WorldWideScience

Sample records for assay performance demonstration

  1. Performance in the WIPP nondestructive assay performance demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, C.J. [Consolidated Technical Services, Inc., Frederick, MD (United States); Connolly, M.J.; Becker, G.K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Measurement facilities performing nondestructive assay (NDA) of wastes intended for disposal at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are required to demonstrate their ability to meet specific Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). This demonstration is performed, in part, by participation in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). The PDP is funded and managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and is conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It tests the characteristics of precision, system bias and/or total uncertainty through the measurement of variable, blind combinations of simulated waste drums and certified radioactive standards. Each facility must successfully participate in the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP using each different type of measurement system planned for use in waste characterization. The first cycle of the PDP was completed in July 1996 and the second is scheduled for completion by December 1996. Seven sites reported data in cycle 1 for 11 different measurement systems. This paper describes the design and operation of the PDP and provides the performance data from cycle 1. It also describes the preliminary results from cycle 2 and updates the status and future plans for the NDA PDP. 4 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  4. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  5. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure

  7. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-31

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP for boxed waste assay systems. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO’s). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the boxed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a modified standard waste box (SWB) emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. An SWB is a waste box with ends designed specifically to fit the TRUPACT-II shipping container. SWB’s will be used to package a substantial volume of the TRU waste for disposal. These PDP sample

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  10. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  11. Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste characterization Program require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Each facility is required to participate in performance demonstration programs (PDPs) designed to produce objective method performance data used to support compliance assessment activities. The PDP program is comprised of a series of tests conducted semi-annually at participating waste characterization facilities. Each semi-annual test if referred to as a cycle. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards. The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standards(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The purpose of this document is to define, per the PDP Program Plan, initial cycle benign matrix drum requirements, enumerate the associated specifications, and document the final as-built design. The intent of the initial cycle PDP is to establish and document the waste NDA baseline capability presently implemented at participating waste characterization facilities. The baseline can be interpreted as that fundamental waste NDA capability necessary to perform accurate source mass calibrations and demonstrate the ability to assay radioactive material of a pre-specified nominal isotopic/chemical composition in waste forms characterized as non-interfering to benign. A benign simulated waste matrix refers to a material that inherently does not possess or has minimal properties with attributes known to interfere with or complicate

  12. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques

  13. Performance Measurement to Demonstrate Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Joseph A; Hebl, James R

    2015-12-01

    Anesthesiologists are obligated to demonstrate the value of the care they provide. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has multiple performance-based payment programs to drive high-value care and motivate integrated care for surgical patients and hospitalized patients. These programs rely on diverse arrays of performance measures and complex reporting rules. Among all specialties, anesthesiology has tremendous potential to effect wide-ranging change on diverse measures. Performance measures deserve scrutiny by anesthesiologists as tools to improve care, the means by which payment is determined, and as a means to demonstrate the value of care to surgeons, hospitals, and patients. PMID:26610623

  14. Performance demonstration in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1989 Addenda of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 11, Appendix 8, the rules for qualifying ultrasonic (UT) systems (personnel, equipment and procedures) were published. Representatives from American utilities organized the Performance Demonstration Initiative Steering Committee (PDI) to implement Appendix 8 in response to the new requirements. The utilities collaborated their resources to provide a unified approach that is economical and utility directed. Nearly all of the samples containing the flaws have been fabricated and are being used for the demonstrations. Pipe samples removed from service containing intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) have also been included in the program. The results of these initial demonstrations are summarized in this paper. Samples represented BWRs and PWRs

  15. Equivalence of ELISpot assays demonstrated between major HIV network laboratories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbinder K Gill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Comprehensive T Cell Vaccine Immune Monitoring Consortium (CTC-VIMC was created to provide standardized immunogenicity monitoring services for HIV vaccine trials. The ex vivo interferon-gamma (IFN-γ ELISpot is used extensively as a primary immunogenicity assay to assess T cell-based vaccine candidates in trials for infectious diseases and cancer. Two independent, GCLP-accredited central laboratories of CTC-VIMC routinely use their own standard operating procedures (SOPs for ELISpot within two major networks of HIV vaccine trials. Studies are imperatively needed to assess the comparability of ELISpot measurements across laboratories to benefit optimal advancement of vaccine candidates. METHODS: We describe an equivalence study of the two independently qualified IFN-g ELISpot SOPs. The study design, data collection and subsequent analysis were managed by independent statisticians to avoid subjectivity. The equivalence of both response rates and positivity calls to a given stimulus was assessed based on pre-specified acceptance criteria derived from a separate pilot study. FINDINGS: Detection of positive responses was found to be equivalent between both laboratories. The 95% C.I. on the difference in response rates, for CMV (-1.5%, 1.5% and CEF (-0.4%, 7.8% responses, were both contained in the pre-specified equivalence margin of interval [-15%, 15%]. The lower bound of the 95% C.I. on the proportion of concordant positivity calls for CMV (97.2% and CEF (89.5% were both greater than the pre-specified margin of 70%. A third CTC-VIMC central laboratory already using one of the two SOPs also showed comparability when tested in a smaller sub-study. INTERPRETATION: The described study procedure provides a prototypical example for the comparison of bioanalytical methods in HIV vaccine and other disease fields. This study also provides valuable and unprecedented information for future vaccine candidate evaluations on the comparison and

  16. SWATH Mass Spectrometry Performance Using Extended Peptide MS/MS Assay Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jemma X; Song, Xiaomin; Pascovici, Dana; Zaw, Thiri; Care, Natasha; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-07-01

    The use of data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH for mass spectrometry based proteomics is usually performed with peptide MS/MS assay libraries which enable identification and quantitation of peptide peak areas. Reference assay libraries can be generated locally through information dependent acquisition, or obtained from community data repositories for commonly studied organisms. However, there have been no studies performed to systematically evaluate how locally generated or repository-based assay libraries affect SWATH performance for proteomic studies. To undertake this analysis, we developed a software workflow, SwathXtend, which generates extended peptide assay libraries by integration with a local seed library and delivers statistical analysis of SWATH-quantitative comparisons. We designed test samples using peptides from a yeast extract spiked into peptides from human K562 cell lysates at three different ratios to simulate protein abundance change comparisons. SWATH-MS performance was assessed using local and external assay libraries of varying complexities and proteome compositions. These experiments demonstrated that local seed libraries integrated with external assay libraries achieve better performance than local assay libraries alone, in terms of the number of identified peptides and proteins and the specificity to detect differentially abundant proteins. Our findings show that the performance of extended assay libraries is influenced by the MS/MS feature similarity of the seed and external libraries, while statistical analysis using multiple testing corrections increases the statistical rigor needed when searching against large extended assay libraries. PMID:27161445

  17. High capacity heat pipe performance demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A high capacity heat pipe which will operate in one-g and in zero-g is investigated. An artery configuration which is self-priming in one-g was emphasized. Two artery modifications were evolved as candidates to achieve one-g priming and will provide the very high performance: the four artery and the eight artery configurations. These were each evaluated analytically for performance and priming capability. The eight artery configuration was found to be inadequate from a performance standpoint. The four artery showed promise of working. A five-inch long priming element test article was fabricated using the four artery design. Plexiglas viewing windows were made on each end of the heat pipe to permit viewing of the priming activity. The five-inch primary element would not successfully prime in one-g. Difficulties on priming in one-g raised questions about zero-g priming. Therefore a small test element heat pipe for verifying that the proposed configuration will self-prime in zero-g was fabricated and delivered.

  18. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 071304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Listeria species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of all species of Listeria in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Listeria species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 11290-1:1996 including amendment 1:2004 in a variety of foods plus plastic and stainless steel. The food matrixes validated were smoked salmon, processed cheese, fresh bagged spinach, cantaloupe, cooked prawns, cooked sliced turkey meat, cooked sliced ham, salami, pork frankfurters, and raw ground beef. All matrixes were tested by Thermo Fisher Scientific, Microbiology Division, Basingstoke, UK. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, fresh bagged spinach, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled independent laboratory study by the University ofGuelph, Canada. Using probability of detection statistical analysis, a significant difference in favour of the SureTect assay was demonstrated between the SureTect and reference method for high level spiked samples of pork frankfurters, smoked salmon, cooked prawns, stainless steel, and low-spiked samples of salami. For all other matrixes, no significant difference was seen between the two methods during the study. Inclusivity testing was conducted with 68 different isolates of Listeria species, all of which were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. None of the 33 exclusivity isolates were detected by the SureTect Listeria species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation, which demonstrated that the assay gave reliable performance. Accelerated stability testing was additionally conducted, validating the assay

  1. Performance demonstration requirements for eddy current steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology used for developing performance demonstration tests for steam generator tube eddy current (ET) inspection systems. The methodology is based on statistical design principles. Implementation of a performance demonstration test based on these design principles will help to ensure that field inspection systems have a high probability of detecting and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented. Probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described

  2. Performance assessment of non-destructive assay techniques in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques have become ever more important and are being used to a large extent in nuclear material accountancy and control. There are two main reasons for this: (1) Most NDA techniques have been improved so that their performance has become close to that of destructive assay (DA) techniques; (2) Because of the parallel improvement of statistical and procedural inspection approaches the traditional scheme has been abandoned, with NDA being used for semi-quantitative or consistency checks and DA for quantitative determinations. Thus, NDA is now constantly used by safeguards authorities for scenarios involving quantitative analysis. Therefore, planning of inspections, analysis of data and of differences between inspectors and operators, as well as studies of strategic systems, require accurate knowledge of the quality of NDA data or, in a broader sense, accurate assessment of NDA performance. There is yet another element that makes the assessment of performance values so important, namely that they are also required for safeguards and verification agreements to ensure that the accountancy and verification records used conform to or are equivalent to the latest standards. Thus internationally agreed performance values are an important component of technical improvement and of measurement traceability and are therefore an invaluable element of safeguards transparency. The paper presents different methodological approaches to performance evaluation, discussing modelling and testing of models. The role of performance laboratories, such as PERLA, is also discussed, together with the importance of special exercises and of performance evaluation for well characterized reference materials. (author). 55 refs

  3. Prop demonstrations in biology lectures facilitate student learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Bonney, Kevin M; Polizzotto, Kristin

    2015-05-01

    Science students can benefit from visual aids. In biology lectures, visual aids are usually limited to tables, figures, and PowerPoint presentations. In this IRB-approved study, we examined the effectiveness of the use of five prop demonstrations, three of which are at the intersection of biology and chemistry, in three community college biology courses. We hypothesized that students' performance on test questions is enhanced by the use of prop demonstrations. Consistent with our hypothesis, we showed that students learn more effectively and perform better on questions that relate to demonstrations than on questions related to lessons that do not have a demonstration component. PMID:25949751

  4. Prop Demonstrations in Biology Lectures Facilitate Student Learning and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Tamari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Science students can benefit from visual aids. In biology lectures, visual aids are usually limited to tables, figures, and PowerPoint presentations. In this IRB-approved study, we examined the effectiveness of the use of five prop demonstrations, three of which are at the intersection of biology and chemistry, in three community college biology courses. We hypothesized that students’ performance on test questions is enhanced by the use of prop demonstrations. Consistent with our hypothesis, we showed that students learn more effectively and perform better on questions that relate to demonstrations than on questions related to lessons that do not have a demonstration component.

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) transuranic performance demonstration program sample packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Performance Demonstration Program (TPDP) sample packaging is used to transport highway route controlled quantities of weapons grade (WG) plutonium samples from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility and back. The purpose of these shipments is to test the nondestructive assay equipment in the WRAP facility as part of the Nondestructive Waste Assay PDP. The PDP is part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) National TRU Program managed by the U. S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Details of this program are found in CAO-94-1045, Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program (CAO 1994); INEL-96/0129, Design of Benign Matrix Drums for the Non-Destructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996a); and INEL-96/0245, Design of Phase 1 Radioactive Working Reference Materials for the Nondestructive Assay Performance Demonstration Program for the National TRU Program (INEL 1996b). Other program documentation is maintained by the national TRU program and each DOE site participating in the program. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the TRU PDP sample packaging meets the onsite transportation safety requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for an onsite Transportation Hazard Indicator (THI) 2 packaging. This SARP, however, does not include evaluation of any operations within the PFP or WRAP facilities, including handling, maintenance, storage, or operating requirements, except as they apply directly to transportation between the gate of PFP and the gate of the WRAP facility. All other activities are subject to the requirements of the facility safety analysis reports (FSAR) of the PFP or WRAP facility and requirements of the PDP

  6. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exploring SSL Product Performance in the Real World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    Fact sheet that outlines DOE's GATEWAY technology demonstration program, which evaluates high-performance SSL products for general illumination in a variety of real-world exterior and interior applications.

  7. Performance tests on PNL's transportable neutron/gamma waste waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in conjunction with Canberra Industries, has implemented a 55-gallon drum waste assay system. The single system unit consists of a combined segmented gamma assay system and a neutron assay system. The unit is designed to function either in the laboratory or in a mobile trailer. The system is on wheels and can be moved through standard double doors. The gamma system uses an HPGe detector with a Se-75 source for transmission corrections. The neutron detector uses 40 He-3 detectors connected to a JSR-12 neutron coincidence counter. The system's software is unique and is interactive with the user; it features a menu driven operator screen from which all functions regarding operations and calibrations can be selected. Single or combined assays with various setups, including containers smaller than 55 gallons, may be performed. The software and analysis is designed for unknown waste contents, but allows input of waste stream information prior to assay. The system was originally designed for safeguards' MC ampersand A requirements and has enough sensitivity to determine whether a drum is TRU or LLW in one assay pass. Typical counting times are approximately 1800 seconds for a dual pass. Preliminary testing of the system with the available Pu standards has shown the system will perform to the required levels stated in the Data Quality Objectives of the WIPP Performance Demonstration program. An overall study of the system is underway to determine the lower limit of detection (LLD) for different isotopes, to best utilize the combined assay results, and to apply the appropriate data corrections for more complete answers, such as corrections for the end effects. Results from these developments will be presented at the conference

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic radioenzymatic assay for plasma catecyholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new assay method for plasma catecholamimes (CA) requiring only 50 μl has been developed, which uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (D), and epinephrine (E) compounds found in plasma are radioactively o-methylated with S-[methyl-3H]-adenosyl-L-methionine (3H-SAM) 3H-SAM by the reaction of catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT). The reaction is terminated and a standard mixture of nonradioactive o-methylated analogues of NE, D, and E is added to act as a carrier. Following separation by HPLC, the D,L-normetanephrine (NMN), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyl-amine or 3-methoxytyramine (3-MOT), and metanephrine (MN) radioactive peaks are collected which represent NE, D, and E, respectively. Then MNM and MN are oxidized to vanillin, and 3-MOT is acetylated. The products are subsequently separated by solvent extraction. This is necessary in order to avoid high radioactive blanks and to allow quantitation of the radioactivity by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The mean supine levels of NE, D, and E in normal subjects were respectively 182, 33, and 87 pg/ml of plasma. Similar assays on patients with pheochromocytoma revealed 797, 80, and 470 pg/ml

  9. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowitch, Elena B; Miller, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  10. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems' performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims or guaranteeing any system's performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems' performance must be evaluated. Canberra and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Plutonium Facility developed a three-phase validation plan. During Phase One, tests were performed using simulation sources at Canberra to determine the error bounds for measurement parameters, to determine the minimum detectable activity, and to measure precision and bias. During Phase Two, two mobile systems were installed at the Plutonium Facility. LANL is providing peer review of the systems' performance for plutonium, acting as a beta test site to evaluate the waste-assay software, and providing data for open-quotes precertificationclose quotes at future Department of Energy installations. (Plutonium isotopics are determined from measurements using the Multi-Group Analysis code.) Finally, the two systems' performances are evaluated for representative waste types (salt, metal, combustibles, leaded rubber, and HEPA filters). Phase Three of the validation, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Demonstration Plan, will require approval by the National TRU Program Office. This paper describes the standard mobile waste-assay systems, the test plan, and preliminary results from the peer review outlined above in Phase Two

  11. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems` performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims or guaranteeing any system`s performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems` performance must be evaluated. Canberra and Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL) Plutonium Facility developed a three-phase validation plan. During Phase One, tests were performed using simulation sources at Canberra to determine the error bounds for measurement parameters, to determine the minimum detectable activity, and to measure precision and bias. During Phase Two, two mobile systems were installed at the Plutonium Facility. LANL is providing peer review of the systems` performance for plutonium, acting as a beta test site to evaluate the waste-assay software, and providing data for {open_quotes}precertification{close_quotes} at future Department of Energy installations. (Plutonium isotopics are determined from measurements using the Multi-Group Analysis code.) Finally, the two systems` performances are evaluated for representative waste types (salt, metal, combustibles, leaded rubber, and HEPA filters). Phase Three of the validation, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Demonstration Plan, will require approval by the National TRU Program Office. This paper describes the standard mobile waste-assay systems, the test plan, and preliminary results from the peer review outlined above in Phase Two.

  12. Performance demonstration program plan for analysis of simulated headspace gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for analysis of headspace gases will consist of regular distribution and analyses of test standards to evaluate the capability for analyzing VOCs, hydrogen, and methane in the headspace of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles will provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for TRU waste characterization. Laboratory performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste drum headspace gases according to the criteria set within the text of this Program Plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAPP QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization gas samples. Analyses which are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories which have demonstrated acceptable performance in the PDP.

  13. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in saliva demonstrated by a novel PCR assay.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Li; Musich, P R; Ha, T; Ferguson, D A; Patel, N. R.; Chi, D S; Thomas, E.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the saliva of patients infected with this bacterium. METHODS--A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect H pylori in saliva and gastric biopsy specimens from patients undergoing endoscopy. RESULTS--Our PCR assay amplified a 417 base pair fragment of DNA from all 21 DNAs derived from H pylori clinical isolates but did not amplify DNA from 23 non-H pylori strains. Sixty three frozen gastric biopsy and 56 sa...

  14. Diagnostic performance of phospholipid-specific assays for the evaluation of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebo, Anne E; Jaskowski, Troy D; Phansalkar, Amit R; Litwin, Christine M; Branch, D Ware; Hill, Harry R

    2008-06-01

    The diagnostic performance of commercially available nonstandard antiphospholipid (aPL) assays for the evaluation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is unknown. In 62 patients with APS, 88 with recurrent pregnancy loss, 50 healthy blood donors, and 24 women with one or more successful pregnancies, we measured antiphosphatidic acid (aPA), antiphosphatidyl-choline (aPC), antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), antiphosphatidylglycerol (aPG), antiphosphatidylinositol (aPI), and antiphosphatidyl-serine (aPS) IgG and IgM antibodies from 2 manufacturers. We computed the areas under the curve (AUC), sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values, and 95% confidence intervals to assess diagnostic performance. The AUC analyses of the IgM assays demonstrated significant differences (P < .01) for all markers except aPC, whereas the IgG markers showed comparable performance for most assays with the exception of aPE (P < .01) and aPS (P = .02) antibodies. Overall, the combined sensitivity of the aPL assays differed significantly between manufacturers and did not improve the diagnostic yield for APS. PMID:18480002

  15. Evaluation of the Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species assay. AOAC Performance Tested Method 051303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloke, Jonathan; Clark, Dorn; Radcliff, Roy; Leon-Velarde, Carlos; Larson, Nathan; Dave, Keron; Evans, Katharine; Crabtree, David; Hughes, Annette; Simpson, Helen; Holopainen, Jani; Wickstrand, Nina; Kauppinen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    The Thermo Scientific SureTect Salmonella species Assay is a new real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonellae in food and environmental samples. This validation study was conducted using the AOAC Research Institute (RI) Performance Tested Methods program to validate the SureTect Salmonella species Assay in comparison to the reference method detailed in International Organization for Standardization 6579:2002 in a variety of food matrixes, namely, raw ground beef, raw chicken breast, raw ground pork, fresh bagged lettuce, pork frankfurters, nonfat dried milk powder, cooked peeled shrimp, pasteurized liquid whole egg, ready-to-eat meal containing beef, and stainless steel surface samples. With the exception of liquid whole egg and fresh bagged lettuce, which were tested in-house, all matrixes were tested by Marshfield Food Safety, Marshfield, WI, on behalf of Thermo Fisher Scientific. In addition, three matrixes (pork frankfurters, lettuce, and stainless steel surface samples) were analyzed independently as part of the AOAC-RI-controlled laboratory study by the University of Guelph, Canada. No significant difference by probability of detection or McNemars Chi-squared statistical analysis was found between the candidate or reference methods for any of the food matrixes or environmental surface samples tested during the validation study. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing was conducted with 117 and 36 isolates, respectively, which demonstrated that the SureTect Salmonella species Assay was able to detect all the major groups of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica (e.g., Typhimurium) and the less common subspecies of S. enterica (e.g., arizoniae) and the rarely encountered S. bongori. None of the exclusivity isolates analyzed were detected by the SureTect Salmonella species Assay. Ruggedness testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of the assay with specific method deviations outside of the recommended parameters open to variation (enrichment time

  16. The Beckman DxI 800 prolactin assay demonstrates superior specificity for monomeric prolactin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    Commercially available prolactin immunoassays detect macroprolactin to variable degrees. Best practice requires laboratories to assess the cross-reactivity of their prolactin assay with macroprolactin, and where appropriate, introduce a screen for the presence of macroprolactin. Our policy has been to reanalyse hyperprolactinaemic samples following polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and to report the resultant value as the monomeric prolactin content of the sample. The goal of this study was to determine the need to continue PEG precipitation when prolactin measurements with the Wallac AutoDELFIA were replaced by the Beckman DxI 800.

  17. Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-19

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  19. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2006-04-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  20. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-13

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  1. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  2. One gigasample per second transient recorder: a performance demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance demonstrated by a one gigasample per second (1 Gs/s) transient recorder currently in advanced development portends an important new instrument for recording single transient data. A Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) is used to sample a continuous analog signal. Samples acquired at the full sampling rate (1 Gs/s) are temporarily stored in the CCD, then read out at a slow rate (e.g., 250 Ks/s) into a conventional analog-to-digital converter prior to storage in nonvolatile, digital memory. Enhanced circuitry and techniques developed over the past three years have yielded higher performance than originally anticipated. Accordingly, the target specification has been revised to reflect higher expectations

  3. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS) that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 CTs), gene groups (≤0.05 normalized/aggregate CTs) and RS (≤1.38 RS units). Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery

  4. Multicentre trial of isotopic and non-isotopic assays of reproductive hormones. A comparison of assay performance and reagent stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Matched Reagent Programme (MRP) of the World Health Organization was established to standardize reagents and assay methods to improve comparability of results from multicentred clinical trials of fertility regulating reagents. Recently the Special Programme decided to update its assay methodologies and to provide assay systems using a non-isotopic label, as it was thought that these would provide systems which were cheaper, more stable and subject to less legislative control than isotopic assays. A variety of endpoints were reviewed, including chemiluminescence and fluorescence. The decision to adopt enzyme immunoassays was taken for reasons of flexibility, cost choice of instrumentation and safety. Enzymeimmunoassays (EIAs) for luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin (PRL) and progesterone were developed and compared with isotopic assays for these analytes in a multicentred trial and were found to be comparable. At most centres of WHO LH, FSH and PRL radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents showed no change in performance after 2 weeks at 40 deg. C compared with assay performance of reagents stored at 4 deg. C. The temperature stability and shelf-life of RIAs confirmed that radiolabels are likely to have an important role in established laboratories in developing countries for the immediate future. Enzymeimmunoassays gave good within- and between-laboratory agreement. Some deterioration in enzyme activity and enzyme substrates was observed after 2 weeks' storage at 40 deg. C, though this made no appreciable difference to the assay precision or bias and produced valid results, confirming that EIAs would be acceptable successors to the current generation of WHO RIAs. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  5. The current status of performance demonstration program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research is holding an ultrasonic testing (UT) performance demonstration (PD) program for the nondestructive testing crew in nuclear power plants. This program is for qualifying personnel's manual detection skills on stainless steel piping and carbon steel piping welds. Artificial flaws embedded in welds comprise two types of circumferential and axial ones. Examinees are required to detect and size flaw lengths. Statistical analyses, including accuracy rates, detection rates and relative sizing errors, are made over examinees' detection data. Based upon eighteen examinees' output in six PD sessions, the overall accuracy rate is about 90%, with stainless steel and carbon steel piping yielding similar results. The length sizing errors, however, depend on piping materials and flaw orientations. The statistical results can provide both regulatory authorities and utilities with a conservative evaluation of the confidence level of realistic UT results in nuclear power plants. (authors)

  6. Progress report on Japanese performance demonstration. 1 year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 1, 2005, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) established PD Center to promote the Performance Demonstration (PD) qualification examination. The 1st PD qualification examination started in March, 2006, and was operated by PD Center of CRIEPI. As of August 31, 2007, 15 examination courses have finished and 20 out of 33 candidates passed the examination. The total number of examination including retest is 51. Increase in the examination pass rate of retest personnel indicates improvements in the sizing technique. A common reason of failure is overall that cannot identify weld to base-metal interface echo from crack tip echo. This result suggests an importance of more practical training using realistic samples. (author)

  7. Performance of the demonstration model of DIOS FXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Sakurai, Ikuya; Masuda, Tadashi; Torii, Tatsuharu; Matsushita, Kohji; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2009-08-01

    To search for warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), a small satellite mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor ) is planned and a specially designed four-stage X-ray telescope (FXT) has been developed as the best fit optics to have a wide field of view and large effective area. Based on the previous design work and mirror fabrication technology used in the Suzaku mission, we made small demonstration model of DIOS FXT. This model has focal length of 700 mm consisting of quadrant housing and four-stage mirror sets with different radii of 150 - 180 mm and each stage mirror hight of 40 mm. We performed X-ray measurement for one set of four-stage mirror with a radius of 180 mm. From the results of the optical and X-ray measurement, it was found that tighter control were required for positioning and fabrication process of each mirror even to get angular resolution of several arcmin.

  8. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  9. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE's EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only

  10. Performance Analysis and Electronics Packaging of the Optical Communications Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeganathan, M.; Monacos, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD), under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is a laboratory-based lasercomm terminal designed to validate several key technologies, primarily precision beam pointing, high bandwidth tracking, and beacon acquisition.

  11. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories. PMID:26071001

  12. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems' performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system's performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems' performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems` performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system`s performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems` performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Thermal Performance of ATLAS Laser Thermal Control System Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin; Patel, Deepak; Ottenstein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    than 135 watts of heater power. 4) The LHP reservoir control heater power is limited to 15 watts with a 70 percent duty cycle. 5) The voltage of the power supply can vary between 26 volts direct current and 34 volts direct current during the spacecraft lifetime. A design analysis shows that a single LTCS can satisfy these requirements. However, shutdown of· the LHP is particularly challenging and the shutdown heater must be wired in series with two reservoir thermostats and two CCHP thermostats at different set points. An LTCS demonstration unit has been tested to verify these performance characteristics experimentally prior to proceeding to the final LTCS design and fabrication. Test results showed that the LHP shutdown scheme would be able to shut down the LHP as designed and the reservoir control heater can maintain the ATLAS mass simulator within the plus or minus 1 degrees Centigrade accuracy under various combinations of the heat load, sink temperature, and power supply voltage.

  15. Performance demonstration tests for detection of intergranular stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates detection tests of inservice inspectors (ISI), procedures and equipment that are employed to find intergranular stress corrosion cracks in nuclear power plant piping. Performance is described by two fundamental parameters: false call probability and probability of detection. Acceptable inspection performance and detection tests are therefore defined in terms of these two parameters. 14 refs., 25 figs

  16. Demonstration of the dynamic mass redistribution label-free technology as a useful cell-based pharmacological assay for endogenously expressed GABAA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders Bue; Nittegaard-Nielsen, Mia; Christensen, Julie T.;

    2015-01-01

    Epic® opticalbased biosensor that relies on dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) for detection. So far, DMR assays have been mostly used to study G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pharmacology. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this assay for investigating ligand-gated ion channel receptors. Using the...

  17. Demonstration of extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) activity in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis using a novel assay for citrullination of fibrinogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Dres; Senolt, Ladislav; Nielsen, Michael Friberg; Pruijn, Ger J; Nielsen, Claus H

    2014-01-01

    general. PAD activity has been demonstrated in various cell lysates, but so far not in synovial fluid. We aimed to develop an assay for detection of PAD activity, if any, in synovial fluid from RA patients. METHODS: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human fibrinogen as the immobilized substrate...

  18. Performances of Four Real-Time PCR Assays for Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Milène; Chastang-Dumas, Elsa; Bastide, Sophie; Alonso, Sandrine; Lechiche, Catherine; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lachaud, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) is a frequent infection among HIV-positive or other immunocompromised patients. In the past several years, PCR on pulmonary samples has become an essential element for the laboratory diagnosis of PCP. Nevertheless, very few comparative studies of available PCR assays have been published. In this work, we evaluated the concordance between four real-time PCR assays, including three commercial kits, AmpliSens, MycAssay, and Bio-Evolution PCR, and an in-house PCR (J. Fillaux et al. 2008, J Microbiol Methods 75:258-261, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2008.06.009), on 148 pulmonary samples. The results showed concordance rates ranging from 81.6% to 96.6% (kappa, 0.64 to 0.93). Concordance was excellent between three assays: the in-house assay, AmpliSens, and the MycAssay PCR (kappa, >0.8). The performances of these PCR assays were also evaluated according to the classification of the probability of PCP (proven, probable, possible, or no final diagnosis of PCP) based on clinical and radiological signs as well as on the direct examination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples. In the proven PCP category, Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA was detected with all four assays. In the probable PCP category, the in-house PCR, AmpliSens, and the MycAssay PCR were positive for all samples, while the Bio-Evolution PCR failed to detect Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in two samples. In the possible PCP category, the percentage of positive samples according to PCR varied from 54.5% to 86.4%. Detection of colonized patients is discussed. Finally, among the four evaluated PCR assays, one was not suitable for colonization detection but showed good performance in the proven and probable PCP groups. For the three other assays, performances were excellent and allowed detection of a very low fungal burden. PMID:26719435

  19. Performance Assessment of Human and Cattle Associated Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation overview is (1) Single laboratory performance assessment of human- and cattle associated PCR assays and (2) A Field Study: Evaluation of two human fecal waste management practices in Ohio watershed.

  20. Dynamic compaction of salt: Initial demonstration and performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is proposed as the sole long-term shaft seal between the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the biosphere. The concept for a long-term shaft seal for the WIPP repository is to place crushed salt in the four shafts and to develop an effective seal as the surrounding salt creeps into the shafts, reconsolidating the salt. Permeability of the salt components is calculated to achieve performance objectives at some acceptable time in the future, an expectation which is a key to performance assessment calculations for the WIPP. Such a seal has never been constructed, and until now no performance measurements have been made on an appropriately large scale. A full understanding of construction methods, achievable initial density and permeability and time-wise performance of reconsolidating salt is required. This paper discusses nearly full-scale dynamic compaction of mine-run WIPP salt, preliminary measurements of density and permeability, and their variability within a relatively large volume of compacted material

  1. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyolar, Bennett K.

    A solar thermal cooling system using novel non-tracking External Compound Parabolic Concentrators (XCPC) has been built at the University of California, Merced and operated for two cooling seasons. Its performance in providing power for space cooling has been analyzed. This solar cooling system is comprised of 53.3 m2 of XCPC trough collectors which are used to power a 23 kW double effect (LiBr) absorption chiller. This is the first system that combines both XCPC and absorption chilling technologies. Performance of the system was measured in both sunny and cloudy conditions, with both clean and dirty collectors. It was found that these collectors are well suited at providing thermal power to drive absorption cooling systems and that both the coinciding of available thermal power with cooling demand and the simplicity of the XCPC collectors compared to other solar thermal collectors makes them a highly attractive candidate for cooling projects.

  2. Performance of 9 x 9 demonstration assemblies in Dresden-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute, Empire State Electric energy Research Corporation and Siemens Nuclear Power corporation jointly sponsored a program to monitor the in-reactor performance of 9x9 BWR fuel. The program was conducted in Dresden-2, with four 9x9 lead assemblies and one 8x8 reference assembly. These assemblies were loaded at the beginning of reactor Cycle 9 and completed four cycles of operation. All five assemblies were discharged after reactor Cycle 12 (EOC12) in September 1990. the 9x9 assemblies reached an average exposure of 35.7 GWd/MTU and the 8x8 reference assembly reached a burnup of 34.2 GWd/MTU. This final program report evaluates the performance of the 9x9 and 8x8 fuel assemblies, based on results from all four poolside examinations, analysis of the operating histories, and ramp tests conducted on rod segments under another program. Overall, both 9x9 and 8x assemblies performed well during the four cycles of irradiation

  3. Multicentric performance analysis of HCV quantification assays and its potential relevance for HCV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, F; Naeth, G; Berger, A; Hirsch, H H; Regenass, S; Ross, R S; Sarrazin, C; Wedemeyer, H; Knechten, H; Braun, P

    2016-06-01

    An accurate quantification of low viremic HCV RNA plasma samples has gained importance since the approval of direct acting antivirals and since only one single measurement predicts the necessity of a prolonged or shortened therapy. As reported previously, HCV quantification assays such as Abbott RealTime HCV and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV version 2 (CTM v2) may vary in sensitivity and precision particularly in low-level viremia. Importantly, substantial variations were previously demonstrated between some of these assays compared to the Roche High Pure System/COBAS TaqMan assay (HPS) reference assay, which was used to establish the clinical decision points in clinical studies. In this study, the reproducibility of assay performances across several laboratories was assessed by analysing quantification results generated by six independent laboratories (3× RealTime, 3× CTM v2) in comparison with one HPS reference laboratory. The 4th WHO Standard was diluted to 100, 25 and 10 IU/ml, and aliquots were tested in triplicates in 5 independent runs by each assay in the different laboratories to assess assay precision and detection rates. In a second approach, 2 clinical samples (GT 1a & GT 1b) were diluted to 100 and 25 IU/ml and tested as described above. While the result range for WHO 100 IU/ml replicates across all laboratories was similar in this analysis, the CVs of each laboratory ranged from 19.3 to 25.6 % for RealTime laboratories and were lower than CVs of CTM v2 laboratories with a range of 26.1-47.3 %, respectively, and also in comparison with the CV of the HPS reference laboratory (34.9 %). At WHO standard dilution of 25 IU/ml, 24 replicates were quantified by RealTime compared to 8 replicates with CTM v2. Results of clinical samples again revealed a higher variation of CTM v2 results as compared to RealTime values. (CVs at 100 IU/ml: RealTime: 13.1-21.0 % and CTM v2: 15.0-32.3 %; CVs at 25 IU/ml: RealTime 17.6-34.9 % and CTM v2 28

  4. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be orientation in the instrument.

  5. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the assay of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W N; Ray, A; Bates, L J

    1985-10-25

    The British Pharmacopoeia monograph for oxytetracycline calcium describes an high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay which requires packing of the column by the analyst. Presented in this report is an HPLC method for the assay of oxytetracycline which employs a commercially available reversed-phase column and a solvent system which gives improved separation of the antibiotic from common impurities. Results obtained using this method for both bulk and dosage forms of oxytetracycline are in accord with the results of the microbiological assays. PMID:4086631

  6. Elastomeric Capture Microparticles (ECmuPs) and Their use with Acoustophoresis to Perform Affinity Capture Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Kevin Wallace

    This dissertation describes the development of elastomeric capture microparticles (ECmicroPs) and their use with acoustophoresis to perform affinity capture assays. ECμPs that function as negative acoustic contrast particles were developed by crosslinking emulsion-based droplets composed of commercially available silicone precursors followed by functionalization with avidin/biotin reagents. The size distribution of the ECμPs was very broad or narrow depending on the emulsion system that was used during the synthesis process. Elastomeric particles exhibited a very broad size distribution when a bulk-emulsion process was used; however, when microfluidic systems were utilized, their size distribution became comparatively narrow. The functionalization of elastomeric particles was accomplished by the non-specific adsorption of avidin protein followed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) blocking and bio-specific adsorption of a biotinylated-capture antibody. Polydisperse ECμPs were functionalized to bind prostate specific antigen (PSA) or IgG-phycoerythrin (PE) in aqueous media (buffer, plasma, blood); whereas monodisperse ECμPs were functionalized to bind a high density lipoprotein in the aqueous media. Polydisperse ECμPs functionalized to bind PSA in a physiological buffer (PBS pH 7.4) demonstrated nanomolar detection using flow cytometry analysis; whereas ECμPs functionalized to bind IgG-PE demonstrated picomolar detection in 10% porcine plasma. ECμPs have a specific density of ~1.03 and are more compressible than their surrounding aqueous media; which allowed the ECμPs to exhibit negative acoustic contrast properties under an ultrasonic acoustic standing wave field. The negative acoustic contrast property of ECμPs was advantageously utilized in an IgG-PE assay conducted in 0.1% whole porcine blood. The ligand-bound ECμPs suspended in the diluted blood sample were flowed through an acoustofluidic device where the application of an ultrasonic acoustic standing wave

  7. Performance of Five Serological Assays for Diagnosis of Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia in Foals

    OpenAIRE

    Giguère, Steeve; Hernandez, Jorge; Gaskin, Jack; Prescott, John F.; Takai, Shinji; Miller, Corey

    2003-01-01

    The performance of four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (ELISA-6939, ELISA-33701, ELISA-VapA, and ELISA-California) and an agar gel immunodiffusion test for diagnosis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals was evaluated. Antibody concentrations of foals with culture-confirmed R. equi pneumonia (n = 41) were compared to those of age-matched pasturemates that remained clinically healthy during the entire breeding season (n = 24). For each serological assay evaluated, selection of a ...

  8. Performance of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay in pyrazinamide susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zi-kun; LUO Qing; JIANG Bi-xia; LI Wei-ting; XU Xiao-meng; XIONG Guo-liang; LI Jun-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug susceptibility assay is very important in tuberculosis therapy.Pyrazinamide is a first line antituberculosis drug and diagnosis of its resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis) is difficult and time consuming by conventional methods.In this study,we aimed to evaluate the performance of the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay in the detection of pyrazinamide resistance in M.tuberculosis relative to the conventional Wayne assay and Lowenstein-Jensen (L J) proportion method.Methods M.tuberculosis clinical isolates (n=132) were tested by the MODS and the Wayne assay:the results were compared with those obtained by the LJ proportion method.Mutations in the gene were identified by direct sequencing of the pncA genes of all isolates in which pyrazinamide resistance was detected by any of the three methods.Results Compared to the LJ results,the sensitivity and specificity of the MODS assay were 97.8% and 96.5% respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of the Wayne assay were 87.0% and 97.7% respectively.Mutations in the pncA gene were found in 41 of 46 strains that were pyrazinamide resistant (3 tests),in 1 of the 4 strains (LJ only),in 42 of 48 strains (at least 1 test),but no mutations in 1 strain sensitive according to the MODS assay only.The MODS assay,Wayne assay and LJ proportion method provided results in a median time of 6,7 and 26 days respectively.Conclusions MODS assay offers a rapid,simple and reliable method for the detection of pyrazinamide resistance in M.tuberculosis and is an optimal alternative method in resource limited countries.

  9. Data quality in drug discovery: the role of analytical performance in ligand binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wätzig, Hermann; Oltmann-Norden, Imke; Steinicke, Franziska; Alhazmi, Hassan A; Nachbar, Markus; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; Baumann, Knut; Exner, Thomas; Böckler, Frank M; El Deeb, Sami

    2015-09-01

    Despite its importance and all the considerable efforts made, the progress in drug discovery is limited. One main reason for this is the partly questionable data quality. Models relating biological activity and structures and in silico predictions rely on precisely and accurately measured binding data. However, these data vary so strongly, such that only variations by orders of magnitude are considered as unreliable. This can certainly be improved considering the high analytical performance in pharmaceutical quality control. Thus the principles, properties and performances of biochemical and cell-based assays are revisited and evaluated. In the part of biochemical assays immunoassays, fluorescence assays, surface plasmon resonance, isothermal calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and affinity capillary electrophoresis are discussed in details, in addition radiation-based ligand binding assays, mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and microscale thermophoresis are briefly evaluated. In addition, general sources of error, such as solvent, dilution, sample pretreatment and the quality of reagents and reference materials are discussed. Biochemical assays can be optimized to provide good accuracy and precision (e.g. percental relative standard deviation <10 %). Cell-based assays are often considered superior related to the biological significance, however, typically they cannot still be considered as really quantitative, in particular when results are compared over longer periods of time or between laboratories. A very careful choice of assays is therefore recommended. Strategies to further optimize assays are outlined, considering the evaluation and the decrease of the relevant error sources. Analytical performance and data quality are still advancing and will further advance the progress in drug development. PMID:26070362

  10. Creation of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique to assay platelet-activating factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 曹红翠; 徐哲荣; 陈晓明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new assay for platelet-activating factor (PAF), to compare it with bio-assay; and to discuss its significance in some elderly people diseases such as cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease. Methods: To measure PAF levels in 100 controls, 23 elderly patients with cerebral infarction and 65 cases with coronary heart disease by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique (rHPLC). Results:rHPLC is more convenient, sensitive,specific, and less confusing, compared with bio-assay. The level of plasma PAF in patients with cerebral infarction was higher than that in the controls (P<0.01), and in patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: Detection of PAF with rHPLC is more reliable and more accurate. The new assay has important significance in PAF research.

  11. Creation of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique to assay platelet-activating factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云梅; 曹红翠; 徐哲荣; 陈晓明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a new assay for platelet-activating factor (PAF), to compare it with bio-assay; and to discuss its significance in some elderly people diseases such as cerebral infarction and coronary heart disease. Methods: To measure PAF levels in 100 controls, 23 elderly patients with cerebral infarction and 65 cases with coronary heart disease by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic technique (rHPLC). Results: rHPLC is more convenient, sensitive, specific, and less confusing, compared with bio-assay. The level of plasma PAF in patients with cerebral infarction was higher than that in the controls (P<0.01), and in patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusion: Detection of PAF with rHPLC is more reliable and more accurate. The new assay has important significance in PAF research.

  12. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography assay for the quantification of doxorubicin associated with DNA in tumor and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew T; O'Neal, Sara K; Santos, Charlene M; White, Taylor F; Zamboni, William C

    2016-02-01

    Doxorubicin, a widely used anticancer agent, exhibits antitumor activity against a wide variety of malignancies. The drug exerts its cytotoxic effects by binding to and intercalating within the DNA of tumor and tissue cells. However, current assays are unable to accurately determine the concentration of the intracellular active form of doxorubicin. Thus, the development of a sample processing method and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodology was performed in order to quantify doxorubicin that is associated with DNA in tumors and tissues, which provided an intracellular cytotoxic measure of doxorubicin exposure after administration of small molecule and nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. The assay uses daunorubicin as an internal standard; liquid-liquid phase extraction to isolate drug associated with DNA; a Shimadzu HPLC with fluorescence detection equipped with a Phenomenex Luna C18 (2μm, 2.0×100mm) analytical column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water or acetonitrile for separation and quantification. The assay has a lower limit of detection (LLOQ) of 10ng/mL and is shown to be linear up to 3000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV%) ranged from 4.01 to 8.81%. Furthermore, the suitability of this assay for measuring doxorubicin associated with DNA in vivo was demonstrated by using it to quantify the doxorubicin concentration within tumor samples from SKOV3 and HEC1A mice obtained 72h after administration of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil(®); PLD) at 6mg/kg IV x 1. This HPLC assay allows for sensitive intracellular quantification of doxorubicin and will be an important tool for future studies evaluating intracellular pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and various nanoparticle formulations of doxorubicin. PMID:26678179

  13. Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for Detection and Quantitation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Plasma and Cervicovaginal Lavage Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Soya S; Kurpewski, Jaclynn R; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Caliendo, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Quantification of HIV-1 RNA has become the standard of care in the clinical management of HIV-1-infected individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance characteristics and relative workflow of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay in comparison with the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. Assay performance was evaluated by using an AcroMetrix HIV-1 panel, AcroMetrix positive controls, Qnostics and SeraCare HIV-1 evaluation panels, 208 clinical plasma samples, and 205 matched CVL specimens on the Panther and m2000 platforms. The Aptima assay demonstrated good linearity over the quantification range tested (2 to 5 log10copies/ml), and there was strong linear correlation between the assays (R(2)= 0.99), with a comparable coefficient of variance of laboratories demanding high-throughput sample processing. PMID:26842702

  14. Demonstration of a visual cell-based assay for screening glucose transporter 4 translocation modulators in real time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maleppillil Vavachan Vijayakumar; Amrendra Kumar Ajay; Manoj Kumar Bhat

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to cell membrane leading to glucose uptake is the rate-limiting step in diabetes. It is also a defined target of antidiabetic drug research. Existing GLUT4 translocation assays are based on time-consuming immunoassays and are hampered by assay variability and low sensitivity. We describe a real-time, visual, cell-based qualitative GLUT4 translocation assay using CHO-HIRc-myc-GLUT4eGFP cells that stably express myc- and eGFP-tagged GLUT4 in addition to human insulin receptor (HIRc). GLUT4 translocation is visualized by live cell imaging based on GFP fluorescence by employing a cooled charge-coupled device camera attached to a fluorescent microscope. This video imaging method and further quantitative analysis of GLUT4 on the cell membrane provide rapid and foolproof visual evidence that this method is suitable for screening GLUT4 translocation modulators.

