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Sample records for aspirin treatment protect

  1. Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 23 Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart What can taking aspirin do for me? If you are at high risk for or if you have heart disease, taking a low dose aspirin every day may help. Aspirin can also help ...

  2. Aspirin

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    Alka-Seltzer® (as a combination product containing Aspirin, Citric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate) ... Alka-Seltzer® Extra Strength (as a combination product containing Aspirin, Citric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate)

  3. Poor awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury with combined protective medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ling Zhu; Ling-Cheng Xu; Yan Chen; Quan Zhou; Su Zeng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate prescribing pattern in low-dose aspirin users and physician awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal (GI) injury with combined protective medications.METHODS:A retrospective drug utilization study was conducted in the 2nd Affiliated Hospital,School of Medicine,Zhejiang University.The hospital has 2300 beds and 2.5 million outpatient visits annually.Data mining was performed on all aspirin prescriptions for outpatients and emergency patients admitted in 2011.Concomitant use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs),histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) and mucoprotective drugs (MPs) were analyzed.A defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was applied to each MP.A further investigation was performed in aspirin users on combination use of GI injurious medicines [non-steoid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),corticosteroids and clopidogrel and warfarin] or intestinal protective drugs (misoprostol,rebamipide,teprenone and gefarnate).Data of major bleeding episodes were derived from medical records and adverse drug reaction monitoring records.The annual incidence of major GI bleeding due to low-dose aspirin was estimated for outpatients.RESULTS:Prescriptions for aspirin users receiving PPIs,H2RA and MPs (n =1039) accounted for only 3.46%of total aspirin prescriptions (n =30 015).The ratios of coadministration of aspirin/PPI,aspirin/H2RA,aspirin/MP and aspirin/PPI/MP to the total aspirin prescriptions were 2.82%,0.12%,0.40% and 0.12%,respectively.No statistically significant difference was observed in age between patients not receiving any GI protective medications and patients receiving PPIs,H2RA or MPs.The combined medication of aspirin and PPI was used more frequently than that of aspirin and MPs (2.82% vs 0.40%,P < 0.05) and aspirin/H2RA (2.82% vs 0.12%,P < 0.05).The values of DDDs of MPs in descending order were as follows:gefarnate,hydrotalcite > teprenone > sucralfate oral suspension > L-glutamine and sodium

  4. Oral anticoagulant treatment with and without aspirin.

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    Altman, R; Rouvier, J; Gurfinkel, E

    1995-07-01

    For preventing thromboembolic events, the concurrent use of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs has been proposed. In prosthetic heart valves the use of moderate intensity anticoagulants [International Normalized Ratio (INR) 2-3] plus aspirin (100 mg/day) decreases the amount and severity of embolic episodes. The possibility that the same regimen could provide benefit in the prevention of thrombotic events in other arterial diseases is also indicated by the ATACS trial in unstable angina. The ongoing studies in ischemic heart diseases will also give the answer to this possibility.

  5. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route.

  6. Biological properties of citral and its potential protective effects against cytotoxicity caused by aspirin in the IEC-6 cells.

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    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-03-01

    Citral, 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal, is a key component of several essential oils extracted from lemon-scented herbal plants. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of citral and assess its possible protective effects against aspirin-induced toxicity in vitro. We used IEC-6 cells (rat small intestine epithelial cells). The antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene/linoleic acid and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by cell viability, anti-oxidant enzyme activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) production and by the expression of MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) pathways. According to results, citral showed an important antioxidant activity. It inhibited the oxidation of linoleic acid, a moderate DPPH was found and it showed a Ferric reducing antioxidant potential with an EC50 value of 125±28.86μg/mL. Then, the co-treatment of aspirin with citral significantly decreased the aspirin-induced cell death, and the MDA level. It modulated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. Also, the activation of MAPKs was attenuated by citral. These findings suggest that citral can protect IEC-6 cells against aspirin-induced oxidative stress that may help to discover new chemicals out of natural antioxidant substances.

  7. Aspirin in combination with TACE in treatment of unresectable HCC: a matched-pairs analysis

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    Li, Jing-Huan; Wang, Yan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Yin, Xin; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Rong-Xin; Ren, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the principal therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its efficacy is currently limited owing to tumor progression or treatment failure. It has been shown that aspirin reduces the incidence of multiple malignant tumors including HCC and plays a synergistic role with chemotherapy in the treatment of colon cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the adjuvant effect of aspirin on patients with unresectable HCC who underwent TACE therapy. A retrospective matched-pairs analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin in combination with TACE therapy. A total of 120 patients with HCC, including 60 patients treated with aspirin for treatment of cardiovascular disease, transient ischemic attack, and arthritis, and 60 paired matching HCC patients without aspirin treatment in the same period, were enrolled. Compared with non-aspirin users, patients treated with aspirin showed improved OS (P = 0.050). Specifically, patients treated with a full dose of aspirin showed prolonged OS (P = 0.027), which was an independent factor associated with OS in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.498, 95% confidence interval 0.280-0.888, P = 0.018). Aspirin in combination with TACE might improve OS in patients with unresectable HCC. Thus, the impact of aspirin on patients with HCC warrants further investigation prospectively. PMID:27725915

  8. The postulated mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer: Histological and immunohistochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah Khalil, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    There are many available drugs for treating gastric ulcer, but they have various side effects. Ginger is a folk, herbal medicine, which is used for treatment of various diseases including gastric ulcer. This study investigates the possible mechanism of the protective effect of ginger on aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into four groups (10 animal per each group) and orally received the followings once daily for 5 days: Group I: 3 ml of 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; Group II: ginger powder (200 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 mL of 1% carboxymethylcellulose; Group III: aspirin (400 mg/kg body weight) suspended in 3 ml of 1% carboxymethylcellulose in water. Group IV: ginger and 30 minutes later, received aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose, in similar doses as received in groups II and III. On day 6, rats were sacrificed. The animals were anesthetized and the stomach was removed for the macroscopic, histological (Haematoxylin & Eosin and Periodic Acid Shiff) and immunohistochemical investigations (Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase and heat shock protein 70). Aspirin induced a significant increase of the macroscopic ulcer score, shed and disrupted epithelium, mucosal hemorrhage, submucosal edema and leukocyte infiltration, loss of the mucus of the mucosal surface significantly increased expression of apoptosis regulator Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Ginger ameliorated the histological changes by reducing Bax and iNOS and increasing HSP70 expressions.

  9. Aspirin protected against endothelial damage induced by LDL:role of endogenous NO synthase inhibitors in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng DENG; Pan-yue DENG; Jun-lin JIANG; Feng YE; Jing YU; Tian-lun YANG; Han-wu DENG; Yuan-jian LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of aspirin on damages of the endothelium induced by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and whether the protective effect of aspirin is related to reduction of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor level.METHODS: Vascular endothelial injury was induced by a single injection of native LDL (4 mg/kg) in rats. Vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) in the isolated aortic rings were determined, and serum concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and the activity of dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) were measured. RESULTS: A single injection of LDL (4 mg/kg)significantly decreased vasodilator responses to Ach, increased the serum level of ADMA, MDA, and TNF-α, and decreased DDAH activity. Aspirin (30 or 100 mg/kg) markedly reduced the inhibition of vasodilator responses to Ach by LDL, and the protective effect of aspirin at the lower dose was greater compared with high-dose aspirin group. Aspirin inhibited the increased level of MDA and TNF-α induced by LDL. Aspirin at the dose of 30 mg/kg,but not at higher dose (100 mg/kg), significantly reduced the concentration of ADMA and increased the activity of DDAH. CONCLUSION: Aspirin at the lower dose (30 mg/kg) protects the endothelium against damages elicited by LDL in vivo, and the protective effect of aspirin on endothelium is related to reduction of ADMA concentration by increasing DDAH activity.

