanian accounting framework with the European and international ones, regarding the treatment of qualitative characteristics of accounting information.

  1. A Call for Critical Perspectives in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of critical poststructuralism in the United States has fundamentally transformed qualitative research. The crisis of representation first discussed in anthropology has had the effect of rethinking the foundations of qualitative research by putting ethical questions on the agenda and stimulating a search for new forms of validity. Against this backdrop, this study will analyze different methods and research strategies in critical qualitative inquiry, such as interpretive interactionism, autoethnography, and performance ethnography. The call to action inherent in these strategies and further contributions to cultural and social change will be discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110171

  2. What role for qualitative methods in randomized experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role to quantit......The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role...... history interviews have advantages over other qualitative methods, and offers one alternative to the conventional survey tool....

  3. Rapid qualitative urinary tract infection pathogen identification by SeptiFast real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz E Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent in outpatients. Fast pathogen identification is mandatory for shortening the time of discomfort and preventing serious complications. Urine culture needs up to 48 hours until pathogen identification. Consequently, the initial antibiotic regimen is empirical. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of qualitative urine pathogen identification by a commercially available real-time PCR blood pathogen test (SeptiFast® and to compare the results with dipslide and microbiological culture. DESIGN OF STUDY: Pilot study with prospectively collected urine samples. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: 82 prospectively collected urine samples from 81 patients with suspected UTI were included. Dipslide urine culture was followed by microbiological pathogen identification in dipslide positive samples. In parallel, qualitative DNA based pathogen identification (SeptiFast® was performed in all samples. RESULTS: 61 samples were SeptiFast® positive, whereas 67 samples were dipslide culture positive. The inter-methodological concordance of positive and negative findings in the gram+, gram- and fungi sector was 371/410 (90%, 477/492 (97% and 238/246 (97%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of the SeptiFast® test for the detection of an infection was 0.82 and 0.60, respectively. SeptiFast® pathogen identifications were available at least 43 hours prior to culture results. CONCLUSION: The SeptiFast® platform identified bacterial DNA in urine specimens considerably faster compared to conventional culture. For UTI diagnosis sensitivity and specificity is limited by its present qualitative setup which does not allow pathogen quantification. Future quantitative assays may hold promise for PCR based UTI pathogen identification as a supplementation of conventional culture methods.

  4. Carboxylesterase-mediated insecticide resistance: Quantitative increase induces broader metabolic resistance than qualitative change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Li, Mei-Xia; Chang, Hai-Jing; Mao, Yun; Zhang, Han-Ying; Lu, Li-Xia; Yan, Shuai-Guo; Lang, Ming-Lin; Liu, Li; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2015-06-01

    Carboxylesterases are mainly involved in the mediation of metabolic resistance of many insects to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Carboxylesterases underwent two divergent evolutionary events: (1) quantitative mechanism characterized by the overproduction of carboxylesterase protein; and (2) qualitative mechanism caused by changes in enzymatic properties because of mutation from glycine/alanine to aspartate at the 151 site (G/A151D) or from tryptophan to leucine at the 271 site (W271L), following the numbering of Drosophila melanogaster AChE. Qualitative mechanism has been observed in few species. However, whether this carboxylesterase mutation mechanism is prevalent in insects remains unclear. In this study, wild-type, G/A151D and W271L mutant carboxylesterases from Culex pipiens and Aphis gossypii were subjected to germline transformation and then transferred to D. melanogaster. These germlines were ubiquitously expressed as induced by tub-Gal4. In carboxylesterase activity assay, the introduced mutant carboxylesterase did not enhance the overall carboxylesterase activity of flies. This result indicated that G/A151D or W271L mutation disrupted the original activities of the enzyme. Less than 1.5-fold OP resistance was only observed in flies expressing A. gossypii mutant carboxylesterases compared with those expressing A. gossypii wild-type carboxylesterase. However, transgenic flies universally showed low resistance to OP insecticides compared with non-transgenic flies. The flies expressing A. gossypii W271L mutant esterase exhibited 1.5-fold resistance to deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide compared with non-transgenic flies. The present transgenic Drosophila system potentially showed that a quantitative increase in carboxylesterases induced broader resistance of insects to insecticides than a qualitative change.