  15. How to best freeze liver samples to perform the in vivo mammalian alkaline comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Enciso Gadea

    2015-06-01

    None of the different methods used was capable of giving good results, except immersing the liver samples in liquid nitrogen, followed by Jackson’s et al. (2013 thawing protocol, suggesting that the thawing process may be as critical as the freezing process. To sum up, these results highlight the importance of deepening the possibility to perform the comet assay with frozen tissue.

  16. The Davies-Gray titration for the assay of uranium in nuclear materials: a performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interlaboratory comparison in two phases was organized to assess the precision and accuracy concerning the assay of uranium in nuclear materials by the potentiometric titration method. This contribution presents the results of this exercise in terms of method performance. Variations to be expected between different laboratories and within a single laboratory are estimated. In general, the method proved again very reliable. (orig.)

  17. Trueness investigation of routine creatinine assays on nine homogeneous systems in Beijing demonstrates an encouraging outcome that meets clinical requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; XU Guo-bin

    2010-01-01

    criteria; Roche (Enzymatic) met the optimum criteria. The other five systems met the desirable criteria. Compared with the second criterion, all the results met the requirement of CLIA' 88. Trueness evaluation showed: the MEeGFR of Dade Behring exceeded 10% while the MEeGFRs of Beckman (traceable to rate Jaffe), Beckman (traceable to IDMS) and Ortho (traceable to Jaffe/High Pedormance Liquid Chromatography)exceeded 20% at level Ⅰ. At level Ⅱ the MEeGFRs of Dade Behring, Ortho (traceable to GC/IDMS) and Beckman (traceable to rate Jaffe) exceeded 10%. None of the nine systems got a MEeGFR higher than 20%. The conclusions of NIST SRM 967 agreed with those of LN 24 except for the Beckman measurement system.Conclusions Trueness investigation of routine creatinine assays on nine homogeneous systems demonstrates an encouraging outcome that meets clinical requirements. Among the nine homogeneous routine systems, Roche and Daiichi produce the most accurate results. The implementation of traceability is effective.

  18. Laboratory and diagnostic performance of a coated well immunoradiometric assay for serum thyrotrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, S M; Nicol, K; Seth, J; Caldwell, G; Toft, A D; Beckett, G J

    1987-05-01

    A new, coated well immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for thyrotrophin (TSH) in serum has been evaluated with a view to its use as a first-line test of thyroid function. The Amerwell TSH IRMA is simple, rapid to perform (2.5 h) and the assay sensitivity was 0.07 mU/L with a working range (intra-assay CV less than 10%) of 0.3-100 mU/L. The mean inter-assay CV was 6.6% for TSH concentrations of 0.30-30.7 mU/L. The method compared favourably with an in-house TSH radioimmunoassay and an alternative commercial IRMA. In consecutive referrals to a thyroid clinic all patients with overt hyperthyroidism (n = 103) had undetectable TSH concentrations and in those with subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 14). TSH was undetectable in 10 and below the reference range in four. The 95% confidence interval for 63 euthyroid serum samples was 0.36-4.3 mU/L. All hypothyroid patients (n = 20) had increased TSH concentrations. TSH concentrations in pregnancy did not differ significantly from euthyroid TSH values. From 1916 routine tests, 13 undetectable TSH values were found in which thyroid hormone levels were normal and the patients had no known thyroid disorder. The assay appears suitable as a first-line test of thyroid function, but further assessment in a routine laboratory setting is required. PMID:3606012

  19. Target Detection Assay (TDA): a versatile procedure to determine DNA binding sites as demonstrated on SP1 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Thiesen, H J; Bach, C.

    1990-01-01

    We developed a rapid method designated Target Detection Assay (TDA) to determine DNA binding sites for putative DNA binding proteins. A purified, functionally active DNA binding protein and a pool of random double-stranded oligonucleotides harbouring PCR primer sites at each end are included the TDA cycle which consists of four separate steps: a DNA protein incubation step, a protein DNA complex separation step, a DNA elution step and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification step. ...

  20. Performance of cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay using saliva in Ugandans with CD4 <100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kwizera

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis can best be diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid India ink microscopy, cryptococcal antigen detection, or culture. These require invasive lumbar punctures. The utility of cryptococcal antigen detection in saliva is unknown. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the point-of-care cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA in saliva.We screened HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy naïve persons with symptomatic meningitis (n = 130 and asymptomatic persons with CD4+<100 cells/µL entering into HIV care (n = 399 in Kampala, Uganda. The diagnostic performance of testing saliva was compared to serum/plasma cryptococcal antigen as the reference standard.The saliva lateral flow assay performance was overall more sensitive in symptomatic patients (88% than in asymptomatic patients (27%. The specificity of saliva lateral flow assay was excellent at 97.8% in the symptomatic patients and 100% in asymptomatic patients. The degree of accuracy of saliva in diagnosing cryptococcosis and the level of agreement between the two sample types was better in symptomatic patients (C-statistic 92.9, κ-0.82 than in asymptomatic patients (C-statistic 63.5, κ-0.41. Persons with false negative salvia CrAg tests had lower levels of peripheral blood CrAg titers (P<0.001.There was poor diagnostic performance in testing saliva for cryptococcal antigen, particularly among asymptomatic persons screened for preemptive treatment of cryptococcosis.

  1. An improved behavioural assay demonstrates that ultrasound vocalizations constitute a reliable indicator of chronic cancer pain and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj Deepitha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On-going pain is one of the most debilitating symptoms associated with a variety of chronic pain disorders. An understanding of mechanisms underlying on-going pain, i.e. stimulus-independent pain has been hampered so far by a lack of behavioural parameters which enable studying it in experimental animals. Ultrasound vocalizations (USVs have been proposed to correlate with pain evoked by an acute activation of nociceptors. However, literature on the utility of USVs as an indicator of chronic pain is very controversial. A majority of these inconsistencies arise from parameters confounding behavioural experiments, which include novelty, fear and stress due to restrain, amongst others. Results We have developed an improved assay which overcomes these confounding factors and enables studying USVs in freely moving mice repetitively over several weeks. Using this improved assay, we report here that USVs increase significantly in mice with bone metastases-induced cancer pain or neuropathic pain for several weeks, in comparison to sham-treated mice. Importantly, analgesic drugs which are known to alleviate tumour pain or neuropathic pain in human patients significantly reduce USVs as well as mechanical allodynia in corresponding mouse models. Conclusions We show that studying USVs and mechanical allodynia in the same cohort of mice enables comparing the temporal progression of on-going pain (i.e. stimulus-independent pain and stimulus-evoked pain in these clinically highly-relevant forms of chronic pain.

  2. Quantification of cerivastatin toxicity supports organismal performance assays as an effective tool during pharmaceutical safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukler, Shannon M; Ruff, James S; Galland, Tessa; Underwood, Tristan K; Kandaris, Kirstie A; Liu, Nicole M; Morrison, Linda C; Veranth, John M; Potts, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    A major problem in pharmaceutical development is that adverse effects remain undetected during preclinical and clinical trials, but are later revealed after market release when prescribed to many patients. We have developed a fitness assay known as the organismal performance assay (OPA), which evaluates individual performance by utilizing outbred wild mice (Mus musculus) that are assigned to an exposed or control group, which compete against each other for resources within semi-natural enclosures. Performance measurements included reproductive success, survival, and male competitive ability. Our aim was to utilize cerivastatin (Baycol(®), Bayer), a pharmaceutical with known adverse effects, as a positive control to assess OPAs as a potential tool for evaluating the safety of compounds during preclinical trials. Mice were exposed to cerivastatin (~4.5 mg/kg/day) into early adulthood. Exposure ceased and animals were released into semi-natural enclosures. Within enclosures, cerivastatin-exposed females had 25% fewer offspring and cerivastatin-exposed males had 10% less body mass, occupied 63% fewer territories, sired 41% fewer offspring, and experienced a threefold increase in mortality when compared to controls. OPAs detected several cerivastatin-induced adverse effects indicating that fitness assays, commonly used in ecology and evolutionary biology, could be useful as an additional tool in safety testing during pharmaceutical development. PMID:27247619

  3. Evaluation of a BED-SIDE platelet function assay: performance and clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wei C; Walker, C Ty; Obilby, David; Wash, Mark M; Carville, David G M; Guyer, Kirk E; Bates, Eric R

    2002-01-01

    Platelets have a pivotal role in the initial defense against insult to the vasculature and are also recognized of critical importance in the acute care settings of percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiopulmonary bypass. In these environments both platelet count and function may be markedly compromised. Unfortunately, current assays to evaluate the parameters of platelet count and function are of limited utility for bed-side testing. Moreover, it is suggested that there may be significant inter patient variation in response to antiplatelet therapy that may be exacerbated by other agents (e.g. heparin) that are routinely administered during cardiac intervention. Here we describe a practical, rapid and user-friendly whole blood platelet function assay that has been developed for use in bed-side settings. Platelet agonists were formulated with an anticoagulant and lyophilized in blood collection tubes standardised to receive a l mL fresh whole blood sample. In the presence of an agonist, platelets are activated and interact (aggregate). Using traditional cell counting principles, non-aggregated platelets are counted whereas aggregated platelets are not. The percentage (%) of functional platelets in reference to a baseline tube may then be determined. Results are available within four minutes. Platelet aggregation in whole blood demonstrated good correlation with turbidometric aggregometry for both ADP (r=0.91) and collagen (r=0.88). Moreover, in clinical settings where antiplatelet agents were administered, this rapid, bed-side, platelet function assay demonstrated utility in monitoring patient response to these therapies. This novel bed-side assay of platelet function is extremely suitable for the clinical environment with a rapid turn-around time. In addition, it provides a full haematology profile, including platelet count, and should permit enhancement of transfusion and interventional decisions. PMID:17890800

  4. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given

  5. Performance of a DrumscanR HRGS solo scanner for the assay of legacy waste at the Belgoprocess site - 59122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the sites of Belgoprocess several thousands of drums containing conditioned legacy waste are stored. A significant number of these waste packages are 220 litre drums containing radioactive waste embedded into inactive bitumen. Most of the radioactive waste in these drums was generated during the development and production of MOX-fuels and the operation of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant. The current state of a number of these packages is no longer acceptable for long term storage. In order to make the waste packages acceptable for interim storage a repackaging process was developed. The process involves the repackaging of the waste items into 400 or 700 litre waste drums and a non-destructive gamma-ray assay (NDA) measurement performed on the new package. The aim of the NDA measurement is to detect significant quantities of fissile material in order to demonstrate compliance with the operational limits of the storage building. Since the waste items are destined for geological disposal, there is no specific need for a detection limit in the order of milligrams of plutonium as required for surface disposal. To meet this NDA requirement Babcock International Group supplied, calibrated and commissioned an open geometry system from its HRGS product range. The DrumScanR HRGS Solo assay system was delivered to the Belgoprocess site in 2009 after completing a series of factory acceptance tests performed in the UK. In May 2009 after successful completion of the site acceptance tests performed in Belgium, the system has been undergoing extensive testing and validation by Belgoprocess in order to demonstrate acceptance and compliance to the Belgian Radioactive Waste Agency, NIRAS/ONDRAF. After a careful evaluation of the qualification file, NIRAS/ONDRAF approved the system for operational measurements at the end of 2010. This paper provides a detailed description of the NDA requirement, calibration methodology, system validation tests and overall measurement performance

  6. Enhancing Student Performance in an Online Introductory Astronomy Course with Video Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.; Redman, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the effect of video demonstrations on student performance in an online Astronomy course. We find that students who watched the videos performed better on related exam questions compared to those who did not watch the videos. We also find that students in the online course performed as well as students in a nearly identical face-to-face…

  7. Analytical issues of serum free light chain assays and the relative performance of polyclonal and monoclonal based reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Smith, Hugh D; Jenner, Ellen L; Evans, Josie A R; Harding, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Serum free light chain (FLC) assays have been incorporated into routine clinical practice and their use is recommended in international guidelines for the management of monoclonal gammopathies. Given that FLCs are not simple analytes, laboratories should be aware of potential analytical issues when using FLC assays, including antigen excess, lot-to-lot variation and non-linearity. Whilst manufacturers of monoclonal antibody-based assays claim that they overcome such issues, the evidence available to date does not support this. Here we review and compare the technical performance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibody-based assays. The evidence suggests that the Freelite assay, based on polyclonal antisera, gives a broader recognition of monoclonal FLCs than the N Latex assay, based on monoclonal antisera, and despite being cited as a technical concern, we show that lot-to-lot variation of the Freelite assay is good. Both non-linearity and antigen excess are characteristic of FLC analysis and laboratories should be aware of these phenomena regardless of the assay system they use. Comparisons of the absolute values of sFLCs determined using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based assays show poor quantitative agreement and, because current guidelines have been established using the polyclonal antibody-based Freelite assay, it should not be assumed that assays utilizing monoclonal antibodies will give compliance with these guidelines. PMID:26943608

  8. Analytical and clinical performances of immunoradiometric assay of total and free PSA developed locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific assay was developed for total and free PSA (PSAt, PSAf). Both assay use a two site IRMA with polyclonal anti PSA antibodies coated on tubes. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained after rabbit's immunisation using an under skin injection of pure PSA in multiple site. For quantification, two monoclonal antibodies were selected, the first highly specific to free PSA and the second recognising both free and bound PSA. A correlation study was performed comparatively with two commercial kits from CIS Bio and Immunotech. For that purpose, 464 serums samples ranging from 0.5 ng/ml to 3399 ng/ml were used to characterise the analytical performance of the new test. The analytical detection limit of the new test was equal to 0.05 ng/ml for the total PSA and 0.02ng/ml for the free PSA. The within run and between-day coefficients of variation were to 20 ng/ml. For BPH, no significant difference was found between the three test for the ratio PSAf/PSAt using a cut off of 14% (all were>to 14%). For the 120 patients with PC, all PSAt were > to 2 ng/ml. However the mean value of PSAt was higher for the commercial kits (14.74 ng/ml against 12.48ng/ml for the new test) but all ratio of PSAf/PSAt for the 120 newly diagnosed cancer were <14%. In conclusion, our immunoradiometric assay developed locally has a good analytical performance and its outputs are well correlated to clinical findings in prostate disease. Furthermore, a cut off of 14% for the ratio PSAf/PSAt appears to be the most accurate tools to depict a prostate cancer

  9. Relative performance of a TGS for the assay of drummed waste as function of collimator opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the safety, accuracy and overall cost effectiveness of the processes and methods used to characterize and handle radioactive waste is an on-going mission for the nuclear industry. An important contributor to this goal is the development of superior non-destructive assay instruments. The Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) is a case in point. The TGS applies low spatial resolution experimental computed tomography (CT) linear attenuation coefficient maps with three-dimensional high-energy resolution single photon emission reconstructions. The results are presented as quantitative matrix attenuation corrected images and assay values for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Depending on a number of operational factors, this extends the diversity of waste forms that can be assayed, to a given accuracy, to items containing more heterogeneous matrix distributions and less uniform emission activity distributions. Recent advances have significantly extended the capability to a broader range of matrix density and to a wider dynamic range of surface dose rate. Automated systems sense the operational conditions, including the container type, and configure themselves accordingly. The TGS also provides a flexible data acquisition platform and can be used to perform far-field style measurements, classical segmented gamma scanner measurements, or to implement hybrid methods, such as reconstructions that use a priori knowledge to constrain the image reconstruction or the underlying energy dependence of the attenuation. A single, yet flexible, general purpose instrument of this kind adds several tiers of strategic and tactical value to facilities challenged by a diverse and difficult to assay waste streams. The TGS is still in the early phase of industrial uptake. There are only a small number of general purpose TGS systems operating worldwide, most being configured to automatically select between a few configurations appropriate for routine operations. For special investigations

  10. Validation of a primer optimisation matrix to improve the performance of reverse transcription – quantitative real-time PCR assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovic Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of reverse transcription – quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR platforms that can simultaneously measure the expression of multiple genes is dependent on robust assays that function under identical thermal cycling conditions. The use of a primer optimisation matrix to improve the performance of RT-qPCR assays is often recommended in technical bulletins and manuals. Despite this recommendation, a comprehensive introduction to and evaluation of this approach has been absent from the literature. Therefore, we investigated the impact of varying the primer concentration, leaving all the other reaction conditions unchanged, on a large number of RT-qPCR assays which in this case were designed to be monitored using hydrolysis probes from the Universal Probe Library (UPL library. Findings Optimal RT-qPCR conditions were determined for 60 newly designed assays. The calculated Cq (Quantification Cycle difference, non-specific amplification, and primer dimer formation for a given assay was often dependent on primer concentration. The chosen conditions were further optimised by testing two different probe concentrations. Varying the primer concentrations had a greater effect on the performance of a RT-qPCR assay than varying the probe concentrations. Conclusion Primer optimisation is important for improving the performance of RT-qPCR assays monitored by UPL probes. This approach would also be beneficial to the performance of other RT-qPCR assays such as those using other types of probes or fluorescent intercalating dyes.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Taqman Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma bovis: Comparison of Assay Performance with a Conventional PCR Assay and Another Taqman Real-Time PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant Naikare; Daniela Bruno; Debabrata Mahapatra; Alesia Reinisch; Russell Raleigh; Robert Sprowls

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a Taqman real-time PCR assay for the detection of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis). Unique primers targeting the highly conserved house-keeping gene (uvrC) were designed and the probe sequence was derived from a previously published microarray study. There was 100% agreement in the outcome between our assay and the other two published assays for M. bovis detection. The analytical limit of detection of our assay is 83 copies of the uvrC gene. ...

  12. Performance demonstration for in-service inspection of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New requirements have now been added to Section 11 as mandatory Appendix 8, Performance Demonstration Requirements for Ultrasonic Examination Systems. The appendix was recently published and incorporates performance demonstration requirements for ultrasonic examination equipment, procedures, and personnel. These new requirements will have far reaching and significant impact on the conduct of ISI at all nuclear power plants. For the first time since Section 11 was issued in 1970, the effectiveness of ultrasonic examination procedures and the proficiency of examiners must be demonstrated on reactor pressure vessel (RPV), piping, and bolting mock-ups containing real flaws. Recognizing the importance and complexity of Appendix 8 implementation, representatives from all US nuclear utilities have formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) to implement Appendix 8 to provide for uniform implementation

  13. Performance demonstration program plan for RCRA constituent analysis of solidified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance Demonstration Programs (PDPS) are designed to help ensure compliance with the Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The PDPs are intended for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to assess and approve the laboratories and other measurement facilities supplying services for the characterization of WIPP TRU waste. The PDPs may also be used by CAO in qualifying laboratories proposing to supply additional analytical services that are required for other than waste characterization, such as WIPP site operations. The purpose of this PDP is to test laboratory performance for the analysis of solidified waste samples for TRU waste characterization. This performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated, solidified TRU waste according to the criteria established in this plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will address levels of regulatory concern and will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization samples. Analyses that are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples for the balance of this document

  14. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived to receive and process the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as to configure it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade

  15. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  16. An in vitro assay using overexpressed yeast SRP demonstrates that cotranslational translocation is dependent upon the J-domain of Sec63p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Martin; Jermy, Andrew J; Steel, Gregor J; Garside, Helen J; Carter, Stephanie; Stirling, Colin J

    2003-06-17

    The signal recognition particle (SRP) is required for co-translational targeting of polypeptides to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Once at the membrane, the precursor interacts with a complex proteinaceous machinery that mediates its translocation across the bilayer. Genetic studies in yeast have identified a number of genes whose products are involved in this complex process. These mutants offer a potentially valuable resource with which to analyze the biochemical role played by each component in the pathway. However, such analyses have been hampered by the failure to reconstitute an efficient in vitro assay for SRP-dependent translocation. We report the construction of two multicopy vectors that allow overexpression of all seven gene products required to make SRP in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The overexpressed subunits assemble into intact and functional SRP particles, and we further demonstrate that in vitro reconstitution of co-translational translocation is greatly enhanced using cytosol from the overexpression strain. We use this assay to demonstrate that Sec63p is required for co-translational translocation in vitro and specifically identify the "J-domain" of Sec63p as crucial for this pathway. PMID:12795613

  17. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of Aloe Emodin in mouse plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffaroni, M; Mucignat, C; Pecere, T; Zagotto, G; Frapolli, R; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2003-10-25

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine Aloe Emodin (AE) in mouse plasma. The analysis required 0.3 ml of plasma and involves extraction with dichloromethane. The HPLC separation was carried out on Symmetry Shield RP18, a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:35:0.2) and fluorescence detection at lambda(ex)=410 nm and lambda(em)=510 nm. The retention time of AE was 11.7 min. The assay was linear from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.999), showed intra- and inter-day precision within 7.8 and 4.7%, and accuracy of 87.3-105.7%. Detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were 4.5 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The method was applied to determine for the first time the pharmacokinetic of AE in mice. PMID:14552822

  18. Prop Demonstrations in Biology Lectures Facilitate Student Learning and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Tamari; Bonney, Kevin M.; Kristin Polizzotto

    2015-01-01

    Science students can benefit from visual aids. In biology lectures, visual aids are usually limited to tables, figures, and PowerPoint presentations. In this IRB-approved study, we examined the effectiveness of the use of five prop demonstrations, three of which are at the intersection of biology and chemistry, in three community college biology courses. We hypothesized that students’ performance on test questions is enhanced by the use of prop demonstrations. Consistent with our hypothesis, ...

  19. Pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C in dogs: application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbhaiya, R H; Papp, E A; Van Harken, D R; Smyth, R D

    1984-09-01

    A normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of mitomycin C in plasma and urine. The method involves extraction of mitomycin C from plasma or urine into ethyl acetate-2-propanol-chloroform (70:15:15) with UV detection at 365 nm. Quantitation was performed with an internal standard (porfiromycin) by the peak height ratio method. Excellent correlation was obtained between the HPLC assay and the established microbiological cup-plate bioassay. The pharmacokinetics of mitomycin C were investigated in beagle dogs following a 1-mg/kg iv (22-mg/m2) bolus dose. The plasma mitomycin C concentration versus time data were analyzed by using an open three-compartment model. The average volume of distribution was 1.90 L or 17% of body weight for the central compartment and 7.7 L or 68% of body weight for the terminal elimination phase. The volumes of distribution at steady state, calculated by model-dependent and -independent methods, compared very well with each other and were 6.5 L or 58% of body weight. Total body clearance averaged 112 mL/min, and the mean terminal plasma half-life was 53 min. The 0-24-h urinary excretion of intact mitomycin C accounted for 19% of the dose. The terminal half-life and percent urinary recovery of mitomycin C in dogs is similar to that in humans. Based on these observations, the dog appears to be a good model for studying the disposition of mitomycin C. PMID:6436466

  20. Performance demonstration for an automated ultrasonic testing system for piping welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the implementation of an automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) system qualification by performance demonstration (PD) as imposed by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI. To improve the reliability of the ultrasonic testing results for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, almost all engineering codes related to NPP inspection require the ultrasonic inspection systems to be qualified by passing a PD examination. In this study, an AUT system developed to inspect pipe welding parts in NPPs is introduced. To acquire a Korean Performance Demonstration (KPD) qualification, the developed system had a KPD. System obtained the qualification for flaw detection, length, and depth sizing from KPD. (author)

  1. Performance of the TilePPr demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter Pre-processor (TilePPr) demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) Demonstrator Project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the off-detector electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived for receiving and processing the data coming from the on-detector electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as for configuring it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the on-detector electronics.

  2. Effects of β-glucan polysaccharide revealed by the dominant lethal assay and micronucleus assays, and reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-glucan is a well-known polysaccharide for its chemopreventive effect. This study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive ability of β-glucan in somatic and germ cells through the dominant lethal and micronucleus assays, and its influence on the reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide. The results indicate that β-glucan is capable of preventing changes in DNA in both germ cells and somatic ones. Changes in germ cells were evaluated by the dominant lethal assay and showed damage reduction percentages of 46.46% and 43.79% for the doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg. For the somatic changes, evaluated by micronucleus assay in peripheral blood cells in the first week of treatment, damage reduction percentages from 80.63-116.32% were found. In the fifth and sixth weeks, the percentage ranged from 10.20-52.54% and -0.95-62.35%, respectively. Besides the chemopreventive efficiency it appears that the β-glucan, when combined with cyclophosphamide, is able to improve the reproductive performance of males verified by the significant reduction in rates of post-implantation losses and reabsorption in the mating of nulliparous females with males treated with cyclophosphamide.

  3. Spent-fuel assay performance and Monte Carlo Analysis of the Rensselaer slowing-down-time spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slowing-down-time method for the nondestructive assay of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel is under development at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. A series of assay measurements of an LWR fuel assembly replica were carried out at the Rensselaer lead slowing-down-time spectrometer facility by using 238U and 232Th threshold fission detectors and 235U and 239Pu probe chambers. An assay model relating the assay signal and the signals of the probe chambers to the unknown masses of the fissile isotopes in the fuel assembly was developed. The probe chamber data were used to provide individual fission counting spectra of 235U and 239Pu inside the fuel assembly and to simulate spent-fuel assay signals. The fissile isotopic contents of the fuel were determined to better than 1%. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to simulate the experimental measurements, determine certain parameters of the assay system, and investigate the effect of the fuel assembly and hydrogen impurities on the performance of the system. The broadened resolution of the system caused by the presence of the fuel was still found to be sufficient for the accurate and separate assay of the uranium and plutonium fissiles in spent fuel

  4. Performance of a novel KRAS mutation assay for formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Kazuko; Yoneshige, Azusa; Ito, Akihiko; UEDA Yoji; Kondo, Satoshi; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Fujita, Yoshihiko; TOGASHI, YOSUKE; Terashima, Masato; Velasco, Marco A.; Tomida, Shuta; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    We compared the performance of the 3D-Gene® mutation assay (3D-Gene® KRAS mutation assay kit) with the Scorpion-ARMS (therascreen® KRAS RGQ PCR Kit) and Luminex (MEBGEN™ KRAS kit) assays for the detection of KRAS mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 150 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded tissue samples with or without macrodissection under hematoxylin and eosin staining and the KRAS mutation status was independ...

  5. Performance of a daylight redirecting glass shading system demonstration in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the daylighting performance of a prototype external dynamic integrated shading and light redirecting system. The demonstration project was carried out on a building with an open-plan office. The prototype and original façades were placed on the same floor with the same...

  6. Control of airborne radioactive emissions for frequently performed TWRS work activities (ALARACT demonstrations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains ALARACT Demonstrations identifying agreements made between LMHC, FDH, DOE-RL, and the Washington State Department of Health for frequently performed work activities in TWRS. These ALARACTs do not cover new activities, modifications, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning activities

  7. Performance of an ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay in Serological Diagnosis of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador Sarkari; Marzieh Ashrafmansouri; GholamReza Hatam; Parvaneh Habibi; Samaneh Abdolahi Khabisi

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays have been extensively evaluated for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and considered as a routine method for diagnosis of VL while these methods are not properly evaluated for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This study aimed to assess the performance of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL ...

  8. Assay of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, the components of Augmentin, in biological fluids with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Foulstone, M; Reading, C

    1982-01-01

    Augmentin is a new antibacterial formulation comprised of amoxicillin and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid. In the present paper, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to provide a rapid assay of the components of Augmentin in body fluids is described. Clavulanic acid was assayed by reacting the sample with imidazole, which readily produces a derivative absorbing at 311 nm. This derivative chromatographs on reverse-phase HPLC columns clear of interfering compone...

  9. Performance of the SNPforID 52 SNP-plex assay in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan Jose; Hansen, Hanna E;

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a multiplex assay with 52 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for human identification was tested on 124 mother-child-father trios. The typical paternity indices (PIs) were 10(5)-10(6) for the trios and 10(3)-10(4) for the child-father duos. Using the SNP...... profiles from the randomly selected trios and 700 previously typed individuals, a total of 83,096 comparisons between mother, child and an unrelated man were performed. On average, 9-10 mismatches per comparison were detected. Four mismatches were genetic inconsistencies and 5-6 mismatches were opposite...... homozygosities. In only two of the 83,096 comparisons did an unrelated man match perfectly to a mother-child duo, and in both cases the PI of the true father was much higher than the PI of the unrelated man. The trios were also typed for 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) and seven variable number of tandem repeats...

  10. Learning to perform a new movement with robotic assistance: comparison of haptic guidance and visual demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinkensmeyer DJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical guidance with a robotic device is a candidate technique for teaching people desired movement patterns during motor rehabilitation, surgery, and sports training, but it is unclear how effective this approach is as compared to visual demonstration alone. Further, little is known about motor learning and retention involved with either robot-mediated mechanical guidance or visual demonstration alone. Methods Healthy subjects (n = 20 attempted to reproduce a novel three-dimensional path after practicing it with mechanical guidance from a robot. Subjects viewed their arm as the robot guided it, so this "haptic guidance" training condition provided both somatosensory and visual input. Learning was compared to reproducing the movement following only visual observation of the robot moving along the path, with the hand in the lap (the "visual demonstration" training condition. Retention was assessed periodically by instructing the subjects to reproduce the path without robotic demonstration. Results Subjects improved in ability to reproduce the path following practice in the haptic guidance or visual demonstration training conditions, as evidenced by a 30–40% decrease in spatial error across 126 movement attempts in each condition. Performance gains were not significantly different between the two techniques, but there was a nearly significant trend for the visual demonstration condition to be better than the haptic guidance condition (p = 0.09. The 95% confidence interval of the mean difference between the techniques was at most 25% of the absolute error in the last cycle. When asked to reproduce the path repeatedly following either training condition, the subjects' performance degraded significantly over the course of a few trials. The tracing errors were not random, but instead were consistent with a systematic evolution toward another path, as if being drawn to an "attractor path". Conclusion These results indicate

  11. Summary of WPT FOA phase II demonstration performed on July 21, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Perry T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Onar, Omer C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This summary provides details of the activities, presentations and hardware demonstrations performed at the International Transportation Innovation Center (iTiC) in Greenville, South Carolina as deliverables for the wireless power transfer (WPT) FOA #000667 phase II gateway. This report does not attempt to identify all encompassing efforts from each of the partners leading up to the demonstration, but will attempt to provide a record which briefly describes the project deliverables met and expectations from the Department of Energy (DOE) as action items agreed to during the wrap-up session on July 21, 2015.

  12. Summary performance assessment of in situ remediation technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is investigating new technologies for ''better, faster, cheaper, safer'' environmental remediation. A program at DOE's Savannah River site was designed to demonstrate innovative technologies for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at nonarid sites. Two remediation technologies, in situ air stripping and in situ bioremediation--both using horizontal wells, were demonstrated at the site between 1990--1993. This brief report summarizes the conclusions from three separate modeling studies on the performance of these technologies

  13. Performance Evaluation of the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer (GeoSTAR) Demonstrator Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Alan B.; Wilson, William J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Brown, Shannon T.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.; Ruf, C. S.; Gross, S. M.; Lim, B. H.; Musko, S.; Rogacki, S.

    2006-01-01

    The design, error budget, and preliminary test results of a 50-56 GHz synthetic aperture radiometer demonstration system are presented. The instrument consists of a fixed 24-element array of correlation interferometers, and is capable of producing calibrated images with 0.8 degree spatial resolution within a 17 degree wide field of view. This system has been built to demonstrate performance and a design which can be scaled to a much larger geostationary earth imager. As a baseline, such a system would consist of about 300 elements, and would be capable of providing contiguous, full hemispheric images of the earth with 1 Kelvin of radiometric precision and 50 km spatial resolution.

  14. Performance of three microimmunofluorescence assays for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae immunoglobulin M, G, and A antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mette; Berthelsen, Lene; Lind, Inga

    2002-01-01

    , 100 sera from 100 persons enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The accordance among the results of the WRF assay and the two commercial assays was excellent for the immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody detection rate (98%). The accordance in detection rates for IgG and IgA antibodies in sera from...

  15. Design and Demonstration of Emergency Control Modes for Enhanced Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2013-01-01

    A design concept is presented for developing control modes that enhance aircraft engine performance during emergency flight scenarios. The benefits of increased engine performance to overall vehicle survivability during these situations may outweigh the accompanied elevated risk of engine failure. The objective involves building control logic that can consistently increase engine performance beyond designed maximum levels based on an allowable heightened probability of failure. This concept is applied to two previously developed control modes: an overthrust mode that increases maximum engine thrust output and a faster response mode that improves thrust response to dynamic throttle commands. This paper describes the redesign of these control modes and presents simulation results demonstrating both enhanced engine performance and robust maintenance of the desired elevated risk level.

  16. Performance of a daylight redirecting glass shading system demonstration in an office building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the daylighting performance of a prototype external dynamic integrated shading and light redirecting system. The demonstration project was carried out on a building with an open-plan office. The prototype and original façades were placed on the same floor with the same...... orientation and similar surroundings. The existing façade was used as the reference for measurements and simulations. The focus of this research project was to employ available simulation tools for the system performance evaluation. This was accompanied by measurements of the daylight conditions...

  17. Thermo-physical performance prediction of the KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.; Karng, S. W.; Oh, I.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) researchers have been working on enhanced and modernized cryogenic liquid propellant handling techniques to reduce life cycle costs of propellant management system for the unique KSC application. The KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit (GODU) for liquid hydrogen (LH2) plans to demonstrate integrated refrigeration, zero-loss flexible term storage of LH2, and densified hydrogen handling techniques. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has partnered with the KSC researchers to develop thermal performance prediction model of the GODU for LH2. The model includes integrated refrigeration cooling performance, thermal losses in the tank and distribution lines, transient system characteristics during chilling and loading, and long term steady-state propellant storage. This paper will discuss recent experimental data of the GODU for LH2 system and modeling results.

  18. Demonstration of a repository performance assessment capability at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. A demonstration of this capability used the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  19. Analyses to demonstrate the thermal performance of the CASTOR KN12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diersch, R.; Weiss, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH (Germany); Tso, C.F.; Powell, D. [Arup (United Kingdom); Choy, B.I.; Lee, H.Y. [KHNP-NETEC (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The CASTOR {sup registered} KN-12 is a new cask design of GNB for dry and wet transportation of up to 12 PWR spent nuclear fuel assemblies in Korea. It complies with the requirements of 10 CFR 71 [1] and IAEA ST-1 [2] for TYPE B(U)F packages. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. Demonstration of the cask's compliance with the regulatory requirements in the area of thermal performance has been carried out by a combination of testing carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and analyses carried out by Arup. This paper describes the analyses to demonstrate the thermal performance of the cask and compliance with regulatory requirements under normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. Other aspects of the design of the CASTOR {sup registered} KN12 are presented in other papers at this conference.

  20. High performance magnesium anode in paper-based microfluidic battery, powering on-chip fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youngmi; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-09-01

    A high power density and long-lasting stable/disposable magnesium battery anode was explored for a paper-based fluidic battery to power on-chip functions of various Point of Care (POC) devices. The single galvanic cell with magnesium foil anode and silver foil cathode in Origami cellulose chip provided open circuit potential, 2.2 V, and power density, 3.0 mW/cm(2). A paper-based fluidic galvanic cell was operated with one drop of water (80 μl) and continued to run until it was dry. To prove the concept about powering on-chip POC devices, two-serial galvanic cells are developed and incorporated with a UV-light emitting diode (λ = 365 nm) and fluorescence assay for alkaline phosphatase reaction. Further, detection using smart phones was performed for quantitative measurement of fluorescent density. To conclude, a magnesium-based fluidic battery paper chip was extremely low-cost, required minute sample volumes, was easy to dispose of, light weight, easy to stack, store and transport, easy to fabricate, scalable, and has faster analysis times. PMID:25332741

  1. A review of the clinical performance of the Aptima HPV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedicke, Juliane; Iftner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    This comprehensive review compiles published data from 62 original articles comparing different HPV tests and one meta-analysis on the clinical performance of the Aptima HR HPV (AHPV) assay in either screening or referral populations as well as for the purpose of test of cure. A number of publications with technical issues were also considered. Besides a brief introduction in the development of E6/E7 mRNA testing, the review summarizes data on analytical sensitivies and specificities, as well as on clinical sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV with histological endpoints CIN2+ and CIN3+, where available. Although most studies were of cross-sectional design, five studies with a longitudinal prospective design or component were identified. In addition to the study design, sample size, age and CIN2/3+ prevalence of the respective cohort are listed. This allows direct comparison of the published data in the respective groups. One major outcome of this review is the remarkably stable similar sensitivities of AHPV and HC2 independent from study design for detection of CIN2/3+ combined with a higher specificity of the AHPV. The second outcome was the longitudinal predictive value derived from registry linkage and other prospective studies that would support the applicability of the AHPV test in primary screening with at least a three year screening interval. PMID:26614686

  2. Predicted performance of systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project performances are predicted for new neutron interrogation systems designed to detect pollutant elements, uranium and transuranics (TRU), and gamma-ray emitters for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decommissioning problems in the DOE Environment Restoration program. These new systems, which are based on the associated-particle time-of-flight (APTOF) technology are expected to save up to four times their $1.00 per hour operating costs relative to their alternatives for these problems. The key component required for practical use of the APTOF technology is a small sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates a position sensitive alpha detector used to sense the alpha particle associated with emission of a 14-MeV neutron in the (D,T) reaction. The STNG makes possible a unique Inelastic-Gamma Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS) system which provides a coarse three-dimensional image of the densities of elements in a target. Additional measurement capabilities as Capture-Gamma Ray Spectroscopy (CGRS) carried out simultaneously with IGRIS, Passive (STNG off) Gamma Ray Spectroscopy (PGRS), and Gamma-Ray Coincidence Spectroscopy (GRCS) carried out simultaneously with IGRIS, CGRS, and PGRS. These measurements are complementary and synergistic with each other. For example, the imaging capability of IGRIS can be used to estimate neutron and gamma-ray attenuations to correct any of these measurements. Predicted minimum detectable levels (MDLS) for several elements and radionuclides were measured and are presented

  3. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  4. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  5. Performance values for non destructive assay (NDA) techniques applied to safeguards: the 2002 evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques (WGNDA) was published in 1993. Almost 10 years later the Working Group decided to review those values, to report about improvements and to issue new performance values for techniques which were not applied in the early nineties, or were at that time only emerging. Non-Destructive Assay techniques have become more and more important in recent years, and they are used to a large extent in nuclear material accountancy and control both by operators and control authorities. As a consequence, the performance evaluation for NDA techniques is of particular relevance to safeguards authorities in optimising Safeguards operations and reducing costs. Performance values are important also for NMAC regulators, to define detection levels, limits for anomalies, goal quantities and to negotiate basic audit rules. This paper presents the latest evaluation of ESARDA Performance Values (EPVs) for the most common NDA techniques currently used for the assay of nuclear materials for Safeguards purposes. The main topics covered by the document are: techniques for plutonium bearing materials: PuO2 and MOX; techniques for U-bearing materials; techniques for U and Pu in liquid form; techniques for spent fuel assay. This issue of the performance values is the result of specific international round robin exercises, field measurements and ad hoc experiments, evaluated and discussed in the ESARDA NDA Working Group. (author)

  6. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  7. Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in basalt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration of a performance assessment methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in the analysis of high-level radioactive waste disposal in deep basalts. Seven scenarios that could affect the performance of a repository in basalts were analyzed. One of these scenarios, normal ground-water flow, was called the base-case scenario. This was used to demonstrate the modeling capabilities in the methodology necessary to assess compliance with the ground-water travel time criterion. The scenario analysis consisted of both scenario screening and consequence modeling. Preliminary analyses of scenarios considering heat released from the waste and the alteration of the hydraulic properties of the rock mass due to loads created by a glacier suggested that these effects would not be significant. The analysis of other scenarios indicated that those changing the flow field in the vicinity of the repository would have an impact on radionuclide discharges, while changes far from the repository may not be significant. The analysis of the base-case scenario was used to show the importance of matrix diffusion as a radionuclide retardation mechanism in fractured media. The demonstration of the methodology also included an overall sensitivity analysis to identify important parameters and/or processes. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  8. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SMALL SCALE MIXING DEMONSTRATION SAMPLING AND BATCH TRANSFER PERFORMANCE - 12093

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREER DA; THIEN MG

    2012-01-12

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The

  9. Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c assay performance on two different commercial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Ćorić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c is formed by non-enzymatic binding of glucose to the free amino group of the N-terminal end of the ß-chain of hemoglobin A. HbA1c is representative of the mean blood glucose level over three months. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Hemoglobin A1c immunoturbidimetric assay performance on two different commercial systems.Methods: We evaluated the precision and trueness for determination of HbA1c in whole blood. Concentrations of total hemoglobin and HbA1c were evaluated on Dimension Xpand (Siemens and Cobas 501 (Roche analyzers. HbA1c was measured in a latex agglutination inhibition test. Commercial controls Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 1 and Liquichek Diabetes Control Level 2 (Bio Rad at two levels were used for quality control. Analytical validation of HbA1c included: within-run imprecision, between-day imprecision, inaccuracy and comparison determination on the human samples on 2 systems: Dimension Xpand and Cobas 501 analyzers. Results: Within-run imprecision on the commercially controls for Level 1 is 4.5% and Level 2 is 3.2% between-day imprecision on commercially controls is 6.1% Level 1 and 5.1% Level 2 for respectively inac- curacy on commercially controls for Level 1 is 1.8% and Level 2 is 4.8%. Method comparison on human samples shows the correlation coefficient of 0.99.Conclusion: The presented results of the analytical evaluation methods for the determination of HbA1c showed an acceptable accuracy and precision.

  10. Noise Performance Evaluation of the Candidate Digitizers for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2011-03-16

    The noise performance evaluation of the two digitizer cards being considered for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is presented in this document. The procurement of the data acquisition electronics for the MJD is scheduled to happen this year. At the time of writing this document, there are two candidate digitizer electronic boards. One aspect that is being considered by the collaboration is the feasibility of using the MJD for dark matter searches. The feasibility of using the MJD for this application is going to be dictated by the ability of the demonstrator to reach sub-keV energy resolution. One of the potential sources of noise in the MJD is the data acquisition system. This document will is concluded with a recommendation for the final digitizer board by comparing the noise performance of the two electronics systems. Noise parameters such as the effective number of bits, input range linearity and signal to noise ratio are experimentally determined. The two digitizer cards feature different on-board digital signal processing and these features are compared. The experimental set-up was also used to identify sources of noise. This paper describes these sources of noise in the data acquisition system, along with mitigation strategies. Issues such as grounding and wiring scheme have an impact in the overall data acquisition system performance and are discussed in detail. As a conclusion, the suitability of each one of the cards to become the back bone of the data acquisition system of the MJD is discussed.

  11. The impact of initiation: Early onset marijuana smokers demonstrate altered Stroop performance and brain activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Sagar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana (MJ use is on the rise, particularly among teens and emerging adults. This poses serious public health concern, given the potential deleterious effects of MJ on the developing brain. We examined 50 chronic MJ smokers divided into early onset (regular MJ use prior to age 16; n = 24 and late onset (age 16 or later; n = 26, and 34 healthy control participants (HCs. All completed a modified Stroop Color Word Test during fMRI. Results demonstrated that MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance on the Interference subtest of the Stroop, as well as altered patterns of activation in the cingulate cortex relative to HCs. Further, early onset MJ smokers exhibited significantly poorer performance relative to both HCs and late onset smokers. Additionally, earlier age of MJ onset as well as increased frequency and magnitude (grams/week of MJ use were predictive of poorer Stroop performance. fMRI results revealed that while late onset smokers demonstrated a more similar pattern of activation to the control group, a different pattern was evident in the early onset group. These findings underscore the importance of assessing age of onset and patterns of MJ use and support the need for widespread education and intervention efforts among youth.

  12. Technical bases to consider for performance and demonstration testing of space fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance and demonstration testing are critical to the success of a space fission reactor program. However, the type and extent to which testing of space reactors should be performed has been a point of discussion within the industry for many years. With regard to full power ground nuclear tests, questions such as: (1) Do the benefits outweigh the risks; (2) Are there equivalent alternatives; (3) Can a test facility be constructed (or modified) in a reasonable amount of time; (4) Will the test article accurately represent the flight system; and (5) Are the costs too restrictive, have been debated for decades. There are obvious benefits of full power ground nuclear testing such as obtaining systems integrated reliability data on a full-scale, complete end-to-end system. But these benefits come at some programmatic risk. In addition, this type of testing does not address safety related issues. This paper will discuss and assess these and other technical considerations essential in deciding which type of performance and demonstration testing to conduct on space fission reactor systems.