  10. Protective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon against aspirin- induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

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    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2016-12-15

    Aspirin, one of the widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is the most highly consumed pharmaceutical product in the world. However, it has several side effects in cells. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon (EOC) extracted from leaves against aspirin-induced damages in the rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6). Biochemical indicators were used to assess cytotoxicity and oxidative damages caused by aspirin treatment on IEC-6. Our results showed that the chemical characterization of EOC identified twenty five compounds representing 98.19% of the total oil. The major compounds from this oil were: z-citral (53.21%), neryl acetate (13.06%), geranyl acetate (10.33%) and limonene (4.23%). Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability as well as an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Contrariwise, the co-exposure of cells to aspirin and EOC alleviated every above syndrome by an increased in cell survival and decreased in SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, the essential oil of Citrus limon has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  11. The protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by aspirin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Talarmin, Hélène; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-10-01

    Citrus limon is a member of the large Rutaceae family characterized by its therapeutic proprieties and has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. This study investigates the protective effect of Citrus limon essential oil against a high dose of aspirin-induced acute liver and kidney damage in female Wistar albino rats. Twenty-eight adult female Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group; (2) a group of rats which was kept untreated for 56days then treated with aspirin (A) (600mg/kg) for 4 days; (3) a group fed with essential oil of Citrus limon for 56days then (A) for 4 days; and (4) a group of rats receiving essential oil of Citrus limon for 56 days, then given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined. Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidas (GPx) activities in liver and kidney was determined. A histopathological study was done. Under our experimental conditions, aspirin induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters and it resulted in an oxidative stress in both liver and kidney. This was evidenced by significant increase in TBARS in liver and kidney by 108% and 55%, respectively, compared to control. On the other hand, a decrease in the activities of SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively. Administration of EOC to rats attenuated the induced an effect of the high dose of aspirin induced in the afore mentioned serum biochemical parameters. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with essential oil of Citrus limon prevented the liver and kidney damage induced by aspirin.

  12. Safety of low-dose aspirin in endovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

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    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel versus high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel in prevention of vascular risk within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, this prospective and observational study enrolled 370 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of ≥70% with poor collateral undergoing intracranial endovascular treatment. Antiplatelet therapy consists of aspirin, at a low-dose of 100 mg or high-dose of 300 mg daily; clopidogrel, at a dose of 75 mg daily for 5 days before endovascular treatment. The dual antiplatelet therapy continued for 90 days after intervention. The study endpoints include acute thrombosis, subacute thrombosis, stroke or death within 90 days after intervention. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy three patients received low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel and 97 patients received high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel before intracranial endovascular treatment. Within 90 days after intervention, there were 4 patients (1.5% with acute thrombosis, 5 patients (1.8% with subacute thrombosis, 17 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (0.7% in low-dose aspirin group, compared with no patient (0% with acute thrombosis, 2 patient (2.1% with subacute thrombosis, 6 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (2.1% in high-dose aspirin group, and there were no significant difference in all study endpoints between two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel is comparative in safety with high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.

  13. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

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    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone.

  14. Distribution of Copper in Rats Submitted to Treatment With Copper Aspirinate

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Weiping; Yang, Yikun; Xiong, Huizhou; Lu, Ying; Yang, Rong

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of copper in Sprague – Dawley rats following a three month oral administration of 0,10 or 50mg/kg copper aspirinate has been investigated. Metal content was determined by ICP – AES in blood, brain, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and dejection. The results show that treatment with copper aspirinate did not cause accumulation of copper in rats and excess ingested copper was excreted through feces.

  15. Long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis comparing nabumetone with aspirin.

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    Bernhard, G C; Appelrouth, D J; Bankhurst, A D; Biundo, J; Bockow, B I; Brobyn, R D; Brodsky, A L; Burch, F X; Chang, R W; Cohen, M H

    1987-10-30

    This report summarizes the results of a 17-investigator multicenter six-month randomized double-blind parallel group study. The safety and efficacy of nabumetone 1,000 mg taken at bedtime was compared with that of aspirin 900 mg four times daily in the treatment of adult patients with active class II or III classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis. Two hundred sixty-four patients were entered into the study. Two hundred fifty-seven (126 nabumetone and 131 aspirin) patients were evaluable for safety. Two hundred thirty-four (113 nabumetone and 121 aspirin) patients were evaluable for efficacy. There was significant improvement in each of six clinical measurements of efficacy in both treatment groups and little difference between groups. The somewhat greater improvement in articular index and duration of morning stiffness in the nabumetone-treated group did not reach statistical significance. There was an equal percentage of patient withdrawal for lack of efficacy in each group. Overall, the rate of patient withdrawal due to adverse experiences was greater (p = 0.01) for aspirin-treated patients. These experiences were usually dispepsia, abdominal pain, and tinnitus. It was concluded that nabumetone was an effective anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with less toxicity than aspirin.

  16. Protective effect of ginger oil on aspirin and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer model in rats

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    Khushtar M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed in aspirin and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer model in Wistar rats, in which ability of ginger oil to provide gastric protection was studied at two different doses, 0.5 and 1 g/kg po. Gastric protection was evaluated by measuring the ulcer index, serum λ- GTP levels, total acidity of gastric juice and gastric wall mucus thickness. The results obtained in the present study indicated that ginger oil has a protective action against gastric ulcers induced by aspirin plus pylorus ligation in Wistar rats.

  17. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and considerations for the future

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    Stoner, Ashley N.; Borish, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a late onset condition characterized by the Samter triad (aspirin sensitivity [as well as sensitivity to any nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor], nasal polyps, asthma) and additional features, including eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, hypereosinophilia, anosmia, frequent absence of atopy, and, intolerance to ingestion of red wine and other alcoholic beverages. The diagnosis is rare, and, because of this, it is also often missed by physicians. However, it is highly overexpressed in patients with severe asthma (and severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps), which makes its recognition essential. For this review, we considered mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this disease and discussed the clinical symptoms of AERD. We also discussed the role of aspirin desensitization in the treatment of AERD. Also, we considered medications (e.g, leukotriene modifiers) and surgical interventions that have a role in the treatment of AERD.

  18. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiao [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shetty, Sreerama [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708 (United States); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Shuxia [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Zhenyu [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Fu, Jian, E-mail: jian.fu@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  19. Aspirin overdose

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002542.htm Aspirin overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your ...

  20. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine.

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    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins.

  1. Markers of hypercoagulability in CAD patients. Effects of single aspirin and clopidogrel treatment

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    Bratseth Vibeke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease with disturbances in the haemostatic system, might lead to thrombotic complications with clinical manifestations like acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke. Activation of the coagulation cascade with subsequent increased thrombin generation, characterizes a prothrombotic phenotype. In the present study we investigated whether prothrombotic markers were associated with risk factors and clinical subgroups in a cohort of patients with angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD. The patients were randomized to long-term treatment with the antiplatelet drugs aspirin or clopidogrel, and we further investigated the effect on hypercoagulability of such treatment for 1 year, of which limited data exists. Methods Venous blood samples were collected in fasting condition between 08:00 and 10:30 am, at baseline when all patients were on aspirin therapy (n = 1001 and in 276 patients after 1 year follow-up on aspirin or clopidogrel. In vivo thrombin generation was assessed by prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2 and D-dimer, and the endogenous thrombin potentiale (ETP in the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT assay, representing ex vivo thrombin generation. In addition soluble tissue factor (sTF and free- and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI were measured. Results We found age to be significantly associated with F1+2 and D-dimer (β = 0.229 and β =0.417 respectively, p Conclusions In the present population of stable CAD, we could demonstrate a more hypercoagulable profile among women, smokers and patients on RAS medication, assessed by the prothrombotic markers F1+2, D-dimer and ETP. Long-term antiplatelet treatment with aspirin alone seems to attenuate thrombin generation to a greater extent than with clopidogrel alone. The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00222261.

  2. ASPIRIN AND NICOTINIC ACID AS TWO FACES OF SAME COIN IN THE TREATMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA

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    RK Mohamed Mutahar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally cardiovascular diseases are believed to be the no.1 cause of death. According to the current estimates of World Health Organisation, approximately one-third of all deaths (16.7 million people around the globe resulted from cardiovascular diseases. Eighty percent of these deaths were reported from low and middle income countries. The main intention of writing this review article is that, India being the second most highly populated country characterized by a majority of low and middle income population, the need for an effective treatment for this devastating disease both cost and efficacy wise is most desired. Since a long time, antidislipidemic agent nicotinic acid has been continuously under consideration to tackle the cardiovascular diseases by treating dyslipidemia. But its use has been limited due to its notorious yet harmless side effect of flushing. Now the focus of attention would be to use nicotinic acid by cleverly handling the flush. At this adjuncture the entry of acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin has been taken to give the best result. No doubt the major intention to take aspirin (low dose with the combination of major drug nicotinic acid is to reduce nicotinic acid -induced flushing, but its associated properties or remedies as you may tell are more equally supportive to the very treatment of cardiovascular diseases itself. Hence it may be construed that aspirin and nicotinic acid are nothing but the two sides of the same coin in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Hence the hypothesis “People with heart disease should be on aspirin anyway”.