  5. Multipath colourimetric assay for copper(II) ions utilizing MarR functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Limin; Su, Zhenhe; Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Zhang, Cunzheng; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    We use the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR), as a highly selective biorecognition elements in a multipath colourimetric sensing strategy for the fast detection of Cu2+ in water samples. The colourimetric assay is based on the aggregation of MarR-coated gold nanoparticles in the presence of Cu2+ ions, which induces a red-to-purple colour change of the solution. The colour variation in the gold nanoparticle aggregation process can be used for qualitative and quantitative detection of Cu2+ by the naked eye, and with UV–vis and smartphone-based approaches. The three analysis techniques used in the multipath colourimetric assay complement each other and provide greater flexibility for differing requirements and conditions, making the assay highly applicable for Cu2+ detection. Under optimal conditions, the Cu2+ concentration was quantified in less than 5 min with limits of detection for the naked eye, UV–vis and smartphone-based approaches of 1 μM, 405 nM and 61 nM, respectively. Moreover, the sensing system exhibited excellent selectivity and practical application for Cu2+ detection in real water samples. Thus, our strategy has great potential for application in on-site monitoring of Cu2+, and the unique response of MarR towards copper ions may provide a new approach to Cu2+ sensing. PMID:28155905

  6. Multipath colourimetric assay for copper(II) ions utilizing MarR functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Limin; Su, Zhenhe; Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Zhang, Cunzheng; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-02-01

    We use the multiple antibiotic resistance regulator (MarR), as a highly selective biorecognition elements in a multipath colourimetric sensing strategy for the fast detection of Cu2+ in water samples. The colourimetric assay is based on the aggregation of MarR-coated gold nanoparticles in the presence of Cu2+ ions, which induces a red-to-purple colour change of the solution. The colour variation in the gold nanoparticle aggregation process can be used for qualitative and quantitative detection of Cu2+ by the naked eye, and with UV–vis and smartphone-based approaches. The three analysis techniques used in the multipath colourimetric assay complement each other and provide greater flexibility for differing requirements and conditions, making the assay highly applicable for Cu2+ detection. Under optimal conditions, the Cu2+ concentration was quantified in less than 5 min with limits of detection for the naked eye, UV–vis and smartphone-based approaches of 1 μM, 405 nM and 61 nM, respectively. Moreover, the sensing system exhibited excellent selectivity and practical application for Cu2+ detection in real water samples. Thus, our strategy has great potential for application in on-site monitoring of Cu2+, and the unique response of MarR towards copper ions may provide a new approach to Cu2+ sensing.

  7. Interpreting scratch assays using pair density dynamics and approximate Bayesian computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stuart T; Simpson, Matthew J; McElwain, D L Sean; Binder, Benjamin J; Ross, Joshua V

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying the impact of biochemical compounds on collective cell spreading is an essential element of drug design, with various applications including developing treatments for chronic wounds and cancer. Scratch assays are a technically simple and inexpensive method used to study collective cell spreading; however, most previous interpretations of scratch assays are qualitative and do not provide estimates of the cell diffusivity, D, or the cell proliferation rate, λ. Estimating D and λ is important for investigating the efficacy of a potential treatment and provides insight into the mechanism through which the potential treatment acts. While a few methods for estimating D and λ have been proposed, these previous methods lead to point estimates of D and λ, and provide no insight into the uncertainty in these estimates. Here, we compare various types of information that can be extracted from images of a scratch assay, and quantify D and λ using discrete computational simulations and approximate Bayesian computation. We show that it is possible to robustly recover estimates of D and λ from synthetic data, as well as a new set of experimental data. For the first time, our approach also provides a method to estimate the uncertainty in our estimates of D and λ. We anticipate that our approach can be generalized to deal with more realistic experimental scenarios in which we are interested in estimating D and λ, as well as additional relevant parameters such as the strength of cell-to-cell adhesion or the strength of cell-to-substrate adhesion.

  8. Substance Abuse and Prison Recidivism: Themes from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lindsay A.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.

  9. The Importance of Qualitative Market Research in Corporate Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Kaiser

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available As a corporate market researcher, I believe that qualitative and quantitative research cannot be seen as a contradiction but as two cohesive and supplementary areas. My definition is decision- not methodology-orientated and shows them as the poles of a continuum. Since corporate market research takes place in a business environment, it is per se primarily quantitative. Nevertheless this paper points out practical areas for qualitative research for the corporate setting. Qualitative research can serve as preparation for or in addition to quantitative research, especially when entering unknown territory in terms of research. In doing so qualitative research will emerge as the best weaponry for a corporate market researcher. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402313

  10. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  11. College student stressors: a review of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Carrie S; Baranik, Lisa E; Daniel, Francis

    2013-10-01

    A total of 40 qualitative studies were reviewed and coded according to the college student stressors they represented. These studies utilized a variety of qualitative methods to examine stressors representing the following themes: relationships, lack of resources, academics, the environment, expectations, diversity, transitions and other stressors. Relationship stressors were the most commonly reported theme and covered areas including stress associated with family, romantic, peer and faculty relationships. Three of the themes (relationships, diversity and other) are novel categories of stressors compared with quantitative reviews on the topic, highlighting the importance of gathering both quantitative and qualitative pieces of information. This review contributes to the stress literature by synthesizing and identifying trends in the qualitative student stress research.