  13. Construction and performance tests of Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) for VHTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) was constructed and operated in JAERI in order to develop the high-temperature key components of an experimental very high temperature gas cooled reactor, like fuel stack, in-core reactor structure, hot gas duct, intermediate heat exchanger. Performance tests as well as demonstration of integrity are carried out with large-size or actual-size models of key components. The key components to be tested in HENDEL are: fuel stack and control rod; core supporting structure, or bottom structure of rector core exposed to direct impingement of high temperature core outlet flow; reactor internal components and structure; high temperature components in heat removal system (primary and secondary cooling systems)

  14. Operational Experience with an Imaging Passive/Active Neutron System (IPANTM) in a Mature Production Application to Perform WIPP Certified Non-destructive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Additionally, evolving improvements in troubleshooting techniques and stocking of spare parts could improve the availability. The 8950 production assays performed at SRS falls far short of predicted system throughput, even with allowance for performance of non-production assays such as Quality Assurance (QA) / Quality Control (QC) and WIPP Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) assays. It should be noted that production was significantly altered by site constraints and interruptions in availability of containers. The overall assessment of the instrumentation in conjunction with the assay technique is that this method has a wide range of applicability over a wide range of waste streams. The capability of the EA to interactively interact in the data analysis provides for successful analysis of a wide variety of exception conditions and/or isotopic compositions. The instrument has demonstrated reliable and regulatory compliant operation over a long period of production operations. This assay technique should be suitable for future applications for most TRU or low-level (LLW) waste streams, including remote handled (RH) waste. (authors)

  15. New high-performance liquid chromatography assay for glycosyltransferases based on derivatization with anthranilic acid and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2012-07-01

    Assays were developed using the unique labeling chemistry of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2AA; anthranilic acid, AA) for measuring activities of both β1-4 galactosyltransferase (GalT-1) and α2-6 sialyltransferase (ST-6) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (Anumula KR. 2006. Advances in fluorescence derivatization methods for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of glycoprotein carbohydrates. Anal Biochem. 350:1-23). N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine were used as acceptors and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) as donors for GalT-1 and ST-6, respectively. Enzymatic products were labeled in situ with AA and were separated from the substrates on TSKgel Amide 80 column using normal-phase conditions. Enzyme units were determined from the peak areas by comparison with the concomitantly derivatized standards Gal-β1-4GlcNAc and NANA-α2-6 Gal-β1-4GlcNAc. Linearity (time and enzyme concentration), precision (intra- and interassay) and reproducibility for the assays were established. The assays were found to be useful in monitoring the enzyme activities during isolation and purification. The assays were highly sensitive and performed equal to or better than the traditional radioactive sugar-based measurements. The assay format can also be used for measuring the activity of other transferases, provided that the carbohydrate acceptors contain a reducing end for labeling. An assay for glycoprotein acceptors was developed using IgG. A short HPLC profiling method was developed for the separation of IgG glycans (biantennary G0, G1, G2, mono- and disialylated), which facilitated the determination of GalT-1 and ST-6 activities in a rapid manner. Furthermore, this profiling method should prove useful for monitoring the changes in IgG glycans in clinical settings. PMID:22459802

  16. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  17. Ultrasonic Examination of RPV, RCP Studs in NPP by Performance Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolting degradation problems are a major concern in the nuclear power industry. Incidents of bolting degradation and failure related to primary coolant pressure boundary applications have been reported since 1970. More demanding requirements have been added to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, requiring performance demonstrations of the examination process and personnel. Several ultrasonic examination techniques exist. However, their capabilities vary depending on the application and are dependent on the examination personnel, equipment selection, and calibration. In this paper, the bore probe technique was conducted on three different type stud ranging in diameter from 4.31 ∼ 6.0 inches and in length from 36.4 ∼ 73.31 inches. The studs used in experiments were identical to some of those currently used in nuclear power plants. Ultrasonic examinations were performed using a range of probe angles and frequencies to determine their relative effect on discontinuity detection

  18. Performance evaluation of the Elecsys syphilis assay for the detection of total antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Martin; Hunjet, Andrea; Gleich, Michael; Imdahl, Roland; Mühlbacher, Annelies; Schennach, Harald; Chaiwong, Kriangsak; Sakuldamrongpanich, Tasanee; Turhan, Ajda; Sertöz, Rüchan; Wolf, Eva; Mayer, Wolfgang; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lan Lan; Semprini, Simona; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a health problem of increasing incidence in recent years that may have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. There are many diagnostic tests available for syphilis, but there is no gold standard, and diagnosis therefore usually relies upon a combination of tests. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the treponemal Elecsys syphilis assay for use in the diagnosis of syphilis in routine samples, i.e., when syphilis is suspected or during antenatal or blood donation screening. The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay were compared head to head with those of other treponemal assays used in routine clinical practice and were assessed in potentially cross-reactive samples from patients with Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, and Lyme disease. In a total of 8,063 syphilis-negative samples collected from routine diagnostic requests and blood donations, the Elecsys syphilis assay had a specificity of 99.88%. In 928 samples previously identified as syphilis positive, the sensitivity was 99.57 to 100% (the result is presented as a range depending on whether four initially indeterminate samples are included in the assessment). The specificity of the Elecsys syphilis assay in patients with other infections was 100%; no false-positive samples were identified. PMID:25355799

  19. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Batch Transfer and Sampling Performance of Simulated HLW - 12307

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesse; Townson, Paul; Vanatta, Matt [EnergySolutions, Engineering and Technology Group, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste treatment Plant (WTP) has been recognized as a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. At the end of 2009 DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), awarded a contract to EnergySolutions to design, fabricate and operate a demonstration platform called the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) to establish pre-transfer sampling capacity, and batch transfer performance data at two different scales. This data will be used to examine the baseline capacity for a tank mixed via rotational jet mixers to transfer consistent or bounding batches, and provide scale up information to predict full scale operational performance. This information will then in turn be used to define the baseline capacity of such a system to transfer and sample batches sent to WTP. The Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) platform consists of 43'' and 120'' diameter clear acrylic test vessels, each equipped with two scaled jet mixer pump assemblies, and all supporting vessels, controls, services, and simulant make up facilities. All tank internals have been modeled including the air lift circulators (ALCs), the steam heating coil, and the radius between the wall and floor. The test vessels are set up to simulate the transfer of HLW out of a mixed tank, and collect a pre-transfer sample in a manner similar to the proposed baseline configuration. The collected material is submitted to an NQA-1 laboratory for chemical analysis. Previous work has been done to assess tank mixing performance at both scales. This work involved a combination of unique instruments to understand the three dimensional distribution of solids using a combination of Coriolis meter measurements, in situ chord length distribution

  1. Strategy of accelerated method development for high-throughput bioanalytical assays using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guowen; Snapp, Heidi M; Ji, Qin C; Arnold, Mark E

    2009-11-15

    Here we report a strategy for rapid method development of high-throughput bioanalytical assays using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MS/MS). First, a data set was established for the removal of representative phospholipids under different sample treatments to guide subsequent method development for various compounds. The recovery information of the analyte(s) of interest under different extraction conditions was then obtained during method development. With the recovery profiles and the pre-established knowledge of phospholipids removal in place, an optimal extraction condition was identified to give not only a satisfactory recovery but also a good cleanup of the sample. A rapid LC or uHPLC method was developed without the need of extensive column wash after the elution of the analyte. This strategy was demonstrated through the method development of a uHPLC-MS/MS bioanalytical assay for the quantitation of ketoconazole in human plasma with liquid-liquid extraction using a hexane and ethyl acetate solvent system. The retention time for ketoconazole through an isocratic elution was 18 s. Good accuracy and precision were obtained. Assay ruggedness was demonstrated by consistent internal standard responses and retention time for 500 sequential injections. In addition, consistent results were obtained for incurred sample reanalysis. PMID:19856950

  2. CRP on Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage Systems beyond the Long Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the initial Coordinated Research Project (CRP) planning meeting held in August 2011, international experts in spent fuel performance confirmed the value of further coordination and development of international efforts to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and related storage system components as durations extend. Furthermore, in recognition that the Extended Storage Collaboration Program (ESCP) managed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the USA, from now on ESCP, provided a broad context for the research and development work to be performed in the frame of this CRP, it was agreed that its objectives should target specific ESCP needs in order to make a relevant contribution. Accordingly, the experts examined on-going gap analyses - gaps between anticipated technical needs and existing technical data - for identify the specific research objectives. Additionally, during the planning meeting it was pointed out the need to coordinate and cooperate with the OECD/NEA counterparts involved in the organization of the International Workshop planned in autumn 2013 and with the on-going third phase of the CRP on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III). Given the importance to assess the performance of spent fuel and related important storage system components in order to confirm the viability of very long term storage for supporting the need to extend or renew licenses for storage facilities the CRP was approved by the IAEA in November 2011. While a full range of spent fuel types and storage conditions are deployed around the world, this CRP is focused on existing systems and, more specifically, water reactor fuel in dry storage with the overall research objective to support the technical basis for water reactor spent fuel management as dry storage durations extend. In March 2012 the group of international experts who participated at the initial CRP planning meeting in August 2011 evaluated and recommended for approval 9 research

  3. Effect of ethanol in BET assay performed by kinetic chromogenic method for (18F) radiopharmaceuticals other than (18F) FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In recent years, several (18F) labeled radiopharmaceuticals other than 2-(18F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose have become increasingly important for molecular imaging studies in oncology, and a rapid BET assay is essential to quantify the bacterial endotoxin that may be present in such radiopharmaceutical preparations, prior to use in patients. The radiochemical synthesis of (18F) labelled radiopharmaceuticals like 3'-Deoxy-3'-(18F)fluorothymidine ((18F)FLT), (18F) fluoroazomycinarabinoside ((18F)FAZA) etc is based on use of SEP-PAK cartridge for isolation and purification instead of HPLC purification and requires 15% ethanolic water as elution solvent. BET assay for these radiopharmaceuticals can be routinely performed by Portable Test System (PTS)kinetic reader obtained from Endosafe Inc. The assay is based on kinetic chromogenic method and is known to be inhibited by presence of ethanol. Since all the above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals preparations contains ethanol, the aim of our study was to detect at what ppm/percentage level of ethanol, in final formulation, inhibition in BET assay is observed. The ppm/percentage levels of ethanol in final radiopharmaceutical formulations were detected by gas chromatography. In the present study, the BET Assay for (18F)FDG and (18F)FDG and (18F)FLT was performed at six different dilutions i.e 1:500, 1:200, 1:100, 1:50, 1:20 and 1:10 and all these dilutions were less than the Maximum Valid dilution (MVD). (18F) FDG was chosen as control since the elution solvent for it is 100% water and for all the dilutions mentioned above, the spike recovery was between 50-200%. The CV of negative and positive control samples were found to be 0.0% and less than 10% respectively. However, in case of (18F)FLT, for 1:20 and 1:10 dilutions, the spike recovery was below 50% but coefficient variance of negative and positive control sample were same as (18F)FDG. These results indicate inhibition at 1:20 and 1:10 dilution due to presence of

  4. Development of performance demonstration system for ultrasonic examination of nuclear power plant component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, all the preparation has been completed to meet a new code requirements, Appendix VII of ASME B and PV code Sec. XI, which will be applied to the inservice inspection of Korean Nuclear Power Plants from 1996. This code requirement was issued to augment qualification of ultrasonic examination personnel. To meet this Appendix VII requirement, a procedure of UT personnel qualification and certification were prepared, UT instructors were trained and qualified, examination questionnaire were made, flawed test pieces were designed and purchased, level II candidates were trained and qualified. Some of them were certified. Second, investigated performance were demonstration systems of nondestructive testing for advanced countries such as England, Sweden, European [ENIQ] and USA. In addition, common positions of European regulators on qualification of NDT systems for PSI/ISI were also investigated and analyzed. (author). 161 refs., 5 tabs., 17 figs

  5. Report on Japanese performance demonstration examinations for depth sizing of SCC in austenitic stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PD Center of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) commenced Performance Demonstration examinations for flaw depth sizing of austenitic stainless steel pipes in March 2006. As of January 2013, 37 examination sessions have been completed and 44 candidates have passed the examination. The total number of tests administered including re-tests and re-certification was 89. It was noted that depth sizing using a phased array plus the manual UT technique was the procedure most used by successful PD applicants. A major reason for failure is 'the overestimation caused by the lack of skill in distinguishing the base metal-to-weld metal interface echo and the SCC tip echo'. Moreover, the possibility of psychological bias is also incontrovertible because candidates are under pressure not to make a -4.4 mm critical mistake. (author)

  6. Recent performance results of the National Ignition Facility Beamlet demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser driver for the National Ignition Facility will be a departure from previous inertial confinement fusion laser architecture of a master oscillator single pass power amplifier (MOPA) design. The laser will use multi-segment Nd:Glass amplifiers in a multipass cavity arrangement, which can be assembled into compact and cost effective arrays to deliver the required multi- megajoule energy to target. A single beam physics prototype, the Beamlet, has been in operation for over two years and has demonstrated the feasibility of this architecture. We present a short review of Beamlet's performance and limitations based on beam quality both at its fundamental and frequency converted wavelengths of 1.053 and 0.351 μm

  7. Open-cycle MHD powerplants - Performance, cost and technology demonstration strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes studies of the performance, cost, and operational characteristics of the principal coal burning Open-Cycle MHD (OCMHD) power plant options, including systems with directly-fired air preheaters, systems with separately-fired air preheaters and systems using oxygen enrichment. The study concludes that directly-fired plants of 1000 MWe capacity offer heat rates of 7500 Btu/kWh and will cost approximately 1100 $/kW in 1976 dollars and that the separately-fired and oxygen-enriched plant options are suitable vehicles for MHD technology demonstration and early commercial installations. The concept of installing an OCMHD system as a retrofit to an existing, fossil-fueled steam generating plant is determined to be technically feasible and appears to be economically suited to a research and development project of an electric utility

  8. Multi-Site PCR-Based CMV Viral Load Assessment-Assays Demonstrate Linearity and Precision, but Lack Numeric Standardization: A Report of the Association for Molecular Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Daynna J; Heaney, Denise LaMarche; Neuwald, Paul D.; Stellrecht, Kathleen A.; Press, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    Viralload (VL) assessment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by real-time PCR is an important tool for diagnosing and monitoring CMV viremia in patients with compromised immune systems. We report results from a sample exchange organized by members of the Association for Molecular Pathology that compared PCR results from 23 laboratories; 22 such laboratories used a laboratory-developed real-time PCR assay and one laboratory used a competitive PCR assay. The samples sent to each laboratory were comprised...

  9. Design and Performance of the NASA SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Patterson, Michael D.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Moore, Mark D.; Clarke, Sean; Redifer, Matthew E.; Christie, Robert J.; Stoll, Alex M.; Dubois, Arthur; Bevirt, JoeBen; Gibson, Andrew R.; Foster, Trevor J.; Osterkamp, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) technology uses multiple propulsors driven by electric motors distributed about the airframe to yield beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. The NASA SCEPTOR flight demonstration project will retrofit an existing internal combustion engine-powered light aircraft with two types of DEP: small "high-lift" propellers distributed along the leading edge of the wing which accelerate the flow over the wing at low speeds, and larger cruise propellers co-located with each wingtip for primary propulsive power. The updated high-lift system enables a 2.5x reduction in wing area as compared to the original aircraft, reducing drag at cruise and shifting the velocity for maximum lift-to-drag ratio to a higher speed, while maintaining low-speed performance. The wingtip-mounted cruise propellers interact with the wingtip vortex, enabling a further efficiency increase that can reduce propulsive power by 10%. A tradespace exploration approach is developed that enables rapid identification of salient trades, and subsequent creation of SCEPTOR demonstrator geometries. These candidates were scrutinized by subject matter experts to identify design preferences that were not modeled during configuration exploration. This exploration and design approach is used to create an aircraft that consumes an estimated 4.8x less energy at the selected cruise point when compared to the original aircraft.

  10. Performance of scintillation proximity assay (SPA) to measure the level of VEGFR 1 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEE, So-Young; LIM, Jae-Cheong; KIM, Jin-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Scintillation proximity assay is a one of radioimmunoassay and can be assayed without the washing or filtration procedures normally used to separate bound from free fractions. Due to its simplicity and high-throughput protocol, it is broadly applicable to immunology, receptor binding, monitoring receptor-ligand interactions and enzyme reactions. Briefly, an antibody or receptor is coated on SPA beads. When a radiolabeled antigen or ligand binds to the beads, the SPA beads stimulate to emit short range electrons. The {sup 3}H and {sup 125}I are commonly used for radiolabeling and the produced photons are detectable with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). A binding affinity of unlabeled ligands can be determined by competitive reaction of the radiolabeled ligands. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, and can stop or delay growth of tumors by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab was approved by FDA for metastatic cancer such as colorectal cancers, ovarian cancers, breast cancers and glioblastoma multiform of the brain. Recently, Dan G. duda et al. was reported that the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) in plasma may potentially be used as a negative selection biomarker. In this study, we describe a method using scintillation proximity assay to detect the amounts of VEGFR-1 protein. This method is successfully used to measure the concentration of VEGFR-1 protein in human cell extracts. In summary, a simple and sensitive assay is developed for measuring the amount of VEGFR 1 protein in cancer cell lysate using SPA beads. The antibody coating on the beads and antigen binding are achieved in one mixing step.

  11. Performance of scintillation proximity assay (SPA) to measure the level of VEGFR 1 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillation proximity assay is a one of radioimmunoassay and can be assayed without the washing or filtration procedures normally used to separate bound from free fractions. Due to its simplicity and high-throughput protocol, it is broadly applicable to immunology, receptor binding, monitoring receptor-ligand interactions and enzyme reactions. Briefly, an antibody or receptor is coated on SPA beads. When a radiolabeled antigen or ligand binds to the beads, the SPA beads stimulate to emit short range electrons. The 3H and 125I are commonly used for radiolabeling and the produced photons are detectable with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). A binding affinity of unlabeled ligands can be determined by competitive reaction of the radiolabeled ligands. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, and can stop or delay growth of tumors by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab was approved by FDA for metastatic cancer such as colorectal cancers, ovarian cancers, breast cancers and glioblastoma multiform of the brain. Recently, Dan G. duda et al. was reported that the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) in plasma may potentially be used as a negative selection biomarker. In this study, we describe a method using scintillation proximity assay to detect the amounts of VEGFR-1 protein. This method is successfully used to measure the concentration of VEGFR-1 protein in human cell extracts. In summary, a simple and sensitive assay is developed for measuring the amount of VEGFR 1 protein in cancer cell lysate using SPA beads. The antibody coating on the beads and antigen binding are achieved in one mixing step

  12. A Low-Cost, High-Performance System for Fluorescence Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a fluorescence lateral flow system that has excellent sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The illumination system utilizes an LED, plastic lenses and plastic and colored glass filters for the excitation and emission light. Images are collected on an iPhone 4. Several fluorescent dyes with long Stokes shifts were evaluated for their signal and nonspecific binding in lateral flow. A wide range of values for the ratio of signal to nonspecific binding was found, from 50 for R-phycoerythrin (R-PE to 0.15 for Brilliant Violet 605. The long Stokes shift of R-PE allowed the use of inexpensive plastic filters rather than costly interference filters to block the LED light. Fluorescence detection with R-PE and absorbance detection with colloidal gold were directly compared in lateral flow using biotinylated bovine serum albumen (BSA as the analyte. Fluorescence provided linear data over a range of 0.4–4,000 ng/mL with a 1,000-fold signal change while colloidal gold provided non-linear data over a range of 16–4,000 ng/mL with a 10-fold signal change. A comparison using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG as the analyte showed a similar advantage in the fluorescent system. We believe our inexpensive yet high-performance platform will be useful for providing quantitative and sensitive detection in a point-of-care setting.

  13. Performance of the Genotype® MTBDRPlus assay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and drug resistance in Samara, Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorin Ivan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russia is a high tuberculosis (TB burden country with a high prevalence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB. Molecular assays for detection of MDRTB on clinical specimens are not widely available in Russia. Results We performed an evaluation of the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay (HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Germany on a total of 168 sputum specimens from individual patients at a public health laboratory in Central Russia, as a model of a middle income site in a region with high levels of drug resistance. Phenotypic drug resistance tests (DST were performed on cultures derived from the same sputum specimens using the BACTEC 960 liquid media system. Interpretable GenoType® MTBDRplus results were obtained for 154(91.7% specimens with readability rates significantly higher in sputum specimens graded 2+ and 3+ compared to 1+ (RR = 1.17 95%CI 1.04–1.32. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for the detection of rifampicin (RIF and isoniazid (INH resistance and MDR was 96.2%, 97.4%, 97.1% and 90.7%, 83.3%, 88.9% respectively. Mutations in codon 531 of the rpoB gene and codon 315 of the katG gene dominated in RIF and INH resistant strains respectively. Disagreements between phenotypical and molecular tests results (12 samples could be explained by the presence of rare mutations in strains circulating in Russia and simultaneous presence of resistant and sensitive bacilli in sputum specimens (heteroresistance. Conclusion High sensitivity, short turnaround times and the potential for screening large numbers of specimens rapidly, make the GenoType® MTBDRplus assay suitable as a first-line screening assay for drug resistant TB.

  14. Performance of multiplex cytokine assays in serum and saliva among community-dwelling postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W Browne

    Full Text Available Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were not selected on any specific condition. Quality control (QC samples were created from pooled serum and saliva. Twenty protein markers were measured on five multiplexing array panels. Sample pretreatment conditions were optimized for each panel. Recovery, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ and imprecision were determined for each analyte. Statistical adjustment at the plate level was used to reduce imprecision estimates and increase the number of usable observations. Sample pre-treatment improved recovery estimates for many analytes. The LLOQ for each analyte agreed with manufacturer specifications except for MMP-1 and MMP-2 which were significantly higher than reported. Following batch adjustment, 17 of 20 biomarkers in serum and 9 of 20 biomarkers in saliva demonstrated acceptable precision, defined as <20% coefficient of variation (<25% at LLOQ. The percentage of cohort samples having levels within the reportable range for each analyte varied from 10% to 100%. The ratio of levels in saliva to serum varied from 1∶100 to 28∶1. Correlations between saliva and serum were of moderate positive magnitude and significant for CRP, MMP-2, insulin, adiponectin, GM-CSF and IL-5. Multiplex arrays exhibit high levels of analytical imprecision, particularly at the batch level. Careful sample pre-treatment can enhance recovery and reduce imprecision. Following statistical adjustments to reduce batch effects, we identified biomarkers that are of acceptable quality in

  15. Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; Cekici, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were not selected on any specific condition. Quality control (QC) samples were created from pooled serum and saliva. Twenty protein markers were measured on five multiplexing array panels. Sample pretreatment conditions were optimized for each panel. Recovery, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and imprecision were determined for each analyte. Statistical adjustment at the plate level was used to reduce imprecision estimates and increase the number of usable observations. Sample pre-treatment improved recovery estimates for many analytes. The LLOQ for each analyte agreed with manufacturer specifications except for MMP-1 and MMP-2 which were significantly higher than reported. Following batch adjustment, 17 of 20 biomarkers in serum and 9 of 20 biomarkers in saliva demonstrated acceptable precision, defined as <20% coefficient of variation (<25% at LLOQ). The percentage of cohort samples having levels within the reportable range for each analyte varied from 10% to 100%. The ratio of levels in saliva to serum varied from 1∶100 to 28∶1. Correlations between saliva and serum were of moderate positive magnitude and significant for CRP, MMP-2, insulin, adiponectin, GM-CSF and IL-5. Multiplex arrays exhibit high levels of analytical imprecision, particularly at the batch level. Careful sample pre-treatment can enhance recovery and reduce imprecision. Following statistical adjustments to reduce batch effects, we identified biomarkers that are of acceptable quality in serum and to a

  16. Standard compliance - NDE performance demonstration/inspection in the CANDU industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU nuclear power plants are operated in 3 provinces in Canada for electric power generation. A table in the paper will show the built and operating plants in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and overseas. The regulator for nuclear power in Canada is the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The CNSC holds the plant licensees accountable for compliance to CSA N285.4 for periodic inspections. The Standard basically specifies the 'what, when, where, how, how much and how frequently' NDE is to be done on pressure retaining systems and components in CANDU nuclear power plants. In inspection methods, the Standard specifies they must be non-destructive. The NDE methods were grouped into visual, dimensional, surface, volumetric and integrative. The Standard also specifies that the licensees are responsible for the performance demonstration (PD) of the adequacy of the procedures and the proficiency of the personnel. This paper describes the Standard's requirement in NDE qualification and presents a joint project participated by Canadian and overseas CANDU owners. The sub-project for NDE included providing evidence and technical justification on the adequacy of the procedures and the proficiency of the personnel. The paper describes the qualification methodology followed by the participants. This will be followed by how the participants produced Inspection Specification, tools and procedures, personnel training and qualification programs, test and qualification samples, independent peer reviews and Technical Justification. (author)

  17. Cool-down performance of the new apparatus for fuel layering demonstrations of FIREX targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, A.; Norimatsu, T.; Nakai, M.; Sakagami, H.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    FIREX targets have been developed under two layering strategies: foam shell and cone guide laser heating methods. Basic studies have been conducted by the collaboration research between ILE and NIFS. Then the next stage requires the characterization of a layered solid fuel. The present system is at the disadvantage of optical observations. Therefore, a new apparatus is designed to solve it. Glass windows with a wide aperture are installed for an interferometer and a microscope. To isolate the vibration from a cryocooler, active vibration control units are equipped, and flexible thermal conductive links are utilized. Furthermore, a quick target exchange mechanism is applied to deal with different types of FIREX targets. A target holder is detachable from a main vacuum chamber. A metal gasket with not fixing bolts but a load of ∼ thousand newtons on ensures GHe leak tightness for target cooling. Eventually, the design temperature of 10.00 K at a target container has been achieved. The cool-down performance indecates that the new apparatus provides a cryogenic environment for fuel layering demonstrations.

  18. A balanced, superconducting multiplier circuit for fast-switching and multiplexed qubit readout: Performance and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Brad A.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.

    A major challenge of scaling the promising transmon qubits into a quantum information processing machine is the classical hardware burden required to readout many qubits. Within the cavity QED architecture, qubit states are measured by detecting the transmission through microwave cavities. A multiplexing scheme could allow the classical hardware burden of generating and measuring a readout tone to be shared among several cavity-qubit systems. In this talk, we will present measurements of a recently designed superconducting multiplier circuit intended to accomplish time and code domain multiplexed readout. In particular, we characterize three modes of microwave operation: transmission, reflection and inversion. The device can be switched between these modes approximately 100 times faster than typical qubit coherence times. Exploiting this performance, we demonstrate a code domain multiplexing scheme with classical signals created to simulate typical qubit signals. The scheme operates with near unity fidelity at microwave powers comparable to typical qubit tones. This work is supported by the ARO under the Contract W911NF-14-1-0079.

  19. Research and Development for Demonstration of Fuel Performance in the BREST-OD-300 Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of mixed nitride core performance is an integral part of the 300 MW(e) lead-cooled fast reactor (BREST-OD-300) design. In 2010, NIKIET carried out R and D for the reactor design with BR=CBR∼1.05, in which low- background (taken from the BN-600 core) plutonium is used for fabrication of the first core. The investigations included design studies of shrouded hexagonal fuel assemblies with gas-bonded (U-Pu)N fuel and fitted up with wire or rib spacers; development of experimental dismountable fuel assembly for testing in BOR-60 reactor; improvements in the design of BOR-60 independent lead-cooled loop channel, in which 3 fuel pins of BREST-OD-300 will be tested. In 2011, it is planned to develop BREST-OD-300 fuel with energy-grade Pu dioxide from irradiated fuel of VVERs; to analyze the startup of a large lead-cooled reactor (≥1 GW(e)) on uranium nitride fuel of moderate enrichment and the conditions of changeover to (U-Pu-MA)N to be regenerated from the reactor's own irradiated fuel; to fabricate experimental BOR-60 dismountable assembly with (U-Pu)N. (author)

  20. A report on qualification systems of performance demonstration (PD) in European and American

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PD (Performance Demonstration) is a general term of qualifying examination for accuracy of detection and measurements of defects by UT (ultrasonic examination) for ISI (in-service inspection). The maintenance codes of plant facilities are decided in Europe and USA, but not in Japan. PD has the following advantages; 1) the safety of plant is kept by obtaining the objective size and features of defects by UT for ISI, 2) the rate of overlooking the defects by the examination becomes low, 3) the Maintenance Code can be used by introduction of PD and 4) new technology of UT is introduced. However, PD has the following problems; 1) the test increases in the cost using various kinds of test samples, 2) the examiner needs many training hours to obtain high level technologies, 3) high level production techniques is needed in order to make the same defects as nature and 4) small number of plants and examination maker are difficult to share the cost of keeping the examination system. (S.Y.)

  1. Analytical and clinical performance of the CDC real time RT-PCR assay for detection and typing of dengue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto A Santiago

    Full Text Available Dengue is an acute illness caused by the positive-strand RNA dengue virus (DENV. There are four genetically distinct DENVs (DENV-1-4 that cause disease in tropical and subtropical countries. Most patients are viremic when they present with symptoms; therefore, RT-PCR has been increasingly used in dengue diagnosis. The CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay has been developed as an in-vitro diagnostic platform and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA for detection of dengue in patients with signs or symptoms of mild or severe dengue. The primers and probes of this test have been designed to detect currently circulating strains of DENV-1-4 from around the world at comparable sensitivity. In a retrospective study with 102 dengue cases confirmed by IgM anti-DENV seroconversion in the convalescent sample, the RT-PCR Assay detected DENV RNA in 98.04% of the paired acute samples. Using sequencing as a positive indicator, the RT-PCR Assay had a 97.92% positive agreement in 86 suspected dengue patients with a single acute serum sample. After extensive validations, the RT-PCR Assay performance was highly reproducible when evaluated across three independent testing sites, did not produce false positive results for etiologic agents of other febrile illnesses, and was not affected by pathological levels of potentially interfering biomolecules. These results indicate that the CDC DENV-1-4 RT-PCR Assay provides a reliable diagnostic platform capable for confirming dengue in suspected cases.

  2. Development and validation of a novel Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay suitable for demonstrating freedom from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Søren Peter; Kahns, Søren; Skall, Helle Frank;

    2013-01-01

    shortened and the need for maintaining expensive cell culture facilities reduced. Here we present the validation, according to OIE guidelines, of a sensitive and specific Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR. The assay detects all isolates in a panel of 79 VHSV isolates covering all known genotypes and subtypes...

  3. Complete validation of a unique digestion assay to detect Trichinella larvae in horsemeat demonstrates its reliability for meeting food safety and trade requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tissue digestion assay using a double separatory funnel (DSF) procedure for the detection of Trichinella larvae in horsemeat was validated for application in food safety programs and trade. It consisted of a pepsin-HCl digestion step to release larvae from muscle tissue followed by two sequential ...

  4. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Blythe A.; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Hanley, Kaitlyn; Ballesté, Elisenda; Brandão, João; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Converse, Reagan; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer, Gidley, Maribeth L.; Gourmelon, Michèle; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung; Lozach, Solen; Madi, Tania; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Peed, Lindsay; Reischer, Georg H.; Rodrigues, Raquel; Rose, Joan B.; Schriewer, Alexander; Sinigalliano, Chris; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Stewart, Jill; Van De Werfhorst; Laurie, C.; Wang, Dan; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Jay, Jenny; Holden, Patricia A.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Shanks, Orin; Griffith, John F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing in large multi-laboratory studies. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BtH), BsteriF1, gyrB, HF183 endpoint, HF183 SYBR, HF183 Taqman®, HumM2, and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH (Mnif)) using 64 blind samples prepared in one laboratory. The blind samples contained either one or two fecal sources from human, wastewater or non-human sources. The assay results were assessed for presence/absence of the human markers and also quantitatively while varying the following: 1) classification of samples that were detected but not quantifiable (DNQ) as positive or negative; 2) reference fecal sample concentration unit of measure (such as culturable indicator bacteria, wet mass, total DNA, etc); and 3) human fecal source type (stool, sewage or septage). Assay performance using presence/absence metrics was found to depend on the classification of DNQ samples. The assays that performed best quantitatively varied based on the fecal concentration unit of measure and laboratory protocol. All methods were consistently more sensitive to human stools compared to sewage or septage in both the presence/absence and quantitative analysis. Overall, HF183 Taqman® was found to be the most effective marker of human fecal contamination in this California-based study.

  5. Quality assurance/quality control of foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay--Part II. Quality control: comparison of two charting methods to monitor assay performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, N; De Clercq, K

    2005-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly required to meet stringent quality standards, and validated assays are needed to achieve formal accreditation. Validation of test methods is often considered to be finalised when the assay parameters and characteristics have been established. However, like any process, diagnostic assays are subject to random variation resulting in shifts in the mean test values. Continuous monitoring of assays using control charts will alert the interpreter of changes in performance. For this purpose, several charting methods have been developed and implemented. This paper compares the Shewhart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts with respect to the day to day monitoring of internal quality control samples for the foot and mouth disease solid phase competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both chart types are equally sensitive to shifts, but the EWMA method seems to provide the best balance between false rejection and false acceptance. PMID:16642771

  6. Molecular and nanoparticle postcolumn reagents for assay of low-molecular-mass biothiols using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yanbing

    2009-10-15

    Determination of low-molecular-mass (LMM) biothiols in biological matrixes is of importance in the studies of their related bio-processes and for the clinical diagnostics of a variety of diseases. Standard method for the assay of the small biothiols is in demand. Postcolumn techniques used in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allow automation of the derivatization step and, therefore, are suitable for standardization of HPLC analysis. This paper gives an overview of the existing reaction systems useful for the postcolumn assay of the LMM biothiol molecules in conjunction with HPLC. The postcolumn reagents are classified by the types of their reactions with thiol-containing compounds. The chemical reactivity and selectivity as well as the spectroscopic characteristics of the postcolumn reagents have been addressed. The emerging strategies of using nanoparticles as thiol-reactive reagents and their applications in postcolumn detection of the LMM biothiols have also been discussed in detail. PMID:19442593

  7. Performance of 181 chemicals in a Drosophila assay predominantly monitoring interchromosomal mitotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, E W; Nivard, M J

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the effects of 181 chemicals in the (white/white+) (w/w+) eye mosaic assay, an in vivo short-term test measuring genetic damage in somatic cells of Drosophila after treatment of larvae. The genetic principle of this system is loss of heterozygosity for the wild-type reporter gene w+, an event predominantly resulting from homologous interchromosomal mitotic recombination between the two X chromosomes of female genotypes. The w/w+ eye mosaic test detects a broad spectrum of DNA modifications, since all distinct classes of genotoxins are monitored. Non-DNA-reactive chemicals are in principle not detected by this system. Occasional positive responses obtained for chemicals such as amitrole, ethionine and hexachloeroethane are probably not related to the mechanism responsible for their tumorigenicity. The principle outcome of this analysis is the necessity for classification of responses into three categories. (i) Positive, '++'. The 92 chemicals (Tables II and III) falling into this category were clearly recombinagenic in the assay, meaning that dose-response relations were obtained (or could have been established as was evident from the strong responses obtained at one or two exposure doses). Among the 92 chemicals were 49 promutagens including volatile chemicals such as vinyl bromide and vinyl chloride. (ii) Marginally positive, '+w'. The definition of a weakly positive response is the absence of a dose-response relationship due to the fact that a weak but reproducible effect, in most cases no more than a doubling of the spontaneous clone frequency, is inherently related to toxicity. The 40 chemicals (Tables IV and V) belonging to this category mainly represented four distinct types. (a) Procarcinogens, such as 2-acetylaminofluorene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 2-naphthylamine and safrole, for which metabolic conversion was the apparent problem in the assay. (b) Electrophilic chemicals of high nucleophilic

  8. Assay for inorganic pyrophosphate in chondrocyte culture using anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and radioactive orthophosphate labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for determination of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in cell culture medium and in rabbit articular chondrocytes grown in the presence of radioactive orthophosphate (32Pi). Intra- and extracellular 32PPi formed was measured using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of the PPi from orthophosphate (Pi) and other phosphate-containing compounds. The chromatographic separation on a weak anion-exchange column is based on the extent to which various phosphate compounds form complexes with Mg2+ at low pH and the rate at which such formation occurs. These complexes are eluted more readily than the uncomplexed compounds. Best results were obtained using a simultaneous gradient of Mg2+ ions and ionic strength. In this case separation of small amounts of PPi from a large excess of Pi was possible without prior removal of Pi or extraction of the PPi fraction. The assay is also useful for measurement of inorganic pyrophosphatase activity. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the specific activity of the added 32Pi and on the culture conditions, but is comparable with the most sensitive of the enzymatic assays. Sample preparation, particularly deproteinization, proved to be of importance. The losses of PPi which occur during procedures of this sort due to hydrolysis and coprecipitation were quantitated

  9. Performance of the flow cytometric E-screen assay in screening estrogenicity of pure compounds and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro estrogenicity screens are believed to provide a first prioritization step in hazard characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. When applied to complex environmental matrices or mixture samples, they have been indicated valuable in estimating the overall estrogen-mimicking load. In this study, the performance of an adapted format of the classical E-screen or MCF-7 cell proliferation assay was profoundly evaluated to rank pure compounds as well as influents and effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) according to estrogenic activity. In this adapted format, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was used to allow evaluation of the MCF-7 cell proliferative effects after only 24 h of exposure. With an average EC50 value of 2 pM and CV of 22%, this assay appears as a sensitive and reproducible system for evaluation of estrogenic activity. Moreover, estrogenic responses of 17 pure compounds corresponded well, qualitatively and quantitatively, with other in vitro and in vivo estrogenicity screens, such as the classical E-screen (R2 = 0.98), the estrogen receptor (ER) binding (R2 = 0.84) and the ER transcription activation assay (R2 = 0.87). To evaluate the applicability of this assay for complex samples, influents and effluents of 10 STPs covering different treatment processes, were compared and ranked according to estrogenic removal efficiencies. Activated sludge treatment with phosphorus and nitrogen removal appeared most effective in eliminating estrogenic activity, followed by activated sludge, lagoon and filter bed. This is well in agreement with previous findings based on chemical analysis or biological activity screens. Moreover, ER blocking experiments indicated that cell proliferative responses were mainly ER mediated, illustrating that the complexity of the end point, cell proliferation, compared to other ER screens, does not hamper the interpretation of the results. Therefore, this study, among other E-screen studies, supports the use of MCF

  10. Comparison of Performance of Serum and Plasma in Panbio Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Virus Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Lee, Sue J.; Chanthongthip, Anisone; Taojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Thongpaseuth, Soulignasack; Hübscher, Tanja; Newton, Paul N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the comparative performance of serum and plasma (in dipotassium EDTA) in Panbio Dengue enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detection of non-structural protein 1 (NS1), IgM, and IgG, and a dengue/Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) combination IgM ELISA in a prospective series of 201 patients with suspected dengue in Laos. Paired comparisons of medians from serum and plasma samples were not significantly different for Dengue IgM, and NS1 which had the highest number of di...

  11. Performance of the CLSI Carba NP and the Rosco Carb Screen Assays Using North American Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Lauren C; Roundtree, Sylvester S; Lancaster, Diana P; Rudin, Susan D; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Roberts, Amity L; Marshall, Steven H; Bonomo, Robert A; Sullivan, Kaede V

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the performance of the Carba NP assay, published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen kit. Carba NP had superior sensitivity, but both assays required an increased inoculum to detect carbapenemase production in isolates with blaNDM, blaIMP, and blaOXA-48. PMID:26269624

  12. Performance and Verification of a Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting the gyrA Gene for Prediction of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, P; Yang, S; Soge, O O; Humphries, R M; Klausner, J D

    2016-03-01

    In the United States, 19.2% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates are resistant to ciprofloxacin. We evaluated a real-time PCR assay to predict ciprofloxacin susceptibility using residual DNA from the Roche Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay. The results of the assay were 100% concordant with agar dilution susceptibility test results for 100 clinical isolates. Among 76 clinical urine and swab specimens positive for N. gonorrhoeae by the Cobas assay, 71% could be genotyped. The test took 1.5 h to perform, allowing the physician to receive results in time to make informed clinical decisions. PMID:26739156

  13. Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria and the Performance of Interferon Gamma Release Assays in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Thomas Stig; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Lillebaek, Troels;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The QuantiFERON-TB-Gold Test (QFT) is more specific than the Mantoux skin-test to discriminate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections. Here we study the performance of the QFT in patients with NTM disease. METHODS: From 2005 to 2011...

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline in nebulizer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, G A; Peterson, G M

    1994-06-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol hydrobromide, salbutamol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate in nebulizer solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Nova-Pak C18 4 microns 10 cm x 8 mm i.d. Radial-pak cartridge inside a Waters RCM 8 x 10 compression module using ternary gradient analysis. Detection was performed using UV detection at 220 nm. The standard curves were linear over the following ranges: ipratropium bromide 20.8-250.0 micrograms ml-1, fenoterol hydrobromide 27.8-500.0 micrograms ml-1, salbutamol sulphate 34.7-2500.0 micrograms ml-1 and terbutaline sulphate 69.5-2500 micrograms ml-1. Inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for each compound ranged from 4.5-5.2% and 3.5-3.9%, respectively. The assay procedure was developed to allow the accurate determination of constituents in various combinations of nebulizer solution, as well as for stability indicating purposes. This provides a convenient means of testing long-term compatibility and stability following the post-manufacture mixing of commonly used nebulized preparations. PMID:7918785

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for morphine in small plasma samples: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Cortés-Arroyo, Alma Rosa; Peña, Marcela Hurtado Y de la; Aoki-Maki, Kazuko; López, José Raúl Medina; Ríos-Castañeda, Camilo; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2006-03-18

    In order to perform a reliable pharmacokinetic study of morphine during subchronic treatment in rats, an easy, rapid, sensitive and selective analytical method was proposed and validated. The analyte and internal standard (naloxone) were extracted from plasma samples (100 microL) by a single solid-phase extraction method prior to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) along with electrochemical detection (ED). Standard calibration graphs were linear within a range of 3.5-1,000 ng/mL (r=0.999). The intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) were in the range of 5.8-8.5% at eight concentration levels (7-1,000 ng/mL) and the inter-day coefficient of variation ranged from 7.4 to 8.8%. The intra-day assay accuracy was in the range of -5-10% and the inter-day assay accuracy ranged from 3.0 to 9.3% of relative error (RE). The limit of quantification was 3.5 ng/mL using a plasma sample of 100 microL (15.8% of CV and 12.8% of RE). Plasma samples were stable for 2 months at -20 degrees C. This method was found to be suitable for pharmacokinetic studies in rats, after subcutaneous administration of morphine (5.6 mg/kg per day) in subchronic treatment for 6 and 12 days. PMID:16242894

  16. Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; Cekici, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were...

  17. Performance Demonstration Initiative U.S. implementation of ASME B and PV code section 11 Appendix 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New requirements have now been added to Section 11 as mandatory Appendix 8, ''Performance Demonstration Requirements for Ultrasonic Examination systems''. The appendix was recently published and incorporates performance demonstration requirements for ultrasonic examination equipment, procedures, and personnel. These new requirements will have far reaching and significant impact on the conduct of ISI at all nuclear power plants. For the first time since Section 11 was issued in 1970, the effectiveness of ultrasonic examination procedures and the proficiency of examiners must be demonstrated on reactor pressure vessel (RPV), piping, and bolting markups containing real flaws, Recognizing the importance and complexity of Appendix 8 implementation, representatives from all US nuclear utilities have formed the Performance Demonstration Initiative (PDI) to implement Appendix 8 to provide for uniform implementation

  18. Coinfection of human herpesviruses 6A (HHV-6A and HHV-6B as demonstrated by novel digital droplet PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Leibovitch

    Full Text Available The human herpesviruses HHV-6A and HHV-6B have been associated with various neurologic disorders partly due to the detection of elevated viral DNA levels in patients compared to controls. However the reported frequency of these viruses varies widely, likely reflecting differences in PCR methodologies used for detection. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR is a third generation PCR technology that enables the absolute quantification of target DNA molecules. Mounting evidence of the biological differences between HHV-6A and HHV-6B has led to their recent reclassification as separate species. As it is now especially relevant to investigate each virus, our objectives were to first design a multiplex HHV-6A and HHV-6B ddPCR assay and then to investigate the incidence of HHV-6A and HHV-6B coinfection in samples from healthy donors and patients with MS, a disease in which HHV-6 is thought to play a role. In our assessment of healthy donors, we observed a heretofore-underappreciated high frequency of coinfection in PBMC and serum, and found that our assay precisely detects both HHV-6A and HHV-6B chromosomally integrated virus, which has important implications in clinical settings. Interestingly, upon comparing the saliva from MS patients and healthy donors, we detected a significantly elevated frequency of coinfection in MS saliva; increased detection of HHV-6A in MS patients is consistent with other studies suggesting that this viral species (thought to be more neurotropic than HHV-6B is more prevalent among MS patients compared to healthy donors. As the biology and disease associations between these two viral species differ, identifying and quantifying both species of HHV-6 may provide clinically relevant information, as well as enhance our understanding of the roles of each in health and disease.