  3. Observation on the therapeutic effect of aspirin in combined with ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Jing Shen; Hai-Yan He; Ming-Xuan Dai

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of aspirin in combined with ozagrel sodium in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction (ACI).Methods:A total of 120 patients with ACI who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group with 60 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given cerebral edema alleviating, brain cell protecting, cerebral circulation improving, and blood pressure controlling. The patients in the study group were given aspirin enteric-coated tablets, 0.1 g/time, 1 time/d. On the above basis, the patients in the study group were given ozagrel sodium (80 mg) + 0.9% NaCl (250 mL), ivdrip, 2 times/d. The patients in the two groups were treated for 14 d. The venous blood was extracted 1 d after admission and 14 d after treatment. The full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect PLT, PT, TT, FIB, and APTT. The radioimmunoassay was used to detect TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1α. The color Doppler ultrasound was used to detect IMT.Results: PLT, PT, TT, and APTT after treatment were not significantly different from those before treatment (P>0.05), but FIB was significantly reduced, and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, TXB2 level in the two groups was reduced, while 6-K-PGF1α was elevated, and those in the study group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, IMT in the two groups was reduced, and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Aspirin in combined with ozagrel sodium in the treatment of ACI can effectively inhibit the platelet aggregation, improve the coagulation function and cerebral blood supply, promote the recovery of cerebral nerve function after infarction, and enhance the therapeutic effect; therefore, it deserves to be widely

  4. Paradoxical Effect of Aspirin

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    Christian Doutremepuich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin is an important therapeutic option in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke, basedon its unique cost-effectiveness and widespread availability. In addition, based on the results of a number of large studies, aspirin is also widely used in the primary prevention of MI. This paper provides an update of the available data to offer greater clarity regarding the risks of aspirin with respect to hemorrhagic stroke. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ischemic events, the evidence supports that the benefits of aspirin treatment significantly outweigh the risk of a major hemorrhage. When considering whether aspirin is appropriate, the absolute therapeutic cardiovascular benefits of aspirin must be balanced with the possible risks associated with its use, being hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding these clinical facts, normal, COX 1 −/−, and COX 2 −/− mice were treated with a wide range of doses of aspirin and studied by induced hemorrhagic time. The results outlined three major conclusions: high doses of aspirin induce hemorrhage, while low doses of aspirin do not. In the absence of COX 1, ultra low doses of aspirin produce an antihemorrhagic effect not observed with intermediate doses. The absence of COX 2 induced a hemorrhagic effect that needs further research, probably originated in compensatory phenomena.

  5. Polymorphisms in Catechol-O-methyltransferase Modify Treatment Effects of Aspirin on Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathryn T.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Davis, Roger B.; Buring, Julie E.; Kirsch, Irving; Mittleman, Murray A.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Samani, Nilesh J.; Ridker, Paul M; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Chasman, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in catecholamine metabolism, is implicated in cardiovascular, sympathetic, and endocrine pathways. This study aimed to confirm preliminary association of COMT genetic variation with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). It further aimed to evaluate whether aspirin, a commonly used CVD prevention agent, modified the potential association of COMT with incident CVD. Approach and Results We examined COMT polymorphism rs4680 (MAF=0.47), encoding a non-synonymous methionine (met)-to-valine (val) substitution, in the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS), a large population-based cohort of women with randomized allocation to aspirin or vitamin E compared with placebo and 10 years follow-up. Rs4680 effects were confirmed with COMT polymorphism rs4818 and also examined in CARDIoGRAM/C4D, consortia for genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease. Among WGHS women allocated to placebo (135 events/N=5811), the rs4680 val allele was protective against incident CVD relative to the met, (HR[95%CI]=0.66[0.51-0.84], p=0.0007); an association also observed in CARDIoGRAM and C4D (combined p=2.4×10-5). In the WGHS, the rs4680 association was abolished by randomized allocation to aspirin, such that val/val women experienced higher CVD rates with aspirin allocation compared to placebo (HR[95%CI]=1.85[1.05-3.25], p=0.033) while met/met women experienced lower rates (HR[95%CI]=0.60[0.39-0.93], p=0.023). Allocation to vitamin E also conferred higher but non-significant CVD rates on val/val (HR[95%CI]=1.50 [0.83-2.70], p=0.180) compared with significantly lower rates on met/met (HR[95%CI]=0.53[0.34-0.84], p=0.006) women. Rs4818 results were similar. Conclusions Common COMT polymorphisms were associated with incident CVD, and this association was modified by randomized allocation to aspirin or vitamin E. Replication of these findings is required. PMID:25035343

  6. Aspirin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  7. Gastrointestinal ulcers, role of aspirin, and clinical outcomes: pathobiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cryer B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Byron Cryer,1 Kenneth W Mahaffey2 1University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Peptic ulcer disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the US with more than six million diagnoses annually. Ulcers are reported as the most common cause of hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and are often a clinical concern due to the widespread use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, both of which have been shown to induce ulcer formation. The finding that Helicobacter pylori infection (independent of aspirin use is associated with the development of ulcers led to a more thorough understanding of the causes and pathogenesis of ulcers and an improvement in therapeutic options. However, many patients infected with H. pylori are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed. Complicating matters is a current lack of understanding of the association between aspirin use and asymptomatic ulcer formation. Low-dose aspirin prescriptions have increased, particularly for cardioprotection. Unfortunately, the GI side effects associated with aspirin therapy continue to be a major complication in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. These safety concerns should be important considerations in the decision to use aspirin and warrant further education. The medical community needs to continue to improve awareness of aspirin-induced GI bleeding to better equip physicians and improve care for patients requiring aspirin therapy. Keywords: low-dose aspirin, cardioprotection, ulcers, Helicobacter pylori, gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular disease

  8. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested...... the hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin...

  9. New insights into the mechanisms of action of aspirin and its use in the prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekaj YH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ymer H Mekaj,1,2 Fetije T Daci,2 Agon Y Mekaj3 1Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, 2Department of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, National Blood Transfusion Center of Kosovo, 3Clinic of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo Abstract: The antithrombotic action of aspirin has long been recognized. Aspirin inhibits platelet function through irreversible inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX activity. Until recently, aspirin has been mainly used for primary and secondary prevention of arterial antithrombotic events. The aim of this study was to review the literature with regard to the various mechanisms of the newly discovered effects of aspirin in the prevention of the initiation and development of venous thrombosis. For this purpose, we used relevant data from the latest numerous scientific studies, including review articles, original research articles, double-blinded randomized controlled trials, a prospective combined analysis, a meta-analysis of randomized trials, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, and multicenter studies. Aspirin is used in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE, especially the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients with unprovoked VTE who were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs or with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs. Numerous studies have shown that aspirin reduces the rate of recurrent VTE in patients, following cessation of VKAs or NOACs. Furthermore, low doses of aspirin are suitable for long-term therapy in patients recovering from orthopedic or other surgeries. Aspirin is indicated for the primary and secondary prevention as well as the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, including acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, acute ischemic stroke, and transient ischemic attack (especially in atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves. Aspirin can prevent or treat

  10. An aspirin a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Philip W

    2014-01-01

    The title of this article is also its punch line. The thesis that I will prove is that every adult, with a few exceptions, should take one 325 mg aspirin tablet each day. The drug is extraordinary and is beneficial in myriad ways. In this dosage the toxicity of the treatment is minimal. Since the drug is sold "over the counter", not requiring prescription, it is cheap and its benefits are easily underestimated. I do not use extensive reference citations; but just tell the story of aspirin.