  12. Using qualitative evidence to optimize child PTSD treatment guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesel, F. van; Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of patients’ perspectives in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly emphasized in recent years. However, qualitative evidence regarding these perspectives, is not systematically included in treatment guidelines. The possibilities of adding systematically

  13. ISSUE OF QUALITY IN A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of quality in a qualitative research cannot be addressed by a single or constant method. It, however, may be judged through the aggregate of various perspectives such as “credibility,” “dependability,” “confirmability,” “ethics” and so on which is the central focus of this paper. In a qualitative research, researchers often engage with flexible realities where the subjective views of respondents may shape the research frame and the whole process of an inquiry. In such a situation, quality issue is more pertinent as it deals with peoplr’s everyday realitiy and subjective explanation of it. The study focuses on the issue of quality in a qualitative research and provides a middle way to deal with this issue in respect to the debates over it. Using secondary sources it provides a comprehensive idea for ensuring quality in a qualitative research.

  14. An introduction to qualitative research for food and nutrition professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Gleason, Philip M; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol; Beto, Judith A; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to define qualitative research, explain its design, explore its congruence with quantitative research, and provide examples of its applications in dietetics. Also, methods to ensure validity, reliability, and relevance are addressed. Readers will gain increased knowledge about qualitative research and greater competency in evaluating this type of research. The hope is that food and nutrition professionals will be inspired to conduct and publish qualitative research, adding to the body of peer-reviewed dietetics-related qualitative publications. This type of research must be methodically planned and implemented with attention to validity, reliability, and relevance. This rigorous approach boosts the probability that the research will add to the scientific literature and qualify for publication.

  15. Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

  16. What role for qualitative methods in randomized experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role to quantit......The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role...... to quantitative methods, little attention has been paid to the possibility of randomized experiments that allow a primary role to qualitative methods. This paper assesses whether a range of qualitative methods compromise the internal and external validity criteria of randomized experiments. It suggests that life...

  17. Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Problems Using Qualitative Reasoning Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zhou; Siegfried F.Stiemer

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue failures are often encountered in steel structures under heavy cyclic loadings.This paper presents metal fatigue problems in structural engineering using outcomes of recent advancements in numerical qualitative reasoning.Qualitative reasoning provides an effective and sound technique for solving complex and uncertain scenarios,regardless of the uncertainty or linearity of the design parameters and their constraints.This paper introduces the algorithms behind a software platform,built upon numerical qualitative reasoning for engineering applications.The software expresses the results of the analysis in variable ranges and diagrams showing a two-dimensional design space.The capability of representing design parameters and outcomes in solution spaces provides a practical way for engineers to leverage their existing knowledge and experience.Case studies in metal fatigue design are given to reflect on the capability of qualitative reasoning in engineering applications.

  18. “Slow Food” Post-Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    thing when using this terminology. In addressing the topic of what constitutes the object of psychological research and what accordingly could be a genuinely psychological qualitative research it acknowledges the need to return to the study of persons’ unique experience. In light of the risk of “Mc......The present paper addresses several aspects discussed in the special issue on the future of qualitative research in psychology. Particularly, it asks whether in light of the overhomogenization of the term “qualitative methods” researchers actually can still assume that they talk about the same......Donaldization” in present qualitative research, it argues that we need to return to learning research methods as craft skills. It will then give an outlook on how recent developments in discursive and narrative psychology offer a fruitful avenue for studying unique psychological experience as people manage to ‘move on...

  19. The Craft of Doing Qualitative Research in Prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Beyens

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the characteristics, challenges and added value of qualitative prison research in a Belgian context. As the many dynamics and challenges of qualitative research are often underreported in academic publications, we pay particular attention to the research processes and the pains and gains of qualitative prison research. Firstly, drawing on experiences from several prison studies, we describe the different steps of gaining access to the field as a constant process of negotiation. Secondly, we discuss some of the dilemmas of prison research based on two ethnographic studies of prison staff. We end with discussion of the value added by a qualitative research approach to facilitate understanding of what is at stake in prisons and how this fits with a critical research position.

  20. Facts zur Qualität der Biomilch

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Die Qualität von Biomilch ist mehr als Zellzahlen und Keimzahlen. Sie kann nur durch eine ganzheitliche Betrachtung erfasst werden. Dazu gibt es auch interessante Erkenntnisse aus einer Reihe von Studien.