  19. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis: Demonstration of Improved Long-Term Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; X. Zhang; R. C. O' Brien; G. Tao

    2011-11-01

    Long-term performance is an ongoing issue for hydrogen production based on high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). For commercial deployment, solid-oxide electrolysis stacks must achieve high performance with long-term degradation rates of {approx}0.5%/1000 hours or lower. Significant progress has been achieved toward this goal over the past few years. This paper will provide details of progress achieved under the Idaho National Laboratory high temperature electrolysis research program. Recent long-term stack tests have achieved high initial performance with degradation rates less than 5%/khr. These tests utilize internally manifolded stacks with electrode-supported cells. The cell material sets are optimized for the electrolysis mode of operation. Details of the cells and stacks will be provided along with details of the test apparatus, procedures, and results.

  20. Chest radiography with a shaped filter has no diagnostic advantage: Demonstration by observer performance tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of a shaped filter in improving the detection of mediastinal and retrocardiac abnormalities on 140-kV posteroanterior chest radiographs was measured by observer performance testing. The filtered and unfiltered radiographs of 50 patients were randomly selected from 1,000 radiographs obtained from 500 ambulatory or hospitalized patients and were independently read by five observers. Observer performance in detecting abnormalities in the central area was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) techniques. The results indicate that the use of a filter has no significant diagnostic advantage, regardless of type or location of lesions over the mediastinum and the retrocardiac areas

  1. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria and the performance of interferon gamma release assays in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stig Hermansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The QuantiFERON-TB-Gold Test (QFT is more specific than the Mantoux skin-test to discriminate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infections. Here we study the performance of the QFT in patients with NTM disease. METHODS: From 2005 to 2011, nationwide patient data on positive NTM cultures (n = 925 were combined with nationwide data on QFT results (n = 16,133, both retrieved from the International Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology, Denmark. A total of 112 patients with NTM infections had a QFT performed, 53 patients had definite NTM disease, 10 had possible disease and 49 had NTM colonization. RESULTS: QFT was positive in 8% (4/53 of patients with definite disease, 40% (4/10 with possible disease and 31% (15/49 with colonization. Positivity rate was lowest among patients with definite disease infected with NTM without the RD1 region 4% (2/50. None of the 15 children with MAC lymphadenitis had a positive QFT. CONCLUSION: This study is one of the largest assessing IGRAs in patients with NTM disease in a TB low-incidence setting. Our study showed that the QFT holds potential to discriminate between NTM and MTB infections. We found no positive IGRA test results among children with NTM not sharing the RD1-region of MTB resulting in a 100% specificity and we suggest that a QFT in a child presenting with cervical lymphadenitis may be helpful in distinguishing NTM from TB lymphadenitis.

  2. Fully automated high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the analysis of free catecholamines in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, R; Robinet, D; Barbier, C; Sartre, J; Huguet, C

    1990-08-24

    A totally automated and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the routine determination of free catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine) in urine. The catecholamines were isolated from urine samples using small alumina columns. A standard automated method for pH adjustment of urine before the extraction step has been developed. The extraction was performed on an ASPEC (Automatic Sample Preparation with Extraction Columns, Gilson). The eluate was collected in a separate tube and then automatically injected into the chromatographic column. The catecholamines were separated by reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography and quantified by fluorescence detection. No manual intervention was required during the extraction and separation procedure. One sample may be run every 15 min, ca. 96 samples in 24 h. Analytical recoveries for all three catecholamines are 63-87%, and the detection limits are 0.01, 0.01, and 0.03 microM for norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, respectively, which is highly satisfactory for urine. Day-to-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. PMID:2277100

  3. A multiplexed targeted assay for high-throughput quantitative analysis of serum methylamines by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Hanane; Dubus, Justine; Dutot, Jérémie; Hedjazi, Lyamine; Srinivasa, Suman; Fitch, Kathleen V; Grinspoon, Steven K; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc-Emmanuel; Gauguier, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    Methylamines are biologically-active metabolites present in serum and urine samples, which play complex roles in metabolic diseases. Methylamines can be detected by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), but specific methods remain to be developed for their routine assay in human serum in clinical settings. Here we developed and validated a novel reliable "methylamine panel" method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of trimethylamine (TMA), its major detoxification metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and precursors choline, betaine and l-carnitine in human serum using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Metabolite separation was carried out on a HILIC stationary phase. For all metabolites, the assay was linear in the range of 0.25-12.5 μmol/L and enabled to reach limit of detection of about 0.10 μmol/L. Relative standard deviations were below 16% for the three levels of concentrations. We demonstrated the strong reliability and robustness of the method, which was applied to serum samples from healthy individuals to establish the range of concentrations of the metabolites and their correlation relationships and detect gender differences. Our data provide original information for implementing in a clinical environment a MS-based diagnostic method with potential for targeted metabolic screening of patients at risk of cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:27036856

  4. Performance of Simplexa Dengue Molecular Assay Compared to Conventional and SYBR Green RT-PCR for Detection of Dengue Infection in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    R Tedjo Sasmono; Aryati Aryati; Puspa Wardhani; Benediktus Yohan; Hidayat Trimarsanto; Sukmal Fahri; Setianingsih, Tri Y.; Febrina Meutiawati

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic tests based on detection of dengue virus (DENV) genome are available with varying sensitivities and specificities. The Simplexa Dengue assay (Focus Diagnostics) is a newly developed real-time RT-PCR method designed to detect and serotype DENV simultaneously. To assess the performance of the Simplexa Dengue assay, we performed comparison with conventional RT-PCR and SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR on patients sera isolated from eight cities across Indonesia, a dengue endemic country. A ...

  5. Developing and Demonstrating Knowledge: Ability and Non-Ability Determinants of Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Margaret E.; Campbell, Madeline; Crook, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Ability and non-ability traits were examined as predictors of learning, operationalized as the development of knowledge structure accuracy, and exam performance in a semester-long course. As predicted by investment theories of intellectual development, both cognitive ability and non-ability traits were important determinants of learning and exam…

  6. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  7. Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval – A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg Täubel; Georg Ferber; Ulrike Lorch; Duolao Wang; Mariano Sust; A John Camm

    2015-01-01

    Background E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA) currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects. Methods Thirty two healthy male and fem...

  8. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  9. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm;

    2012-01-01

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and hi...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  10. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm;

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and hi...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels....

  11. Comparison of analytical and clinical performance of CLART HPV2 genotyping assay to Linear Array and Hybrid Capture 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping has an increasingly important role in cervical cancer screening and vaccination monitoring, however, without an internationally agreed standard reference assay. The test results from the most widely used genotyping assays are read manually and hence...

  12. Development and validation of a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography assay for rogletimide and rogletimide-N-oxide isomers in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, M C; Oster, W; Milano, G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a stereo-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for rogletimide (Rog) and rogletimide-N-oxide (Nox) isomers in plasma. The assay was performed with a chiral cellulose-[4-methylbenzoate]ester column (Chiracel OJ). Optimal separation was achieved isocratically with a mobile phase consisting of n-hexane/anhydrous ethanol (65/35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min, with the column being thermostated at +35 degrees C (UV detection at 257 nm). Under these conditions, retention times were approximately 17, 28, 31 and 76 min for R-Rog, S-Rog, R-Nox and S-Nox, respectively. S-aminoglutethimide (S-Ag) served as the internal standard (retention time 70 min). An extraction procedure from plasma samples was developed on Bond Elut RP8 500-mg cartridges; conditioning was performed with 5 ml methanol and 5 ml water, after which 1 ml plasma that had previously been spiked with 5 microM S-Ag was applied. Washing was done with 6 ml water and elution, with 4 ml methanol. After evaporation to dryness, residues were dissolved in 400 microliters anhydrous ethanol and 12-48 microliters was injected onto the HPLC system. Blank plasma from healthy donors showed the random presence of a small interference eluting at the retention time of R-Rog, precluding the accurate quantification of R-Rog concentrations below 2.5 microM. Reproducibility assays demonstrated the need to use an internal standard. Taking into account the internal standard, at 2.5 microM the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 10.5% and 21.0% for R-Rog 5.5% and 8.7% for S-Rog, 7.6% and 20.8% for R-Nox and 11.7% and 6.4% for S-Nox, respectively. The detection limit was 2.5 microM for R-Rog, 0.5 microM for S-Rog, 0.25 microM for R-Nox and 0.5 microM for S-Nox. Linearity was satisfactory at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 10 microM for R-Rog, from 0.5 to 10 microM for S-Rog, from 0.25 to 2.5 microM for R-Nox and from 0.50 to 2

  13. Demonstration of advanced combustion NO(sub X) control techniques for a wall-fired boiler. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project represents a landmark assessment of the potential of low-NO(sub x) burners, advanced overtire air, and neural-network control systems to reduce NO(sub x) emissions within the bounds of acceptable dry-bottom, wall-fired boiler performance. Such boilers were targeted under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Testing provided valuable input to the Environmental Protection Agency ruling issued in March 1994, which set NO(sub x) emission limits for ''Group 1'' wall-fired boilers at 0.5 lb/10(sup 6) Btu to be met by January 1996. The resultant comprehensive database served to assist utilities in effectively implementing CAAA compliance. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. Five nationally competed solicitations sought cost-shared partnerships with industry to accelerate commercialization of the most advanced coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The Program, valued at over$5 billion, has leveraged federal funding twofold through the resultant partnerships encompassing utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. This project was one of 16 selected in May 1988 from 55 proposals submitted in response to the Program's second solicitation. Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS) conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation's (FWEC) advanced overfire air (AOFA), low-NO(sub x) burners (LNB), and LNB/AOFA on wall-fired boiler NO(sub x) emissions and other combustion parameters. SCS also evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced on-line optimization system, the Generic NO(sub x) Control Intelligent System (GNOCIS). Over a six-year period, SCS carried out testing at Georgia Power Company's 500-MWe Plant Hammond Unit 4 in Coosa, Georgia. Tests proceeded in a logical sequence using rigorous statistical analyses to

  14. Field performance test of Pass, an instrument for the rapid assay of plutonium and other γ-ray emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field performance test was conducted at the INEL with the mobile Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) that was developed for the analysis of samples from sites or facilities potentially contaminated with plutonium, other actinides, and γ-ray emitting activation and fission-product radionuclides. The performance test and results are described for the Photon Analyis Spectrometer System (PASS), one of three RTML assay systems. This system consists of a thin-window, n-type Ge spectrometer, that automatically analyzes soil, smear, and air particulate-filter samples for actinides emitting L x rays, and for activation and fission products that emit Γ rays. The measurements were blind and performed with 11-g soil samples gathered from the Cold Test Pit and with spiked samples containing known mixtures of 239Pu, 241Am, 60Co, and 137Cs. In the spiked samples the plutonium activity concentrations ranged from ∼75 to ∼500 pCi/g while the other radionuclides ranged from ∼10 to ∼130 pCi/g. Lower limits of detection (LLDs) were verified to be 1, 5, 5, and 40 pCi/g for 241Am, 60Co, 137Cs, and 239Pu respectively. Results from the performance test are presented. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  15. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation--One Year Later, Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, A. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, R. G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This report follows the GATEWAY Yuma Phase 1.0 Report and reflects LED system results documented one year after the demonstration began.

  16. Automated direct assay system for RU38486, an antiprogesterone-antiglucocorticoid agent, and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagoshi,Kazusuke

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available An automated direct assay system using high performance liquid chromatography was developed for the measurement of RU38486 and its three metabolites (RU42698, RU42848, RU42633 in human serum. Serum concentrations of these compounds were measured up to 144 h following single oral administration of 200 (200 mg group, n = 3 or 400 mg (400 mg group, n = 3 of RU38486 to healthy female volunteers. The serum half-lives (200 mg group-400 mg group of RU38486, RU42698, RU42848 and RU42633 were 31.8-33.1 h, 41.2-39.3 h, 33.9-36.6 h and 29.2-36.6 h, respectively. Our system could quantify them easily and simultaneously, and was considered to be valuable in studies on the relationship between the pharmacokinetics and the clinical effects of RU38486.

  17. Multi-laboratory evaluations of the performance of Catellicoccus marimammalium PCR assays developed to target gull fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Ervin, Jared S.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Badgley, Brian D.; Ballestée, Elisenda; Bartkowiaka, Jakob; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Gourmelon, Michèle; Griffith, John; Holden, Patricia A.; Jay, Jenny; Layton, Blythe; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Raith, Meredith; Ryu, Hodon; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Schriewer, Alexander; Wang, Dan; Wanless, David; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report results from a multi-laboratory (n = 11) evaluation of four different PCR methods targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium originally developed to detect gull fecal contamination in coastal environments. The methods included a conventional end-point PCR method, a SYBR® Green qPCR method, and two TaqMan® qPCR methods. Different techniques for data normalization and analysis were tested. Data analysis methods had a pronounced impact on assay sensitivity and specificity calculations. Across-laboratory standardization of metrics including the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), target detected but not quantifiable (DNQ), and target not detected (ND) significantly improved results compared to results submitted by individual laboratories prior to definition standardization. The unit of measure used for data normalization also had a pronounced effect on measured assay performance. Data normalization to DNA mass improved quantitative method performance as compared to enterococcus normalization. The MST methods tested here were originally designed for gulls but were found in this study to also detect feces from other birds, particularly feces composited from pigeons. Sequencing efforts showed that some pigeon feces from California contained sequences similar to C. marimammalium found in gull feces. These data suggest that the prevalence, geographic scope, and ecology of C. marimammalium in host birds other than gulls require further investigation. This study represents an important first step in the multi-laboratory assessment of these methods and highlights the need to broaden and standardize additional evaluations, including environmentally relevant target concentrations in ambient waters from diverse geographic regions.

  18. New High-Performance Droplet Freezing Assay (HP-DFA) for the Analysis of Ice Nuclei with Complex Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Anna Theresa; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Helleis, Frank; Klimach, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water above homogeneous freezing is catalyzed by ice nucleation active (INA) particles called ice nuclei (IN), which can be of various inorganic or biological origin. The freezing temperatures reach up to -1 °C for some biological samples and are dependent on the chemical composition of the IN. The standard method to analyze IN in solution is the droplet freezing assay (DFA) established by Gabor Vali in 1970. Several modifications and improvements were already made within the last decades, but they are still limited by either small droplet numbers, large droplet volumes or inadequate separation of the single droplets resulting in mutual interferences and therefore improper measurements. The probability that miscellaneous IN are concentrated together in one droplet increases with the volume of the droplet, which can be described by the Poisson distribution. At a given concentration, the partition of a droplet into several smaller droplets leads to finely dispersed IN resulting in better statistics and therefore in a better resolution of the nucleation spectrum. We designed a new customized high-performance droplet freezing assay (HP-DFA), which represents an upgrade of the previously existing DFAs in terms of temperature range and statistics. The necessity of observing freezing events at temperatures lower than homogeneous freezing due to freezing point depression, requires high-performance thermostats combined with an optimal insulation. Furthermore, we developed a cooling setup, which allows both huge and tiny temperature changes within a very short period of time. Besides that, the new DFA provides the analysis of more than 750 droplets per run with a small droplet volume of 5 μL. This enables a fast and more precise analysis of biological samples with complex IN composition as well as better statistics for every sample at the same time.

  19. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  20. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  1. Medipix3 Demonstration and understanding of near ideal detector performance for 60 & 80 keV electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, J A; MacInnes, R; Gough, C; Plackett, R; Shipsey, I; Sawada, H; MacLaren, I; Ballabriga, R; Maneuski, D; O'Shea, V; McGrouther, D; Kirkland, A I

    2016-01-01

    In our article we report first quantitative measurements of imaging performance for the current generation of hybrid pixel detector, Medipix3, as direct electron detector. Utilising beam energies of 60 & 80 keV, measurements of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) have revealed that, in single pixel mode (SPM), energy threshold values can be chosen to maximize either the MTF or DQE, obtaining values near to, or even exceeding, those for an ideal detector. We have demonstrated that the Medipix3 charge summing mode (CSM) can deliver simultaneous, near ideal values of both MTF and DQE. To understand direct detection performance further we have characterized the detector response to single electron events, building an empirical model which can predict detector MTF and DQE performance based on energy threshold. Exemplifying our findings we demonstrate the Medipix3 imaging performance, recording a fully exposed electron diffraction pattern at 24-bit depth and images in SPM a...

  2. Design, demonstration and performance of a versatile electrospray aerosol generator for nanomaterial research and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjohn, Nancy; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantzazu; Prikhodko, Sergey; Fung, David C.; Hirakawa, Karen S.; Zavala-Mendez, Jose D.; Hinds, William; Kennedy, Nola J.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes are difficult to aerosolize in a controlled manner. We present a method for generating aerosols not only of carbon nanotubes, but also of many reference and proprietary materials including quantum dots, diesel particulate matter, urban dust, and their mixtures, using electrospraying. This method can be used as a teaching tool, or as the starting point for advanced research, or to deliver nanomaterials in animal exposure studies. This electrospray system generates 180 µg of nanotubes per m3 of carrier gas, and thus aerosolizes an occupationally relevant mass concentration of nanotubes. The efficiency achievable for single-walled carbon nanotubes is 9.4%. This system is simple and quick to construct using ordinary lab techniques and affordable materials. Since it is easy to replace soiled parts with clean ones, experiments on different types of nanomaterial can be performed back to back without contamination from previous experiments. In this paper, the design, fabrication, operation and characterization of our versatile electrospray method are presented. Also, the morphological changes that carbon nanotubes undergo as they make the transition from dry powders to aerosol particles are presented.

  3. Design, demonstration and performance of a versatile electrospray aerosol generator for nanomaterial research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes are difficult to aerosolize in a controlled manner. We present a method for generating aerosols not only of carbon nanotubes, but also of many reference and proprietary materials including quantum dots, diesel particulate matter, urban dust, and their mixtures, using electrospraying. This method can be used as a teaching tool, or as the starting point for advanced research, or to deliver nanomaterials in animal exposure studies. This electrospray system generates 180 μg of nanotubes per m3 of carrier gas, and thus aerosolizes an occupationally relevant mass concentration of nanotubes. The efficiency achievable for single-walled carbon nanotubes is 9.4%. This system is simple and quick to construct using ordinary lab techniques and affordable materials. Since it is easy to replace soiled parts with clean ones, experiments on different types of nanomaterial can be performed back to back without contamination from previous experiments. In this paper, the design, fabrication, operation and characterization of our versatile electrospray method are presented. Also, the morphological changes that carbon nanotubes undergo as they make the transition from dry powders to aerosol particles are presented.

  4. Heat treatment of samples improve the performance of the Nijmegen-Bethesda assay in hemophilia A patients undergoing immune tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Montalvão, Silmara Aparecida; Tucunduva, Alini Camargo; de Almeida Sambo, Andrea Luísa; De Paula, Erich Vinicius; de Souza Medina, Samuel; Ozelo, Margareth Castro

    2015-12-01

    Nijmegen-Bethesda assay is the gold standard to assess inhibitory antibodies against factor (F) VIII. This method has some limitations, including high coefficient of variation and possible interference of residual endogenous or exogenous factor VIII. Heat-treatment of samples at 56 °C for 30 min could be a strategy to improve the sensitivity of this test. The aim of this study was to compare inhibitor quantification in hemophilia patients with and without inhibitor performed in previously heated and non-heated samples. A total of 109 analyses from 46 patients with severe hemophilia A were performed. Patients were divided into three groups: 20 patients with no history of inhibitor, recently and not recently exposed to FVIII (group I), 21 patients with history of inhibitor not exposed to FVIII (group II), and 5 patients (68 samples) undergoing an immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocol (group III). For patients with no history of inhibitor, heat-treatment did not modify the results (p=0.24). However, differences in inhibitor levels between heated and non-heated samples were observed in patients with history of inhibitor (group II, pITI (group III, pITI patient showed similar trend line for the results of heated and non-heated samples. In this study, we demonstrated that heating samples increase sensitivity of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay, with no shift from negative to positive results in patients with no history of inhibitor. Furthermore, this procedure has an important role to patients undergoing an ITI protocol. PMID:26344704

  5. Design and Demonstration of a Test-Rig for Static Performance-Studies of Permanent Magnet Couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    2013-01-01

    is stored in a USB thumb-drive, and no additional software or hardware is needed to operate the test-rig. Tests of the aligned static torque performance of two different cylindrical couplings are presented along with radial and axial misalignment-tests of one. The results demonstrates the diversity...

  6. First demonstration and performance of an injection locked continuous wave magnetron to phase control a superconducting cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Dexter, G. Burt, R.G. Carter, I. Tahir, H. Wang, K. Davis, R. Rimmer

    2011-03-01

    The applications of magnetrons to high power proton and cw electron linacs are discussed. An experiment is described where a 2.45 GHz magnetron has been used to drive a single cell superconducting cavity. With the magnetron injection locked, a modest phase control accuracy of 0.95° rms has been demonstrated. Factors limiting performance have been identified.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods using chemiluminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qunlin [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lian Mei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu Lijuan [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Cui Hua [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: hcui@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-04-29

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by parabens of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in the strong sulfuric acid medium. The good separation of parabens was carried out with an isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and water (60:40, v/v) within 8.5 min. Under the optimized conditions, a linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision below 4.5%, and the detection limits were 1.9 x 10{sup -9}, 2.7 x 10{sup -9}, 3.9 x 10{sup -9}, and 5.3 x 10{sup -9} g ml{sup -1} for methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods with the minimal sample preparation.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods using chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemiluminescence detection was developed. The procedure was based on the chemiluminescent enhancement by parabens of the cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G system in the strong sulfuric acid medium. The good separation of parabens was carried out with an isocratic elution using a mixture of methanol and water (60:40, v/v) within 8.5 min. Under the optimized conditions, a linear working range extends three orders of magnitude with the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision below 4.5%, and the detection limits were 1.9 x 10-9, 2.7 x 10-9, 3.9 x 10-9, and 5.3 x 10-9 g ml-1 for methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, respectively. The chemiluminescence reaction was well compatible with the mobile phase of high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the assay of parabens in wash-off cosmetic products and foods with the minimal sample preparation

  9. Performance of the Cobas(®) Influenza A/B Assay for Rapid Pcr-Based Detection of Influenza Compared to Prodesse ProFlu+ and Viral Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Tian, Y; Chen, S; Liesenfeld, O

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of influenza is important for patient management and infection control. We determined the performance of the cobas(®) Influenza A/B assay, a rapid automated nucleic acid assay performed on the cobas(®) Liat System for qualitative detection of influenza A and influenza B from nasopharyngeal (NP) swab specimens. Retrospective frozen and prospectively collected NP swabs from patients with signs and symptoms of influenza collected in universal transport medium (UTM) were tested at multiple sites including CLIA-waived sites using the cobas® Influenza A/B assay. Results were compared to the Prodesse Pro-Flu+ assay and to viral culture. Compared to the Prodesse ProFlu+ Assay, sensitivities of the cobas(®) Influenza A/B assay for influenza A and B were 97.7 and 98.6%, respectively; specificity was 99.2 and 99.4%. Compared to viral culture, the cobas(®) Influenza A/B assay showed sensitivities of 97.5 and 96.9% for influenza virus A and B, respectively; specificities were 97.9% for both viruses. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing showed that the majority of viral culture negative but cobas(®) Influenza A/B positive results were true positive results, indicating that the cobas(®) Influenza A/B assay has higher sensitivity compared to viral culture. In conclusion, the excellent accuracy, rapid time to result, and remarkable ease of use make the cobas(®) Influenza A/B nucleic acid assay for use on the cobas(®) Liat System a highly suitable point-of-care solution for the management of patients with suspected influenza A and B infection. PMID:26716012

  10. Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Bladt, S; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S C J

    2015-09-01

    Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an impact on human health as they might be allergenic. Since molecular methods do not require a culture step, they seem an excellent alternative for the monitoring of indoor fungal contaminations. As a case study, we developed a SYBR® green real-time PCR-based assay for the specific detection and identification of Aspergillus versicolor, which is frequently observed in indoor environment and known to be allergenic. The developed primers amplify a short region of the internal transcribed spacer 1 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex. Subsequently, the performance of this quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was assessed using specific criteria, including an evaluation of the selectivity, PCR efficiency, dynamic range, and repeatability. The limit of detection was determined to be 1 or 2 copies of genomic DNA of A. versicolor. In order to demonstrate that this SYBR® green qPCR assay is a valuable alternative for monitoring indoor fungal contamination with A. versicolor, environmental samples collected in contaminated houses were analyzed and the results were compared to the ones obtained with the traditional methods. PMID:26184975

  11. A model for the training effects in swimming demonstrates a strong relationship between parasympathetic activity, performance and index of fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Chalencon

    Full Text Available Competitive swimming as a physical activity results in changes to the activity level of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. However, the precise relationship between ANS activity, fatigue and sports performance remains contentious. To address this problem and build a model to support a consistent relationship, data were gathered from national and regional swimmers during two 30 consecutive-week training periods. Nocturnal ANS activity was measured weekly and quantified through wavelet transform analysis of the recorded heart rate variability. Performance was then measured through a subsequent morning 400 meters freestyle time-trial. A model was proposed where indices of fatigue were computed using Banister's two antagonistic component model of fatigue and adaptation applied to both the ANS activity and the performance. This demonstrated that a logarithmic relationship existed between performance and ANS activity for each subject. There was a high degree of model fit between the measured and calculated performance (R(2=0.84±0.14,p<0.01 and the measured and calculated High Frequency (HF power of the ANS activity (R(2=0.79±0.07, p<0.01. During the taper periods, improvements in measured performance and measured HF were strongly related. In the model, variations in performance were related to significant reductions in the level of 'Negative Influences' rather than increases in 'Positive Influences'. Furthermore, the delay needed to return to the initial performance level was highly correlated to the delay required to return to the initial HF power level (p<0.01. The delay required to reach peak performance was highly correlated to the delay required to reach the maximal level of HF power (p=0.02. Building the ANS/performance identity of a subject, including the time to peak HF, may help predict the maximal performance that could be obtained at a given time.

  12. Design and Set up of an Air Filter Testing Unit to Demonstrate Characteristics and Performance of Particulate Air Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Smigielski; Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh

    2009-01-01

    An air filter is a significant element of any mechanical ventilation system. However, the importance and performance evaluation of air filters have not been well publicized and related scientific reports are scarce. In this study, a transportable, off-line, air filter-testing unit (the Unit) was designed and utilized to simulate the filter housing of a mechanical ventilation system. The Unit was designed, assembled, and operated in a laboratory. To demonstrate the applications of the Unit, a ...

  13. Triazolines. XXIII. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay in rat blood for a novel triazoline anticonvulsant (ADD17014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, P J; Hamelijnck, M A; Kadaba, P K; Damani, L A

    1991-02-15

    A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-delta 2-1,2,3-triazoline (ADD17014, I), a novel anticonvulsant agent, in rat blood is described. Compound I and the internal standard (dipyridamole) were extracted into diethyl ether (5 ml) from alkalinised blood (0.25 ml of blood plus 0.75 ml of pH 10.7 buffer), with extractability nearing 100% under these conditions. The assay is based on reversed-phase HPLC (25 cm x 0.46 cm I.D. Spherisorb 5-ODS) using a mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-McIlvaine's citric acid-phosphate buffer (pH 8.0, 0.005 M) (30:30:40, v/v) and ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. Calibration curves were linear and reproducible (correlation coefficient greater than 0.999). Measurement of I in rat blood (250 microliters sample size) was linear in the range 0-40 microgram/ml and the coefficient of variation was less than 5%. The minimum detectable level was about 0.1 microgram/ml; however, a larger blood sample size (1-2 ml) allowed measurement of levels as low as 10 ng/ml, especially for estimation of drug levels in samples withdrawn at later time points (24 h). PMID:2056006

  14. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  15. Cleaning verification assays for highly potent compounds by high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry: strategy, validation, and long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Pack, Brian W

    2007-03-12

    A cleaning-verification assay was validated for a highly potent family of compounds utilizing a swab-sampling procedure and high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for separation and detection of the analytes. Due to the high potency of the compound, the LC-MS method was validated at a level of 50 ng/25 cm(2) and 50 ng/100 cm(2) (which equates to 10 ng/ml after extraction in 5 ml of sample solvent, and 3 ng/ml after correction for sampling losses). This validation exercise included recovery estimates from all drug product contact surfaces within the clinical trial manufacturing equipment, namely, stainless steel, anodized aluminum, Rilsan coated aluminum, bronze, polyvinylchloride, and Oilon. The limit of detection for the LC-MS method was determined to be less than 0.5 ng/ml, or less than 0.1 ng/cm(2), of the analyte. This method does not employ an internal standard. Long-term performance of the validated method is also reported. The precision on replicate injections of the standard prepared in the range of 3-6 ng/ml was typically better than 8.0% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) over the course of 1 year, which resulted from 10 cleaning-verification submissions. Those results were consistent with the data obtained during method validation. PMID:17156961

  16. Performance demonstration and evaluation of the synergetic application of vanadium dioxide glazing and phase change material in passive buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • VO2 and PCM were combined in passive building application for the first time. • Synergetic performance of them is demonstrated in a full size room. • Synergetic application has a better performance than the solo ones. • The materials interact with each other in synergetic application. • ESI can be used to evaluate the performance of the synergetic application. - Abstract: One of the key methods to improve the energy saving performance of a building is to apply advanced materials or components to the building envelope. However, the two parts of a building’s envelope, the transparent one and the non-transparent one, are usually investigated individually by existing literature. In this study, vanadium dioxide (VO2) glazing, an advanced energy-efficient element applied to the transparent parts of the building envelope, and phase change material (PCM), a typical thermal storage material used to improve the non-transparent parts of the building envelope, were adopted simultaneously for the first time. The synergetic performance of VO2 glazing and PCM, demonstrated in a full-scale, lightweight, passive room, resulted in a significant improvement in the thermal comfort degree. The Energy Saving Index (ESI) is a simple and effective indicator that can be used to evaluate the passive application performance of a single energy-efficient material or component on a common standpoint. In this work, the index was broadened to evaluate the performance of more than one material, showing that ESI is feasible and favorable to analyze the coefficient application of several building materials and/or components. Using the ESI, the performance of the synergetic application was also compared with those of the sole materials, indicating that the synergetic application has a better performance during the cooling period. Furthermore the synergetic application involves an interplay rather than a simple combination of the energy-efficient materials. The application to

  17. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  18. Performance of four different indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect specific IgG, IgA, and IgM in Legionnaires' disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G H; Hansen, K;

    1994-01-01

    -verified Legionnaires' disease and sera from 12 patients with pneumonia and a diagnostic rise in titre by a microagglutination test (MA) was studied. Our results indicated that the SON IgA assay was the most sensitive test in both groups of patients. The LPS IgG and IgM assays, however, were the most specific tests......Currently recommended methods in Legionnaires' disease serology are based upon crude whole-cell antigenic preparations. To investigate whether purified antigens would perform better in a given diagnostic test for antibodies against Legionella pneumophila, we compared the performance of three......, closely followed by the corresponding SON tests. By combining two individual assays, a maximum nosographic sensitivity of 85% could be obtained. Whereas no benefit of using purified outer membrane protein or flagella instead of a sonic extract in the indirect ELISAs was found, the LPS antigen provided...

  19. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  20. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  1. Initial demonstration of the NRC`s capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codell, R.; Eisenberg, N.; Fehringer, D.; Ford, W.; Margulies, T.; McCartin, T.; Park, J.; Randall, J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes.

  2. Initial demonstration of the NRC's capability to conduct a performance assessment for a High-Level Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better review licensing submittals for a High-Level Waste Repository, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has expanded and improved its capability to conduct performance assessments. This report documents an initial demonstration of this capability. The demonstration made use of the limited data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada to investigate a small set of scenario classes. Models of release and transport of radionuclides from a repository via the groundwater and direct release pathways provided preliminary estimates of releases to the accessible environment for a 10,000 year simulation time. Latin hypercube sampling of input parameters was used to express results as distributions and to investigate model sensitivities. This methodology demonstration should not be interpreted as an estimate of performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. By expanding and developing the NRC staff capability to conduct such analyses, NRC would be better able to conduct an independent technical review of the US Department of Energy (DOE) licensing submittals for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. These activities were divided initially into Phase 1 and Phase 2 activities. Additional phases may follow as part of a program of iterative performance assessment at the NRC. The NRC staff conducted Phase 1 activities primarily in CY 1989 with minimal participation from NRC contractors. The Phase 2 activities were to involve NRC contractors actively and to provide for the transfer of technology. The Phase 2 activities are scheduled to start in CY 1990, to allow Sandia National Laboratories to complete development and transfer of computer codes and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) to be in a position to assist in the acquisition of the codes

  3. Analyses to demonstrate the structural performance of the CASTOR KN12 in hypothetical accident drop accident scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CASTORcircledR KN-12 is a new cask design by GNB for KHNP-NETEC for dry and wet transportation of up to twelve spent PWR fuel assemblies in Korea. It received its transport license from the Korean Competent Authority KINS in July 2002 and is now in use in South Korea. It has been designed to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA ST-1 for Type B(U)F packages. Its structural performance was demonstrated against the load cases and boundary conditions as defined in 10 CFR 71 and NRC's Regulatory Guide 7.8, and further explained in NUREG 1617. This included normal conditions of transport load cases - including Hot Environment, Cold Environment, Increased External Pressure (140MPa), Minimum External Pressure (24.5kPa), Vibration and shock, and 0.3m free drop - and the hypothetical accident conditions load cases - including the 9m Free Drop, Puncture, Thermal Fire Accident, 200m Water Immersion and 1.5 x MNOP Internal Pressure. Structural performance were demonstrated by analysis, including state-of-the-art finite element (FE) simulation, and confirmed by tests using a 1/3-scale model. Test results were also used to verify the numerical tool and the methods used in the analyses. All the structural analyses including validation against drop tests were carried out by Arup, and testing were carried out by KAERI. This paper concentrates on the analysis carried out to demonstrate performance in the hypothetical accident 9m free drop scenarios, and results from a small selection of them

  4. Demonstration of structural performance of IP-2 packages by advanced analytical simulation and full-scale drop test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new types of IP-2 (Industrial Package Type 2) to transport low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) steel drums from nuclear power plants to a disposal facility have been developed in accordance with the IAEA and Korean regulations for radioactive materials. According to the regulations, both packages must preserve their structural performance after they are subjected to 0.9 m free drop tests, which are prescribed as normal conditions. In this study, an advanced analytical simulation and an evaluation process using the finite element (FE) method have been developed for the design assessment of the newly developed IP-2s. Then, analytical simulations for the various drop orientations were performed to evaluate the structural performance of the packages and demonstrate their compliance with the regulatory requirements. Also, full-scale drop tests were carried out to verify the numerical tools and modeling methodology used in the analyses and to confirm the performance of the IP-2s. In addition, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the analytical variables, such as the material model and modeling methodology. In addition, this paper intends to provide basic guidance on the analytical simulation and evaluation process specifically for Korean types of transport packages, because numerous transport packages must now be developed for the various kinds of LILW that have accumulated in temporary storage facilities in Korea.

  5. Evaluation of finite element codes for demonstrating the performance of radioactive material packages in hypothetical accident drop scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop testing and analysis are the two methods for demonstrating the performance of packages in hypothetical drop accident scenarios. The exact purpose of the tests and the analyses, and the relative prominence of the two in the license application, may depend on the Competent Authority and will vary between countries. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful analysis tool. A reliable finite element (FE) code when used correctly and appropriately, will allow a package's behaviour to be simulated reliably. With improvements in computing power, and in sophistication and reliability of FE codes, it is likely that FEM calculations will increasingly be used as evidence of drop test performance when seeking Competent Authority approval. What is lacking at the moment, however, is a standardised method of assessing a FE code in order to determine whether it is sufficiently reliable or pessimistic. To this end, the project Evaluation of Codes for Analysing the Drop Test Performance of Radioactive Material Transport Containers, funded by the European Commission Directorate-General XVII (now Directorate-General for Energy and Transport) and jointly performed by Arup and Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH, was carried out in 1998. The work consisted of three components: Survey of existing finite element software, with a view to finding codes that may be capable of analysing drop test performance of radioactive material packages, and to produce an inventory of them. Develop a set of benchmark problems to evaluate software used for analysing the drop test performance of packages. Evaluate the finite element codes by testing them against the benchmarks This paper presents a summary of this work

  6. Design and Set up of an Air Filter Testing Unit to Demonstrate Characteristics and Performance of Particulate Air Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Smigielski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An air filter is a significant element of any mechanical ventilation system. However, the importance and performance evaluation of air filters have not been well publicized and related scientific reports are scarce. In this study, a transportable, off-line, air filter-testing unit (the Unit was designed and utilized to simulate the filter housing of a mechanical ventilation system. The Unit was designed, assembled, and operated in a laboratory. To demonstrate the applications of the Unit, a series of air filter handling and installation scenarios was performed to determine the characteristic curve and capture efficiencies of a selected set of HEPA filters. The research project produced a transportable, closed system air filter testing unit. The Unit incorporated a fan, a damper to adjust air flowrate, a filter-housing (consisting of a mixing chamber, a filter-frame, and a pressure-gauge, and ducting with ports to introduce challenge particles and monitor them after filtration. By using the Unit, the detrimental effects of damaged filter-media, damaged filter-gasket, and improper installation of air filters on their capture efficiencies were clearly demonstrated. An air filter testing unit, similar to the Unit presented here, can readily be designed, fabricated, and assembled to simulate the filter-housing of mechanical ventilation systems. The assembled unit can be used (1 to determine capture efficiency of air filters and their characteristic curve, (2 to demonstrate the negative effects of improper handling and installation of air filters, and (3 as an effective investigative and educational tool.

  7. Evaluation of performance including influence by interfering substances of the Innovance D-dimer assay on the Sysmex coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo-Jin; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Chun, Soh Hyun; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung

    2011-01-01

    D-dimer is formed during activation of the coagulation system and is commonly assayed in order to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been validated as the reference method, but it is a time-consuming procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new immunoturbidimetric, particle-enhanced, Innovance(®) D-dimer immunoassay. A total of 129 plasma samples from apparently healthy individuals and 298 samples from patients were collected for linearity, precision, and correlation studies. Testing the precision of low- and high-controls yielded CV values of 2.08% and 1.76%, respectively. The central 95% non-parametric reference interval estimated from healthy controls was 0.093-0.68 mg/L Fibrinogen Equivalent Units (FEU; median, 0.26 mg/L FEU). Comparison analysis yielded acceptable correlation with the STA Liatest(®) D-dimer assay (R(2) = 0.9471). At a cut-off level of FEU, the sensitivity and specificity indices of the Innovance D-dimer assay were 99.7% and 89.1%, respectively. Thus the Innovance D-dimer method showed acceptable precision and linearity, and the assay results showed acceptable correlation with the STA Liatest D-dimer method. The Innovance method was relatively unaffected by potential interfering substances such as bilirubin and hemoglobin. In conclusion, the Innovance D-dimer assay is suitable for monitoring D-dimer concentrations in various clinical conditions and should be useful in clinical laboratories. PMID:21325250

  8. Assay performance during validation of freezing channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)infected with a Gram-negative bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recovery of bacteria from infected fish during population sampling can be affected by factors including type of assay, method of specimen preservation, and concentration of bacteria present. Consequently, before use in field sampling, methods should be validated. The three objectives of this study w...

  9. High performance liquid chromatography with two simultaneous on-line antioxidant assays: Evaluation and comparison of espresso coffees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Neil W [ORNL; Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Shalliker, R. Andrew [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant profiles of various espresso coffees were established using HPLC with UV-absorbance detection and two rapid, simultaneous, on-line chemical assays that enabled the relative reactivity of sample components to be screened. The assays were based on (i) the colour change associated with reduction of the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH{sm_bullet}); and (ii) the emission of light (chemiluminescence) upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Results from the two approaches were similar and reflected the complex array of antioxidant species present in the samples. However, some differences in selectivity were observed. Chromatograms generated with the chemiluminescence assay contained more peaks, which was ascribed to the greater sensitivity of the reagent towards minor, readily oxidisable sample components. The three coffee samples produced closely related profiles, signifying their fundamentally similar chemical compositions and origin. Nevertheless, the overall intensity and complexity of the samples in both UV absorption and antioxidant assay chromatograms were aligned with the manufacturers description of flavour intensity and character.

  10. High performance liquid chromatography with two simultaneous on-line antioxidant assays: Evaluation and comparison of espresso coffees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnatsakanyan, Mariam; Goodie, Tiffany A; Conlan, Xavier A; Francis, Paul S; McDermott, Geoffrey P; Barnett, Neil W; Shock, David; Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2010-05-15

    The antioxidant profiles of various espresso coffees were established using HPLC with UV-absorbance detection and two rapid, simultaneous, on-line chemical assays that enabled the relative reactivity of sample components to be screened. The assays were based on (i) the colour change associated with reduction of the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*); and (ii) the emission of light (chemiluminescence) upon reaction with acidic potassium permanganate. Results from the two approaches were similar and reflected the complex array of antioxidant species present in the samples. However, some differences in selectivity were observed. Chromatograms generated with the chemiluminescence assay contained more peaks, which was ascribed to the greater sensitivity of the reagent towards minor, readily oxidisable sample components. The three coffee samples produced closely related profiles, signifying their fundamentally similar chemical compositions and origin. Nevertheless, the overall intensity and complexity of the samples in both UV absorption and antioxidant assay chromatograms were aligned with the manufacturers description of flavour intensity and character. PMID:20298862

  11. A simple and specific high performance liquid chromatography method for the assay of a series of novel dermal penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniak, B B; Seyda, K L

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis A series of clofibric acid amides has been synthesized and previously reported by the authors as possessing enhancer activity in vitro in athymic nude mouse skin against model drugs, hydrocortisone-21-acetate and beta-methasone-17-valerate. An assay was required for each of these enhancers however, which would be specific for each compound and would also separate model drugs and their metabolite peaks. This study reports reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography assays for clofibric acid amide and seven derivatives (Ia-Ig). All enhancers showed maximum absorption at 232 nm, betamethasone (BM) and its valerate (BMV) at 238 nm, and hydrocortisone (HC) and its acetate (HCA) at 242 nm. Practical units of detection for the amides were 0.46-2.8 mug ml(-1) and peaks were sharp and well-separated from steroid peaks in three vehicles - methanol alone. Franz diffusion cell receptor phase samples (isotonic phosphate buffer), and full-thickness athymic nude mouse skin extracts in methanol. Mobile phases consisted of various proportions of acetonitrile and water, some with 2-propanol. The octyl amide for example, with mobile phase CH(3)CN: H(2)O (85:15) at 1 ml min(-1) had a retention time (t(R)) of 7.9 mins. Under the same conditions, retention times for the steroids were HC, t(R)= 3.3 mins; HCA, t(R)= 4.3 mins; BM, t(R)= 3.4 mins; BMV, t(R)= 4.6 mins. Résumé Les auteurs avaient démontré dans un article précédent le pouvoir accélérateur de pénétration dermique in vitro d'une gamme d'amides d'acide clofibrique sur la peau de souris sans poils, et sans thymus avec des médicaments types tels que l'acetate 21 d'hydrocortisone et le valerate 17 de beta-metasone. Il a cependant été requis, pour chacun de ces accélérateurs, un test spécifique pour chaque composition, permettant de séparer chaque médicament et les pics des métabolites. Cette étude décrit des tests par chromatographie liquide à haute performance en phase inverse pour l

  12. Using a service oriented architecture approach to clinical decision support: performance results from two CDS Consortium demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Marilyn D; Goldberg, Howard S; Simonaitis, Linas; Dixon, Brian E; Wright, Adam; Rocha, Beatriz H; Ramelson, Harley Z; Middleton, Blackford

    2012-01-01

    The Clinical Decision Support Consortium has completed two demonstration trials involving a web service for the execution of clinical decision support (CDS) rules in one or more electronic health record (EHR) systems. The initial trial ran in a local EHR at Partners HealthCare. A second EHR site, associated with Wishard Memorial Hospital, Indianapolis, IN, was added in the second trial. Data were gathered during each 6 month period and analyzed to assess performance, reliability, and response time in the form of means and standard deviations for all technical components of the service, including assembling and preparation of input data. The mean service call time for each period was just over 2 seconds. In this paper we report on the findings and analysis to date while describing the areas for further analysis and optimization as we continue to expand our use of a Services Oriented Architecture approach for CDS across multiple institutions. PMID:23304342

  13. Sandia`s research network for Supercomputing `93: A demonstration of advanced technologies for building high-performance networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossage, S.A.; Vahle, M.O.