  11. Usefulness of anti-ulcer drugs for the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcers induced by low doses of aspirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sayaka Nakashima; Shinichi Ota; Shin Arai; Kiyoko Yoshino; Mie Inao; Keiko Ishikawa; Nobuaki Nakayama; Yukinori Imai; Sumiko Nagoshi; Satoshi Mochida

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of anti-ulcer drugs for the prevention and treatment of low-dose aspirininduced peptic ulcer. METHODS: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in 68 patients receiving daily low-dose aspirin (81 or 100 mg/day). The endoscopic findings were classified according to the Lanza score, and the scores were compared between groups categorized according to the concomitant use of anti-ulcer drugs and the types of drugs used. In another study, 31 hemorrhagic peptic ulcer patients who had been receiving low-dose aspirin were enrolled. The patients were randomly classified into the proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-treated group and the H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA)-treated group. The administration of low-dose aspirin was continued concomitantly, and endoscopic examinations were performed 8 wk later. ``RESULTS: The Lanza scores (mean ± SD) of the gastro-mucosal lesions were 1.0 ± 1.9 and 1.9 ± 2.3 in 8 and 16 patients receiving prevention therapy with a PPI and an H2RA, respectively. Both scores were significantly smaller than the scores in 34 patients who were not receiving prevention therapy (4.7 ± 1.0) and in 10 patients receiving cytoprotective anti-ulcer drugs (4.3 ± 1.6). In the prospective study, 18 and 13 patients received a PPI and an H2RA, respectively. Endoscopic examinations revealed that the tissue in the region of the gastro-mucosal lesions had reverted to normal in all patients in the PPI-treated group and in 12 patients (92%) in the H2RA-treated group; no significant differences were observed between the groups. CONCLUSION: H2RA therapy was effective for both the prevention and treatment of low-dose aspirininduced peptic ulcer, similar to the effects of PPIs, while cytoprotective anti-ulcer drugs were ineffective in preventing ulceration.

  12. GPIIb/IIIa Receptor Antagonism Using Small Molecules Provides no Additive Long-Term Protection after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention as Compared to Clopidogrel Plus Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Michele; Saladini, Angela; Papalia, Francesco; Grillo, Placido; Nesta, Cristina; Cuturello, Domenico; Missiroli, Bindo; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is some controversy as to whether tirofiban or eptifibatide, two small anti-aggregating drugs (AAD), may reduce the incidence of composite ischemic events within one year in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the real clinical world. Methods: We compared consecutive patients on oral double AAD (with clopidogrel and aspirin) who underwent PCI (n=207) and patients who were on single AAD and received a second AAD, just prior to PCI, and either high-dose tirofiban or double-bolus eptifibatide (double AAD plus small molecules group, n=666). The primary end point (incidence of composite ischemic events within one year) included death, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stent thrombosis or repeat PCI or coronary bypass surgery (related to the target vessel PCI failure) and was modelled by Cox’s regression. Results: There were 89 composite ischemic events: 24 (11.6%) in double AAD alone and 65 (9.8%) in double AAD plus small molecules groups (log-rank test: p=0.36). Incidences by type of ischemic events were similar between the 2 groups. Based on 21 potential covariates fitted simultaneously, adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals) showed that age (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.06, p=0.01), diabetes (HR 1.68, 1.01-2.79, p=0.05) and intra aortic balloon pump (HR 5.12, 2.36-11.10, p=0.0001) were significant risk factors whereas thrombolysis by tenecteplase (HR 0.35, 0.13-0.98, p=0.05) and having had hypertension or anti-hypertensive treatment (HR 0.58, 0.36-0.93, p=0.03) were significant protectors for events. Whether small molecules were present provided a non significant additional benefit as compared to double AAD alone (HR 0.83, 0.51-1.36, p=0.46). Pre-PCI CK-MB were not useful to predict events (HR 1.01, 0.99-1.01, p=0.17). Conclusions: In clinical world patients undergoing PCI (rescue plus primary <13%) while on double AAD, based on clopidogrel plus aspirin, small molecules (tirofiban or eptifibatide

  13. TRUE RESISTANCE AND PSEUDORESISTANCE TO ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Martynov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of aspirin resistance has emerged, and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. Researchers from university of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, the USA, led by Dr. Tilo Grosser, aimed to determine the specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin — such as might be explained by genetic causes. However the study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration.

  14. Protective Effects of Aspirin from Cardiac Hypertrophy and Oxidative Stress in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the capacity of chronic ASA therapy to prevent cardiac alterations and increased oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Methods and Results. Male Syrian cardiomyopathic and age-matched inbred control hamsters received ASA orally from the age of 60 days. Animals were sacrificed at the age of 150, 250, and 350 days to evaluate the time course of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular tissue superoxide anion (O2- production. At the age of 150 days, the ventricular weight over body weight ratio, resting heart rate, and cardiovascular O2- production were much higher in cardiomyopathic hamsters than those in control. At the age of 250 days, in addition to the continual deterioration of these parameters with age, the blood pressure started to fall and the signs of heart failure appeared. In these cardiomyopathic hamsters, chronic ASA treatment (a completely prevented elevated O2- production and the NAD(PH oxidase activity, (b significantly slowed down the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Conclusions. Chronic ASA treatment significantly prevents the deterioration of cardiac function and structure as well as the increased oxidative stress in the cardiomyopathic hamster. Our findings suggest that ASA presents a therapeutic potential to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Design and evaluation of famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles for aspirin induced ulcer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval J Patel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to design and evaluate the famotidine loaded mucoadhesive nanosuspension for aspirin induced ulcer. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was applied to study the effects of amount of the beads (X1, PVPK-30(X2 and Tween-80 (X3 on the particle size (Y1, and cumulative percentage drug released after 1h (Y2. The optimization was performed using the desirability function and contour plots. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the nanoparticles as spherical in shape. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis indicated that there was substantial crystallinity change in the nanoparticle compared with the pure drug. Ex-vivo mucoadhesion study showed that famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles possessed higher mucoadhesion than the famotidine nanoparticles. The in vivo studies on aspirin-induced rats indicated the lowering in ulcer index for famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles was 0.46+0.011, which was significantly better than the effect of traditional famotidine suspension (0.66+0.035. Famotidine mucoadhesive nanosuspension could be prepared using the media milling technique and allowing significant reduction in ulcer index compared to famotidine suspension.

  16. Design and evaluation of famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles for aspirin induced ulcer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Dhaval J., E-mail: dhaval6668@gmail.com [Department of Pharmaceutics, Saraswati Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gujarat (India); Patel, Jayvadan K. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Nootan Pharmacy College, Visnagar (India)

    2013-03-15

    The present study was performed to design and evaluate the famotidine loaded mucoadhesive nanosuspension for aspirin induced ulcer. A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was applied to study the effects of amount of the beads (X{sub 1}), PVPK-30(X{sub 2}) and Tween-80 (X{sub 3}) on the particle size (Y{sub 1}), and cumulative percentage drug released after 1h (Y{sub 2}). The optimization was performed using the desirability function and contour plots. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the nanoparticles as spherical in shape. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that there was substantial crystallinity change in the nanoparticle compared with the pure drug. Ex-vivo mucoadhesion study showed that famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles possessed higher mucoadhesion than the famotidine nanoparticles. The in vivo studies on aspirin-induced rats indicated the lowering in ulcer index for famotidine mucoadhesive nanoparticles was 0.46 {+-}0.011, which was significantly better than the effect of traditional famotidine suspension (0.66{+-}0.035). Famotidine mucoadhesive nanosuspension could be prepared using the media milling technique and allowing significant reduction in ulcer index compared to famotidine suspension. (author)

  17. Preeclampsia-like symptoms induced in mice by fetoplacental expression of STOX1 are reversed by aspirin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doridot, Ludivine; Passet, Bruno; Méhats, Céline; Rigourd, Virginie; Barbaux, Sandrine; Ducat, Aurélien; Mondon, Françoise; Vilotte, Marthe; Castille, Johann; Breuiller-Fouché, Michelle; Daniel, Nathalie; le Provost, Fabienne; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Baudrie, Véronique; Hertig, Alexandre; Buffat, Christophe; Simeoni, Umberto; Germain, Guy; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Vaiman, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a common human-specific pregnancy disorder defined by hypertension and proteinuria during gestation and responsible for maternal and fetal morbimortality. STOX1, encoding a transcription factor, was the first gene associated with PE as identified by positional cloning approaches. Its overexpression in choriocarcinoma cells mimics the transcriptional consequences of PE in the human placenta. Here, we created transgenic mouse strains overexpressing human STOX1. Wild-type female mice crossed with transgenic male mice reproduce accurately the symptoms of severe PE: gestational hypertension, proteinuria, and elevated plasma levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin. Placental and kidney histology were altered. Symptoms were prevented or alleviated by aspirin treatment. STOX1-overexpressing mice constitute a unique model for studying PE, allow testing therapeutic approaches, and assessing the long-term effects of the preeclamptic syndrome.