    1993-12-01

    Supercomputing `93, a high-performance computing and communications conference, was held November 15th through 19th, 1993 in Portland, Oregon. For the past two years, Sandia National Laboratories has used this conference to showcase and focus its communications and networking endeavors. At the 1993 conference, the results of Sandia`s efforts in exploring and utilizing Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) technologies were vividly demonstrated by building and operating three distinct networks. The networks encompassed a Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) network running at 44.736 megabits per second, an ATM network running on a SONET circuit at the Optical Carrier (OC) rate of 155.52 megabits per second, and a High Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) network running over a 622.08 megabits per second SONET circuit. The SMDS and ATM networks extended from Albuquerque, New Mexico to the showroom floor, while the HIPPI/SONET network extended from Beaverton, Oregon to the showroom floor. This paper documents and describes these networks.

  14. Diagnostic performance and therapeutic impact of LightCycler SeptiFast assay in patients with suspected sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Herne, V.; Nelovkov, A.; Kütt, M.; Ivanova, M

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and reliable identification of pathogens is very important in the management of septic patients. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (SeptiFast (SF)) in patients with suspected sepsis in a tertiary care hospital in Tallinn, Estonia. A total of 160 blood samples from 144 patients were included in the study. SF results were compared with corresponding blood culture (BC) resu...

  15. Antibody performance in ChIP-sequencing assays: From quality scores of public data sets to quantitative certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Parra, Marco-Antonio; Saravaki, Vincent; Cholley, Pierre-Etienne; Blum, Matthias; Billoré, Benjamin; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    We have established a certification system for antibodies to be used in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays coupled to massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). This certification comprises a standardized ChIP procedure and the attribution of a numerical quality control indicator (QCi) to biological replicate experiments. The QCi computation is based on a universally applicable quality assessment that quantitates the global deviation of randomly sampled subsets of ChIP-seq dataset with the original genome-aligned sequence reads. Comparison with a QCi database for >28,000 ChIP-seq assays were used to attribute quality grades (ranging from ‘AAA’ to ‘DDD’) to a given dataset. In the present report we used the numerical QC system to assess the factors influencing the quality of ChIP-seq assays, including the nature of the target, the sequencing depth and the commercial source of the antibody.  We have used this approach specifically to certify mono and polyclonal antibodies obtained from Active Motif directed against the histone modification marks H3K4me3, H3K27ac and H3K9ac for ChIP-seq. The antibodies received the grades AAA to BBC ( www.ngs-qc.org). We propose to attribute such quantitative grading of all antibodies attributed with the label “ChIP-seq grade”.

  16. Multiplex Assay of Second-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Dried Blood Spots Using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Jun, Sun Hee; Han, Minje; Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan

    2016-09-01

    As dried blood spots (DBSs) have various advantages over conventional venous blood sampling, some assays for detection of one or two anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in DBSs have been developed. However, there are no assays currently available for the simultaneous measurement of three or more anti-TB drugs in DBSs. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiplex method for detecting nine anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, cycloserine, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, para-aminosalicylic acid, prothionamide, and linezolid in DBSs by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Seventy-nine patient samples of DBS were analyzed on the UPLC-MS/MS system. All drug concentrations were determined within 4 min, and assay performance was evaluated. All drugs were clearly separated without ion suppression. Within-run and between-run precisions were 1.7-13.0% and 5.7-17.0%, respectively, at concentrations representing low and high levels for the nine drugs. Lower limits of detection and quantification were 0.06-0.6 and 0.5-5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Linearity was acceptable at five level concentrations for each drug. Correlations between drug concentrations in plasma and DBSs by using Passing-Bablock regression and Pearson's rho (ρ 0.798-0.989) were acceptable. In conclusion, we developed a multiplex assay to measure nine second-line anti-TB drugs in DBSs successfully. This assay provided convenient and rapid drug quantification and could have applications in drug monitoring during treatment. PMID:27374716

  17. A molecular approach for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of Exophiala jeanselmei in environmental samples: development and performance assessment of a real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, X; Chasseur, C; Packeu, A; Bureau, F; Roosens, N H; De Keersmaecker, S J C

    2016-02-01

    Exophiala jeanselmei is an opportunistic pathogenic black yeast growing in humid environments such as water reservoirs of air-conditioning systems. Because this fungal contaminant could be vaporized into the air and subsequently cause health problems, its monitoring is recommended. Currently, this monitoring is based on culture and microscopic identification which are complex, sometimes ambiguous and time-demanding, i.e., up to 21 days. Therefore, molecular, culture-independent methods could be more advantageous for the monitoring of E. jeanselmei. In this study, we developed a SYBR®green real-time PCR assay based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 from the 18S ribosomal DNA complex for the specific detection of E. jeanselmei. The selectivity (100 %), PCR efficiency (95.5 %), dynamic range and repeatability of this qPCR assay were subsequently evaluated. The limit of detection for this qPCR assay was determined to be 1 copy of genomic DNA of E. jeanselmei. Finally, water samples collected from cooling reservoirs were analyzed using this qPCR assay to deliver a proof of concept for the molecular detection of E. jeanselmei in environmental samples. The results obtained by molecular analysis were compared with those of classical methods (i.e., culture and microscopic identification) used in routine analysis and were 100 % matching. This comparison demonstrated that this SYBR®green qPCR assay can be used as a molecular alternative for monitoring and routine investigation of samples contaminated by E. jeanselmei, while eliminating the need for culturing and thereby considerably decreasing the required analysis time to 2 days. PMID:26615400

  18. The performance of reverse transcriptase assay for the estimation of the plasma viral load in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Priyadarshini A; Sachithanandham, Jaiprasath; Isaac, Rita; Ramalingam, Veena V; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C; Pulimood, Susanne A; Kannangai, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Viral load testing for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in resource-poor settings continues to be a challenge. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being made available in developing countries, monitoring of viral load is not being done on a regular basis. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of Cavidi version 3.0, which measures the plasma reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and compare its performance with molecular HIV viral load assays. In all, 125 HIV-1 and 13 HIV-2 positive samples were analyzed. The overall sensitivity of the assay was 86.8% and 94.1% for viral load >1000 copies/ml measured by Qiagen Artus HIV-1 RG RT PCR and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 PCR assays, respectively. Compared with the routine molecular viral load assays, Cavidi version 3.0 is inexpensive, user-friendly, the expenditure on infrastructure is minimal, and it can be used for monitoring of both HIV types. PMID:26654354

  19. EFFECTS OF DEMONSTRATION AND LECTURE METHODS OF TEACHING APICULTURE ON PERFORMANCE OF AGRIC STUDENTS IN ADAMAWA STATE UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabi’u JA'AFAR-FURO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted using two (2 sets of 400 levels students to determine the effects of a combined demonstrationand lecture methods of teaching apiculture on one hand, and lecture method on another, on performance of learnersin the Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University (ADSU, Mubi, Nigeria. Data were collected byobservation of students’ scores, and personal verification of records/files to obtain information on age, gender andqualification at admission of both sets of students, whereas cost of instructional materials were determined throughthe Departmental Store Invoice (DSI. Descriptive statistics, computed cost components and correlation analyseswere employed in the analyses of the data. Results revealed that while majority (52.00% of the ConventionalStudents (CS fell within the age range of 20-25 years, a larger proportion of the Sasakawa Students (SS werewithin 31-35 years. Gender-wise, males accounted for the bulk of the students with 68.00% and 78.26% for CS andSS, respectively. In spite of the fact that Lecture Method (LM had lower cost implication, it was found to be moreefficient as a method of instruction among the students than a combined Demonstration and Lecture Methods(DLM. The male students slightly (0.456 performed better than their female (0.246 counterparts, with bothcoefficients significant at P<0.05. Its concluded that the application of LM of instruction was slightly more efficientthan a combined DLM among the agriculture students of ADSU. Also, the male students were found to performslightly better than the females. While the DLM could be more appropriate at primary and secondary schools, theLM is being recommended at tertiary level based on the findings of this study.

  20. Performance of Interferon-Gamma and IP-10 Release Assays for Diagnosing Latent Tuberculosis Infections in Patients with Concurrent Malaria in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabe, Camilla H; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Helleberg, Marie; Nyagonde, Nyagonde; Rose, Michala V; Francis, Filbert; Theilgaard, Ola P; Asbjørn, Jens; Amos, Ben; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2016-04-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to detect cellular immune recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis The chemokine IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is an alternative diagnostic biomarker to IFN-γ. Several conditions interfere with IGRA test performance. We aimed to assess the possible influence of Plasmodium falciparum infection on the IGRA test QuantiFERON-TB GOLD® In-Tube (QFT) test and an in-house IP-10 release assay. In total, 241 Tanzanian adults were included; 184 patients with uncomplicated malaria (88 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] coinfected) and 57 HIV-infected patients without malaria infection. Malaria was treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®). QFT testing was performed before initiation of malaria treatment and at days 7 and 42. In total, 172 patients completed follow-up. IFN-γ and IP-10 was measured in QFT supernatants. We found that during malaria infection IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in the unstimulated samples were elevated, mitogen responsiveness was impaired, and CD4 cell counts were decreased. These alterations reverted after malaria treatment. Concurrent malaria infection did not affect QFT test results, whereas there were more indeterminate IP-10 results during acute malaria infection. We suggest that IGRA and IP-10 release assay results of malaria patients should be interpreted with caution and that testing preferably should be postponed until after malaria treatment. PMID:26834199

  1. Demonstration of the operation and performance of a pressurised alkaline electrolyser operating in the hydrogen fuelling station in Porsgrunn, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrogen filling station at Porsgrunn, Norway is demonstrated. • The pressurised electrolyser was operated in different modes. • The behaviour of the electrolyser and its characteristics are explained. • This data could be used to model electrolysers in electrical power systems. • The information could also be used to find appropriate control strategies to run electrolysers. - Abstract: Operation of the hydrogen filling station at Herøya, Porsgrunn, Norway is reported and analysed in this paper. A 12 bar(g) pressurised alkaline electrolyser with a nominal load of 24 kW provides hydrogen for this filling station and is designed to work with time variable power from renewable resources. Two wind turbines rated at 6 kW each and two solar panels rated at 2.5 kW each are available on site to provide the power for hydrogen production which can then be used to supply a number of fuel cell and modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles. The station has a hydrogen storage capacity of 6.3 m3 in pressurised tanks at 450 bar(g). As a part of the authors’ experimental work, operational data and the characteristics of the pressurised alkaline electrolyser installed at the site under different operational modes have been collected and analysed. The archival value of this paper is the presentation and discussion of the electrolyser characteristics which are relevant to the identification of an acceptable control strategy to integrate such electrolyser loads within the power system and thus provide improved performance of the power system when exposed to the highly time variable energy supply from renewable sources

  2. Performance of rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B test compared to Luminex x-TAG respiratory viral panel assay in the diagnosis of influenza A, B, and subtype H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selove, W; Rao, L V

    2016-04-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory illness caused by influenza A or B viruses that occur in outbreaks, mainly during the winter season. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of influenza can help guide the clinical management of suspected patients effectively. Clinical sensitivities and specificities of the rapid influenza diagnostic tests have varied considerably in the literature. Most of these studies are evaluated using previously frozen or stored specimens that had previously tested positive. This study compares the performance of the rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B test to nucleic acid multiplex test x-TAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay in freshly collected nasal aspirates and measured simultaneously by both assays. Retrospective data from 1649 nasal aspirates (September 2014 to May 2015) collected from adults as well as from children tested simultaneously by both rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B FIA immunofluorescence (Quidel, San Diego, CA) and qualitative nucleic acid multiplex RVP assay X-TAG Luminex technology (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA) were analyzed. Concordance, and analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for influenza A, subtypes H1 and H3, and influenza B. Prevalence for influenza A by RVP was 15%, for subtype H3 it was 11.2%, and for influenza B, 2.9%. None of the aspirates were positive for influenza A subtype H1. SOFIA Influenza rapid test demonstrated good specificity and low sensitivity compared with a nucleic acid test for influenza A, subtype H3, and for influenza B. SOFIA Influenza A + B test performed well in providing a rapid diagnosis, however, confirmatory molecular testing is recommended for negative test results. Re-evaluation of test performance should be periodically carried out during outbreaks with the emergence and circulation of new influenza strains. PMID:26911275

  3. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for quantifying 3-ketocholanoic acid: Application to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent lithocholic acid 3-oxidation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Chai, Swee Fen; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Lithocholic acid (LCA), a hepatotoxic and carcinogenic bile acid, is metabolized to 3-ketocholanoic acid (3-KCA) by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). In the present study, the objectives were to develop and validate an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify 3-KCA and apply it to the human liver microsomal CYP3A-dependent LCA 3-oxidation assay. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY™ UPLC C18 column (50×2.1mm, 1.7μm) with a gradient system consisting of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water (solvent A) and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The retention time was 3.73min for 3-KCA and 2.73min for cortisol (internal standard). Positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify 3-KCA (m/z 375.4→135.2) and cortisol (m/z 363.5→121.0). The limit of detection of 3-KCA was 10μM, the lower limit of quantification was 33.3μM, and the calibration curve was linear from 0.05-10μM with r(2)>0.99. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were LCA 3-oxidation assay was linear with respect to the amount of microsomal protein (up to 40μg) and incubation time (5-30min). Enzyme kinetics experiment indicated that LCA 3-oxidation followed the Michaelis-Menten model with an apparent Km of 26±7μM and Vmax of 303±50pmol/min/mg protein. This novel UPLC-MS/MS method for quantifying 3-KCA offers a specific, sensitive, and fast approach to determine liver microsomal LCA 3-oxidation. PMID:27153105

  4. Dual testing algorithm of BED-CEIA and AxSYM Avidity Index assays performs best in identifying recent HIV infection in a sample of Rwandan sex workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Braunstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to estimate assay false-recent rates (FRR. STARHS-based HIV incidence was estimated using the McWalter/Welte formula, and adjusted with locally derived FRR and CD4 results. HIV incidence and local assay window periods were estimated from a prospective cohort of FSW. At baseline, 190 HIV-positive women were BED and Ax-AI tested; 23 were classified as recent infection (RI. Assay FRR with 95% confidence intervals were: 3.6% (1.2-8.1 (BED; 10.6% (6.1-17.0 (Ax-AI; and 2.1% (0.4-6.1 (BED/Ax-AI combined. After FRR-adjustment, incidence estimates by BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI were: 5.5/100 person-years (95% CI 2.2-8.7; 7.7 (3.2-12.3; and 4.4 (1.4-7.3. After CD4-adjustment, BED, Ax-AI, and BED/Ax-AI incidence estimates were: 5.6 (2.6-8.6; 9.7 (5.0-14.4; and 4.7 (2.0-7.5. HIV incidence rates in the first and second 6 months of the cohort were 4.6 (1.6-7.7 and 2.2 (0.1-4.4. CONCLUSIONS: Adjusted incidence estimates by BED/Ax-AI combined were similar to incidence in the first 6 months of the cohort. Furthermore, false-recent rate on the combined BED/Ax-AI algorithm was low and substantially lower than for either assay alone. Improved assay specificity with time since seroconversion suggests that specificity would be higher in population-based testing where more individuals have long-term infection.

  5. Determination of vitamin B6 vitamers and pyridoxic acid in plasma: development and evaluation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisp, Marianne R; Bor, Mustafa Vakur; Heinsvig, Else-Marie; Kall, Morten A; Nexø, Ebba

    2002-06-01

    Marginal deficiency of vitamin B6 has recently been related to cardiovascular diseases. Because of that there is an increasing interest in a suitable and reliable method for quantifying this vitamin in routine laboratory medicine. We have developed a HPLC-based method able to quantify the B6 vitamers pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP), pyridoxine (PN), and pyridoxamine (PM) and the degradation product 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA). The separation was accomplished using a C18 (ODS) analytical column and an ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography. B6 vitamers were eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile (0.5-15%) in a potassium phosphate buffer with 1-octanesulfonic acid and triethylamine, pH 2.16. The concentration of the vitamers was determined with fluorescence detector (328 nm excitation, 393 nm emission) after postcolumn derivatization with phosphate buffer containing 1 g/L sodium bisulfite. The performance of the assay was evaluated by analyzing six plasma samples with interrelated concentration and two control samples (unspiked and vitamer spiked) over a 3-months period. The HPLC method was able to identify PLP, 4-PA, PM, PL, PN, and PMP from all other compounds in plasma in an analytical run of 46 min. The imprecisions and mean values (presented in parenthesis in nmol/L) were (unspiked and spiked sample) 9-8% (41-65) for PLP, 12-7% (18-40) for 4-PA, 67-28% (4-19) for PL, 15% (21) for PN, 10% (27) for PM, and 27% (17) for PMP. All three B6 vitamers (PLP, 4-PA, and PL) present in unspiked plasma showed an excellent linearity within the range of (nM) 8-60 (4-PA), 1-19 (PL), and 11-99 (PLP). In conclusion, we report a HPLC-based method that separates and detects nanomolar quantities of six B6 vitamers and demonstrate that the method will be suitable for routine quantitation of PLP and 4-PA in human plasma. PMID:12018948

  6. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  7. Fluctuating Behavior and Influential Factors in the Performance of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Assay in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Bao; Tao Li; Ni Diao; Yaojie Shen; Lingyun Shao; Ying Zhang; Shuihua Lu; Wenhong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) is a newly developed but widely used interferon-γ release assay for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). However, research has not determined whether age or the use of an immune suppressive or anti-TB treatment influences this assay’s ability to detect TB. We assessed the QFT-GIT diagnostic performance for active tuberculosis (ATB) in children and adults in an endemic country and explored the effects of glucocorticoids and anti-TB therapy on the d...

  8. Performance of the Molecular Alere i Influenza A&B Test Compared to That of the Xpert Flu A/B Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, Kimberle C.; Flores-Cortez, Estefany J.

    2014-01-01

    Data on the performance of rapid molecular point-of-care use platforms for diagnosis of influenza are lacking. We validated nasopharyngeal (NP) flocked specimens in universal transport medium (UTM) and evaluated the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i influenza A&B test compared to those of the Xpert flu A/B assay. The Alere i influenza A&B test had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 93.8% and 62.5% for influenza A, respectively, and of 91.8% and 53.6% for influenza B, ...

  9. Single Doses up to 800 mg of E-52862 Do Not Prolong the QTc Interval--A Retrospective Validation by Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of Electrocardiography Data Utilising the Effects of a Meal on QTc to Demonstrate ECG Assay Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Täubel

    Full Text Available E-52862 is a Sigma-1 receptor antagonist (S1RA currently under investigation as a potential analgesic medicine. We successfully applied a concentration-effect model retrospectively to a four-way crossover Phase I single ascending dose study and utilized the QTc shortening effects of a meal to demonstrate assay sensitivity by establishing the time course effects from baseline in all four periods, independently from any potential drug effects.Thirty two healthy male and female subjects were included in four treatment periods to receive single ascending doses of 500 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg of E-52862 or placebo. PK was linear over the dose range investigated and doses up to 600 mg were well tolerated. The baseline electrocardiography (ECG measurements on Day-1 were time-matched with ECG and pharmacokinetic (PK samples on Day 1 (dosing day.In this conventional mean change to time-matched placebo analysis, the largest time-matched difference to placebo QTcI was 1.44 ms (90% CI: -4.04, 6.93 ms for 500 mg; -0.39 ms (90% CI: -3.91, 3.13 ms for 600 mg and 1.32 ms (90% CI: -1.89, 4.53 ms for 800 mg of E-52862, thereby showing the absence of any QTc prolonging effect at the doses tested. In addition concentration-effect models, one based on the placebo corrected change from baseline and one for the change of QTcI from average baseline with time as fixed effect were fitted to the data confirming the results of the time course analysis.The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a shortening of QTcF of -8.1 (90% CI: -10.4, -5.9 one hour and -7.2 (90% CI: -9.4, -5.0 three hours after a standardised meal.EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT 2010 020343 13.

  10. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of an Aquatic Treatme...

  11. Kilowatt Isotope Power System: component test report for the ground demonstration system jet condenser orifice performance. 77-KIPS-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, E.L.

    1977-11-08

    The purpose of these tests was to determine which orifice elements achieved satisfactory hydraulic and thermal performance prior to their incorporation into the Jet Condenser Assembly. Requirements were as set forth within the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Component Test Procedure number 414 for the Jet Condenser Orifice Performance testing. The results of the performance testing conducted on the Jet Condenser Orifices are presented. Part Number 720841 Jet Condenser Orifice Nozzle successfully completed the orifice screening tests.

  12. High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry - a suited method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components? Exemplarily shown for turmeric and milk thistle extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud N; Krawinkel, Michael B; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-05-15

    Extraction parameters, chemical fingerprint, and the single compounds' activity levels were considered for the selection of active botanicals. For an initial survey, the total bioactivity (i.e., total reducing capacity, total flavonoids contents and free radical scavenging capacity) of 21 aqueous and 21 ethanolic plant extracts was investigated. Ethanolic extracts showed a higher yield and were further analyzed by HPTLC in detail to obtain fingerprints of single flavonoids and further bioactive components. Exemplarily shown for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum), effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed using three selected (bio)assays, the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay, the Bacillus subtilis bioassay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) assay. As a proof of principle, the bioactive components found in the extracts were confirmed by HPTLC-MS. Bioassays in combination with planar chromatography directly linked to the known, single effective compounds like curcumin and silibinin. However, also some unknown bioactive components were discovered and exemplarily characterized, which demonstrated the strength of this kind of EDA. HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-MS could become a useful tool for selection of active botanicals and for the activity profiling of the active ingredients therein. The flexibility in effect-directed detections allows a comprehensive survey of effective ingredients in samples. This streamlined methodology comprised a non-targeted, effect-directed screening first, followed by a highly targeted characterization of the discovered bioactive compounds. HPTLC-EDA-MS can also be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food on the food intake side, as not only effective phytochemicals, but also unknown bioactive degradation products during food processing or contamination products or residues or metabolites can be detected. Thus, an efficient survey on potential food intake effects on wellness could be obtained. Having performed

  13. Validated assay for the simultaneous quantification of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human EDTA plasma and of vincristine concentrations in human plasma ultrafiltrate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W.N. Damen; T. Israëls; H.N. Caron; J.H.M. Schellens; H. Rosing; J.H. Beijnen

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay for the simultaneous determination of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human plasma and an assay for the determination of unbound vincristine are presented. Ele

  14. Evaluation of Xpert® Norovirus Assay performance in comparison with real-time RT-PCR in hospitalized adult patients with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovida, Francesca; Premoli, Marta; Campanini, Giulia; Sarasini, Antonella; Baldanti, Fausto

    2016-08-01

    Xpert® Norovirus Assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) was compared with a laboratory-developed real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Norovirus GI and GII in hospitalized patients with acute gastroenteritis. The two assays showed a high level of concordance but Xpert® Norovirus Assay allowed faster detection of Norovirus and a simpler sample handling. PMID:27233425

  15. Performance of the GeneXpert Ebola Assay for Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: A Field Evaluation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Semper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa, field laboratory testing for EVD has relied on complex, multi-step real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR assays; an accurate sample-to-answer RT-PCR test would reduce time to results and potentially increase access to testing. We evaluated the performance of the Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola assay on clinical venipuncture whole blood (WB and buccal swab (BS specimens submitted to a field biocontainment laboratory in Sierra Leone for routine EVD testing by RT-PCR ("Trombley assay".This study was conducted in the Public Health England EVD diagnostic laboratory in Port Loko, Sierra Leone, using residual diagnostic specimens remaining after clinical testing. EDTA-WB specimens (n = 218 were collected from suspected or confirmed EVD patients between April 1 and July 20, 2015. BS specimens (n = 71 were collected as part of a national postmortem screening program between March 7 and July 20, 2015. EDTA-WB and BS specimens were tested with Xpert (targets: glycoprotein [GP] and nucleoprotein [NP] genes and Trombley (target: NP gene assays in parallel. All WB specimens were fresh; 84/218 were tested in duplicate on Xpert to compare WB sampling methods (pipette versus swab; 43/71 BS specimens had been previously frozen. In all, 7/218 (3.2% WB and 7/71 (9.9% BS samples had Xpert results that were reported as "invalid" or "error" and were excluded, leaving 211 WB and 64 BS samples with valid Trombley and Xpert results. For WB, 22/22 Trombley-positive samples were Xpert-positive (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 84.6%-100%, and 181/189 Trombley-negative samples were Xpert-negative (specificity 95.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI 91.8%-98.2%. Seven of the eight Trombley-negative, Xpert-positive (Xpert cycle threshold [Ct] range 37.7-43.4 WB samples were confirmed to be follow-up submissions from previously Trombley-positive EVD patients, suggesting a revised Xpert specificity of 99.5% (95% CI 97

  16. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, N; Tran, T M; Abate, A R

    2016-03-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assays by measuring the catalysis of β-glucosidase, an important cellulase used in the conversion of biomass to biofuel. Our method enables assays in microfluidic droplets that are incompatible with detergents. PMID:27051471

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  18. Performance of the fully automated progesterone assays on the Abbott AxSYM and the Technicon Immuno 1 Analyser compared with the radioimmunoassay progesterone MAIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test performance of two automated progesterone assays available on the immunoassay analysers Abbott AxSYM and Technicon Immuno 1, respectively, was evaluated in comparison with the radioimmunoassay Progesterone MAIA. For assessment of test performance imprecision, functional sensitivity and linearity of dilution was examined. Correlation with the manual radioimmunoassay was assessed using 122 serum samples over the range 0-110 nmol/L. Imprecision studies revealed for the AxSYM Progesterone within-run CV's of 1.8-6.4% and day-to-day CV's of 3.5-9.7% (concentration range 2.3-75 nmol/L); Immuno 1 Progesterone: within-run CV's 1.0-7.3%, day-to-day CV's 2.3-7.7% (concentration range 1.2-60 nmol/L). The functional sensitivity was <1.7 nmol/L for the AxSYM Progesterone and <1.1 nmol/L for the Immuno 1 Progesterone. With the AxSYM Progesterone the mean recovery after dilution from five samples was 102% (89-107%), from one sample only 69-80% was recovered; with the Immuno 1 Progesterone the mean recovery was 95% (80-105%). Despite of a quite good overall correlation (coefficients 0.972 and 0.981) the relationship of both assays to the Progesterone MAIA significantly deviate from linearity with a considerably higher slope within the lower concentration range. The relationship between the automated assays was linear over the entire concentration range (Immuno = 1.207 * AxSYM + 1; r = 0.986). The time to first result was 20 min for the AxSYM Progesterone, 45 min for the Immuno 1 Progesterone and 90 min for the Progesterone MAIA. The evaluated progesterone assays both exhibit an excellent precision and a high degree of sensitivity. They offer a rapid and flexible method for progesterone determination which may be especially useful for the monitoring of ovarian stimulation during in-vitro fertilization. (author)

  19. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  20. Performance of the GeneXpert Ebola Assay for Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: A Field Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jade; Foster, Geraldine M.; Simpson, Andrew J. H.; Logue, Christopher H.; Kelly, J. Daniel; Miller, Ann; Brooks, Tim J. G.; Murray, Megan; Pollock, Nira R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Throughout the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa, field laboratory testing for EVD has relied on complex, multi-step real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays; an accurate sample-to-answer RT-PCR test would reduce time to results and potentially increase access to testing. We evaluated the performance of the Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola assay on clinical venipuncture whole blood (WB) and buccal swab (BS) specimens submitted to a field biocontainment laboratory in Sierra Leone for routine EVD testing by RT-PCR (“Trombley assay”). Methods and Findings This study was conducted in the Public Health England EVD diagnostic laboratory in Port Loko, Sierra Leone, using residual diagnostic specimens remaining after clinical testing. EDTA-WB specimens (n = 218) were collected from suspected or confirmed EVD patients between April 1 and July 20, 2015. BS specimens (n = 71) were collected as part of a national postmortem screening program between March 7 and July 20, 2015. EDTA-WB and BS specimens were tested with Xpert (targets: glycoprotein [GP] and nucleoprotein [NP] genes) and Trombley (target: NP gene) assays in parallel. All WB specimens were fresh; 84/218 were tested in duplicate on Xpert to compare WB sampling methods (pipette versus swab); 43/71 BS specimens had been previously frozen. In all, 7/218 (3.2%) WB and 7/71 (9.9%) BS samples had Xpert results that were reported as “invalid” or “error” and were excluded, leaving 211 WB and 64 BS samples with valid Trombley and Xpert results. For WB, 22/22 Trombley-positive samples were Xpert-positive (sensitivity 100%, 95% CI 84.6%–100%), and 181/189 Trombley-negative samples were Xpert-negative (specificity 95.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 91.8%–98.2%). Seven of the eight Trombley-negative, Xpert-positive (Xpert cycle threshold [Ct] range 37.7–43.4) WB samples were confirmed to be follow-up submissions from previously Trombley-positive EVD patients, suggesting a revised

  1. Evaluation of the HOOF-Print assay for typing Brucella abortus strains isolated from cattle in the United States: results with four performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewalt Darla R

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental question that arises during epidemiological investigations of bacterial disease outbreaks is whether the outbreak strain is genetically related to a proposed index strain. Highly discriminating genetic markers for characterizing bacterial strains can help in clarifying the genetic relationships among strains. Under the auspices of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Study Group for Epidemiological Markers (ESGEM established guidelines for evaluating the performance of typing systems based of a number of criteria. Recently, HOOF-Print genotype analysis, a new method for typing Brucella abortus strains based on hypervariability at eight tandem repeat loci, was described. This paper evaluates the HOOF-Print assay by four of the criteria set out by the ESGEM: typeability, reproducibility, power of discrimination, and concordance with other typing methods. Results The HOOF-Print Assay was evaluated with a test population composed of 97 unrelated field isolates and 6 common laboratory strains of B. abortus. Both typeability and reproducibility of the assay were excellent. Allele diversity and frequency varied widely among the eight loci, ranging from 1 to 13 alleles. The power of discrimination, measured by the Hunter-Gaston discrimination index (HGDI, varied by locus ranging from 0 to 0.89, where a maximal value of 1.0 indicates discrimination of all strains. The HGDI values calculated for subgroups sorted by biovar were similar to the values determined for the whole population. None of the individual loci achieved the recommended HGDI threshold of 0.95, but the HGDI of the composite profiles was 0.99 (93 unique genotypes from 97 field strains evaluated, well above the recommended threshold. By comparison, the HGDI value for biovar typing was 0.61 in a test population biased with disproportionate numbers of the less common biovars. Cluster analysis based on HOOF

  2. Performance and diagnostic usefulness of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and rapid kits for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Susmita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV, HBV and HCV pose a major public health problem throughout the world. Detection of infection markers for these agents is a major challenge for testing laboratories in a resource poor setting. As blood transfusion is an important activity saving millions of live every year, it also carries a risk of transfusion transmissible infections caused by these fatal blood borne pathogens if the quality of testing is compromised. Conventional ELISA is regarded as the mostly used screening technique but due to limitations like high cost, unavailability in many blood banks and testing sites, involvement of costly instruments, time taking nature and requirement of highly skilled personnel for interpretation, rapid tests are gaining more importance and warrants comparison of performance. Results A comparative study between these two techniques has been performed using commercially available diagnostic kits to assess their efficacy for detection of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. Rapid kits were more efficient in specificity with synthetic antigens along with high PPV than ELISA in most cases. Comparison between different ELISA kits revealed that Microlisa HIV and Hepalisa (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.; ERBA LISA HIV1 + 2, ERBA LISA Hepatitis B and ERBA LISA HCV (Transasia Bio-medicals Ltd. gives uniform result with good performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and efficiency, whereas, Microlisa HCV (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd., Microscreen HBsAg ELISA and INNOVA HCV (Span Diagnostics Ltd. did not perform well. Rapid kits were also having high degree of sensitivity and specificity (100% except in HIV Comb and HCV Comb (J. Mitra & Co. Pvt. Ltd.. The kit efficiency didn’t vary significantly among different companies and lots in all the cases except for HCV ELISA showing statistically significant variation (p  Conclusions ELISA is a good screening assay for markers of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. Rapid tests are useful for

  3. Human liver cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulfation assay by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-20

    Sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a major catalyst of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in human liver cytosol. However, there is a lack of a sensitive and fast analytical method for the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. Therefore, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify DHEA-S and used it to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. DHEA-S and cortisol (internal standard) eluted at 2.95 and 2.75min, respectively. Negative multiple reaction monitoring was used to quantify DHEA-S (m/z 367.3→97.0) and cortisol (m/z 407.2→331.3). No interfering peaks were observed in blank samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2pmol DHEA-S and the calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision was dithiothreitol, did not affect the enzyme activity. A linear relationship existed between DHEA sulfation and amount of human liver cytosol (20-200μg cytosolic protein) or incubation time (5-30min). This UPLC-MS/MS approach is safer, easier, and faster than existing radiometric-based sulfotransferase enzyme assays, and it is the first UPLC-MS/MS method for determining SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation in human liver cytosol. PMID:26760244

  4. Analytical performance of a multiplex Real-Time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA in blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Duffy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analytical validation of sensitive, accurate and standardized Real-Time PCR methods for Trypanosoma cruzi quantification is crucial to provide a reliable laboratory tool for diagnosis of recent infections as well as for monitoring treatment efficacy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have standardized and validated a multiplex Real-Time quantitative PCR assay (qPCR based on TaqMan technology, aiming to quantify T. cruzi satellite DNA as well as an internal amplification control (IAC in a single-tube reaction. IAC amplification allows rule out false negative PCR results due to inhibitory substances or loss of DNA during sample processing. The assay has a limit of detection (LOD of 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ of 1.53 parasite equivalents/mL starting from non-boiled Guanidine EDTA blood spiked with T. cruzi CL-Brener stock. The method was evaluated with blood samples collected from Chagas disease patients experiencing different clinical stages and epidemiological scenarios: 1- Sixteen Venezuelan patients from an outbreak of oral transmission, 2- Sixty three Bolivian patients suffering chronic Chagas disease, 3- Thirty four Argentinean cases with chronic Chagas disease, 4- Twenty seven newborns to seropositive mothers, 5- A seronegative receptor who got infected after transplantation with a cadaveric kidney explanted from an infected subject. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The performing parameters of this assay encourage its application to early assessment of T. cruzi infection in cases in which serological methods are not informative, such as recent infections by oral contamination or congenital transmission or after transplantation with organs from seropositive donors, as well as for monitoring Chagas disease patients under etiological treatment.

  5. Performance of the Roche Total Mycophenolic Acid® assay on the Cobas Integra 400®, Cobas 6000® and comparison to LC-MS/MS in liver transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Decavele, An-Sofie; FAVOREEL, NIELS; VANDER HEYDEN, FIEN; Verstraete, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant for which therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is performed for optimal prophylaxis and avoidance of toxicity in transplant patients. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is ideally suited for TDM of MPA. There have been several method comparisons of the Roche Total MPA assay, but none have been performed with respect to liver transplant patients. Methods: We validated the Roche Total MPA assay on the Cobas Inte...

  6. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  7. Performance of the New Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay in Comparison to the Cobas TaqMan HCV2 Test for Use with the High Pure System in Detection and Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Plasma or Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Speicher, Andrea; Börner, Anna; Enders, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Quantitating the level of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is the standard of care for monitoring HCV-infected patients during treatment. The performances of commercially available assays differ for precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Here, we compare the performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima) to that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0, using the High Pure system (HPS/CTM), considered a reference assay since it has been used in trials defining clinical decision points in patient care. The assays' performance characteristics were assessed using HCV RNA reference panels and plasma/serum from chronically HCV-infected patients. The agreement between the assays for the 3 reference panels was good, with a difference in quantitation values of 0.99). The assays had similar levels of total and intra-assay variability across all genotypes at concentrations from 1,000 to 25 IU/ml. Aptima had a greater analytical sensitivity, quantitating more than 50% of replicates at 25-IU/ml target. Aptima showed performance characteristics comparable to those of HPS/CTM and increased sensitivity, making it suitable for use as a clinical diagnostic tool on the fully automated Panther platform. PMID:26865682

  8. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for determination of cisplatin in plasma, cancer cell, and tumor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, A; Jurado, R; Garcia-Lopez, P

    2005-01-01

    A method for determination of cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) in ultrafiltered plasma, cell, and tumour samples is described. Cisplatin separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column using methanol-acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. The flow rate was maintained constant at 1.6 mL/min and analysis was performed at 23 degrees C. Detection was carried out by absorbance at 254 nm. The method was linear in the range of 0.2-10 microg/mL, and the coefficients of variation were accumulation of cisplatin in cancer cells and in tumours of mice receiving treatment with cisplatin and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in nu/nu mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. The method proved to be adequate for measuring cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo and could be suitable for studies of cisplatin pharmacokinetics in animal models. PMID:16112590

  9. An optimized gossypol high-performance liquid chromatography assay and its application in evaluation of different gland genotypes of cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yingfan Cai; Hong Zhang; Yu Zeng; Jianchuan Mo; Jinku Bao; Chen Miao; Jie Bai; Fang Yan; Fang Chen

    2004-03-01

    A comparative study on gossypol content of various genetic types of pigment glands of cotton varieties was conducted through an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 m particle) with methanol–0.5% acetic acid aqueous solution, 90 : 10 (v/v), as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 254 nm. The method was shown to be highly reproducible, with precision [as relative standard deviation (RSD)] and accuracy [as relative mean error (RME)] < 10%, both intra-day and inter-day. Absolute recoveries were > 94%. The results revealed major differences among the different gland varieties or species of cotton, including the special and ordinary glandless and glanded Gossypium hirsutum, G. barbadense, and displayed the precious resources of different glands of extraordinary cotton.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for acetaminophen and phenacetin in the presence of their metabolites in biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors propose a method in which tracer amounts of a radiolabeled compound are used as the internal standard for the same unlabeled compound in high-performance liquid chromatography. The approach is valuable when a response from the internal standard becomes undesirable due to the presence of interference by the metabolites. The authors tested their approach with phenacetin and its metabolites, 2-hydroxyphenacetin, N-hydroxyphenacetin, phenetidine, acetaminophen sulfate conjugate and acetaminophen glucuronide conjugate in biological fluids with the use of [14C] phenacetin and [3H] acetaminophen as the internal standards, and were able to quantitate both phenacetin and acetaminophen simultaneously. They also tested the alternative approach in which the unlabeled drug was used as internal standard for tracer amounts of the same radiolabeled compound, with phenacetin and acetaminophen as the internal standards for tracer amounts of [14C] phenacetin and [3H] acetaminophen. Again, they were able to quantiate the two tracer radiolabeled compounds simultaneously. (Auth.)

  11. Application of 3D Printing Technology in Increasing the Diagnostic Performance of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpal Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA-based diagnosis is the mainstay for measuring antibody response in infectious diseases and to support pathogen identification of potential use in infectious disease outbreaks and clinical care of individual patients. The development of laboratory diagnostics using readily available 3D printing technologies provides a timely opportunity for further expansion of this technology into immunodetection systems. Utilizing available 3D printing platforms, a ‘3D well’ was designed and developed to have an increased surface area compared to those of 96-well plates. The ease and rapidity of the development of the 3D well prototype provided an opportunity for its rapid validation through the diagnostic performance of ELISA in infectious disease without modifying current laboratory practices for ELISA. The improved sensitivity of the 3D well of up to 2.25-fold higher compared to the 96-well ELISA provides a potential for the expansion of this technology towards miniaturization and Lab-On-a-Chip platforms to reduce time, volume of reagents and samples needed for such assays in the laboratory diagnosis of infectious and other diseases including applications in other disciplines.

  12. Application of the micronucleus assay performed by different scorers in case of large-scale radiation accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawojć Kamila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass casualty scenarios of radiation exposure require high throughput biological dosimetry techniques for population triage, in order to rapidly identify individuals, who require clinical treatment. Accurate dose estimates can be made by biological dosimetry, to predict the acute radiation syndrome (ARS within days after a radiation accident or a malicious act involving radiation. Timely information on dose is important for the medical management of acutely irradiated persons [1]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the micronuclei (MNi scoring procedure in an experimental mode, where 500 binucleated cells were analyzed in different exposure dose ranges. Whole-body exposure was simulated in an in vitro experiment by irradiating whole blood collected from one healthy donor with 60 MeV protons and 250 keV X-rays, in the dose range of 0.3-4.0 Gy. For achieving meaningful results, sample scoring was performed by three independent persons, who followed guidelines described in detail by Fenech et al. [2, 3]. Compared results revealed no significant differences between scorers, which has important meaning in reducing the analysis time. Moreover, presented data based on 500 cells distribution, show that there are significant differences between MNi yields after 1.0 Gy exposure of blood for both protons and X-rays, implicating this experimental mode as appropriate for the distinction between high and low dose-exposed individuals, which allows early classification of exposed victims into clinically relevant subgroups.

  13. The relative test performance characteristics of two commercial assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in paraffin-fixed human biopsy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broukhanski George

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Seeplex™ TB Detection-2 assay (Rockville, MD is a nested endpoint PCR for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC targets IS6110 and MPB64 that utilizes dual priming oligonucleotide technology. When used to detect the presence of MTBC DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens, the sensitivity and specificity of this assay is equivalent to a labor-intensive traditional endpoint PCR assay and is more sensitive than a commercial real-time PCR assay.

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  15. Demonstration of the Performance of an Air-Type Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT System Coupled with a Heat-Recovery Ventilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A heat-recovery ventilator (HRV effectively conducts ventilation by recovering waste heat from indoors to outdoors during heating periods. However, dew condensation associated with the HRV system may arise due to the difference between the indoor temperature and the very low outdoor temperature in winter, and this can decrease the heat exchange efficiency. These problems can be solved by the pre-heating of the incoming air, but additional energy is required when pursuing such a strategy. On the other hand, an air-type photovoltaic thermal (PVT system produces electricity and thermal energy simultaneously using air as the heat transfer medium. Moreover, the heated air from the air-type PVT system can be connected to the HRV to pre-heat the supply air instead of taking in the cold outdoor air. Thus, the ventilation efficiency can be improved and the problems arising during the heating period can be resolved. Consequentially, the heating energy required in a building can be reduced, with additional electricity acquired as well. In this paper, the performance of an air-type PVT system coupled with an HRV is assessed. To do this, air-type PVT collectors operating at 1 kWp were installed in an experimental house and coupled to an HRV system. Thermal performance and heating energy required during the winter season were analyzed experimentally. Furthermore, the electrical performances of the air-type PVT system with and without ventilation at the back side of the PV during the summer season were analyzed.

  16. Vitros 5600 Syphilis TPA assay: evaluation of an automated chemiluminescence assay for detection of Treponema pallidum antibodies in a high prevalence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Dorien; Florence, Eric; Kenyon, Christopher; Van Esbroeck, Marjan

    2014-11-01

    The performance of the Syphilis TPA assay (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) on Vitros 5600 Integrated System was evaluated and demonstrated excellent results. Our data support the use of this assay for test confirmation in the traditional algorithm and for screening for syphilis in a routine automated laboratory setting when using the reverse algorithm. PMID:25299416

  17. Stability-indicating assay of repaglinide in bulk and optimized nanoemulsion by validated high performance thin layer chromatography technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juber Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC method for analysis of repaglinide both as a bulk drug and in nanoemulsion formulation was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of chloroform/methanol/ammonia/glacial acetic acid (7.5:1.5:0.9:0.1, v/v/v/v. This system was found to give compact spots for repaglinide (R f value of 0.38 ± 0.02. Repaglinide was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation and dry heat treatment. Also, the degraded products were well separated from the pure drug. Densitometric analysis of repaglinide was carried out in the absorbance mode at 240 nm. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2 = 0.998 ± 0.032 in the concentration range of 50-800 ng. The method was validated for precision, accuracy as recovery, robustness and specificity. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.023 and 0.069 ng per spot, respectively. The drug undergoes degradation under acidic and basic conditions, oxidation and dry heat treatment. All the peaks of the degraded product were resolved from the standard drug with significantly different R f values. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of the said drug. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. Moreover, the proposed HPTLC method was utilized to investigate the degradation kinetics in 1M NaOH.

  18. PathogenMip Assay: A Multiplex Pathogen Detection Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Akhras, Michael S.; Sreedevi Thiyagarajan; Villablanca, Andrea C.; Davis, Ronald W; Pål Nyrén; Nader Pourmand

    2007-01-01

    The Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) assay has been previously applied to a large-scale human SNP detection. Here we describe the PathogenMip Assay, a complete protocol for probe production and applied approaches to pathogen detection. We have demonstrated the utility of this assay with an initial set of 24 probes targeting the most clinically relevant HPV genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. Probe construction was based on a novel, cost-effective, ligase-based protocol. The ...

  19. Performance of the molecular Alere I influenza A&B test compared to that of the xpert flu A/B assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Kimberle C; Flores-Cortez, Estefany J

    2015-02-01

    Data on the performance of rapid molecular point-of-care use platforms for diagnosis of influenza are lacking. We validated nasopharyngeal (NP) flocked specimens in universal transport medium (UTM) and evaluated the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i influenza A&B test compared to those of the Xpert flu A/B assay. The Alere i influenza A&B test had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 93.8% and 62.5% for influenza A, respectively, and of 91.8% and 53.6% for influenza B, respectively. The poor specificity was due to influenza virus samples determined positive for both type A and B. PMID:25502527

  20. Performance of the Molecular Alere i Influenza A&B Test Compared to That of the Xpert Flu A/B Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cortez, Estefany J.

    2014-01-01

    Data on the performance of rapid molecular point-of-care use platforms for diagnosis of influenza are lacking. We validated nasopharyngeal (NP) flocked specimens in universal transport medium (UTM) and evaluated the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Alere i influenza A&B test compared to those of the Xpert flu A/B assay. The Alere i influenza A&B test had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 93.8% and 62.5% for influenza A, respectively, and of 91.8% and 53.6% for influenza B, respectively. The poor specificity was due to influenza virus samples determined positive for both type A and B. PMID:25502527

  1. Development and evaluation of the performance of a computer program for the quality control of radioligant assays, application to the radioassay of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program was developed to evaluate several parameters of in radioligant assays. The program was written in FORTRAN-IV having a modular structure. The present version is designed to compute a number of parameters pertinent to the activities of the radioassays. The standard curve is fitted to the empirical model which has four parameters following Marquardt i-iterative scheme. The curve is weighted according to Rodbard criterion. The mini mum detectable dose (MDD) is estimated by a criterion which considers the standard deviation of the experimental data measured with respect to the zero concentration, theoretically computed by the power function. This function considers the standard deviations of all samples and standards being assayed. The Scatchard plot is drawn for one binding component, but it is suitable for up to five components including that nonspecific and non saturated one. The specific activity is computed by the self-displacement method including the corrections suggested by Morris. The computer program processes data pertinent to the thermodynamic analysis through the incubation temperature and its respective reaction affinity constant 'K'. Starting from the estimated enthalpy and entropy of the reaction, the program produces theoretical standard curves for any level of incubation temperature. This allows the analyst to select the interval which best attends the dosage needs. Other general data pertinent to the radioisotope methodology can also be processed by the present program, such as radiochromatogram analysis chi-square test and the estimate the error during the procedures of pipetting. In order to demonstrate the use and the quality of the informations given by the program, a radioimmunoassay of insulin was carried out. The results obtained are in good agreement with those found in the literature. (Author)

  2. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  3. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS 'pathways,' or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  4. Paying It Forward: A Technical Assistance Guide for Developing and Implementing Performance-Based Scholarships. The Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Rashida; Ware, Michelle; Cerna, Oscar; Valenzuela, Ireri

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in paying for college and in maintaining good academic performance are two major hurdles to college graduation for low-income students. In recent years, state and federal budgets for postsecondary education have been cut significantly, limiting the options policymakers, education leaders, and communities have to improve rates of…

  5. Radioreceptor assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioreceptor assay (RRA) is an analytical method using the specific interaction of some pharmaceuticals and endogenic substances (ligands) with specific receptors present in certin tissues of living organisms. RRA uses the principle of isotope dilution. The method is described in detail of the preparation of receptors, samples and radioligands, conditions of incubation, the separation of free and bound radioligand, and the mathematical evaluation of RRA. The sensitivity of RRA is measured in units to tens of pg. The specificity of RRA relates to a group of substances with similar pharmacological effect. RRA may be used for identifying neuroleptics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, ergot alkaloids, beta blockers, anticholinergic drugs, certain hormones and neuropeptides. (M.D.)

  6. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Iron Removal - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Northeastern Elementary School in Fountain City, IN. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of US Water Sys...

  7. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Woodstock Middle School in Woodstock, CT - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Woodstock Middle School in Woodstock, CT. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of Adsorbsia™ GTO™ me...

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Webb Consolidated Independent School District in Bruni, TX - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Webb Consolidated Independent School District (Webb CISD) in Bruni, TX. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effect...

  9. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Town of Arnaudville, LA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the United Water Systems’ facility in Arnaudville, LA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of K...

  10. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Village of Waynesville, IL - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal drinking water treatment technology demonstration project at the Village of Waynesville, IL. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Peerless coagu...

  11. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at the City of Okanogan, WA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the City of Okanogan, WA facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Filtronics’ FH-13 Ele...

  12. Angiogenesis Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  13. Principles of validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assay validation requires a series of inter-related processes. Assay validation is an experimental process: reagents and protocols are optimized by experimentation to detect the analyte with accuracy and precision. Assay validation is a relative process: its diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity are calculated relative to test results obtained from reference animal populations of known infection/exposure status. Assay validation is a conditional process: classification of animals in the target population as infected or uninfected is conditional upon how well the reference animal population used to validate the assay represents the target population; accurate predictions of the infection status of animals from test results (PV+ and PV-) are conditional upon the estimated prevalence of disease/infection in the target population. Assay validation is an incremental process: confidence in the validity of an assay increases over time when use confirms that it is robust as demonstrated by accurate and precise results; the assay may also achieve increasing levels of validity as it is upgraded and extended by adding reference populations of known infection status. Assay validation is a continuous process: the assay remains valid only insofar as it continues to provide accurate and precise results as proven through statistical verification. Therefore, the work required for validation of diagnostic assays for infectious diseases does not end with a time-limited series of experiments based on a few reference samples rather, to assure valid test results from an assay requires constant vigilance and maintenance of the assay, along with reassessment of its performance characteristics for each unique population of animals to which it is applied. (author)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  15. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  16. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine(3H)-methyl. The O-methylated (3H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin-3H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin-3H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated (3H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  19. Performance Assessment of a Novel Two-Step Multiple Displacement Amplification-PCR Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Sputum Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Na; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Ruifen; Feng, Lan; Hu, Yongfei; Li, Xiaoliang; Lu, Na; Zhao, Xiuqin; Pan, Yuanlong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Baoli; Wan, Kanglin

    2012-01-01

    A novel two-step multiple displacement amplification-PCR (MDA-PCR) assay for tuberculosis detection in 200 sputum specimens was evaluated. The MDA-PCR assay indicated a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity compared with those of standard PCR alone.

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  1. Radiopharmaceutical assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the laws in force, radiopharmaceuticals for human use must be among other features, non-pyrogenous and non-toxic. For this reason pyrogenity and toxicity assays are carried out. Pharmacokinetic studies may also be necessary in some cases. Products currently made at the Radiopharmaceutical Center, new products designed for certification and raw materials used to manufacture the above, were tested. A total 342 pyrogenity and toxicity tests, and four pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in 1996. To determine pyrogenity, the temperature animals were measured following intravenous administration of radiopharmaceuticals concerned: sodium pertechnetate, colloidal gold and sodium orthoradiohippurate from current production; pharmaceutic components of several new products, i.e. technetium generator, fibrinogen and microspheres. A total 327 products were tested, 96 percent of which met the requirements. To determine toxicity, the probit method was used, consisting of the administration of radiopharmaceutical doses for seven straight days, and checking for lethal effects. An overall 15 tests were carried out and 80 percent of products tested were found certifiable. Pharmacokinetic tests consisted of tropism on target organs and biodistribution in several organs using the tomographic method. (author)

  2. Clinical and virological factors influencing the performance of a NS1 antigen-capture assay and potential use as a marker of dengue disease severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Detection of dengue NS1 antigen in acute infection has been proposed for early diagnosis of dengue disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and virological factors influencing the performance of the Platelia NS1 Ag kit (BioRad and to assess the potential use of NS1 antigen and dengue viral loads as markers of dengue disease severity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood specimens were collected from patients hospitalized at the Kampong Cham hospital during the 2006 and 2007 dengue epidemics in Cambodia. Dengue infection was confirmed in 243/339 symptomatic patients and in 17 asymptomatic individuals out of 214 household members tested. Overall sensitivity and specificity of Platelia NS1 Ag kit were 57.5% and 100% respectively. NS1 Ag assay combined with IgM antibody capture ELISA significantly increased the sensitivity for dengue diagnosis. NS1 Ag positivity rate was found significantly higher in DF than in DHF/DSS, in primary than in secondary infections, in patients with a high viremia (>5 log/mL and in patients infected with DENV-1. In asymptomatic individuals, the NS1 Ag capture sensitivity tends to be lower than that in symptomatic patients. Milder disease severity was observed independently in patients with RNA copy number >5 log10 cDNA equivalents/mL or in high level of NS1 antigen ratio or in DENV-1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Overall sensitivity of NS1 Ag detection kit varied widely across the various forms of dengue infection or disease. Sensitivity was highest in patients sampled during the first 3 days after onset of fever, in patients with primary infection, DENV-1 infection, with high level of viremia and in DF rather than DHF/DSS. In asymptomatic patients, RT-PCR assay has proved to be more sensitive than NS1 antigen detection. The NS1 antigen level correlated significantly with viremia and a low NS1 antigen ratio was associated with more severe disease.

  3. Quantification of imatinib in human serum: validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende VM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vinicius Marcondes Rezende,1 Ariane Rivellis,1 Mafalda Megumi Yoshinaga Novaes,1 Dalton de Alencar Fisher Chamone,2 Israel Bendit1,21Laboratory of Tumor Biology, 2Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Imatinib mesylate has been a breakthrough treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia. It has become the ideal tyrosine kinase inhibitor and the standard treatment for chronic-phase leukemia. Striking results have recently been reported, but intolerance to imatinib and noncompliance with treatment remain to be solved. Molecular monitoring by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is the gold standard for monitoring patients, and imatinib blood levels have also become an important tool for monitoring.Methods: A fast and cheap method was developed and validated using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for quantification of imatinib in human serum and tamsulosin as the internal standard. Remarkable advantages of the method includes use of serum instead of plasma, less time spent on processing and analysis, simpler procedures, and requiring reduced amounts of biological material, solvents, and reagents. Stability of the analyte was also studied. This research also intended to drive the validation scheme in clinical centers. The method was validated according to the requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency within the range of 0.500–10.0 µg/mL with a limit of detection of 0.155 µg/mL. Stability data for the analyte are also presented.Conclusion: Given that the validated method has proved to be linear, accurate, precise, and robust, it is suitable for pharmacokinetic assays, such as bioavailability and bioequivalence, and is being successfully applied in routine therapeutic drug monitoring in the hospital service.Keywords: imatinib, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, therapeutic

  4. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications

  5. Myeloid neoplasm demonstrating a STAT5B-RARA rearrangement and genetic alterations associated with all-trans retinoic acid resistance identified by a custom next-generation sequencing assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluk, Michael J; Abo, Ryan P; Brown, Ronald D; Kuo, Frank C; Dal Cin, Paola; Pozdnyakova, Olga; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Lindeman, Neal I; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Aster, Jon C

    2015-10-01

    We describe the case of a patient presenting with several weeks of symptoms related to pancytopenia associated with a maturation arrest at the late promyelocyte/early myelocyte stage of granulocyte differentiation. A diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia was considered, but the morphologic features were atypical for this entity and conventional tests for the presence of a PML-RARA fusion gene were negative. Additional analysis using a custom next-generation sequencing assay revealed a rearrangement producing a STAT5B-RARA fusion gene, which was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and supplementary cytogenetic studies, allowing the diagnosis of a morphologically atypical form of acute promyelocytic leukemia to be made. Analysis of the sequencing data permitted characterization of both chromosomal breakpoints and revealed two additional alterations, a small deletion in RARA exon 9 and a RARA R276W substitution, that have been linked to resistance to all-trans retinoic acid. This case highlights how next-generation sequencing can augment currently standard testing to establish diagnoses in difficult cases, and in doing so help guide selection of therapy. PMID:27148563

  6. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  7. Automated uranium assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise, timely inventories of enriched uranium stocks are vital to help prevent the loss, theft, or diversion of this material for illicit use. A wet-chemistry analyzer has been developed at LLL to assist in these inventories by performing automated analyses of uranium samples from different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle. These assays offer improved accuracy, reduced costs, significant savings in manpower, and lower radiation exposure for personnel compared with present techniques

  8. New low-viscosity overlay medium for viral plaque assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garten Wolfgang

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Results Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3% ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Conclusion Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  10. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements are reported

  11. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid-Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont Dayot, Nicolas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements will be reported.

  12. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont Dayot, Nicolas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen in order to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements will be reported.

  13. Performance of cobas® 4800 and m2000 real-time™ assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in rectal and self-collected vaginal specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Tanja H; Rossen, John W; Beerens, Antoine M; Poort, Linda; Morré, Servaas A; Ritmeester, Wilma S; van Kruchten, Harry E; van de Pas, Masja M; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter trial was designed to compare the performance characteristics of the cobas® 4800 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and m2000 real-time™ (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL, USA) assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)

  14. Towards a high throughput droplet-based agglutination assay

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-10-22

    This work demonstrates the detection method for a high throughput droplet based agglutination assay system. Using simple hydrodynamic forces to mix and aggregate functionalized microbeads we avoid the need to use magnetic assistance or mixing structures. The concentration of our target molecules was estimated by agglutination strength, obtained through optical image analysis. Agglutination in droplets was performed with flow rates of 150 µl/min and occurred in under a minute, with potential to perform high-throughput measurements. The lowest target concentration detected in droplet microfluidics was 0.17 nM, which is three orders of magnitude more sensitive than a conventional card based agglutination assay.

  15. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation (''CT edema'') on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84 %, specificity of 97 %, and accuracy of 95 %, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p < 0.0001). Cut-off values provided sensitivity of 85 % (77 %) and specificity of 82 % (74 %) for ''CT edema'' on thoracic (lumbar) vertebrae. VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  16. Dual-energy CT in vertebral compression fractures: performance of visual and quantitative analysis for bone marrow edema demonstration with comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierry, Guillaume; Venkatasamy, Aina; Kremer, Stephane; Dosch, Jean-Claude; Dietemann, Jean-Louis [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-04-15

    To prospectively evaluate the performance of virtual non-calcium (VNC) dual-energy CT (DECT) images for the demonstration of trauma-related abnormal marrow attenuation in collapsed and non-collapsed vertebral compression fractures (VCF) with MRI as a reference standard. Twenty patients presenting with non-tumoral VCF were consecutively and prospectively included in this IRB-approved study, and underwent MRI and DECT of the spine. MR examination served as a reference standard. Two independent readers visually evaluated all vertebrae for abnormal marrow attenuation (''CT edema'') on VNC DECT images; specificity, sensitivity, predictive values, intra and inter-observer agreements were calculated. A last reader performed a quantitative evaluation of CT numbers; cut-off values were calculated using ROC analysis. In the visual analysis, VNC DECT images had an overall sensitivity of 84 %, specificity of 97 %, and accuracy of 95 %, intra- and inter-observer agreements ranged from k = 0.74 to k = 0.90. CT numbers were significantly different between vertebrae with edema on MR and those without (p < 0.0001). Cut-off values provided sensitivity of 85 % (77 %) and specificity of 82 % (74 %) for ''CT edema'' on thoracic (lumbar) vertebrae. VNC DECT images allowed an accurate demonstration of trauma-related abnormal attenuation in VCF, revealing the acute nature of the fracture, on both visual and quantitative evaluation. (orig.)

  17. Trends identified between successful and unsuccessful candidates that have participated in the Japanese Performance Demonstration (PD) Program of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) depth sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1st Japanese Performance Demonstration (PD) qualification examination started in March of 2006 and was operated by the Performance Demonstration (PD) center of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). As of December 2012, 36 examination sessions have been completed and 44 out of 48 candidates have passed the examination. The total number of tests administered including re-tests was 87. A reason for failure is 'the incorrect choice of the crack tip echo'. Candidates cannot differentiate the weld to base metal interface echoes and crack branch echoes from the actual crack tip echo. It was noted that depth sizing using phased array and conventional angle beam tip diffraction techniques is the most effective way to pass the examination. A statistical analysis shows that the average depth sizing error is 0.33 mm with a standard deviation of 1.92 mm for the successful applicant. The primary reason for failure is the overestimation of the crack depth. (author)

  18. Electrical lysis of cells for detergent-free droplet assays

    OpenAIRE

    N. de Lange; Tran, T. M.; Abate, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient lysis is critical when analyzing single cells in microfluidic droplets, but existing methods utilize detergents that can interfere with the assays to be performed. We demonstrate robust cell lysis without the use of detergents or other chemicals. In our method, cells are exposed to electric field immediately before encapsulation in droplets, resulting in cell lysis. We characterize lysis efficiency as a function of control parameters and demonstrate compatibility with enzymatic assa...

  19. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persoone G.

    2009-08-01

    “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium. These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of performance of the assays. One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes. The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter. The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs. Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay. Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail. The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that : (1 Virtually all results from assays performed with

  20. Nondestructive waste assay capability evaluation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For most containerized waste forms, the most common and efficient means to determine the TRU material quantity is the use of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Requirements and quality assurance objectives (QAOs) for NDA techniques employed to characterize TRU waste destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are delineated in the National TRU Program Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). These QAOs represent minimum performance requirements consisting of allowable measurement parameter ranges such as bias and precision for which compliance must be demonstrated in accordance with the prescriptions of the QAPP. To establish actual capabilities of existing nondestructive waste assay systems relative to the requirements of the QAPP, a mechanism is required to acquire performance data for waste types typical of the DOE inventory and to objectively evaluate such data. In accordance with this need, the DOE mixed waste focus area operating in conjunction with the characterization monitoring and sensor technology crosscut area program has instituted an assay capability evaluation project (CEP). The project is focused on mobile NDA technologies but is applicable to most permanently installed systems operating the same NDA technology. The evaluation project is currently being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) using actual Rocky Flats Plant-generated waste forms currently in storage and appropriate matrix/radioactive material surrogates. Six mobile waste assay system technologies are participating in the CEP: (1) segmented gamma scanner; (2) active and passive computed tomography; (3) high-efficiency neutron counter; (4) IQ3-gamma assay system; (5) tomographic gamma scanner; and (6) an imaging passive/active neutron system

  1. Elimination of complement interference can improve the diagnostic performance of the VIDAS CMV IgG assay in acute cytomegalovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berth, Mario; Willaert, Sofie

    2016-05-01

    In this study we showed that complement factors are responsible for assay interference in the VIDAS cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) assay. Three different serum treatments were applied to show the cause of interference: heat treatment (56 °C), adding cobra venom factor, and adding EDTA. Elimination of complement interference by EDTA treatment of serum was prospectively evaluated on 215 CMV IgM positive samples and a sensitivity increase of the VIDAS CMV IgG assay was noticed. On average the CMV IgG level increased 100% after EDTA treatment of the serum. In paired serum samples from 38 patients we could show that serum treatment with EDTA can make the CMV IgG level changes more obvious in recent CMV infections. Since the CMV IgG avidity II assay on VIDAS depends on the determination of CMV IgG, the CMV IgG avidity was also evaluated in this study but only a limited effect of the complement interference was observed. PMID:26971633

  2. Performance Demonstration of Miniature Phase Transition Cells in Microgravity as a Validation for their use in the Absolute Calibration of Temperature Sensors On-Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, C.; Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Aguilar, D. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    The next generation of infrared remote sensing missions, including the climate benchmark missions, will require better absolute measurement accuracy than now available, and will most certainly rely on the emerging capability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances with an absolute brightness temperature error of better than 0.1 K will require high-emissivity (>0.999) calibration blackbodies requiring absolute temperature uncertainties of better than 0.045K (k=3). Key elements of an On-Orbit Absolute Radiance Standard (OARS) meeting these stringent requirements have been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin and were further refined under the NASA Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). In particular, the OARS has imbedded thermistors that can be periodically calibrated on-orbit using the melt signatures of small quantities (technology for on-orbit application is a demonstration of performance in microgravity to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS). This demonstration will make use of an Experiment Support Package developed by Utah State Space Dynamics Laboratory to continuously run melt cycles on miniature phase change cells containing gallium, a gallium-tin eutectic, and water. The phase change cells will be mounted in a small aluminum block along with a thermistor temperature sensor. A thermoelectric cooler will be used to change the temperature of the block. The demonstration will use the configuration of the phase transition cells developed under our NASA IIP that has been tested extensively in the laboratory under simulated mission life cycle scenarios - these included vibration, thermal soaks, and deep cycling. Melt signatures obtained on orbit will be compared to those recorded on the ground to validate that the melt behavior of the three phase change materials is unaltered in the

  3. Wireless Transmission of Monitoring Data out of an Underground Repository: Results of Field Demonstrations Performed at the HADES Underground Laboratory - 13589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) performed experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless data transmission through the subsurface over large distances by low frequency magnetic fields in the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The main objective of NRG's contribution is to characterize and optimize the energy use of this technique within the specific context of post-closure monitoring of a repository. For that, measurements have been performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located at Mol, Belgium, at 225 m depth. The experimental set-up utilizes a loop antenna for the transmitter that has been matched to the existing infrastructure of the HADES. Between 2010 and 2012 NRG carried out several experiments at the HADES URL in order to test the technical set-up and to characterize the propagation behavior of the geological medium and the local background noise pattern. Transmission channels have been identified and data transmission has been demonstrated at several frequencies, with data rates up to 10 bit/s and bit error rates <1%. A mathematical model description that includes the most relevant characteristics of the transmitter, transmission path, and receiver has been developed and applied to analyze possible options to optimize the set-up. With respect to the energy-efficiency, results so far have shown that data transmission over larger distances through the subsurface is a feasible option. To support the conclusions on the energy need per bit of transmitted data, additional experiments are foreseen. (authors)

  4. GASIS demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidas, E.H. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  5. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Persoone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most internationally used bioassays for toxicity screening of chemicals and for toxicity monitoring of effluents and contaminated waters is the acute toxicity test with daphnid crustaceans, and in particular that performed with Daphnia magna.Standard methods have been developed for this assay that were gradually endorsed by national and international organisations dealing with toxicity testing procedures, in view of its application within a regulatory framework. As for all toxicity tests, the organisms used for the acute D. magna assay have to be obtained from live stocks which are cultured in the laboratory on live food (micro-algae.Unsurprisingly the various standard protocols of this particular assay differ – at least to a certain extent – with regard to the test organism culturing conditions. In addition, some technical aspects of the toxicity test such as the effect criterion (mortality of immobility, the exposure time, the type of dilution water, etc., also vary from one standard to another.Although this particular assay is currently used in many countries, the technical and biological problems inherent in year-round culturing and availability of the biological material and the culturing/maintenance costs of live stocks restrict its application to a limited number of highly specialised laboratories.This fundamental bottleneck in toxicity testing triggered investigations which brought forward the concept of “microbiotests” or “small-scale” toxicity tests. “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium.These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of

  6. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  7. Making transuranic assay measurements using modern controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methodology and computer-controlled instrumentation developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that accurately performs nondestructive assays of large containers bearing transuranic wastes and nonradioactive matrix materials. These assay systems can measure fissile isotopes with 1-mg sensitivity and spontaneous neutron-emitting isotopes at a 10-mg sensitivity. The assays are performed by neutron interrogation, detection, and counting in a custom assay chamber. An International Business Machines Personal Computer (IBM-PC) is used to control the CAMAC-based instrumentation system that acquires the assay data. 6 refs., 7 figs

  8. Analytic performance studies and clinical reproducibility of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations identify patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have a high likelihood of benefiting from treatment with anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sanger sequencing is widely used for mutation detection but can be technically challenging, resulting in longer turn-around-time, with limited sensitivity for low levels of mutations. This manuscript details the technical performance verification studies and external clinical reproducibility studies of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, a rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay designed to detect 41 mutations in exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. The assay’s limit of detection was determined using 25 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET)-derived and plasmid DNA blends. Assay performance for a panel of 201 specimens was compared against Sanger sequencing with resolution of discordant specimens by quantitative massively parallel pyrosequencing (MPP). Internal and external reproducibility was assessed using specimens tested in duplicate by different operators, using different reagent lots, instruments and at different sites. The effects on the performance of the cobas EGFR test of endogenous substances and nine therapeutic drugs were evaluated in ten FFPET specimens. Other tests included an evaluation of the effects of necrosis, micro-organisms and homologous DNA sequences on assay performance, and the inclusivity of the assay for less frequent mutations. A >95% hit rate was obtained in blends with >5% mutant alleles, as determined by MPP analysis, at a total DNA input of 150 ng. The overall percent agreement between Sanger sequencing and the cobas test was 96.7% (negative percent agreement 97.5%; positive percent agreement 95.8%). Assay repeatability was 98% when tested with two operators, instruments, and reagent lots. In the external reproducibility study, the agreement was > 99% across all sites, all operators and all reagent lots for 11/12 tumors tested. Test

  9. A multisubstrate assay for lipases/esterases: assessing acyl chain length selectivity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, K; Gautam, Pennathur

    2014-03-01

    Lipases and esterases are hydrolytic enzymes and are known to hydrolyze esters with unique substrate specificity and acyl chain length selectivity. We have developed a simple competitive multiple substrate assay for determination of acyl chain length selectivity of lipases/esterases using RP-HPLC with UV detection. A method for separation and quantification of 4-nitrophenyl fatty acid esters (C4-C18) was developed and validated. The chain length selectivity of five lipases and two esterases was determined in a multisubstrate reaction system containing equimolar concentrations of 4-nitrophenyl esters (C4-C18). This assay is simple, reproducible, and a useful tool for determining chain length selectivity of lipases/esterases. PMID:24316114

  10. Performance of a Redesigned HIV Selectest Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Optimized To Minimize Vaccine-Induced Seropositivity in HIV Vaccine Trial Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Penezina, Oksana; Krueger, Neil X; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.; Busch, Michael P; Hural, John; Kim, Jerome H.; O'Connell, Robert J.; Hunter, Eric; Aboud, Said; Higgins, Keith; Kovalenko, Victor; Clapham, David; Crane, David; Levin, Andrew E

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine-induced seropositivity (VISP) or seroreactivity (VISR), defined as the reaction of antibodies elicited by HIV vaccines with antigens used in HIV diagnostic immunoassays, can result in reactive assay results for vaccinated but uninfected individuals, with subsequent misclassification of their infection status. The eventual licensure of a vaccine will magnify this issue and calls for the development of mitigating solutions in advance. An immunoassay that discriminates between antibodies...

  11. Green processes for the extraction of bioactives from Rosemary: Chemical and functional characterization via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and in-vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Plaza, M; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2010-04-16

    In this contribution, the performance of three different extraction procedures towards the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is presented. Namely, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using water and ethanol as solvents, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using neat CO(2) and supercritical CO(2) modified with ethanol, as well as a novel extraction process called Water Extraction and Particle formation On-line (WEPO) are directly compared. Different extraction conditions including temperatures, times and pressures have been studied. The produced extracts have been characterized in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity (using the DPPH radical scavenging method) and total phenols (using the Folin method). Besides, all the extracts have been chemically characterized using a new quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method. This method allowed the determination of the main antioxidants present in rosemary, including, among others, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol, attaining detection limits as low as 2ng/mL. The results obtained in this study show that PLE using ethanol at high temperatures (200 degrees C) was able to produce extracts with high antioxidant activity (EC(50) 8.8microg/mL) and high yield (ca. 40%) while efficiently extracting antioxidants of diverse polarity, among them, carnosic and rosmarinic acids, regarded as the most important antioxidants present in rosemary. Nevertheless, in this work, the ability of the three studied environmentally friendly extraction techniques to obtain bioactives from natural sources is demonstrated. PMID:19945706

  12. Determination of cell survival after irradiation via clonogenic assay versus multiple MTT Assay - A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Buch Karl; Peters Tanja; Nawroth Thomas; Sänger Markus; Schmidberger Heinz; Langguth Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water insoluble formazan dye by living cells was modified from a single-point towards a proliferation assay. This assay can be performed with a large number of samples in short time using multi-well-plates, assays can be performed semi-automatically with a microplate reader. Survival, the calc...

  13. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Assay for Quantitation of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Nilotinib in Human Plasma and Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Parise, Robert A.; Egorin, Merrill J.; Christner, Susan M; Shah, Dhvani D; Zhou, Wei; Beumer, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Nilotinib (AMN-107, Tasigna™) is a small-molecule inhibitor of BCR/ABL, approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. We developed and validated, according to FDA-guidelines, an LC-MS assay for sensitive, accurate and precise quantitation of nilotinib in 0.2 mL human plasma or serum. After acetonitrile protein precipitation, separation is achieved with a hydro-Synergi column and a 0.1% formic acid in methanol/water-gradient. Detection uses electrospray, positive-mode ionization mass spectrometry...

  14. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Robert B.; Kelton, David F.; Hietala, Sharon K.; Duffield, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 Ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (BLV) and Neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against BLV were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). Comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (P = 0.56). Both tests identifi...

  15. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  16. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ajzenberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana.Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay.Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621.

  17. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Lamaury, Isabelle; Demar, Magalie; Vautrin, Cyrille; Cabié, André; Simon, Stéphane; Nicolas, Muriel; Desbois-Nogard, Nicole; Boukhari, Rachida; Riahi, Homayoun; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Massip, Patrice; Dupon, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Labrunie, Anaïs; Boncoeur, Marie-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay. Conclusion/Significance Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621 PMID:27355620

  18. Development of an upconverting chelate assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xudong; Haushalter, Jeanne P.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2005-04-01

    We report progress on performing a cell-based assay for the detection of EGFR on cell surfaces by using upconverting chelates. An upconversion microscope has been developed for performing assays and testing optical response. A431 cells are labeled with europium DOTA and imaged using this upconverting microscope.

  19. Immunofluorescence Assay for Serologic Diagnosis of SARS

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Paul K. S.; Ng, King-Cheung; Chan, Rickjason C. W.; Lam, Rebecca K. Y.; Chow, Viola C. Y.; Hui, Mamie; Wu, Alan; Lee, Nelson; Yap, Florence H.Y.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Tam, John S

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a virus-infected cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay for detecting anti–severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody. All confirmed SARS cases demonstrated seroconversion or fourfold rise in IgG antibody titer; no control was positive. Sensitivity and specificity of this assay were both 100%. Immunofluorescence assay can ascertain the status of SARS-CoV infection.

  20. Matrix effects of TRU [transuranic] assays using the SWEPP PAN assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Drum Assay System (DAS) at the Stored Waste Experimental Pilot Plant (SWEPP) is a second-generation active-passive neutron assay system. It has been used to assay over 5000 208-liter drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Data from these assays have been examined and compared with the assays performed at Rocky Flats, mainly utilize counting of 239Pu gamma rays. For the most part the passive assays are in very good agreement with the Rocky Flats assays. The active assays are strongly correlated with the results of the other two methods, but require matrix-dependent correction factors beyond those provided by the system itself. A set of matrix-dependent correction factors has been developed from the study of the assay results. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay using the MultiScreen (R) Assay System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MJ; Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, RA

    1999-01-01

    In this article, an improved benzodiazepine radioreceptor assay is described, which allows substantial reduction in assay time, The filtration in this method was performed by using the MultiScreen(R) Assay System. The latter consists of a 96-well plate with glass fibre filters sealed at the bottom,

  2. In-house validation study of the DuPont Qualicon BAX system Q7 instrument with the BAX system PCR Assay for Salmonella (modification of AOAC Official Method 2003.09 and AOAC Research Institute Performance-Tested Method 100201).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, George; Andaloro, Bridget; White, H Kirk; Bolton, Lance; Wang, Siqun; Davis, Eugene; Wallace, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, DuPont Qualicon introduced the BAX system Q7 instrument for use with its assays. To demonstrate the equivalence of the new and old instruments, a validation study was conducted using the BAX system PCR Assay for Salmonella, AOAC Official Method 2003.09, on three food types. The foods were simultaneously analyzed with the BAX system Q7 instrument and either the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual or the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook reference method for detecting Salmonella. Comparable performance between the BAX system and the reference methods was observed. Of the 75 paired samples analyzed, 39 samples were positive by both the BAX system and reference methods, and 36 samples were negative by both the BAX system and reference methods, demonstrating 100% correlation. Inclusivity and exclusivity for the BAX system Q7 instrument were also established by testing 50 Salmonella strains and 20 non-Salmonella isolates. All Salmonella strains returned positive results, and all non-Salmonella isolates returned a negative response. PMID:19610394

  3. Analytical performance specifications for changes in assay bias (Δbias) for data with logarithmic distributions as assessed by effects on reference change values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Lund, Flemming; Fraser, Callum G;

    2016-01-01

    performance specifications for reference change value, with combination of Δbias and CVA based on log-Gaussian distributions of CVI as natural logarithms. The model was tested using plasma prolactin and glucose as examples. RESULTS: Analytical performance specifications for reference change value generated...

  4. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is...... adapted to receive one or more replaceable solid support(s) (40) onto which chemical entities (41) are attached, said device comprising a base (1, 60, 80, 300, 400, 10, 70, 140, 20, 90, 120, 150, 30, 100), one or more inlet(s) (5), one or more outlet(s) (6). The base and the solid support (40) defines......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  5. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  6. Development and Validation of a Specific Stability Indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Methods for Related Compounds and Assay of Solifenacin Succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Rami Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gradient, reverse phase liquid chromatographic methods were developed separately for the related compounds and solifenacin succinate, an active pharmaceutical ingredient used for the treatment of overactive bladder. Gradient LC method was employed for related compounds. The mobile phase-A contains a 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH: 3.5±0.05 with orthophosphoric acid (88% and mobile phase-B contains a mixture of acetonitrile and water in the ratio of 90 : 10(v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/minute, column temperature was kept at 35°C, and detection was monitored at 220 nm. In the developed HPLC method the resolution between solifenacin succinate and its closely eluting impurity, that is, solifenacin N-oxide was found to be greater than 3.0. The drug was subjected to stress conditions such as hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, and thermal degradation. Considerable degradation was found to occur in only oxidative stress condition. Degradation product formed during oxidative stress condition was found to be impurity-C and it can be identified by LC-MS. The stress samples were assayed against a qualified reference standard and the mass balance was found close to 99.5%. The developed RP-LC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. We also developed LC-MS/MS method for determination and identification of these impurities in solifenacin succinate.

  7. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robert B.; Kelton, David F.; Hietala, Sharon K.; Duffield, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 Ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (BLV) and Neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against BLV were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). Comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (P = 0.56). Both tests identified the same 3 herds free of bovine leukosis virus. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 138 serum samples (11.2%), and 111 milk samples (9.0%). Agreement between the 2 tests was moderate (k = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.59). Four herds were free of neosporosis by the serum test, while 10 herds were negative by the milk test. The ELISA on milk samples facilitates sample collection to classify herds free of BLV; the milk N. caninum ELISA was less reliable in predicting herd-level infection. PMID:24082160

  8. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays performed on milk and serum samples for detection of neosporosis and leukosis in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robert B; Kelton, David F; Hietala, Sharon K; Duffield, Todd F

    2013-04-01

    Serum and milk samples from 1229 cows on 22 Ontario dairy farms were individually tested for antibodies specific for bovine leukosis virus (BLV) and Neospora caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies against BLV were present in 361 serum samples (29.4%) and 369 milk samples (30.0%). Comparing the 2 tests, agreement was almost perfect (k = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.90) and the proportions of samples positive were not significantly different (P = 0.56). Both tests identified the same 3 herds free of bovine leukosis virus. Antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 138 serum samples (11.2%), and 111 milk samples (9.0%). Agreement between the 2 tests was moderate (k = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.59). Four herds were free of neosporosis by the serum test, while 10 herds were negative by the milk test. The ELISA on milk samples facilitates sample collection to classify herds free of BLV; the milk N. caninum ELISA was less reliable in predicting herd-level infection. PMID:24082160

  9. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    . 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila...... melanogaster under both laboratory and field conditions.3.  In the field, there was a tendency towards better performance of Hsf+ flies relative to Hsf0 flies, but as compared with wild-type the performance of both mutant lines was very low.4.  In the laboratory tests, Hsf+ flies had higher heat knock......-down resistance relative to Hsf0 flies but in other assays on heat, cold and desiccation resistance there was either no difference between the two mutant lines or the Hsf0 line had higher performance. Also, the superiority of the wild-type flies under field conditions was trait specific.5.  The results emphasize...

  10. A competitive and reversible deactivation approach to catalysis-based quantitative assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Kazunori; Tracey, Matthew P; Bu, Xiaodong; Jo, Junyong; Williams, Michael J; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Catalysis-based signal amplification makes optical assays highly sensitive and widely useful in chemical and biochemical research. However, assays must be fine-tuned to avoid signal saturation, substrate depletion and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, once stopped, such assays cannot be restarted, limiting the dynamic range to two orders of magnitude with respect to analyte concentrations. In addition, abundant analytes are difficult to quantify under catalytic conditions due to rapid signal saturation. Herein, we report an approach in which a catalytic reaction competes with a concomitant inactivation of the catalyst or consumption of a reagent required for signal generation. As such, signal generation proceeds for a limited time, then autonomously and reversibly stalls. In two catalysis-based assays, we demonstrate restarting autonomously stalled reactions, enabling accurate measurement over five orders of magnitude, including analyte levels above substrate concentration. This indicates that the dynamic range of catalysis-based assays can be significantly broadened through competitive and reversible deactivation. PMID:26891765

  11. A versatile electrowetting-based digital microfluidic platform for quantitative homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) lab-on-a-chip systems have already proven their potential within a broad range of bio-assays. Nevertheless, research on the analytical performance of those systems is limited, yet crucial for a further breakthrough in the diagnostic field. Therefore, this paper presents the intrinsic possibilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip as a versatile platform for homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays with high analytical performance. Both droplet dispensing and splitting cause variations in droplet size, thereby directly influencing the assay's performance. The extent to which they influence the performance is assessed by a theoretical sensitivity analysis, which allows the definition of a basic framework for the reduction of droplet size variability. Taking advantage of the optimized droplet manipulations, both homogeneous and heterogeneous bio-assays are implemented in the EWOD lab-on-a-chip to demonstrate the analytical capabilities and versatility of the device. A fully on-chip enzymatic assay is realized with high analytical performance. It demonstrates the promising capabilities of an EWOD lab-on-a-chip in food-related and medical applications, such as nutritional and blood analyses. Further, a magnetic bio-assay for IgE detection using superparamagnetic nanoparticles is presented whereby the nanoparticles are used as solid carriers during the bio-assay. Crucial elements are the precise manipulation of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles with respect to dispensing and separation. Although the principle of using nano-carriers is demonstrated for protein detection, it can be easily extended to a broader range of bio-related applications like DNA sensing. In heterogeneous bio-assays the chip surface is actively involved during the execution of the bio-assay. Through immobilization of specific biological compounds like DNA, proteins and cells a reactive chip surface is realized, which enhances the bio-assay performance. To

  12. A Cell Lysis and Protein Purification - Single Molecule Assay Devices for Evaluation of Genetically Engineered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyama, Tetsuya; Tabata, Kazuhito; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokokawa, Ryuji

    We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F1-ATPase expressed in E.coli, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F1-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F1-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F1-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F1-ATPase corresponding to ATP hydrolysis. Results show that the cell lysis device, at the optimum condition, extracts enough amount of protein for single molecule assay. Once cell lysate was injected to the purification - assay device, proteins were diffused in the lateral direction in a Y-shape microchannel. The gradient of protein concentratioin provides an optimal concentration for the assay i.e. the highest density of rotating beads. Density of rotating beads is also affected by the initial concentration of protein injected to the device. The optimum concentration was achieved by our cell lysis device not by the conventional method by ultrasonic wave. Rotation speed was analyzed for several microspheres assayed in the purification - assay device, and the results were compatible to that of conventional assay in which F1-ATPase was purified in bulk scale. In conclusion, we have demonstrated on-chip cell lysis and assay appropriate for the sequential analysis without any pretreatment. On-chip devices replacing conventional bioanalytical methods will be

  13. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold in...

  14. In house reverse membrane hybridisation assay versus GenoType MTBDRplus and their performance to detect mutations in the genes rpoB, katG and inhA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Luiz Montego Ferreira Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB threatens global TB control and is a major public health concern in several countries. We therefore developed a multiplex assay (LINE-TB/MDR that is able to identify the most frequent mutations related to rifampicin (RMP and isoniazid (INH resistance. The assay is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction, membrane hybridisation and colorimetric detection targeting of rpoB and katG genes, as well as the inhA promoter, which are all known to carry specific mutations associated with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB. The assay was validated on a reference panel of 108 M. tuberculosis isolates that were characterised by the proportion method and by DNA sequencing of the targets. When comparing the performance of LINE-TB/MDR with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, for RMP and 77.6%, 90.6% and 88.9%, respectively, for INH. Using drug sensibility testing as a reference standard, the performance of LINE-TB/MDR regarding sensitivity, specificity and agreement was 100%, 100% and 100% (95%, respectively, for RMP and 77%, 100% and 88.7% (82.2-95.1, respectively, for INH. LINE-TB/MDR was compared with GenoType MTBDRplus for 65 isolates, resulting in an agreement of 93.6% (86.7-97.5 for RIF and 87.4% (84.3-96.2 for INH. LINE-TB/MDR warrants further clinical validation and may be an affordable alternative for MDR-TB diagnosis.

  15. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  16. Performance of interferon-gamma and IP-10 release assays for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infections in patients with concurrent malaria in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabe, Camilla H; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Helleberg, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    -infected patients without malaria infection. Malaria was treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem(®)). QFT testing was performed before initiation of malaria treatment and at days 7 and 42. In total, 172 patients completed follow-up. IFN-γ and IP-10 was measured in QFT supernatants. We found that during...

  17. Harmonization of radiobiological assays: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has made available a technical manual for cytogenetic biodosimetry assays (dicentric chromosome aberration (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays) used for radiation dose assessment in radiation accidents. The International Standardization Organization, which develops standards and guidelines, also provides an avenue for laboratory accreditation, has developed guidelines and recommendations for performing cytogenetic biodosimetry assays. Harmonization of DCA and CBMN assays, has improved their accuracy. Double-blinded inter-laboratory comparison studies involving several networks have further validated DCA and CBMN assays and improved the confidence in their potential use for radiation dose assessment in mass casualties. This kind of international harmonization is lacking for pre-clinical radiobiology assays. The widely used pre-clinical assays that are relatively important to set stage for clinical trials include clonogenic assays, flow-cytometry assays, apoptotic assays, and tumor regression and growth delay assays. However, significant inter-laboratory variations occur with respect to data among laboratories. This raises concerns on the reliability and reproducibility of preclinical data that drives further development and translation. Lack of reproducibility may stem from a variety of factors such as poor scientist training, less than optimal experimental design, inadequate description of methodology, and impulse to publish only the positive data etc. Availability of technical manuals, standard operating procedures, accreditation avenues for laboratories performing such assays, inter-laboratory comparisons, and use of standardized protocols are necessary to enhance reliability and reproducibility. Thus, it is important that radiobiological assays are harmonized for laboratory protocols to ensure successful translation of pre-clinical research on radiation effect modulators to help design clinic trials with

  18. Determination of cell survival after irradiation via clonogenic assay versus multiple MTT Assay - A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For studying proliferation and determination of survival of cancer cells after irradiation, the multiple MTT assay, based on the reduction of a yellow water soluble tetrazolium salt to a purple water insoluble formazan dye by living cells was modified from a single-point towards a proliferation assay. This assay can be performed with a large number of samples in short time using multi-well-plates, assays can be performed semi-automatically with a microplate reader. Survival, the calculated parameter in this assay, is determined mathematically. Exponential growth in both control and irradiated groups was proven as the underlying basis of the applicability of the multiple MTT assay. The equivalence to a clonogenic survival assay with its disadvantages such as time consumption was proven in two setups including plating of cells before and after irradiation. Three cell lines (A 549, LN 229 and F 98) were included in the experiment to study its principal and general applicability

  19. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjé, Jan; Vennema, Harry; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Hoehne, Marina; Schreier, Eckart; Richards, Alison; Green, Jon; Brown, David; Beard, Suzanne S; Monroe, Stephan S; de Bruin, Erwin; Svensson, Lennart; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2003-04-01

    To allow more rapid and internationally standardized assessment of the spread of noroviruses (previously called Norwalk-like viruses [NLVs]) as important food-borne pathogens, harmonization of methods for their detection is needed. Diagnosis of NLVs in clinical diagnostic laboratories is usually performed by reverse transciptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In the present study, the performance of five different RT-PCR assays for the detection of NLVs was evaluated in an international collaborative study by five laboratories in five countries with a coded panel of 91 fecal specimens. The assays were tested for their sensitivity, detection limit, and ease of standardization. In total, NLVs could be detected by at least one RT-PCR assay in 69 (84%) of the samples that originally tested positive. Sensitivity ranged from 52 to 73% overall and from 54 to 100% and 58 to 85% for genogroup I and II viruses, respectively. In all, 64% of the false-negative results were obtained with a set of diluted stools (n = 20) that may have lost quality upon storage. Sensitivity was improved when these samples were excluded from analysis. No one single assay stood out as the best, although the p1 assay demonstrated the most satisfactory overall performance. To promote comparability of data, this assay will be recommended for newly starting groups in future collaborative studies. PMID:12682125

  20. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  1. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. ARAMIS project : a more explicit demonstration of risk control through the use of bow-tie diagrams and the evaluation of safety barrier performance

    OpenAIRE

    De Dianous, Valérie; Fievez, Cécile

    2006-01-01

    International audience Over the last two decades a growing interest for risk analysis has been noted in the industries. The ARAMIS project has defined a methodology for risk assessment. This methodology has been built to help the industrialist to demonstrate that they have a sufficient risk control on their site. Risk analysis consists first in the identification of all the major accidents, assuming that safety functions in place are inefficient. This step of identification of the major ac...