  18. Attenuation of aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction by sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuschi, M; Gambaro, G; Sestini, P; Pieroni, M G; Refini, R M; Vaghi, A; Bianco, S

    1997-04-01

    The protective activity of nedocromil sodium and of sodium cromoglycate against aspirin-induced asthma has never been investigated in controlled studies. Because it has been reported that aspirin-induced platelet-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro is inhibited after treatment in vivo with nedocromil but not with cromoglycate, we investigated whether these compounds also exhibit a different protective activity against aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction. Ten patients with aspirin-induced asthma underwent three bronchial challenges with a single dose of lysine acetylsalicylate (LASA) that caused a decrease in FEV1 of 25% or more in a preliminary dose-response test 30 min after inhalation of 4 mg nedocromil sodium, 10 mg sodium cromoglycate, or placebo. FEV1 and SRaw were recorded at intervals for 195 min. After placebo, LASA caused a maximal decrease in FEV1 of 42 +/- 4% of baseline. After cromoglycate and nedocromil the maximal decrease in FEV1 was reduced to 20 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%, respectively (p sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are equally effective in attenuating aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction and that it is unlikely that platelet activation participates in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma.

  19. A critical appraisal of the phenomenon of aspirin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Atar, Dan;

    2005-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of 'aspirin...

  20. The infrared spectra and structure of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and its oxyanion: an ab initio force field treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binev, I. G.; Stamboliyska, B. A.; Binev, Y. I.

    1996-05-01

    The structures of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) (I) and its oxyanion (II) have been studied by means of infrared spectra and ab initio 3-21 G force field calculations. The 3100-1100 cm -1 region bands of both the aspirin molecule and its oxyanion have been assigned. The theoretical infrared data for the free aspirin anion are in good agreement with the experimental data for aspirin alkali-metal salts in dimethyl sulfoxide- d6. The theoretical geometrical parameters for the isolated aspirin molecule are close to the literature X-ray diffraction data for its dimer in the solid state, except for those of the carboxy group, which participates directly in hydrogen bond formation. The changes in both the spectral and geometrical parameters, caused by the conversion of the aspirin molecule into the anion, are essential, but they are localized mainly within the carboxy group and the adjacent C-Ph bond. This is also true for the changes in the corresponding bond indices and electronic charges.

  1. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  2. Patient-level analysis of five international cohorts further confirms the efficacy of aspirin for the primary prevention of thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Laurent; Mathian, Alexis; Devilliers, Hervé; Ruffatti, Amelia; Tektonidou, Maria; Forastiero, Ricardo; Pengo, Vittorio; Lambert, Marc; Lefevre, Guillaume; Martinez-Zamora, Maria Angeles; Balasch, Juan; Wahl, Denis; Amoura, Zahir

    2015-03-01

    We performed an individual patient meta-analysis to determine whether aspirin has a significant protective effect on the risk of first thrombosis among patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Five international cohort studies with available individual patient-level data, reporting on primary prophylaxis with continuous treatment with low-dose aspirin in patients with aPL were included. The main outcome was the occurrence of a first thrombotic in patients with aPL treated with low-dose aspirin compared to those not treated with low-dose aspirin. Pooled Hazard Ratios (HRs) and 95%CIs were calculated using frailty models. We pooled data from 497 subjects and 79 first thrombotic events (3469 patient-years of follow-up). After adjustment on cardiovascular risk factors, aPL profiles, and treatment with hydroxychloroquine, the HR for the risk of a first thrombosis of any type in aPL carriers treated with low-dose aspirin versus those not treated with aspirin was 0.43 (95%CI 0.25-0.75). Subgroup analysis showed a protective effect of aspirin against arterial (HR: 0.43 [95%CI: 0.20-0.93]) but not venous (HR: 0.49 [95%CI: 0.22-1.11]) thrombosis. Subgroup analysis according to underlying disease revealed a protective effect of aspirin against arterial thrombosis for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (HR: 0.43 [95%CI: 0.20-0.94]) and asymptomatic aPL carriers (HR: 0.43 [95%CI 0.20-0.93]). We found no independent protective effect of hydroxychloroquine. This individual patient data meta-analysis shows that the risk of first thrombotic event as well of first arterial thrombotic event is significantly decreased among SLE patients and asymptomatic aPL individuals treated by low-dose aspirin.

  3. Time of taking aspirin can have an effect on the frequency of occurrence of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ildiko Csoboth; Anita Matyus; Krisztina Gabara; Imre Boncz

    2009-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: We read the article by Ke et al1 with great interest, in which they investigated the usage of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. The incidence of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack assessed by onset of clinical symptoms exhibits a marked circadian variation with a peak period during the morning. Stroke usually occurs unexpectedly or more frequently in the morning hours, between 7-12 a.m. In this morning period there is a higher aggregability of thrombocytes. Patients usually take aspirin in the morning for prevention as the treatment regimen is one tablet per day to be swallowed without chewing at least 30 minutes before breakfast (Figure). The highest plasma level of the drug occurs after the morning peak-incidence of the thromboembolic event, suggesting lower prophylactic effect of aspirin. Taking aspirin in the morning has its highest protective effect during the day, when normal physical activity exerts a protective action. Furthermore, this method of daily aspirin administration has its lowest protective value against cardio- and cerebrovascular events during the night and early rooming, when the lack of physical activity further augment the cascade of haemorheological events favoring platelet aggregation and subsequent ischemia.2-5

  4. 阿司匹林与肿瘤防治%Prevention and treatment of aspirin on tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米登海; 王燕慧

    2010-01-01

    动物实验及流行病学研究发现阿司匹林有一定的抗肿瘤作用,长期规律服用阿司匹林可以明显降低结直肠癌、食管癌和胃癌风险,对前列腺癌、膀胱癌、卵巢癌、胰腺癌也有一定的抗癌作用,但仍存在争议.%It has been suggested that aspirin may have anti-tumor effect based on animal experiments and epidemiological investigation, however, it remains controversial whether aspirin has certain effects on prostatic cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer whereas it has been well documented that long-term regular use of aspirin can significantly reduce risks of colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer and gastric cancer.

  5. Effects of aspirin plus alpha-tocopherol on brain slices damage after hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats with type 1-like diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Correa, J A; Arrebola, M M; Cansino, A L; Muñoz-Marín, J; Guerrero, A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F; De la Cruz, J P

    2006-06-12

    Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for cerebrovascular ischemic disease. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is the most widely used drug for the secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomena. It has been also recently demonstrated that alpha-tocopherol influenced in vitro the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects aspirin plus alpha-tocopherol on cerebral oxidative stress, prostaglandin production and the nitric oxide pathway in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices. Our results show an imbalance in brain oxidative status (reflected mainly as the increase in lipid peroxides) as a result of diabetes itself rather than a failure of the glutathione-based antioxidant system. Moreover, our results also show a higher concentration of prostaglandins in the brain of diabetic animals and a higher nitric oxide concentration, mainly through a high iNOS activity. After 180 min of post-hypoxia reoxygenation, LDH activity was 40.6% higher in animals with diabetes, in comparison to non-diabetic animals. The increase of the LDH efflux observed in non-treated rats was reduced by 31.2% with aspirin, by 34.7% with alpha-tocopherol and by 69.8% with the association aspirin-alpha-tocopherol. The accumulation of prostaglandin E2 observed in diabetic non-treated rats was reduced statistically after the treatment with aspirin (34.2% inhibition), alpha-tocopherol (19.3% inhibition) or the association aspirin-alpha-tocopherol (54.4% inhibition). Nitric oxide production after 180 min reoxygenation was significantly reduced in aspirin (36.4%), alpha-tocopherol (22.7%) and aspirin-alpha-tocopherol (77.8%) treated rats with respect to diabetic non-treated animals; this was related mainly with a reduction in iNOS activity. The association between aspirin and alpha tocopherol could protects against brain ischemic-reperfusion damage with a better profile than aspirin alone.