  4. Tricyclic antidepressant radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A receptor assay for tricyclic antidepressants described here is based on the ability of these drugs to compete with [3H]-3-guinuclidnyl benzilate (3H-QNB) for binding to muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain membranes. The assay is sensitive, in that it can detect, for example, 2ng/ml nortriptyline in plasma. Seven plasma samples from depressed patients treated with nortriptyline were assayed with the radioreceptor and gas liquid chromatographic methods, and the results from these two methods were almost identical. This assay should be used cautiously, if at all, in patients treated with other drugs that have potent anticholinergic effects. (Auth.)

  5. Dynamic Isotope Power System: technology verification phase. Component test procedure for the ground demonstration system jet condenser orifice performance. 79-DIPS-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test procedure provides a description of the verification methods which shall be used in the development program to be conducted on the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Jet Condenser to verify adequate orifice thermal and hydraulic performance. The test objectives were to: verify on Dowtherm the results of water testing for nozzle selection, targeting and liquid jet brooming per TP-414A; characterize the condensing rate performance at varying lengths, velocities, and states for possible orifice configurations; and determine the sensitivity of the jet condenser to non-condensable gases

  6. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Development of post-column enzymic reactors with immobilized alcohol oxidase for use in the high-performance liquid chromatographic assay of alcohols with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Schiavon, G; Dorizzi, R; Marigo, M

    1991-01-18

    The development of a very sensitive, direct injection high-performance liquid chromatographic method, using a post-column reactor with immobilized alcohol oxidase, was undertaken with the aim of determining methanol and ethanol levels in microlitre volumes of biological samples. After reversed-phase chromatography to separate methanol and ethanol, the analytes were enzymically converted into the respective aldehydes with formation of stoichiometric amounts of hydrogen peroxide, which could be measured via electrochemical oxidation at a platinum electrode. Some problems were encountered in the development of solid-phase enzymic reactors, using a delicate enzyme, that is prone to lose activity, such as alcohol oxidase. Owing to the slightly alkaline pH required for the optimum activity of alcohol oxidase, polymeric columns seemed to be preferable for the chromatography. HEMA copolymer was chosen as the stationary phase, but the methanol and ethanol peaks eluted close together and posed severe problems of limiting post-column band spreading. Reactors based on coarse supports for enzyme immobilization gave unacceptable band spreading, causing the methanol and ethanol peaks to overlap. On the other hand high-performance liquid chromatographic packings maintained the efficiency of the chromatographic separation, quite independently of the reactor volume. Polymeric supports proved superior to silicas in maintaining the enzyme activity. However, relevant changes in the enzyme substrate specificity were observed after immobilization. PMID:2061376

  8. Use of Cause-and-Effect Analysis to Design a High-Quality Nanocytotoxicology Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösslein, Matthias; Elliott, John T; Salit, Marc; Petersen, Elijah J; Hirsch, Cordula; Krug, Harald F; Wick, Peter

    2015-01-20

    An important consideration in developing standards and regulations that govern the production and use of commercial nanoscale materials is the development of robust and reliable measurements to monitor the potential adverse biological effects of such products. These measurements typically require cell-based and other biological assays that provide an assessment of the risks associated with the nanomaterial of interest. In this perspective, we describe the use of cause-and-effect (C&E) analysis to design robust, high quality cell-based assays to test nanoparticle-related cytotoxicity. C&E analysis of an assay system identifies the sources of variability that influence the test result. These sources can then be used to design control experiments that aid in establishing the validity of a test result. We demonstrate the application of C&E analysis to the commonly used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) cell-viability assay. This is the first time to our knowledge that C&E analysis has been used to characterize a cell-based toxicity assay. We propose the use of a 96-well plate layout which incorporates a range of control experiments to assess multiple factors such as nanomaterial interference, pipetting accuracy, cell seeding density, and instrument performance, and demonstrate the performance of the assay using the plate layout in a case study. While the plate layout was formulated specifically for the MTS assay, it is applicable to other cytotoxicity, ecotoxicity (i.e., bacteria toxicity), and nanotoxicity assays after assay-specific modifications. PMID:25473822

  9. Validation of the Filovirus Plaque Assay for Use in Preclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtleff, Amy C; Bloomfield, Holly A; Mort, Shannon; Orr, Steven A; Audet, Brian; Whitaker, Thomas; Richards, Michelle J; Bavari, Sina

    2016-01-01

    A plaque assay for quantitating filoviruses in virus stocks, prepared viral challenge inocula and samples from research animals has recently been fully characterized and standardized for use across multiple institutions performing Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) studies. After standardization studies were completed, Good Laboratory Practices (GLP)-compliant plaque assay method validation studies to demonstrate suitability for reliable and reproducible measurement of the Marburg Virus Angola (MARV) variant and Ebola Virus Kikwit (EBOV) variant commenced at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The validation parameters tested included accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, stability of the virus stocks and system suitability. The MARV and EBOV assays were confirmed to be accurate to ±0.5 log10 PFU/mL. Repeatability precision, intermediate precision and reproducibility precision were sufficient to return viral titers with a coefficient of variation (%CV) of ≤30%, deemed acceptable variation for a cell-based bioassay. Intraclass correlation statistical techniques for the evaluation of the assay's precision when the same plaques were quantitated by two analysts returned values passing the acceptance criteria, indicating high agreement between analysts. The assay was shown to be accurate and specific when run on Nonhuman Primates (NHP) serum and plasma samples diluted in plaque assay medium, with negligible matrix effects. Virus stocks demonstrated stability for freeze-thaw cycles typical of normal usage during assay retests. The results demonstrated that the EBOV and MARV plaque assays are accurate, precise and robust for filovirus titration in samples associated with the performance of GLP animal model studies. PMID:27110807

  10. Demonstration of lactoferrin in tumor tissue from two patients with positive gallium scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have detected lactoferrin in tumor tissue from a patient with Hodgkin's disease and a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma. Both patients had radiogallium scans demonstrating increased uptake in the tumor tissue subsequently found to contain lactoferrin. Tissue assay for lactoferrin was performed by the indirect immunofluorescence method. Control splenic tissue showed either slight lactoferrin content or none

  11. The impact of HIV infection and CD4 cell count on the performance of an interferon gamma release assay in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabye, Martine G.; Ravn, Pernille; PrayGod, George;

    2009-01-01

    pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a TB- and HIV-endemic population and the effect of HIV-infection and CD4 cell count on test performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 161 patients with sputum culture confirmed PTB were subjected to HIV- and QFT-IT testing and measurement of CD4 cell count. The QFT-IT was...... positive in 74% (119/161; 95% CI: 67-81%). Sensitivity was higher in HIV-negative (75/93) than in HIV-positive (44/68) patients (81% vs. 65%, p = 0.02) and increased with CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients (test for trend p = 0.03). 23 patients (14%) had an indeterminate result and this proportion...... decreased with increasing CD4 cell count in HIV-positive patients (test for trend p = 0.03). Low CD4 cell count (<300 cells/microl) did not account for all QFT-IT indeterminate nor all negative results. Sensitivity when excluding indeterminate results was 86% (95% CI: 81-92%) and did not differ between HIV...

  12. Temperature Switch PCR (TSP: Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather Diane E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP, a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. Results We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Conclusion Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  13. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  14. Development and validation of a simple high performance thin layer chromatography method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay to quantify free radical scavenging activity in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to: (a) develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with direct 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay to rapidly assess and compare free radical scavenging activity or anti-oxidant activity for major classes of polyphenolics present in wines; and (b) to investigate relationship between free radical scavenging activity to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the wine samples. The most potent free radical scavengers that we tested for in the wine samples were found to be resveratrol (polyphenolic non-flavonoid) and rutin (flavonoid), while polyphenolic acids (caffeic acid and gallic acid) although present in all wine samples were found to be less potent free radical scavengers. Therefore, the total antioxidant capacity was mostly affected by the presence of resveratrol and rutin, while total polyphenolic content was mostly influenced by the presence of the less potent free radical scavengers gallic and caffeic acids. PMID:26616951

  15. ORNL TRU-waste-assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ORNL has been selected as the demonstration site for a new transuranic neutron assay system developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The major objectives of the cooperative interlaboratory program is to field test, calibrate, and evaluate the neutron interrogation system, to provide a demonstration and training facility for DOE of this sophisticated technology, to reduce the volume of TRU waste stored at ORNL, and to provide positive identification of the radionuclide content of the ORNL TRU waste. In order to meet these objectives, a two-tier assay system utilizing the LANL neutron interrogation assay system and an upgraded gamma-ray drum scanner has been employed. Each assay technique and the results obtained from the examination of authentic ORNL TRU waste are described

  16. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  17. SSTI Clark ACS Technology Demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Freesland, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    SSTI Clark, one of two spacecraft built under NASA's Small Satellite Technology Initiative, includes seven ACS technology demonstrations. The technologies redefine the performance cost envelope, providing improved sensor and actuator performance at reduced costs. Six sensing technologies are being flown consisting of both hardware and algorithmic demonstrations: autonomous star tracker, hemispherical resonating gyro, GPS attitude determination, miniature horizon sensors, low cost course sun s...

  18. Synthesis, Optimization, and Performance Demonstration of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber-Carbon Nanotube Composite Sorbents for Point-of-Use Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Katherine T; Vargo, John D; Rupasinghe, Thilini P; De Jesus, Aribet; Tivanski, Alexei V; Sander, Edward A; Myung, Nosang V; Cwiertny, David M

    2016-05-11

    We developed an electrospun carbon nanofiber-carbon nanotube (CNF-CNT) composite with optimal sorption capacity and material strength for point-of-use (POU) water treatment. Synthesis variables including integration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and macroporosity (via sublimation of phthalic acid), relative humidity (20 and 40%), and stabilization temperature (250 and 280 °C) were used to control nanofiber diameter and surface area (from electron microscopy and BET isotherms, respectively), surface composition (from XPS), and strength (from AFM nanoindentation and tensile strength tests). Composites were then evaluated using kinetic, isotherm, and pH-edge sorption experiments with sulfamethoxazole (log Kow = 0.89) and atrazine (log Kow = 2.61), representative micropollutants chosen for their different polarities. Although CNFs alone were poor sorbents, integration of CNTs and macroporosity achieved uptake comparable to granular activated carbon. Through reactivity comparisons with CNT dispersions, we propose that increasing macroporosity exposes the embedded CNTs, thereby enabling their role as the primary sorbent in nanofiber composites. Because the highest capacity sorbents lacked sufficient strength, our optimal formulation (polyacrylonitrile 8 wt %, CNT 2 wt %, phthalic acid 2.4 wt %; 40% relative humidity; 280 °C stabilization) represents a compromise between strength and performance. This optimized sorbent was tested with a mixture of ten organic micropollutants at environmentally relevant concentrations in a gravity-fed, flow-through filtration system, where removal trends suggest that both hydrophobic and specific binding interactions contribute to micropollutant uptake. Collectively, this work highlights the promise of CNF-CNT filters (e.g., mechanical strength, ability to harness CNT sorption capacity), while also prioritizing areas for future research and development (e.g., improved removal of highly polar micropollutants, sensitivity to

  19. Automated optical sensing system for biochemical assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszlan, Peter; Duveneck, Gert L.; Ehrat, Markus; Widmer, H. M.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new system called FOBIA that was developed and optimized with respect to automated operation of repetitive assay cycles with regenerable bioaffinity sensors. The reliability and precision of the new system is demonstrated by an application in a competitive assay for the detection of the triazine herbicide Atrazine. Using one sensor in more than 300 repetitive cycles, a signal precision better than 5% was achieved.

  20. Transgenic Animal Mutation Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Chen; Ph.D.D.A.B.T.

    2005-01-01

    @@ The novel transgenic mouse and rat mutation assays have provided a tool for analyzing in vivo mutation in any tissue, thus permitting the direct comparison of cancer incidence with mutant frequency.

  1. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Oxidation/Filtration and Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Clinton Christian School in Goshen, IN - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Clinton Christian School in Goshen, IN. The objectives of the project were to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies’...

  2. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Coupled with Dual Plumbing Distribution - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Carmel Elementary School in Carmel, ME -Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic and antimony removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Carmel Elementary School (CES) in Carmel, ME. An innovative approach of employing point of entry (POE) reverse osmo...

  3. The neutral comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single-cell gel electrophoresis (or comet) assay is a rapid and sensitive fluorescence microscopic method that is used for the detection of DNA damage at the individual cell level. Comet assay under neutral conditions allows the detection of DNA double-strand breaks, considered to the biologically relevant radiation-induced lesion. In this report we describe modifications of the neutral comet method and its use for studying DNA damage and its repair in irradiated human lymphocytes. (author)

  4. Demonstration of impact performance of the nuclear transport package in on-site hypothetical collision scenarios by a heavy goods vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent fuel modules are contained in Module Removal Container (MRC) during on-site transport at the D154 facilities in the Devonport Naval Dockyard in the United Kingdom. The container is transported on its own on a Low Level Transfer Trolley (LLTT) and accommodated within a Transfer Frame. The LLTT travels on rails and moves either under its own power or towed by a Rail Tug Unit. The Transfer Frame provides a secure means of support to the MRC during transit and provides impact protection in the event of collision. The MRC is accommodated within the Transfer Frame by way of a sub-frame assembly. It rests on its sub-frame and is held in a vertical position by a number of support arms bolted to the Frame. The Transfer Frame is attached to the Low Level Transfer Trolley by a combination of bolts and shear pins. The combination of LLTT, Transfer Frame, sub-frame and a MRC is known as a Nuclear Transport Package (NTP). The design basis vehicle impact accident specifies a collision from a 20 tonne vehicle travelling at 20 mph from any direction. In order to satisfy the safety functional requirements, the NTP is required to meet the following conditions: The NTP should not overturn as a complete assembly following the impact. The Transfer Frame should not detach from the LLTT, and with the attachments remaining within the Level D stress limits specified in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 3. The MRC should be shown to withstand any potential impacts of the vehicle in the event of failure of any of the frame members. The frame must not transmit as a result of the vehicle impact, to either container, loads that would compromise their shielding and containment boundaries. The performance of the NTP was substantiated by finite element (FE) analysis, using the explicit non-linear transient code LS-DYNA. The work formed part of the site license application for the D154 facilities

  5. Demonstration of impact performance of the nuclear transport package in on-site hypothetical collision scenarios by a heavy goods vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, C.F.; Izatt, C. [Arup (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Spent fuel modules are contained in Module Removal Container (MRC) during on-site transport at the D154 facilities in the Devonport Naval Dockyard in the United Kingdom. The container is transported on its own on a Low Level Transfer Trolley (LLTT) and accommodated within a Transfer Frame. The LLTT travels on rails and moves either under its own power or towed by a Rail Tug Unit. The Transfer Frame provides a secure means of support to the MRC during transit and provides impact protection in the event of collision. The MRC is accommodated within the Transfer Frame by way of a sub-frame assembly. It rests on its sub-frame and is held in a vertical position by a number of support arms bolted to the Frame. The Transfer Frame is attached to the Low Level Transfer Trolley by a combination of bolts and shear pins. The combination of LLTT, Transfer Frame, sub-frame and a MRC is known as a Nuclear Transport Package (NTP). The design basis vehicle impact accident specifies a collision from a 20 tonne vehicle travelling at 20 mph from any direction. In order to satisfy the safety functional requirements, the NTP is required to meet the following conditions: The NTP should not overturn as a complete assembly following the impact. The Transfer Frame should not detach from the LLTT, and with the attachments remaining within the Level D stress limits specified in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 3. The MRC should be shown to withstand any potential impacts of the vehicle in the event of failure of any of the frame members. The frame must not transmit as a result of the vehicle impact, to either container, loads that would compromise their shielding and containment boundaries. The performance of the NTP was substantiated by finite element (FE) analysis, using the explicit non-linear transient code LS-DYNA. The work formed part of the site license application for the D154 facilities.

  6. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  7. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  8. Comparison and evaluation of Renibacterium salmoninarum quantitative PCR diagnostic assays using field samples of Chinook and coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Todd A; Jacobson, Kym C

    2011-01-21

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a Gram-positive bacterium causing bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in susceptible salmonid fishes. Several quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to measure R. salmoninarum infection intensity have been reported, but comparison and evaluation of these assays has been limited. Here, we compared 3 qPCR primer/probe sets for detection of R. salmoninarum in field samples of naturally exposed Chinook and coho salmon first identified as positive by nested PCR (nPCR). Additional samples from a hatchery population of Chinook salmon with BKD were included to serve as strong positive controls. The 3 qPCR assays targeted either the multiple copy major soluble antigen (msa) genes or the single copy abc gene. The msa/non-fluorescent quencher (NFQ) assay amplified R. salmoninarum DNA in 53.2% of the nPCR positive samples, whereas the abc/NFQ assay amplified 21.8% of the samples and the abc/TAMRA assay 18.2%. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) successfully quantified only 16.4% of the nPCR positive samples. Although the msa/NFQ assay amplified a greater proportion of nPCR positive samples, the abc/NFQ assay better amplified those samples with medium and high ELISA values. A comparison of the geometric mean quantity ratios highlighted limitations of the assays, and the abc/NFQ assay strongly amplified some samples that were negative in other tests, in contrast to its performance among the sample group as a whole. These data demonstrate that both the msa/NFQ and abc/NFQ qPCR assays are specific and effective at higher infection levels and outperform the ELISA. However, most pathogen studies will continue to require multiple assays to both detect and quantify R. salmoninarum infection. PMID:21381519

  9. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  10. Teleoperation for learning by demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukliński, Kamil; Fischer, Kerstin; Marhenke, Ilka;

    2014-01-01

    Learning by demonstration is a useful technique to augment a robot's behavioral inventory, and teleoperation allows lay users to demonstrate novel behaviors intuitively to the robot. In this paper, we compare two modes of teleoperation of an industrial robot, the demonstration by means of a data...... glove and by means of a control object (peg). Experiments with 16 lay users, performing assembly task on the Cranfield benchmark objects, show that the control peg leads to more success, more efficient demonstration and fewer errors....

  11. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings. This...... paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses, and...... encompasses both an evaluation of the design and Construction process as well as a post-occupancy evaluation. Process experiences include the use of a multidisciplinary competence group and performance measurement. The commencement of the project was enthusiastic, but it was forced into more traditional forms...

  12. Radioreceptor assay: theory and applications to pharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the first part of this work is to present the theory of the radioreceptor assay and to compare it to the other techniques of radioanalysis (radioimmunoassay, competitive protein binding assays). The technology of the radioreceptor assay is then presented and its components (preparation of the receptors, radioligand, incubation medium) are described. The analytical characteristics of the radioreceptor assay (specificity, sensitivity, reproductibility, accuracy) and the pharmacological significance of the results are discussed. The second part is devoted to the description of the radioreceptor assays of some pharmacological classes (neuroleptics, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepines, β-blockers, anticholinergic drugs) and to their use in therapeutic drug monitoring. In conclusion, by their nature, radioreceptor assays are highly sensitive, reliable, precise, accurate and simple to perform. Their chief disadvantage relates to specificity, since any substance having an appreciable affinity to the receptor site will displace the specifically bound radioligand. Paradoxically in some cases, this lack of specificity may be advantageous in that it allows for the detection of not only the apparent compound but of active metabolites and endogenous receptor agonists as well and in that radioreceptors assays can be devised for a whole pharmacological class and not only for one drug as it is the case for classical physico-chemical techniques. For all these reasons future of radioreceptor assay in pharmacology appears promising

  13. Validation of the Filovirus Plaque Assay for Use in Preclinical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C. Shurtleff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A plaque assay for quantitating filoviruses in virus stocks, prepared viral challenge inocula and samples from research animals has recently been fully characterized and standardized for use across multiple institutions performing Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4 studies. After standardization studies were completed, Good Laboratory Practices (GLP-compliant plaque assay method validation studies to demonstrate suitability for reliable and reproducible measurement of the Marburg Virus Angola (MARV variant and Ebola Virus Kikwit (EBOV variant commenced at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID. The validation parameters tested included accuracy, precision, linearity, robustness, stability of the virus stocks and system suitability. The MARV and EBOV assays were confirmed to be accurate to ±0.5 log10 PFU/mL. Repeatability precision, intermediate precision and reproducibility precision were sufficient to return viral titers with a coefficient of variation (%CV of ≤30%, deemed acceptable variation for a cell-based bioassay. Intraclass correlation statistical techniques for the evaluation of the assay’s precision when the same plaques were quantitated by two analysts returned values passing the acceptance criteria, indicating high agreement between analysts. The assay was shown to be accurate and specific when run on Nonhuman Primates (NHP serum and plasma samples diluted in plaque assay medium, with negligible matrix effects. Virus stocks demonstrated stability for freeze-thaw cycles typical of normal usage during assay retests. The results demonstrated that the EBOV and MARV plaque assays are accurate, precise and robust for filovirus titration in samples associated with the performance of GLP animal model studies.

  14. Bench-top validation testing of selected immunological and molecular Renibacterium salmoninarum diagnostic assays by comparison with quantitative bacteriological culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D G; Applegate, L J; Murray, A L; Purcell, M K; McKibben, C L

    2013-09-01

    No gold standard assay exhibiting error-free classification of results has been identified for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. Validation of diagnostic assays for R. salmoninarum has been hindered by its unique characteristics and biology, and difficulties in locating suitable populations of reference test animals. Infection status of fish in test populations is often unknown, and it is commonly assumed that the assay yielding the most positive results has the highest diagnostic accuracy, without consideration of misclassification of results. In this research, quantification of R. salmoninarum in samples by bacteriological culture provided a standardized measure of viable bacteria to evaluate analytical performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and repeatability) of non-culture assays in three matrices (phosphate-buffered saline, ovarian fluid and kidney tissue). Non-culture assays included polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), direct smear fluorescent antibody technique (FAT), membrane-filtration FAT, nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) and three real-time quantitative PCR assays. Injection challenge of specific pathogen-free Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), with R. salmoninarum was used to estimate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Results did not identify a single assay demonstrating the highest analytical and diagnostic performance characteristics, but revealed strengths and weaknesses of each test. PMID:23346868

  15. Energy Transfer Assays Using Quantum Dot-Gold Nanoparticle Complexes: Optimizing Oligonucleotide Assay Configuration Using Monovalently Conjugated Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddayasankar, Uvaraj; Krull, Ulrich J

    2015-07-28

    The energy transfer between quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) represents a popular transduction scheme in analytical assays that use nanomaterials. The impact of the spatial arrangement of the two types of nanoparticles on analytical performance has now been evaluated using a nucleic acid strand displacement assay. The first spatial arrangement (configuration 1) involved the assembly of a number of monovalently functionalized QD-oligonucleotide conjugates around a single central AuNP that was functionalized with complementary oligonucleotide sequences. The assembly of these complexes, and subsequent disassembly via target oligonucleotide-mediated displacement, were used to evaluate energy transfer efficiencies. Furthermore, the inner filter effect of AuNPs on the fluorescence intensity of the QD was studied. AuNPs of three different diameters (6, 13, and 30 nm) were used in these studies. Configuration 2 was based on the placement of monovalently functionalized AuNP-oligonucleotide conjugates around a single QD that was functionalized with a complementary oligonucleotide. The optimal assay configuration, established by evaluating energy transfer efficiencies and inner filter effects, was obtained by arranging at most 15 QDs around the 13 nm AuNP (configuration 1). These assays provided a 2.5-fold change in fluorescence intensity in the presence of target oligonucleotides. To obtain the same response with configuration 2 required the placement of three 6 nm AuNPs around the QD. This resulted in configuration 2 having a 5-fold lower fluorescence intensity when compared to configuration 1. The use of low-cost detection systems (digital camera) further emphasized the higher analytical performance of configuration 1. Response curves obtained using these detection systems demonstrated that configuration 1 had a 10-fold higher sensitivity when compared to configuration 2. This study provides an important framework for the development of sensitive assays

  16. Mobile non-destructive assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile system for non-destructive assay (NDA), developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides accurate and sensitive measurements for transuranic (TRU) isotopes contained in 208-iota drums of miscellaneous nuclear wastes. The NDA unit consists of four major subsystems: an assay chamber, counting and digital electronics, data acquisition, and a neutron generator. It performs both active and passive neutron waste measurements. The former determines the amount of fissile isotopes at a sensitivity level of 1 mg plutonium. The latter determines spontaneous fission and α,n) isotopes at a comparable level. A complete assay consists of sequential active and passive measurements. The assay measurement and other supporting data are incorporated in a commercial spreadsheet program (Lotus 1,2,3) for further analysis, which includes various matrix corrections and a determination of whether or not the drum exceeds the 100-nCi/g threshold for TRU wastes. Field tests have been performed on three separate occasions, accomplishing more than 1800 waste drum assays. These waste drum assays are discussed, especially those comparing passive and active neutron measurements with independent segmented gamma scan assays. Results obtained with a set of 15 drums containing plutonium prepared from standards and actual hot waste matrices are also reviewed

  17. Nondestructive assay measurements applied to reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive assay for reprocessing plants relies on passive gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium isotopic and plutonium mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; on active x-ray fluorescence and densitometry techniques for uranium and plutonium concentrations in solutions; on calorimetry for plutonium mass in product; and passive neutron techniques for plutonium mass in spent fuel, product, and waste. This paper will describe the radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform materials accounting measurements. The paper will also discuss nondestructive assay measurements used in inspections of reprocessing plants

  18. Automated Imaging and Analysis of the Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Fries, Katherine; Khoury, Rawia; Zheng, Lingyi; Hu, Branda; Hildreth, Stephen W; Parkhill, Robert; Warren, William

    2016-04-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay quantifies the level of strain-specific influenza virus antibody present in serum and is the standard by which influenza vaccine immunogenicity is measured. The HAI assay endpoint requires real-time monitoring of rapidly evolving red blood cell (RBC) patterns for signs of agglutination at a rate of potentially thousands of patterns per day to meet the throughput needs for clinical testing. This analysis is typically performed manually through visual inspection by highly trained individuals. However, concordant HAI results across different labs are challenging to demonstrate due to analyst bias and variability in analysis methods. To address these issues, we have developed a bench-top, standalone, high-throughput imaging solution that automatically determines the agglutination states of up to 9600 HAI assay wells per hour and assigns HAI titers to 400 samples in a single unattended 30-min run. Images of the tilted plates are acquired as a function of time and analyzed using algorithms that were developed through comprehensive examination of manual classifications. Concordance testing of the imaging system with eight different influenza antigens demonstrates 100% agreement between automated and manual titer determination with a percent difference of ≤3.4% for all cases. PMID:26464422

  19. Comparison of a Classical Phagocytosis Assay and a Flow Cytometry Assay for Assessment of the Phagocytic Capacity of Sera from Adults Vaccinated with a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Wouter T. M.; Väkeväinen-Anttila, Merja; Käyhty, Helena; Nahm, Moon; Bakker, N.; Verhoef, Jan; Snippe, Harm; Verheul, André F. M.

    2001-01-01

    Antibody- and complement-mediated phagocytosis is the main defense mechanism against Streptococcus pneumoniae. A standardized, easy to perform phagocytosis assay for pneumococci would be a great asset for the evaluation of the potential efficacy of (experimental) pneumococcal vaccines. Such an assay could replace the laborious phagocytosis assay of viable pneumococci (classical killing assay). Therefore, a newly developed phagocytosis assay based on flow cytometry (flow assay) was compared wi...

  20. Rapid diagnosis of MDR and XDR tuberculosis with the MeltPro TB assay in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Dong, Haiyan; Tan, Yaoju; Deng, Yunfeng; Cai, Xingshan; Jing, Hui; Xia, Hui; Li, Qiang; Ou, Xichao; Su, Biyi; Li, Xuezheng; Zhang, Zhiying; Li, Junchen; Zhang, Jiankang; Huan, Shitong; Zhao, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    New diagnostic methods have provided a promising solution for rapid and reliable detection of drug-resistant TB strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the MeltPro TB assay in identifying multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients from sputum samples. The MeltPro TB assay was evaluated using sputum samples from 2057 smear-positive TB patients. Phenotypic Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 drug susceptibility testing served as a reference standard. The sensitivity of the MeltPro TB assay was 94.2% for detecting resistance to rifampicin and 84.9% for detecting resistance to isoniazid. For second-line drugs, the assay showed a sensitivity of 83.3% for ofloxacin resistance, 75.0% for amikacin resistance, and 63.5% for kanamycin resistance. However, there was a significant difference for detecting kanamycin resistance between the two pilot sites in sensitivity, which was 53.2% in Guangdong and 81.5% in Shandong (P = 0.015). Overall, the MeltPro TB assay demonstrated good performance for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and 71.4%, respectively. The MeltPro TB assay is an excellent alternative for the detection of MDR- and XDR-TB cases in China, with high accuracy, short testing turn-around time, and low unit price compared with other tests. PMID:27149911

  1. The JaCVAM / OECD activities on the comet assay

    OpenAIRE

    Hajime Kojima

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, also called alkaline comet assay is a method measuring DNA strand breaks in eukaryotic cells. This assay was adopted in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test guideline (TG) 489 on September 26, 2014. This TG is part of a series of TGs on genetic toxicology. A formal validation trial of the this assay was performed in 2006-2012, coordinated by the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative...

  2. Neutral Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Comet assay (or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay) is a sensitive technique to detect DNA damage at the level of an individual cell. This technique is based on micro-electrophoresis of cells DNA content. Briefly, cells are embedded in agarose, lysed and submitted to an electric field, before the staining step with a fluorescent DNA binding dye. Damaged DNA (charged DNA) migrates in this field, forming the tail of a “comet”, while undamaged DNA remained in the head of the “comet”. The ...

  3. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  4. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  5. Biomonitoring of genotoxic risk in radar facility workers: comparison of the comet assay with micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genotoxic risks of occupational exposure in a radar facility were evaluated by using alkaline comet assay, micronucleus assay and chromatid breakage assay on peripheral blood leukocytes in exposed subjects and corresponding controls. Results show that occupational exposure to microwave radiation correlates with an increase of genome damage in somatic cells. The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by using alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control and showed interindividual variations. Incidence of micronuclei was also significantly increased compared to baseline control values. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin, cells of occupationally exposed subjects responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Although the level of chromosome damage generated by bleomycin varied greatly between individuals, in exposed subjects a significantly elevated number of chromatid breaks was observed. Our results support data reported in literature indicating that microwave radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard. Alkaline comet assay is confirmed as a sensitive and highly reproducible technique for detection of primary DNA damage inflicted in somatic cells. Micronucleus assay was confirmed as reliable bio-markers of effect and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive bio-marker of individual cancer susceptibility. The results obtained also confirm the necessity to improve measures and to perform accurate health surveillance of individuals occupationally exposed to microwave radiation

  6. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman

    2015-12-14

    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dramote and can be found on Figshare.

  7. Endotoxin contamination of enzyme conjugates used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, R. E.; Chamovitz, B N; Morse, S A; Apicella, M A; Morthland, V H

    1983-01-01

    The specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(s) is thought to depend on the specificity of the antibody used in the assay system. Therefore, the association of broadly reactive antigens like endotoxin with enzyme conjugates or other enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagents has the potential of altering the specificity of reactions in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, we demonstrated that commercially prepared conjugates of goat ant...

  8. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  9. Instrument for assaying radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  10. Low-energy ED-XRF spectrometry application in gold assaying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of a low-energy dispersive XRF spectrometer in gold assaying are evaluated by a series of analysis on international standards and other certified gold alloys with. Results of standard-free analysis based on fundamental parameters method compared to results of multi-standard method, demonstrate a large gain of accuracy by drawing appropriate calibration curves with use of 1 to 16 matrix-specific standards. The accuracy of gold assaying has improved by a factor of 10, as compared to the conventional touchstone test. This rather economical technique satisfies then numerous precious alloys analyst needs, representing an excellent alternative to the traditional method for quick anti-fraud controls

  11. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  12. Performative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack-Nielsen, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the potential of building skins being climate-adaptive. The principle of folding, and the relation between form and performance of facades are discussed here.......The article describes the potential of building skins being climate-adaptive. The principle of folding, and the relation between form and performance of facades are discussed here....

  13. Use of Serum or Buffer-Changed EDTA-Plasma in a Rapid, Inexpensive, and Easy-To-Perform Hemolytic Complement Assay for Differential Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Monitoring of Patients with the Disease▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ekdahl, Kristina N.; Norberg, Dan; Anders A Bengtsson; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Nilsson, Ulf R.; Nilsson, Bo

    2007-01-01

    We previously described a simplified quantitative hemolytic assay for classical pathway (CP) hemolytic function in serum that has been shown to correlate with the 50% hemolytic complement (CH50) assay. In the present study, we used this assay to compare CP functions; plasma levels of C3, C4, and C3dg; and ratios of C3dg to C3 in healthy individuals and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with different degrees of complement activation. A significant d...

  14. Evaluation of novel assays for the detection of human papilloma virus in self-collected samples for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Du, H; Zhang, R; Zhao, J H; Hu, Q C; Wang, C; Wang, G X; Tang, J L; Wu, R F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three new high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) assays for primary cervical cancer screening, by using self-collected samples, and to identify an HPV assay that could overcome the major obstacles faced during large-scale population-based screening. Two hundred and ten women showing abnormal cervical cytology (and referred for a colposcopy) were recruited in this study. Self-collected samples obtained from all women were tested with the Cobas, Seq, and BioPerfectus Multiplex Real Time HPV assays; simultaneously, clinician-collected samples (from the same women) were tested with the gold-standard Cobas HPV assay. The results of all the assays were consistent. The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) and CIN3+ were comparable between the self-collected samples tested with the three new assays and the clinician-collected samples tested with the Cobas HPV assay (P > 0.05). The single-genotype HPV load per sample did not differ significantly between the self- and clinician-collected samples (P = 0.195). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated the applicability of the three new HPV assays for primary cervical cancer screening based on self-collection. PMID:27420961

  15. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  16. From Antenna to Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  17. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay in low volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainor, Anthony; Chang, Lyra; McQuade, Thomas J; Webb, Brian; Gestwicki, Jason E

    2011-03-15

    The BCA assay is a colorimetric method for estimating protein concentration. In 96-well plates, the relationship between protein content and absorbance is nearly linear over a wide range; however, performance is reduced in lower volume. To overcome this limitation, we performed the BCA assays in opaque, white 384-well plates. These plates emit fluorescence between 450-600 nm when excited at 430 nm; thus, their fluorescence is quenched by the BCA chromophore (λ(max) 562 nm). This arrangement allowed accurate determination of protein content using only 2 μL of sample. Moreover, soluble flourescein could replace the white plates, creating a homogenous format. PMID:21078286

  18. A Two-Tube Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Viral and Bacterial Pathogens of Infectious Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea caused by viral and bacterial infections is a major health problem in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to develop a two-tube multiplex PCR assay using automatic electrophoresis for simultaneous detection of 13 diarrhea-causative viruses or bacteria, with an intended application in provincial Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, China. The assay was designed to detect rotavirus A, norovirus genogroups GI and GII, human astrovirus, enteric adenoviruses, and human bocavirus (tube 1, and Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Yersinia, and Vibrio cholera (tube 2. The analytical specificity was examined with positive controls for each pathogen. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial tenfold dilutions of in vitro transcribed RNA, recombinant plasmids, or bacterial culture. A total of 122 stool samples were tested by this two-tube assay and the results were compared with those obtained from reference methods. The two-tube assay achieved a sensitivity of 20–200 copies for a single virus and 102-103 CFU/mL for bacteria. The clinical performance demonstrated that the two-tube assay had comparable sensitivity and specificity to those of reference methods. In conclusion, the two-tube assay is a rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, specific, and high throughput method for the simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria and virus.

  19. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41......-65 years (n = 2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings...

  20. Comparison of Droplet Digital PCR and Quantitative PCR Assays for Quantitative Detection of Xanthomonas citri Subsp. citri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Youping; Wang, Zhongkang

    2016-01-01

    Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a novel molecular biology technique providing absolute quantification of target nucleic acids without the need for an external calibrator. Despite its emerging applications in medical diagnosis, there are few reports of its use for the detection of plant pathogens. This work was designed to assess the diagnosis potential of the ddPCR for absolute quantitative detection of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, a quarantine plant pathogenic bacterium that causes citrus bacterial canker in susceptible Citrus species. We transferred an established quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for citrus bacterial canker diagnosis directly to the ddPCR format and compared the performance of the two methods. The qPCR assay has a broader dynamic range compared to the ddPCR assay and the ddPCR assay has a significantly higher degree of sensitivity compared to the qPCR assay. The influence of PCR inhibitors can be reduced considerably in the ddPCR assay because the collection of end-point fluorescent signals and the counting of binomial events (positive or negative droplets) are associated with a Poisson algorithm. The ddPCR assay also shows lower coefficient of variation compared to the qPCR assay especially in low target concentration. The linear association of the measurements by ddPCR and qPCR assays is strong (Pearson correlation = 0.8633; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates the ddPCR methodology is a more robust approach for diagnosis of citrus bacterial canker. In summary, the results demonstrated that the ddPCR assay has the potential for the quantitative detection of X. citri subsp. citri with high precision and accuracy as compared with the results from qPCR assay. Further studies are required to evaluate and validate the value of ddPCR technology in the diagnosis of plant disease and quarantine applications. PMID:27427975

  1. Lateral-Flow Assay for Rapid Serodiagnosis of Human Leptospirosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, Henk L.; Eapen, C. K.; Sugathan, Sheela; Kuriakose, Mariamma; Gasem, M. Hussein; Yersin, Claude; Sasaki, David; Pujianto, Bambang; Vestering, Marc; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Gussenhoven, George C.

    2001-01-01

    An assay device for the rapid detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in human sera is presented. The sensitivity (85.8%) and specificity (93.6%) of the assay compared well (91.9% agreement) with those of an IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay routinely used in the serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. The sensitivity of the assay varied with the stage of the disease. The assay uses stabilized components and is simply performed by the addition of serum and sample fluid ...

  2. Toxicity assays in nanodrops combining bioassay and morphometric endpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Lemaire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Improved chemical hazard management such as REACH policy objective as well as drug ADMETOX prediction, while limiting the extent of animal testing, requires the development of increasingly high throughput as well as highly pertinent in vitro toxicity assays. METHODOLOGY: This report describes a new in vitro method for toxicity testing, combining cell-based assays in nanodrop Cell-on-Chip format with the use of a genetically engineered stress sensitive hepatic cell line. We tested the behavior of a stress inducible fluorescent HepG2 model in which Heat Shock Protein promoters controlled Enhanced-Green Fluorescent Protein expression upon exposure to Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2, Sodium Arsenate (NaAsO2 and Paraquat. In agreement with previous studies based on a micro-well format, we could observe a chemical-specific response, identified through differences in dynamics and amplitude. We especially determined IC50 values for CdCl2 and NaAsO2, in agreement with published data. Individual cell identification via image-based screening allowed us to perform multiparametric analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Using pre/sub lethal cell stress instead of cell mortality, we highlighted the high significance and the superior sensitivity of both stress promoter activation reporting and cell morphology parameters in measuring the cell response to a toxicant. These results demonstrate the first generation of high-throughput and high-content assays, capable of assessing chemical hazards in vitro within the REACH policy framework.

  3. Active and passive computed tomography for nondestructive assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R T; Camp, D E; Clard, D; Jackson, J A; Martz, H E, Decman, D J; Roberson, G P

    1998-10-28

    Traditional gamma-ray methods used to characterize nuclear waste introduce errors that are related to non-uniform measurement responses associated with unknown radioactive source and matrix material distributions. These errors can be reduced by applying an active and passive tomographic technique (A&PCT) developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The technique uses an external radioactive source and active tomography to map the attenuation within a waste barrel as a function of mono-energetic gamma-ray energy. Passive tomography is used to localize and identify specific radioactive waste within the same container. Reconstruction of the passive data using the attenuation maps at specific energies allows internal waste radioactivity to be corrected for any overlying heterogeneous materials, thus yielding an absolute assay of the waste activity. LLNL and Bio-Imaging Research, Inc. have collaborated in a technology transfer effort to integrate an A&PCT assay system into a mobile waste characterization trailer. This mobile system has participated in and passed several formal DOE-sponsored performance demonstrations, tests and evaluations. The system is currently being upgraded with multiple detectors to improve throughput, automated gamma-ray analysis code to simplify the assay, and a new emission reconstruction code to improve accuracy

  4. Variance in multiplex suspension array assays: microsphere size variation impact

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng R Holland; Xing Li; Hanley Brian P

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Luminex suspension microarray assays are in widespread use. There are issues of variability of assay readings using this technology. Methods and results Size variation is demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Size variations of microspheres are shown to occur in stepwise increments. A strong correspondence between microsphere size distribution and distribution of fluorescent events from assays is shown. An estimate is made of contribution of microsphere size va...

  5. Rapid and sensitive assay for the phytotoxin rhizobitoxine.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, X.; Peters, N K

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobitoxine is a phytotoxin synthesized by some strains of the legume symbiont genus Bradyrhizobium and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas andropogonis. We demonstrate here a new enzymatic assay which is 100-fold more sensitive than previous assays and can detect as little as 1.0 pmol of rhizobitoxine. The assay is based on the inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium beta-cystathionase by rhizobitoxine. Interestingly, beta-cystathionase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum is insensitive to rhizobitoxine...

  6. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  7. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  8. Radon assay for SNO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+

  9. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  10. Utility of propidium monoazide viability assay as a biomarker for a tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Miotto, Paolo; Pimkina, Edita; Balabanova, Yanina; Kontsevaya, Irina; Ignatyeva, Olga; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Skenders, Girts; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Kovalyov, Alexander; Sadykhova, Anna; Simak, Tatiana; Kritsky, Andrey; Mironova, Svetlana; Tikhonova, Olesya; Dubrovskaya, Yulia; Rodionova, Yulia; Cirillo, Daniela; Drobniewski, Francis

    2015-03-01

    Reliable laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), including laboratory biomarkers of cure, remains a challenge. In our study we evaluated the performance of a Propidium Monoazide (PMA) assay for the detection of viable TB bacilli in sputum specimens during anti-TB chemotherapy and its potential use as a TB biomarker. The study was conducted at three centres on 1937 sputum specimens from 310 adult bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB patients obtained before commencing anti-TB treatment and at regular intervals afterwards. Performance of the PMA assay was assessed using various readout assays with bacteriology culture results and time to positivity on liquid media used as reference standards. Treatment of sputum with N-acetyl-cysteine was found to be fully compatible with the PMA assay. Good sensitivity and specificity (97.5% and 70.7-80.0%) for detection of live TB bacilli was achieved using the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF test as a readout assay. Tentative Ct and ΔCt thresholds for the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF system were proposed. Good correlation (r = 0.61) between Ct values and time to positivity of TB cultures on liquid media was demonstrated. The PMA method has potential in monitoring bacterial load in sputum specimens and so may have a role as a biomarker of cure in TB treatment. PMID:25534168

  11. Scrap Cans Assayed in 55-Gallon Drums by Adapted Q2 Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2001-07-24

    This report describes an alternate assay technique developed to perform batch nondestructive assay (NDA) of ten scrap cans at a time. This report also discusses and compares the results of the one batch of ten scrap cans by assaying them individually at the 324-M assay station with the alternate assay technique developed to perform batch NDA of ten scrap cans at a time using the Q2.

  12. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  13. Comparison of LC-MS Assay and HPLC Assay of Busulfan in Clinical Pharmacokinetics Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hongxia Lin; Susan Goodin; Strair, Roger K.; Robert S. DiPaola; Gounder, Murugesan K.

    2012-01-01

    Busulfan is used in preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation and timely busulfan plasma concentration reporting is critical for subsequent dose adjustment. We compared two sensitive methods for pharmacokinetics studies including LC-MS assay and HPLC precolumn derivatization assay. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Gemini C18 column. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used for plasma sample preparation. Busulfan and internal standard ([2H8]-busulfan) were d...

  14. Canberra waste assay systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries, Inc. (USA) offers complete solutions and turnkey systems for qualifying and quantifying drums of radioactive waste. Different Waste Assay Systems are available for low-, medium-, and high activity barrels. Such systems scan the segments of the drums. The gamma-emitting nuclides present in the radioactive waste are identified from the spectra of the gamma-rays emitted and their activities are quantified. The spectrum of each segment of the waste container is analysed separately and the results are summed for total drum inventory reporting. The Waste Assay specific Canberra software is an easy-to-use menu driven program. It offers automatic procedures for routine work but interactive mode is also available to investigate particular cases. The way of analysis and the format and contents of the report can be customized. Additional Quality Control program module monitors system parameters. The measured and calculated values of each waste container are saved into a relational database. Canberra offers mathematical efficiency calibration services for different drum types, with different waste densities and different activities. This new theoretical approach of efficiency calibration eliminates the need of calibration drums, thus saving costs. For field applications Canberra developed a portable In-Situ Object Counting System. This system determines efficiency calibration for any kind of objects after the user enters its size and density, furthermore the type of shielding and the distance between the detector and the object. (author)

  15. Characterization of decommissioned reactor internals: Direct-assay method assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the direct-assay technique for measuring activation levels of irradiated reactor component hardware. It also compares the direct-assay technique with calculational analysis methods that predict activation levels. Direct assay is performed in four steps: (a) planning and component selection, (b) onsite measurements, (c) radiochemical analysis, and (d) data analysis and classification. Uncertainties are estimated for each step of this process, and an overall uncertainty in the classification accuracy is calculated as about ±35%. Numerous research ideas are identified to help reduce the uncertainty level; many of these ideas would improve activation determinations performed by either direct assay or by calculational analysis methods

  16. Characterization of decommissioned reactor internals: Direct-assay method assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study describes the direct-assay technique for measuring activation levels of irradiated reactor component hardware. It also compares the direct-assay technique with calculational analysis methods that predict activation levels. Direct assay is performed in four steps: (a) planning and component selection, (b) onsite measurements, (c) radiochemical analysis, and (d) data analysis and classification. Uncertainties are estimated for each step of this process, and an overall uncertainty in the classification accuracy is calculated as about {plus_minus}35%. Numerous research ideas are identified to help reduce the uncertainty level; many of these ideas would improve activation determinations performed by either direct assay or by calculational analysis methods.

  17. PATCAD 2009 Demonstration [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School (U.S.)

    2010-01-01

    PATCAD 2009 Demonstration, Demonstration of Blizzard ADS at PATCAD 2009, Demonstration of Blizzard ADS at PATCAD 2009 in Yuma AZ. “Prepared by: United States Army Research, Development and Engineering Command – Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC)”

  18. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  20. Potentiometric assay for acid and alkaline phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple potentiometric kinetic assay for evaluation of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity has been developed. Enzymatically catalyzed hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate, the simplest inorganic compound containing P-F bond, has been investigated as the basis of the assays. Fluoride ions formed in the course of the hydrolysis of this specific substrate have been detected using conventional fluoride ion-selective electrode based on membrane made of lanthanum fluoride. The key analytical parameters necessary for sensitive and selective detection of both enzymes have been assessed. Maximal sensitivity of the assays was observed at monofluorophosphate concentration near 10-3 M. Maximal sensitivity of acid phosphatase assay was found at pH 6.0, but pH of 4.8 is recommended to eliminate effects from alkaline phosphatase. Optimal pH for alkaline phosphatase assay is 9.0. The utility of the developed substrate-sensor system for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum has been demonstrated

  1. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for naringin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huihua; Wang, Xueqian; Qu, Baoping; Kong, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Shan, Wenchao; Cheng, Jinjun; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan

    2016-01-15

    Among the currently used immunoassay techniques, sandwich ELISA exhibits higher specificity, lower cross-reactivity, and a wider working range compared to the corresponding competitive assays. However, it is difficult to obtain a pair of antibodies that can simultaneously bind to two epitopes of a molecule with a molecular weight of less than 1000 Da. Naringin (Nar) is a flavonoid with a molecular mass of 580 Da. The main aim of this study was to develop a sandwich ELISA for detecting Nar. Two hybridomas secreting anti-Nar monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced by fusing splenocytes from a mouse immunised against Nar-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated with a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine (HAT)-sensitive mouse myeloma cell line; a sandwich ELISA for detecting Nar was developed using these two well-characterised anti-Nar mAbs. The performance of the sandwich assay was further evaluated by limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, and interference analyses. A dose-response curve to Nar was obtained with an LOD of 6.78 ng mL(-1) and an LOQ of 13.47 ng mL(-1). The inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients of variation were 4.32% and 7.48%, respectively. The recovery rate of Nar from concentrated Fructus aurantii granules was 83.63%. A high correlation was obtained between HPLC and sandwich ELISA. These results demonstrate that the sandwich ELISA method has higher specificity for Nar than indirect competitive ELISA. PMID:26709308

  2. Evaluation of a Commercially Developed Semiautomated PCR–Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Assay for Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbitts, Samantha J.; Perry, Michael D.; Green, Julie; Stirling, Emma; Woodford, Luke; McNay, Graeme; Stevenson, Ross; Barnes, Rosemary A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonculture-based tests are gaining popularity in the diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD), but PCR is excluded from disease-defining criteria because of limited standardization and a lack of commercial assays. Commercial PCR assays may have a standardized methodology while providing quality assurance. The detection of PCR products by a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay potentially provides superior analytical sensitivity and multiplexing capacity compared to that of real-time PCR. Using this approach, the RenDx Fungiplex assay was developed to detect Candida and Aspergillus. Analytical and clinical evaluations of the assay were undertaken using extraction methods according to European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) recommendations. A total of 195 previously extracted samples (133 plasma, 49 serum, and 13 whole blood) from 112 patients (29 with proven/probable IFD) were tested. The 95% limit of detection of Candida and Aspergillus was 200 copies per reaction, with an overall reproducibility of 92.1% for detecting 20 input copies per PCR, and 89.8% for the nucleic acid extraction–PCR-SERS process for detecting fungal burdens of <20 genome equivalents per sample. A clinical evaluation showed that assay positivity significantly correlated with IFD (P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of the assay was 82.8% and was similar for both Candida (80.0%) and Aspergillus (85.7%). The specificity was 87.5% and was increased (97.5%) by using a multiple (≥2 samples) PCR-positive threshold. In summary, the RenDx Fungiplex assay is a PCR-SERS assay for diagnosing IFD and demonstrates promising clinical performance on a variety of samples. This was a retrospective clinical evaluation, and performance is likely to be enhanced through a prospective analysis of clinical validity and by determining clinical utility. PMID:25031443

  3. Evaluation of a commercially developed semiautomated PCR-surface-enhanced raman scattering assay for diagnosis of invasive fungal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Hibbitts, Samantha J; Perry, Michael D; Green, Julie; Stirling, Emma; Woodford, Luke; McNay, Graeme; Stevenson, Ross; Barnes, Rosemary A

    2014-10-01

    Nonculture-based tests are gaining popularity in the diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD), but PCR is excluded from disease-defining criteria because of limited standardization and a lack of commercial assays. Commercial PCR assays may have a standardized methodology while providing quality assurance. The detection of PCR products by a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay potentially provides superior analytical sensitivity and multiplexing capacity compared to that of real-time PCR. Using this approach, the RenDx Fungiplex assay was developed to detect Candida and Aspergillus. Analytical and clinical evaluations of the assay were undertaken using extraction methods according to European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) recommendations. A total of 195 previously extracted samples (133 plasma, 49 serum, and 13 whole blood) from 112 patients (29 with proven/probable IFD) were tested. The 95% limit of detection of Candida and Aspergillus was 200 copies per reaction, with an overall reproducibility of 92.1% for detecting 20 input copies per PCR, and 89.8% for the nucleic acid extraction-PCR-SERS process for detecting fungal burdens of <20 genome equivalents per sample. A clinical evaluation showed that assay positivity significantly correlated with IFD (P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of the assay was 82.8% and was similar for both Candida (80.0%) and Aspergillus (85.7%). The specificity was 87.5% and was increased (97.5%) by using a multiple (≥ 2 samples) PCR-positive threshold. In summary, the RenDx Fungiplex assay is a PCR-SERS assay for diagnosing IFD and demonstrates promising clinical performance on a variety of samples. This was a retrospective clinical evaluation, and performance is likely to be enhanced through a prospective analysis of clinical validity and by determining clinical utility. PMID:25031443

  4. Development and validation of Burkholderia pseudomallei-specific real-time PCR assays for clinical, environmental or forensic detection applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P Price

    Full Text Available The bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a rare but serious illness that can be fatal if untreated or misdiagnosed. Species-specific PCR assays provide a technically simple method for differentiating B. pseudomallei from near-neighbor species. However, substantial genetic diversity and high levels of recombination within this species reduce the likelihood that molecular signatures will differentiate all B. pseudomallei from other Burkholderiaceae. Currently available molecular assays for B. pseudomallei detection lack rigorous validation across large in silico datasets and isolate collections to test for specificity, and none have been subjected to stringent quality control criteria (accuracy, precision, selectivity, limit of quantitation (LoQ, limit of detection (LoD, linearity, ruggedness and robustness to determine their suitability for environmental, clinical or forensic investigations. In this study, we developed two novel B. pseudomallei specific assays, 122018 and 266152, using a dual-probe approach to differentiate B. pseudomallei from B. thailandensis, B. oklahomensis and B. thailandensis-like species; other species failed to amplify. Species specificity was validated across a large DNA panel (>2,300 samples comprising Burkholderia spp. and non-Burkholderia bacterial and fungal species of clinical and environmental relevance. Comparison of assay specificity to two previously published B. pseudomallei-specific assays, BurkDiff and TTS1, demonstrated comparable performance of all assays, providing between 99.7 and 100% specificity against our isolate panel. Last, we subjected 122018 and 266152 to rigorous quality control analyses, thus providing quantitative limits of assay performance. Using B. pseudomallei as a model, our study provides a framework for comprehensive quantitative validation of molecular assays and provides additional, highly validated B. pseudomallei assays for the scientific research community.

  5. Improved PCR-Based Detection of Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections Using a Next-Generation Sequencing Approach to Assay Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Papaiakovou, Marina; Grant, Jessica R.; Bierwert, Lou Ann; Llewellyn, Stacey; McCarthy, James S.; Williams, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The soil transmitted helminths are a group of parasitic worms responsible for extensive morbidity in many of the world’s most economically depressed locations. With growing emphasis on disease mapping and eradication, the availability of accurate and cost-effective diagnostic measures is of paramount importance to global control and elimination efforts. While real-time PCR-based molecular detection assays have shown great promise, to date, these assays have utilized sub-optimal targets. By performing next-generation sequencing-based repeat analyses, we have identified high copy-number, non-coding DNA sequences from a series of soil transmitted pathogens. We have used these repetitive DNA elements as targets in the development of novel, multi-parallel, PCR-based diagnostic assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Utilizing next-generation sequencing and the Galaxy-based RepeatExplorer web server, we performed repeat DNA analysis on five species of soil transmitted helminths (Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis). Employing high copy-number, non-coding repeat DNA sequences as targets, novel real-time PCR assays were designed, and assays were tested against established molecular detection methods. Each assay provided consistent detection of genomic DNA at quantities of 2 fg or less, demonstrated species-specificity, and showed an improved limit of detection over the existing, proven PCR-based assay. Conclusions/Significance The utilization of next-generation sequencing-based repeat DNA analysis methodologies for the identification of molecular diagnostic targets has the ability to improve assay species-specificity and limits of detection. By exploiting such high copy-number repeat sequences, the assays described here will facilitate soil transmitted helminth diagnostic efforts. We recommend similar analyses when designing PCR-based diagnostic tests for the detection of other

  6. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  7. Detection of Eperythrozoon wenyoni by PCR assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian WANG; Yutao ZHU; Jianhua QIN; Fumei ZHANG; Yuelan ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a detection method for Eperythrozoon wenyoni infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay technique. A pair of primers was designed and synthesized according to the conservative sequence 16S rRNA. The PCR assay was performed with the primers. A 985-bp fragment was amplified by using PCR. The amplified fragments with the expected size were identified by EcoR I restriction digestion. The crossing-reaction, specific-reaction and duplicate-reaction indicated that the PCR method is a specific, sensitive, fast and effective method for diagnosing E. Wenyoni infection at group level.

  8. Characterisation of an in vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay for use in regulatory toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin-Ethier, Jessica; Leroux, Francis; Wang, Nan; Thébaud, Sybil; Merah, Farida; Nelson, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Integration of in vivo genotoxicity testing into standard toxicology studies presents multiple advantages as it reduces animal use and costs, accelerates data generation and provides concurrent data that are useful for interpreting results. The in vivo Pig-a assay is a mammalian gene mutation assay that utilises peripheral blood and thus has a high integration potential. Although inter-laboratory reproducibility has been well demonstrated, further characterisation is required for this assay. In this study, we evaluated intra-laboratory reproducibility of the in vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay (MutaFlow® kit) in rats through the conduct of an assay characterisation prior to subsequent use in Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) toxicology studies. To evaluate intra-laboratory reproducibility, intra-assay and inter-assay variability, ruggedness, robustness and blood storage stability were assessed. These assessments were performed using blood obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 20 or 40mg/kg/day N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea via oral gavage for three consecutive days. Blood was collected from these rats on multiple occasions from Day 29 to Day 71 and samples were analysed for Pig-a mutation using the rat MutaFlow kit. Frequencies of reticulocytes (RET), mutant phenotype erythrocytes (RBC(CD59-)) and mutant phenotype RET (RET(CD59-)) were determined. Overall, the proportion of RET and frequencies of RBC(CD59-) and of RET(CD59-) were consistent throughout the different assessments. The assay demonstrated acceptable intra-run and inter-run variability with coefficients of variation of ≤4.8 and 20.6%, respectively. The method was shown to be independent of the analyst performing the assay and unaffected by small changes in assay conditions. Comparable results were obtained from freshly collected samples and samples refrigerated for up to 4 days. Although technically challenging, the rat Pig-a gene mutation assay using a high-throughput automated method was shown to

  9. Fully Automated RNAscope In Situ Hybridization Assays for Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Courtney M; Zhang, Bingqing; Miller, Melanie; Butko, Emerald; Wu, Xingyong; Laver, Thomas; Kernag, Casey; Kim, Jeffrey; Luo, Yuling; Lamparski, Henry; Park, Emily; Su, Nan; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Biomarkers such as DNA, RNA, and protein are powerful tools in clinical diagnostics and therapeutic development for many diseases. Identifying RNA expression at the single cell level within the morphological context by RNA in situ hybridization provides a great deal of information on gene expression changes over conventional techniques that analyze bulk tissue, yet widespread use of this technique in the clinical setting has been hampered by the dearth of automated RNA ISH assays. Here we present an automated version of the RNA ISH technology RNAscope that is adaptable to multiple automation platforms. The automated RNAscope assay yields a high signal-to-noise ratio with little to no background staining and results comparable to the manual assay. In addition, the automated duplex RNAscope assay was able to detect two biomarkers simultaneously. Lastly, assay consistency and reproducibility were confirmed by quantification of TATA-box binding protein (TBP) mRNA signals across multiple lots and multiple experiments. Taken together, the data presented in this study demonstrate that the automated RNAscope technology is a high performance RNA ISH assay with broad applicability in biomarker research and diagnostic assay development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2201-2208, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27191821

  10. Assays without Borders - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPTAC researchers partner with international labs to demonstrate the ability of Targeted mass spectrometry–based assays to reproducibly quantify Human proteins across labs, countries and continents in a recently published journal article.

  11. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  12. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  13. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-29

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  14. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Prussin, Stanley

    2009-06-05

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has ben performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX's photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  15. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Materials Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) techniques for the isotopic and quantitative assaying of radioactive material. Potential applications include age-dating of an unknown radioactive source, pre- and post-detonation nuclear forensics, and safeguards for nuclear fuel cycles Examples of age-dating a strong radioactive source and assaying a spent fuel pin are discussed. The modeling work has been performed with the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNPX, and the capability to simulate NRF has bee added to the code. Discussed are the limitations in MCNPX?s photon transport physics for accurately describing photon scattering processes that are important contributions to the background and impact the applicability of the NRF assay technique.

  16. Nanoparticles for Use in Enzyme Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Pil; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have created new ways to enhance the performance of classical biosensors in analytical sciences. NPs with unprecedented physiochemical properties can serve both as excellent carriers of bioreceptors and as signal enhancers, leading to improved assay platforms with high sensitivity and selectivity. Because enzymes play central roles in many cellular functions, specific and precise assays of their functions are of great significance in medical science and biotechnology. Here we review recent advances in NP-based biosensors and their use in enzyme assays. With fast and specific responses to enzyme-mediated reactions, NPs transduce and amplify the initial responses into various types of signals, such as electrochemical, optical and magnetic ones. Translation of their potential should lead to functionalized NPs finding wide applications in diagnostics, drug development and biotechnology. PMID:26662229

  17. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  18. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  19. Transformation Assay for Identification of Psychrotrophic Achromobacters

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, Elliot; Heym, Gloria A.

    1980-01-01

    The finding that many psychrotrophic, gram-negative, nonmotile, oxidase-positive coccobacilli (achromobacters) are competent for genetic transformation made possible the development of a transformation assay that permits recognition of genetically related strains. It has been demonstrated that 109 independently isolated achromobacters are genetically related since deoxyribonucleic acid samples from all of these organisms were able to transform a single competent auxotrophic strain to prototro...

  20. Limitations of the radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (RIPEGA) for detection of filarial antigens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Alexander, E.; Adkinson, N.F. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA). School of Medicine); Hussain, R. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1984-03-30

    The performance of the radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (RIPEGA) was examined for quantitation of filarial antigens (Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis) in serum from infected human and animal hosts and non-infected controls. Multiple PEG concentrations were employed to determine the level of non-specific binding (NSB) in non-exposed human sera (NEHS) containing no filarial antigen. The NSB observed when 3 different /sup 125/I-labelled IgG antibodies were added to 26 NEHS varied 3-fold and was correlated significantly with total serum IgM (r = 0.80, P < 0.005, n = 24) but not with serum IgA (r = 0.37) or IgG (r = 0.45). NSB levels were significantly reduced when a Fab'/sub 2/ fragment of the /sup 125/I-labelled antibody was used, but the correlation of NSB with total serum IgM remained significant (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). The presence of rheumatoid factor in NEHS sera also significantly increased NSB by an average of 3-fold. These effects eliminated the assay's ability to detect in sera from infected hosts filarial antigen the presence of which could be readily demonstrated by an immunoradiometric assay. The RIPEGA's precision (intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) = 21% at 35% Bsub(max)) and reproducibility (inter-assay CV = 29% at 35% Bsub(max)) are less satisfactory than many alternative immunoassays.

  1. Rapid and sensitive detection of major uropathogens in a single-pot multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, B; Vinoth Kumar, R; Patel, Amee; Deepika Swarnam, S; Vaidehi, T; Jaffar Ali, B M

    2012-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common bacterial infections and poses a significant healthcare burden. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of UTI accounting for up to 70 % and a variable contribution from Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To establish a complete diagnostic system, we have developed a single-tube multiplex PCR assay (mPCR) for the detection of the above-mentioned four major uropathogens. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be as low as 10(2) cfu/ml of cells. The mPCR evaluated on 280 clinical isolates detected 100 % of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis and 95 % of K. pneumonia. The assay was performed on 50 urine samples and found to be specific and sensitive for clinical diagnosis. In addition, the mPCR was also validated on spiked urine samples using 40 clinical isolates to demonstrate its application under different strain used in this assay. In total, mPCR reported here is a rapid and simple screening tool that can compete with conventional biochemical-based screening assays that may require 2-3 days for detection. PMID:22526571

  2. Development of an assay for urinary free cortisol determination on the Technicon Immuno 1 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, M.; Levesque, A.; Daigle, F. [Centre Universitaire de Sante de l' Estrie, Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, Site Fleurimont, Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-08-15

    To develop and evaluate a method using an ethyl acetate extraction procedure for the determination of urinary free cortisol on the Technicon Immuno 1 system from Bayer Corporation. We tested the assay precision, linearity, and correlation with the Urinary Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol radioimmunoassay. We also studied the efficiency of the extraction procedure, performed a cross-reactivity study with different cortisol metabolites, and determined the reference values. The assay shows within-run CVs varying from 1.6 to 5.3% and between-day CVs from 2.7 to 6.1% for urinary free cortisol concentrations from 58 to 1097 nmol/L. The assay demonstrates an excellent linearity and a very good correlation with the Kallestad Quanticoat Cortisol assay (slope 0.94, y-intercept = 29 nmol/L, Sy|x = 54 nmol/L, r = 0.996). The reference values were estimated at 42-281 nmol/d. The extraction procedure shows an average recovery of 99.0% and minimal interference with the cortisol metabolites tested with the exception of cortisone. The evaluation shows that the developed assay has the analytical characteristics required for its utilization in a clinical laboratory. (author)

  3. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the variability of the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes the micronucleus (MN) assay has been used for many years. The results of these studies suggest the use of the MN assay as a biomarker for cancer predisposition. However, the MN assay has still some limitations associated with the reproducibility and sensitivity. Especially a high intra-individual variability has been observed. An explanation for this high intra-individual variability is not yet available. In literature it is suggested that the high variability among females is attributable to hormonal status. In this study we investigated if the high intra-individual variability in micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of females after in vitro exposure to ionising radiation is caused by variations in hormone levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG). For this, the MN assay was performed on blood samples of 18 healthy women during 7 consecutive weeks while the estradiol and progesterone levels were determined at the same time. The MN assay was also examined in cultures of isolated blood lymphocytes with estradiol or progesterone levels added in vitro. The results demonstrated that estradiol and progesterone levels have no influence on the variations in radiation-induced MN yields observed in blood samples of healthy women. These conclusions were confirmed by the 'in vitro' experiments as no correlation between the MN yields and the concentrations of hormones (estradiol or progesterone) added in vitro to isolated lymphocytes cultures was observed

  4. Microalgae on display: a microfluidic pixel-based irradiance assay for photosynthetic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Percival J; Riordon, Jason; Sinton, David

    2015-08-01

    Microalgal biofuel is an emerging sustainable energy resource. Photosynthetic growth is heavily dependent on irradiance, therefore photobioreactor design optimization requires comprehensive screening of irradiance variables, such as intensity, time variance and spectral composition. Here we present a microfluidic irradiance assay which leverages liquid crystal display technology to provide multiplexed screening of irradiance conditions on growth. An array of 238 microreactors are operated in parallel with identical chemical environments. The approach is demonstrated by performing three irradiance assays. The first assay evaluates the effect of intensity on growth, quantifying saturating intensity. The second assay quantifies the influence of time-varied intensity and the threshold frequency for growth. Lastly, the coupled influence of red-blue spectral composition and intensity is assessed. Each multiplexed assay is completed within three days. In contrast, completing the same number of experiments using conventional incubation flasks would require several years. Not only does our approach enable more rapid screening, but the short optical path avoids self-shading issues inherent to flask based systems. PMID:26085371

  5. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  6. FLIPR assays of intracellular calcium in GPCR drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Bø; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    Fluorescent dyes sensitive to changes in intracellular calcium have become increasingly popular in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug discovery for several reasons. First of all, the assays using the dyes are easy to perform and are of low cost compared to other assays. Second, most non-Galph...

  7. Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition Assay: A Novel Functional Assessment of Blocking Virus Attachment by Vaccine-Induced Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Atul; Kachurina, Olga; Karol, Alex; Dhir, Vipra; Nguyen, Michael; Parkhill, Robert; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Chumakov, Konstantin; Warren, William; Kachurin, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination or natural infection play a critically important role in protection against the viral diseases. In general, neutralization of the viral infection occurs via two major pathways: pre- and post-attachment modes, the first being the most important for such infections as influenza and polio, the latter being significant for filoviruses. Neutralizing capacity of antibodies is typically evaluated by virus neutralization assays that assess reduction of viral infectivity to the target cells in the presence of functional antibodies. Plaque reduction neutralization test, microneutralization and immunofluorescent assays are often used as gold standard virus neutralization assays. However, these methods are associated with several important prerequisites such as use of live virus requiring safety precautions, tedious evaluation procedure and long assessment time. Hence, there is a need for a robust, inexpensive high throughput functional assay that can be performed rapidly using inactivated virus, without extensive safety precautions. Herein, we report a novel high throughput Fluorescence Adherence Inhibition assay (fADI) using inactivated virus labeled with fluorescent secondary antibodies virus and Vero cells or erythrocytes as targets. It requires only few hours to assess pre-attachment neutralizing capacity of donor sera. fADI assay was tested successfully on donors immunized with polio, yellow fever and influenza vaccines. To further simplify and improve the throughput of the assay, we have developed a mathematical approach for calculating the 50% titers from a single sample dilution, without the need to analyze multi-point titration curves. Assessment of pre- and post-vaccination human sera from subjects immunized with IPOL®, YF-VAX® and 2013-2014 Fluzone® vaccines demonstrated high efficiency of the assay. The results correlated very well with microneutralization assay performed independently by the FDA Center of

  8. γ干扰素释放试验在儿童肺结核诊断中的价值%Performance of interferon γ release assays in diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍磊; 李涛; 卢水华; 张文宏

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the performance of two kinds of interferon γrelease assays in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis in China (with a high rate of bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and a high incidence of tuberculosis ) , a total of 114 children with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited .Among the cases ,45 received QuantiFERON-Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT ) test while the other 69 were tested with T-SPOT .TB . The clinical information was collected for diagnostic classification . The sensitivity ,specificity ,positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were compared between the two methods .The sensitivity of QFT-GIT in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis was 86 .4% ,the specificity was 81 .3% ,PPV was 91 .7% ,and NPV was 76 .5% .In contrast ,the sensitivity of T-SPOT .TB was 72 .3% , the specificity was 93 .7% , PPV was 97 .1% , and NPV was 53 .6% . The positive rates of two methods in the cases treated with glucocorticoids decreased significantly compared to those untreated .In conclusion ,both QFT-GIT and T-SPOT .TB have high PPV in the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis since the rate of latent tuberculosis infection was low in children .%为研究2种γ干扰素释放试验(IGRA)试剂盒在结核病高发、卡介苗(BCG)高接种地区用于诊断儿童肺结核的价值,共入组临床怀疑肺结核患儿114例,其中45例行QuantiFERON-Gold In-Tube(QFT-GIT)检测,69例行T-SPOT .TB检测,收集临床资料,比较2种方法的灵敏度、特异度、阳性预测值(PPV)和阴性预测值(NPV )。结果显示,QFT-GIT 在儿童肺结核诊断中的灵敏度为84.6%、特异度为81.3%、PPV 为91.7%、NPV为76.5%。T-SPOT .TB的灵敏度为72.3%、特异度为93.7%、PPV为97.1%、NPV为53.6%。与未治疗患儿相比,激素治疗患儿QFT-GIT和T-SPOT .TB的阳性率显著下降

  9. Ultraminiaturized assay for rapid, low cost detection and quantification of clinical and biochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Shahila; Nahar, Pradip

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we report a simple, sensitive, rapid and low-cost ultraminiaturized assay technique for quantitative detection of 1 μl of clinical or biochemical sample on a novel ultraminiaturized assay plate (UAP). UAP is prepared by making tiny cavities on a polypropylene sheet. As UAP cannot immobilize a biomolecule through absorption, we have activated the tiny cavities of UAP by 1-fluoro-2-nitro-4-azidobenzene in a photochemical reaction. Activated UAP (AUAP) can covalently immobilize any biomolecule having an active nucleophilic group such as amino group. Efficacy of AUAP is demonstrated by detecting human IgE, antibody of hepatitis C virus core antigen and oligonucleotides. Quantification is performed by capturing the image of the colored assay solution and digitally quantifying the image by color saturation without using costly NanoDrop spectrophotometer. Image - based detection of human IgE and an oligonucleotide shows an excellent correlation with absorbance - based assay (recorded in a NanoDrop spectrophotometer); it is validated by Pearson's product-moment correlation with correlation coefficient of r = 0.9545088 and r = 0.9947444 respectively. AUAP is further checked by detecting hepatitis C virus Ab where strong correlation of color saturation with absorbance with respect to concentration is observed. Ultraminiaturized assay successfully detects target oligonucleotides by perfectly hybridizing with their respective complementary oligonucleotide probes but not with a random oligonucleotide. Ultraminiaturized assay technique has substantially reduced the requirement of reagents by 100 times and assay timing by 50 times making it a potential alternative to conventional method. PMID:26973054

  10. Rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a rapid, sensitive enzymatic assay for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) that does not require chromatography, HPLC, or autoradiography. The assay is based on the use of an inexpensive substrate, tritiated acetate, instead of [14C]chloramphenicol. The method is adapted from one originally used by de Crombrugghe et al. and by Shaw, but with simplifications appropriate for routine use. In our hands, the method is as sensitive as the customary thin-layer chromatography assay and is far more efficient for the performance of many assays, both in terms of labor and expense

  11. Detection of induced male germline mutation: Correlations and comparisons between traditional germline mutation assays, transgenic rodent assays and expanded simple tandem repeat instability assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several rodent assays are capable of monitoring germline mutation. These include traditional assays, such as the dominant lethal (DL) assay, the morphological specific locus (SL) test and the heritable translocation (HT) assay, and two assays that have been developed more recently-the expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) and transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation assays. In this paper, we have compiled the limited amount of experimental data that are currently available to make conclusions regarding the comparative ability of the more recently developed assays to detect germline mutations induced by chemical and radiological agents. The data suggest that ESTR and TGR assays are generally comparable with SL in detecting germline mutagenicity induced by alkylating agents and radiation, though TGR offered less sensitivity than ESTR in some cases. The DL and HT assays detect clastogenic events and are most susceptible to mutations arising in post-spermatogonial cells, and they may not provide the best comparisons with TGR and ESTR instability. The measurement of induced ESTR instability represents a relatively sensitive method of identifying agents causing germline mutation in rodents, and may also be useful for bio-monitoring exposed individuals in the human population. Any future use of the TGR and ESTR germline mutation assays in a regulatory testing context will entail more robust and extensive characterization of assay performance. This will require substantially more data, including experiments measuring multiple endpoints, a greatly expanded database of chemical agents and a focus on characterizing stage-specific activity of mutagens in these assays, preferably by sampling epididymal sperm exposed at defined pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of development

  12. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr+6; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  13. TENCompetence tool demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Kluijfhout, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Kluijfhout, E. (2009). TENCompetence tool demonstration. Presented at Zorgacademie Parkstad (Health Academy Parkstad), Limburg Leisure Academy, Life Long Learning Limburg and a number of regional educational institutions. May, 18, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands, TENCompetence.

  14. Commissioning the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqin; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator deploys high purity germanium (HPGe) detector modules to search for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment is aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility and low backgrounds for a next generation Ge-based BBz experiment. The program of testing and commissioning the Demonstrator modules is a critical step to debug and improve the experimental apparatus, to establish and refine operational procedures, and to develop data analysis tools. In this talk, we will discuss our experience commissioning the Demonstrator modules and show how this program leads to successful data-taking. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  15. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  16. Land Management Research Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002, Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge became one of the first Land Management and Research Demonstration LMRD sites. These sites are intended to serve as...

  17. High content screening as high quality assay for biological evaluation of photosensitizers in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela M F Vaz

    Full Text Available A novel single step assay approach to screen a library of photdynamic therapy (PDT compounds was developed. Utilizing high content analysis (HCA technologies several robust cellular parameters were identified, which can be used to determine the phototoxic effects of porphyrin compounds which have been developed as potential anticancer agents directed against esophageal carcinoma. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach a small detailed study on five porphyrin based compounds was performed utilizing two relevant esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and SKGT-4. The measurable outputs from these early studies were then evaluated by performing a pilot screen using a set of 22 compounds. These data were evaluated and validated by performing comparative studies using a traditional colorimetric assay (MTT. The studies demonstrated that the HCS assay offers significant advantages over and above the currently used methods (directly related to the intracellular presence of the compounds by analysis of their integrated intensity and area within the cells. A high correlation was found between the high content screening (HCS and MTT data. However, the HCS approach provides additional information that allows a better understanding of the behavior of these compounds when interacting at the cellular level. This is the first step towards an automated high-throughput screening of photosensitizer drug candidates and the beginnings of an integrated and comprehensive quantitative structure action relationship (QSAR study for photosensitizer libraries.

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  19. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  20. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. ASTRO Research Fellow Presentation - A comparison of the comet assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as a predictive assay for radiosensitivity in human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: To determine whether neutral lysis single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) can be used as a predictive assay for tissue response to radiotherapy as an alternative to clonogenic survival measurements. Materials and Methods: The comet assay has been widely used to measure DNA double strand breaks (dsb) in individual cells, and it has been suggested that it could be used as an alternative to clonogenic assays to measure radiosensitivity. Previous studies in this lab have demonstrated the ability of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, which also measures DNA dsb, to accurately predict the radiosensitivity of a panel of fibroblasts based on determination of residual DNA dsb. As part of an ongoing study examining the relationship between fibroblast radiosensitivity and normal-tissue radiation reactions, we have compared the sensitivity and accuracy of the comet assay and PFGE on a different panel of non-transformed fibroblasts derived from breast cancer patients who developed severe radiation late effects and from case-matched controls. For the measurement of initial damage, cells were suspended in PBS and irradiated on ice for the comet assay and irradiated in agarose plugs on ice for pFGE. Residual damage was measured following irradiation of confluent cultures at 37 degree sign C and subsequent incubation for four hours prior to preparation of agarose slides and plugs. All irradiations were performed with a 59 TBq 60Co source at a dose rate of 1.7 Gy/min. Electrophoresis was performed following neutral pH cell lysis. Comet images were captured and analyzed using Optimas software with DNA damage quantitated by the comet moment. PFGE gels were analyzed using a phosphor-image analysis system and damage was quantitated based on the percent of activity released from the well. Results: The comet assay was able to detect initial DNA damage at a threshold of 5 Gy and exhibited a linear dose

  2. Optimization of cell motility evaluation in scratch assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsulyak N. Ya.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A scratch test is one of the most popular methods of classical cell migration assay in a monolayer culture. At the same time, the scratch assay has some disadvantages that can be easily corrected. Aim. Optimization the existent scratch assay on the base of detection of scratch wound surface area and the length of the field of observation which is more objective and less time consuming. Methods. Scratch assay. Results. The modification of scratch assay enables to perform measurement more accurately and rapidly. This approach is more simple and eliminates the main disadvantages of the classical method. Conclusions. The procedure of scratch wound width measurement calculated on the base of detection of cell free area and the length of the field of observation is more effective than the classical wound healing assay. It will be useful for the estimation of cell migration dynamics in monolayer culture for a wide range of live cell based experiments.

  3. CRISPR is an optimal target for the design of specific PCR assays for salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Fabre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serotype-specific PCR assays targeting Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, the causal agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, are required to accelerate formal diagnosis and to overcome the lack of typing sera and, in some situations, the need for culture. However, the sensitivity and specificity of such assays must be demonstrated on large collections of strains representative of the targeted serotypes and all other bacterial populations producing similar clinical symptoms. METHODOLOGY: Using a new family of repeated DNA sequences, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, as a serotype-specific target, we developed a conventional multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A from cultured isolates. We also developed EvaGreen-based real-time singleplex PCR assays with the same two sets of primers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity for each protocol after validation of the assays on 188 serotype Typhi and 74 serotype Paratyphi A strains from diverse genetic groups, geographic origins and time periods and on 70 strains of bacteria frequently encountered in bloodstream infections, including 29 other Salmonella serotypes and 42 strains from 38 other bacterial species. CONCLUSIONS: The performance and convenience of our serotype-specific PCR assays should facilitate the rapid and accurate identification of these two major serotypes in a large range of clinical and public health laboratories with access to PCR technology. These assays were developed for use with DNA from cultured isolates, but with modifications to the assay, the CRISPR targets could be used in the development of assays for use with clinical and other samples.

  4. Multi-targeted priming for genome-wide gene expression assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomas Aleksandra B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary approaches to assaying global gene expression are needed to assess gene expression in regions that are poorly assayed by current methodologies. A key component of nearly all gene expression assays is the reverse transcription of transcribed sequences that has traditionally been performed by priming the poly-A tails on many of the transcribed genes in eukaryotes with oligo-dT, or by priming RNA indiscriminately with random hexamers. We designed an algorithm to find common sequence motifs that were present within most protein-coding genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Neurospora crassa, but that were not present within their ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA genes. We then experimentally tested whether degenerately priming these motifs with multi-targeted primers improved the accuracy and completeness of transcriptomic assays. Results We discovered two multi-targeted primers that would prime a preponderance of genes in the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa while avoiding priming ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA. Examining the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to nitrogen deficiency and profiling Neurospora crassa early sexual development, we demonstrated that using multi-targeted primers in reverse transcription led to superior performance of microarray profiling and next-generation RNA tag sequencing. Priming with multi-targeted primers in addition to oligo-dT resulted in higher sensitivity, a larger number of well-measured genes and greater power to detect differences in gene expression. Conclusions Our results provide the most complete and detailed expression profiles of the yeast nitrogen starvation response and N. crassa early sexual development to date. Furthermore, our multi-targeting priming methodology for genome-wide gene expression assays provides selective targeting of multiple sequences and counter-selection against undesirable sequences, facilitating a more complete and

  5. Evaluation of a commercial cytotoxicity assay for detection of Clostridium difficile toxin.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study was performed to determine the accuracy of Clostridium difficile toxin detection. A commercial cytotoxicity assay (Bartels Immunodiagnostic Supply, Bellevue, Wash.) was compared with conventional microcytotoxicity assays, using Vero and MRC-5 cells. The Bartels system was found to be essentially equivalent to conventional cytotoxicity assays currently being performed for routine C. difficile toxin detection.

  6. Automated UF6 Cylinder Enrichment Assay: Status of the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA) Project: POTAS Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Orton, Christopher R.; Mace, Emily K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Smith, Leon E.

    2012-06-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) intends to automate the UF6 cylinder nondestructive assay (NDA) verification currently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at enrichment plants. PNNL is proposing the installation of a portal monitor at a key measurement point to positively identify each cylinder, measure its mass and enrichment, store the data along with operator inputs in a secure database, and maintain continuity of knowledge on measured cylinders until inspector arrival. This report summarizes the status of the research and development of an enrichment assay methodology supporting the cylinder verification concept. The enrichment assay approach exploits a hybrid of two passively-detected ionizing-radiation signatures: the traditional enrichment meter signature (186-keV photon peak area) and a non-traditional signature, manifested in the high-energy (3 to 8 MeV) gamma-ray continuum, generated by neutron emission from UF6. PNNL has designed, fabricated, and field-tested several prototype assay sensor packages in an effort to demonstrate proof-of-principle for the hybrid assay approach, quantify the expected assay precision for various categories of cylinder contents, and assess the potential for unsupervised deployment of the technology in a portal-monitor form factor. We refer to recent sensor-package prototypes as the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The report provides an overview of the assay signatures and summarizes the results of several HEVA field measurement campaigns on populations of Type 30B UF6 cylinders containing low-enriched uranium (LEU), natural uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Approaches to performance optimization of the assay technique via radiation transport modeling are briefly described, as are spectroscopic and data-analysis algorithms.

  7. 新型绩效管理模式在优质护理示范病房的激励效应%Incentive effects of new performance management mode on high quality nursing demonstration ward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯军; 赵毅; 王芳; 刘英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨新型绩效管理模式在优质护理示范病房应用后的激励效应。方法对2011年5月—2012年5月科室护士绩效奖金按资历、职称、个人出勤率、分管患者护理级别数等计算,2012年6月—2013年6月科室奖金实施新型绩效管理模式。通过成立护理绩效考核小组,实行护士岗位分配及分层管理,建立新型绩效管理模式。比较实施前后基础护理、分级护理、危重护理、护理安全、病房管理等护理工作的质量,患者对护理工作的满意度,护士对自身工作的满意度情况进行比较。结果新型绩效管理模式实施后,基础护理、分级护理、危重护理、护理安全、病房管理等护理工作的质量评分情况明显高于实施前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。新型绩效管理模式实施前患者中有211人对护理工作非常满意,105人对护理工作满意,满意率为91.59%;实施后患者中有337人对护理工作非常满意,24人对护理工作满意,满意率为100%。新型绩效管理模式实施前护理人员对目前工作的满意率为20.52%;实施后护理人员对目前工作的满意率为71.79%。差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论实施新型绩效管理模式,充分调动了护士的工作积极性与主观能动性性,提高了护理工作质量及患者满意度。%Objective To explore incentive effects of the new performance management mode on high quality nursing demonstration ward. Methods Performance bonuses of departments were calculated by qualifications, professional titles, participatory attendance and nursing levels in charge of patients from May 2012 to May 2013. A new performance management mode was conducted to calculate performance bonuses of departments from June 2012 to June 2013. We established a nursing performance assessment team to carry out nurses′work allocation, hierarchical management and establishment of a new performance management model. The quality of

  8. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  9. TRUEX hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility

  10. Forms of vitamin B12 in radioisotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the presence of analogues of vitamin B12 (B12, cobalamin, Cbl) has been postulated as the basis for the high values obtained by some radioisotope dilution assays (RIDA) of serum Cbl, serum was examined for analogues. None could be demonstrated in the extracts of serum prepared for RIDA as sought by both direct and indirect techniques. The natural forms of serum Cbl were converted to cyanocobalamin (CN Cbl) by this process of extraction which included cyanide (CN). The correctly performed RIDA for Cbl based on R binder gave higher values than a RIDA based on intrinsic factor or than by bioassay. By exclusion, the difference appeared to be due to unidentified factors rather than the presence of analogues. (author)

  11. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  12. Depleted uranium waste assay at AWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston has recently conducted a Best Practical Means (BPM) study, for solid Depleted Uranium (DU) waste assay, in order to satisfy key stakeholders that AWE is applying best practice. This study has identified portable passive High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS), combined with an analytical software package called Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform (SNAP), as the preferred option with the best balance between performance and costs. HRGS/SNAP performance has been assessed by monitoring 200 l DU waste drum standards and also heterogeneous, high density drums from DU firing trials. Accuracy was usually within 30 % with Detection Limits (DL) in the region of 10 g DU for short count times. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations have been used to confirm the shape of the calibration curve generated by the SNAP software procured from Eberline Services Inc. (authors)

  13. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  14. Musical acoustics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekje, P. L.

    2003-10-01

    The ASA Musical Acoustics Demonstrations website (trial version at http://www.bw.edu/~phoekje) includes sound files, video clips, program code listings, and other material for demonstrations related to musical acoustics. Many of the sound demonstrations may be experienced either as expositions, in which the phenomena are explained before they are presented, or as experiments, in which the explanation comes after listeners have had the opportunity to draw their own conclusions. Suggestions are provided for apparatus construction and classroom experiments, as well as for building simple musical instruments. Software is recommended if it is available free and compatible with multiple personal computer operating systems. For example, Audacity (http://audacity.sourceforce.net) is a sound file editor and analyzer that can be used to visually represent sounds and manipulate them. Source files are included for the synthesized sound examples, which were created in Csound (http://csounds.com), so that interested users may create their own variations. Source code is also included for visual demonstrations created in Visual Python and Python (http://www.python.org), an efficient, high level programming language. Suggestions, criticisms, and contributions are always welcome! [Work supported by ASA and Baldwin-Wallace College.

  15. Final Demonstrator Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    understanding the spatial relations that obtain between the landscape architects and their materials, their work settings and their work sites.  This report should be read as an introduction and orientation to the various project  prototypes and demonstrators – it will make only limited sense taken in isolation.  ...

  16. More Diamagnetism Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Chris; Goodrich, L. F.; Stauffer, T. C.

    2003-02-01

    Inspired by, among others, Charles Sawicki's description of an inexpensive diamagnetic levitation apparatus, we built two such devices for classroom use and for educational outreach at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo. With a slightly different setup, the same demonstration can be done horizontally on an overhead projector.

  17. Rail crash demonstration scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the manner in which the rail crash scenario was selected for public demonstration. A simplified risk assessment led to the short listing of three contender scenarios involving a drop from a high level, a crash into an abutment and the crash of a train into a stationary flask. Predictive work led to the final selection of the train crash. (author)

  18. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  19. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  20. Radioligand assay: current trends in automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using automatic equipment to perform routine RIA procedures can save time and money, improve precision, and free technologists to work on more-complex, non-routine assays. This article examines some of the instruments available for semiautomated and fully automated RIA testing. The pros and cons of automated testing are explored, and a framework for judging the true value and limitations of systems is presented