  6. Abciximab treatment in vitro after aspirin treatment in vivo has additive effects on platelet aggregation, ATP release, and P-selectin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazziota, A; Altman, R; Rouvier, J; Gonzalez, C; Ahmed, Z; Jeske, W P; Walenga, J M; Fareed, J

    2000-12-15

    To prevent arterial thrombosis, abciximab is administered together with aspirin. However, whether or not there are benefits to combine abciximab with aspirin is not yet well defined. Healthy volunteers were studied for the effect of aspirin + abciximab using sodium arachidonate and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) alone or in combination to induce platelet activation/aggregation. Abciximab produced complete inhibition of platelet aggregation induced with ADP but only 40% inhibition of aggregation induced by 0.75-mmol/l sodium arachidonate. Abciximab added in vitro to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from platelets from aspirin-treated donors produced an almost complete inhibition of platelet aggregation. Aspirin, and abciximab alone, did not inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release as thoroughly as aspirin + abciximab did. Abciximab (3-5 microg/ml) produced inhibition of P-selectin expression induced with 5 (from 46.2 +/- 6.0% to 27.4 +/- 7.0%, P=0.002) and 20-micromol/l ADP (from 53.1 +/- 8.1% to 35.1 +/- 11.0%, P=0.019), but no effect was observed when 0.75-mmol/l sodium arachidonate was used (P=0.721). Aspirin diminished P-selectin expression in sodium arachidonate-stimulated platelets (from 77.7 +/- 11.8% to 40.2 +/- 3.6%, P<0.0001) in non-aspirinated and platelets from aspirin-treated donors, respectively. Abciximab (3, 4, and 5 microg/ml) added to platelets from aspirin-treated donors decreased P-selectin expression in platelets stimulated with sodium arachidonate from 40.2 +/- 8.6% to 25.6 +/- 11.5% (P=0.027), to 20.5 +/- 3.5% (P<0.0001), and to 22.5 +/- 1.8% (P<0.0001). We concluded that the antiplatelet effect of abciximab is greatly increased by aspirin.

  7. [Aspirin suppresses microsatellite instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, S; Dietmaier, W; Beyser, K; Bocker, T; Hofstädter, F; Fishel, R; Rüschoff, J

    1999-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exhibit cancer preventive effects and have been shown to induce regression of adenomas in FAP patients. In order to elucidate the probable underlying mechanism, the effect of NSAIDs on mismatch repair related microsatellite instability was investigated. Six colorectal cancer cell lines all but one deficient for human mismatch repair (MMR) genes were examined for microsatellite instability (MSI) prior and after treatment with Aspirin or Sulindac. For rapid in vitro analysis of MSI a microcloning assay was developed by combining Laser microdissection and random (PEP-) PCR prior to specific MSI-PCR. Effects of NSAIDs on cell cycle and apoptosis were systematically investigated by using flow cytometry and cell-sorting. MSI frequency in cells deficient of MMR genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6) was markedly reduced after long-term (> 10 weeks) NSAID treatment. This effect was reversible, time- and concentration dependent. However, in the hPMS2 deficient endometrial cancer cell line (HEC-1-A) the MSI phenotype kept unchanged. According to cell sorting, non-apoptotic cells were stable and apoptotic cells were unstable. These results suggest that aspirin/sulindac induces a genetic selection for microsatellite stability in a subset of MMR-deficient cells and may thus provide an effective prophylactic therapy for HNPCC related colorectal carcinomas.

  8. Effect of protective coating of aspirin tablets with acrylatemethacrylate copolymers on tablet disintegration times and dissolution rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okor R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tablets of aspirin (a moisture degradable drug have been film coated with two analogous Eudragit RL and RS copolymers designated here as A and B which differ only in their cation content in the ratio 2:1 (A:B. A, is therefore more hydrophilic than B. The tablets were film coated with ethanol solutions of these two polymers. Film coating with either A or B significantly reduced the moisture uptake potentials of the tablets but caused an increase in the disintegration times of the tablets and retarded dissolution rates. The mean disintegration times were 0.5±0.1 min (uncoated tablets, 16±2.5 min (tablets coated with A and 115±3.6 min (tablets coated with B. The corresponding dissolution rates % h -1 were 28.3 for uncoated, 16.6, coated with A and 14.8, coated with B, respectively. Thus, coating with polymer B considerably impaired the disintegration and dissolution properties of the tablets.

  9. Variation and importance of aspirin resistance in patients with known cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Korsholm, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether aspirin resistance is a persistent condition, and to evaluate if aspirin resistance affects one-year clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Previously we studied 298 patients admitted to hospital with symptoms suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) despite...... treatment with aspirin, and 70 patients (23.5%) were aspirin resistant. In the present study, platelet function was reassessed by use of a Platelet Function Analyzer-100 one year later. A total of 187 patients were re-examined, and 17 (9.1%) demonstrated aspirin resistance. Of these 17 patients, 12 also...... exhibited aspirin resistance at baseline resulting in a 6% (12/187) prevalence of persistent aspirin resistance. A total of 34 patients had changed from aspirin resistant at baseline to aspirin sensitive at follow-up. We found a significant decrease in the prevalence of aspirin resistance from baseline (43...

  10. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which aspirin exerts an anticancer benefit is uncertain;numerous effects have been described involving both cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathways. |

  11. Cost-effectiveness of aspirin treatment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease events in subgroups based on age, gender, and varying cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greving, J.P.; Buskens, E.; Koffijberg, H.; Algra, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background-Aspirin is effective for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but it remains unclear for which subgroups of individuals aspirin is beneficial. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of aspirin separately for men and women of different ages with various levels of cardiovascular dis

  12. Cardiovascular pharmacology core reviews: aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglia, Michael A; Clavijo, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, is perhaps the most well-studied drug in human history, but controversy persists regarding both optimal dose and its use in the primary prevention of atherothrombotic events. This article reviews the following: the effect of aspirin upon the cyclooxygenase pathway; clinical trials of aspirin for both secondary and primary prevention; prospective and retrospective studies of aspirin dose; the potential interaction between aspirin and ticagrelor; and the concept of aspirin resistance. It concludes with a review of major society guidelines regarding aspirin and offers a perspective on the evidence-based use of aspirin in clinical practice.

  13. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  14. [Nasosinusal polyposis and aspirin intolerance. Fernand Widal-Lermoyez syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayoff, M; Moneret-Vautrin, D; Gazel, P

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical picture of the aspirin idiosyncrasy and propose to call this peculiar entity: syndrom of Widal and Lermoyez. They compare 25 cases of aspirin nasal polyposis with 26 other cases of various etiologies. Other substances than aspirin seem to be charged. The complications are regular with severe asthma and infection. The pathogenesis is discussed, excluding an allergic mechanism; it remain not quite clear. Essentially prophylactic, the treatment is poor and difficult.

  15. Critical overview of the benefits and harms of aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Shing Kwok; Loke, Yoon K.

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin is widely used internationally for a variety of indications, with the most prominent one being that of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin has also been proposed as a treatment option in a diverse range of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer prevention, and obstetrics. In our overview, we critically appraise the current evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering the benefits of aspirin across these conditions. We also look at evidence that some pa...

  16. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide releasing hybrid, attenuates neuroinflammation induced by microglial and astrocytic activation: a new candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith; Kodela, Ravinder; Kashfi, Khosrow; McGeer, Patrick L

    2013-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and nitric oxide (NO) have been described as gasotransmitters. Anti-inflammatory activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems may be one of their functions. Previously we demonstrated that several SH(-) donors including H2 S-releasing aspirin (S-ASA) exhibited anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activity in vitro against toxins released by activated microglia and astrocytes. Here we report that NOSH-ASA, an NO- and H2 S-releasing hybrid of aspirin, has a significantly greater anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect than S-ASA or NO-ASA. When activated by LPS/IFNγ, human microglia and THP-1 cells release materials that are toxic to differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. These phenomena also occur with IFNγ-stimulated human astroglia and U373 cells. When the cells were treated with the S-ASA or NO-ASA, there was a significant enhancement of neuroprotection. However, NOSH-ASA had significantly more potent protection properties than NO-ASA or S-ASA. The effect was concentration-dependent, as well as incubation time-dependent. Such treatment not only reduced the release of the TNFα and IL-6, but also attenuated activation of P38 MAPK and NFκB proteins. All the compounds tested were not harmful when applied directly to SH-SY5Y cells. These data suggest that NOSH-ASA has significant anti-inflammatory properties and may be a new candidate for treating neurodegenerative disorders that have a prominent neuroinflammatory component such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  17. Effects of Grape Seed Extract, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E on Ethanol- and Aspirin-Induced Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Vivian Molina; Calzado, Yazmín Ravelo; Guerra, Yohani Pérez; Yera, Ambar Oyarzábal; Despaigne, Sonia Jiménez; Ferreiro, Rosa Mas; Quintana, Daisy Carbajal

    2011-01-01

    Effects of GSE and vitamins C and E on aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and associated increases of lipid peroxidation in rats were compared. Two experiments were conducted. Rats were randomized into eight groups: a negative control and seven groups that received aspirin or ethanol for ulcer induction: one positive control (vehicle) and six with VC, VE, or GSE (25 and 250 mg/kg). Ulcer indexes and gastric levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were quantified. VC, VE, and GSE (25 and 250 mg/kg) decreased aspirin, and ethanol-induced ulcers and MDA values compared with positive control group. The magnitude of aspirin ulcer reduction was comparable for all treatments, and MDA decrease with GSE was higher than with VC and tended to be greater, albeit none significantly, than with VE. GSE was more effective than VC and VE for lowering the ethanol ulcers, while the decrease of MDA levels with GSE was greater than with VC, but comparable to that achieved with VE. GSE protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers more effectively than VC or VE, while its protection against aspirin ulcers was comparable for all treatments. GSE produced the greatest reductions of gastric MDA in both models. PMID:22162675

  18. Effects of Grape Seed Extract, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E on Ethanol- and Aspirin-Induced Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Molina Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of GSE and vitamins C and E on aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and associated increases of lipid peroxidation in rats were compared. Two experiments were conducted. Rats were randomized into eight groups: a negative control and seven groups that received aspirin or ethanol for ulcer induction: one positive control (vehicle and six with VC, VE, or GSE (25 and 250 mg/kg. Ulcer indexes and gastric levels of malondialdehyde (MDA were quantified. VC, VE, and GSE (25 and 250 mg/kg decreased aspirin, and ethanol-induced ulcers and MDA values compared with positive control group. The magnitude of aspirin ulcer reduction was comparable for all treatments, and MDA decrease with GSE was higher than with VC and tended to be greater, albeit none significantly, than with VE. GSE was more effective than VC and VE for lowering the ethanol ulcers, while the decrease of MDA levels with GSE was greater than with VC, but comparable to that achieved with VE. GSE protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers more effectively than VC or VE, while its protection against aspirin ulcers was comparable for all treatments. GSE produced the greatest reductions of gastric MDA in both models.

  19. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Zantek, Nicole D; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Rao, Gundu H R

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Aspirin used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs has been shown to offer significant benefit to patients at high risk of vascular events. Resistance to the action of aspirin may decrease this benefit. Aspirin resistance has been defined by clinical and/or laboratory criteria; however, detection by laboratory methods prior to experiencing a clinical event will likely provide the greatest opportunity for intervention. Numerous laboratory methods with different cutoff points have been used to evaluate the resistance. Noncompliance with aspirin treatment has also confounded studies. A single assay is currently insufficient to establish resistance. Combinations of results to confirm compliance and platelet inhibition may identify "at-risk" individuals who truly have aspirin resistance. The most effective strategy for managing patients with aspirin resistance is unknown; however, studies are currently underway to address this issue.

  20. Acid-NSAID/aspirin interaction in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Richard H; Yuan, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    The presence of gastric acid plays a critical role in the mechanisms of NSAIDs/aspirin-associated gastric and duodenal mucosal injury and ulceration. The role of gastric acid and its relationship to NSAIDs/aspirin in mucosal damage, ulcer and ulcer complications continues to be an important concern because of the increasing worldwide use of NSAIDs and aspirin. Acid suppression continues to be an important prevention strategy for NSAID-associated gastric and duodenal ulcer and ulcer complications. While a coxib or an NSAID and PPI in combination are considered to have comparable safety profiles, the evidence from direct comparisons in high-risk patients is limited, and the cardiovascular safety of coxibs and NSAIDs remains a concern especially in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. An evaluation of individual gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks and benefits, selection of the most appropriate NSAID and dose for each particular patient should always be emphasized. Twice daily PPI is more appropriate to protect a patient who is taking NSAIDs twice daily. PPI co-therapy is still recommended in patients receiving dual antiplatelet treatment, although conflicting results have been reported about adverse drug interactions between PPIs and clopidogrel.

  1. Clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for acute myocardial infarction are similar in the presence and absence of aspirin: systematic overview of individual data from 96,712 randomized patients. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, R; Tognoni, G; Maggioni, A P

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether the clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEi) treatment for acute myocardial infarction (MI) are influenced by the concomitant use of aspirin (ASA). BACKGROUND: Aspirin and ACEi both reduce mortality when given early ...

  2. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... healthy people who are at low risk for heart disease. You provider will consider your overall medical condition ...

  3. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes induced by aspirin and diazinon:the protective role of selenium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Tawab Halim Mossa; Tarek Mohamed Heikal

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the adverse effect of exposure to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), diazinon (DIA) and their combination on oxidant/antioxidant status in rat erythrocytes and the ameliorating role of selenium (Se). Methods: Rats were oral administered ASA at the maximum administration dose (1 350 mg/personal/d=2.5 mg/kg body weight/d), DIA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight/d and Se at a dose of 200 µg/kg body weight/d and their combinations for 28 consecutive d. Results: Administration of DIA, ASA and ASA+DIA lead to a significant increment (P≤0.05) in lipid peroxidation as evidenced by the increase in erythrocytes MDA levels by 61.8%, 20.79%and 105.62%, respectively. Co-administration of Se to treated rats modulated the augmentation of MDA levels. Administration of DIA, ASA and ASA+DIA lead to significant decreases (P≤0.05) in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes when compared to the control group. The most influence and decreases in the activities of the aforementioned enzymes were observed in the treatments of ASA+DIA by 30.53%, 43.42%and 48.31%, respectively. However, co-administration of Se mitigated the significant decreases of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities to by 14.47%, 15, 36%and 12.29%. Conclusions: It can be concluded that DIA and ASA induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in rat erythrocytes. The results reveal the pronounced ameliorating effect of Se in DIA and ASA intoxicated rats. It is supposed that antioxidant supplementation may be beneficial for the people using ASA for longer periods and exposure to pesticides.

  4. 阿司匹林与氯吡格雷联合治疗心肌梗死的疗效观察%Aspirin and Clopidogrel Efficacy of Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚强

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析阿司匹林与氯吡格雷联合治疗心肌梗死的疗效。方法选取86例心肌梗死患者给予阿司匹林及阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗。结果 A组治疗总有效率、冠状动脉再闭塞率、90d左室射血分数均优于B组。结论阿司匹林与氯吡格雷联合治疗心肌梗死效果显著。%Objective To analyze the curative effect of aspirin combined with clopidogrel in the treatment of myocardial infarction.Methods86 cases of patients with myocardial infarction treated with clopidogrel and aspirin and aspirin.Results The total effective rate of A group, the coronary artery occlusion rate, 90d, left ventricular ejection fraction was higher than that of group B.Conclusion Aspirin combined with clopidogrel in treatment of myocardial infarction has significant effect.

  5. The abnormal in vitro response to aspirin of platelets from aspirin-sensitive asthmatics is inhibited after inhalation of nedocromil sodium but not of sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, C H; Joseph, M; Tonnel, A B; Vorng, H; Lassalle, P; Tsicopoulos, A; Capron, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood platelets from patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma (ASA) generated cytotoxic mediators in the presence of aspirin. This abnormal in vitro response to aspirin was abolished within 1 h after nedocromil sodium inhalation but not after sodium cromoglycate inhalation. 2. Platelets recovered this reactivity to aspirin by 12 hours after nedocromil sodium treatment of ASA-patients. 3. The in vitro reactivity to aspirin of ASA platelets isolated before inhalation was inhibited in the presence of serum isolated 15 and 60 min after nedocromil sodium inhalation. PMID:2161678

  6. Comparison of antiplatelet activity of garlic tablets with cardio-protective dose of aspirin in healthy volunteers: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shafiekhani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some of the adverse effects of aspirin including peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and aspirin resistance compelled researchers to find a suitable alternative with fewer adverse effects. In this clinical trial, we aimed to find the effective antiplatelet dose of garlic. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT was conducted on 62 healthy volunteers of 20-50 years old. All volunteers used 80 mg aspirin per day for 1 week and at the end of this time, platelet aggregation (PA induced by 4 agonists acting in aggregation pathway including adenosinediphosphate (20 μmol/l, epinephrine (20 μmol/l, collagen(0.19 mg/ ml and arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ ml was measured by Light Transmittance Aggregometry (LTA in all participants. After one month washout period, volunteers were randomized into 3 groups and each received 1, 2 or 3 garlic tablets (1250 mg a day for 1 month. After one month, PA was examined in all groups. Results: The mean ±SD of the age of all volunteers was 28.60 ± 9.00 years. In addition, 52.00 % of our volunteers were male and 48.00% of them were female. Garlic tablet didnot have significant effect on PA at any dose. However, 30% of volunteers in the group that used 3 garlic tablets/day reported adverse effect (i.e. bleeding. No significant association between sex, age and PA was observed. Conclusion:  In this study, we were unable to determine the effective anti-platelet dose of garlic which that could be equal to that of aspirin anti-platelet activity, as assessed LTA method.

  7. Aspirin resistance and other aspirin-related concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaoyu; Zhou, Weijun; Lu, Ya; Chen, Peili; Lu, Zhongjiao; Fu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin is a widely used medication and has become a cornerstone for treating cardiovascular disease. Aspirin can significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular ischemic events, recurrence and mortality, thereby improving the long-term prognosis of patients. However, there has been a staggering increase in the volume of literature addressing the issue of so-called "aspirin resistance" in recent years, and for some patients, it is difficult to avoid adverse reactions to aspirin. In this review, we present both the historical aspects of aspirin use and contemporary developments in its clinical use.

  8. Monitoring aspirin therapy with the Platelet Function Analyzer-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jette; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Grove, Erik Lerkevang;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low platelet response to aspirin has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of vascular events. The reported prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness varies, which may be explained by poor reproducibility of the methods used to evaluate aspirin response and low compliance....... The Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) is a commonly used platelet function test. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of the PFA-100 and the agreement with optical platelet aggregometry (OPA) in healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with low-dose aspirin....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 43 patients with CAD took part in the study. During treatment with aspirin 75 mg daily, all participants had platelet function assessed in duplicate with the PFA-100 and OPA on 4 consecutive days. Additionally, platelet function was assessed before...

  9. Critical Overview on the Benefits and Harms of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Shing Kwok

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is widely used internationally for a variety of indications, with the most prominent one being that of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin has also been proposed as a treatment option in a diverse range of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer prevention, and obstetrics. In our overview, we critically appraise the current evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering the benefits of aspirin across these conditions. We also look at evidence that some patients may not derive benefit due to the concept of aspirin resistance. Aspirin is also associated with the potential for significant harm, principally from haemorrhagic adverse events. We critically appraise the threat of haemorrhagic complications, and weigh up these risks against that of any potential benefit.

  10. Effects of ticlopidine or ticlopidine plus aspirin on platelet aggregation and ATP release in normal volunteers: why aspirin improves ticlopidine antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, R; Scazziota, A; Rouvier, J; Gonzalez, C

    1999-10-01

    Aspirin and ticlopidine are used to prevent arterial thrombosis. In some clinical settings ticlopidine is administered with aspirin for improving antithrombotic effect. We administered aspirin (100 mg/day), ticlopidine (500 mg/day), or ticlopidine and aspirin for 7 days to healthy volunteers. Platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by sodium arachidonate, ADP, or a combination of both were measured. Sodium arachidonate (0.25 mmol/L), which produces no platelet aggregation, combined with adenosine diphosphate (1 mumol/L), which produced a reversible platelet aggregation of 20% after ticlopidine, resulted in a synergistic platelet aggregation response in normal (74.6 +/- 9.2%) and in ticlopidine platelet-rich plasma (59.1% +/- 14.9%, p < 0.0001). Synergism after sodium arachidonate (0.75 mmol/L) plus adenosine diphosphate (4 mumol/L) fell from 75.8% +/- 11.0% and 59.1% +/- 15.6% after ticlopidine or aspirin, respectively, to 14.8% +/- 18.0% (p < 0.0001) after ticlopidine plus aspirin. Aspirin and ticlopidine alone did not inhibit adenosine triphosphate release as thoroughly as did aspirin plus ticlopidine. Aspirin or ticlopidine does not adequately prevent platelet activity as ticlopidine plus aspirin do. Addition of aspirin to treatment with ticlopidine improves their antiplatelet activity and better results could be obtained in arterial thrombotic prevention strategies.

  11. Aspirin and clopidogrel: a sweeping combination in cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Tzeis, Stylianos; Andrikopoulos, George; Koulouris, Spyros; Melita, Helen

    2005-07-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis, believed to be integrally involved in both the development and progression of atherosclerotic heart disease, as well as in its acute thrombotic complications. Antiplatelet therapy constitutes the cornerstone in the management of patients with acute coronary syndromes and generally high-risk patients with atherothrombosis. Until recently, long-term antiplatelet therapy for the treatment and prevention of the complications of atherothrombotic disease was traditionally limited to aspirin. The availability of the thienopyridines, in particular clopidogrel, represents an important addition to the physician's armamentarium. Clopidogrel is currently one of the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease. Aspirin and clopidogrel interfere with platelet activation in complementary, but separate pathways. Aspirin irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase, thus preventing the production of thromboxane A(2), which is a prothrombotic and vasoconstrictive substance. Clopidogrel, a newer thienopyridine which has largely supplanted ticlopidine due to a more favorable safety profile, irreversibly prevents platelet activation by blocking one of the three known adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) receptors (the P2Y(12) receptor) on the platelet surface, thus interfering with platelet activation, degranulation and aggregation. Both these antiplatelet agents have a potent protective effect against adverse vascular events, but the combination of these two agents has an even stronger antiplatelet effect translating into superior antithrombotic protection in coronary, cerebral or peripheral arterial disease, without an inordinate increase in bleeding complications. A number of seminal clinical trials have demonstrated and confirmed the incremental benefit and efficacy of the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin therapy above and beyond that of aspirin alone, with multiple other

  12. The utilization status of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xian-jun; YU Yong-fei; GUO Zhen-li; XU Kang; HAl Hong; ZHANG Ai-he; JIANG Hong; PENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to investigate the usage of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, evaluate the correlated factors, and analyze the reasons for not taking and irregularly taking aspirin. Methods The patients in this group were all stroke survivors who have formerly been diagnosed with a cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in our hospital. We investigated their use of aspirin over a three-year periodfollowing their hospitalization. According to the patients' aspirin usage, they were divided into treatment and non-treatment groups. In addition, the reasons for not taking or irregularly taking aspirin were analyzed in the two groups. Results A total of 1240 patients were studied, including 367 (29.60%) in the treatment group and 873 (70.40%) cases in the non-treatment group. In addition, 201 (16.20%) cases in the treatment group had been regularly taking aspirin (50-325 mg of aspirin daily) for 1 to 3 years or longer. The results demonstrated that the main reasons for not taking aspirin in this study were related to patients' concems regarding the side effects of taking aspirin (46.45%), as well as the doctors' inadequacy in informing their patients to take aspirin (38.71%). The major reasons for patients to irregularly take aspirin were that the doctors did not notify the length of aspirin usage to their patients (41.57%), and that doctors did not prescribe aspirin upon the patients' follow-up visit (26.51%). Conclusion The most effective way to increase patient's compliance for aspirin consumption is to promote the guidelines for stroke treatment and to relay these advances in stroke therapy to the patient.

  13. Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney; Buchheit, Kathleen; Cahill, Katherine N

    2015-12-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated diseases are important examples of drug hypersensitivities and include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticaria/angioedema, and aspirin- or NSAID-induced anaphylaxis. While each disease subtype may be distinguished by unique clinical features, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenotypes are not fully understood. However, the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme is thought to play a significant role. Additionally, eosinophils, mast cells, and their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been identified in the pathogenesis of AERD. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for aspirin-exacerbated diseases remain limited, and continued research focusing on each of the unique hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin is essential. This will not only advance the understanding of these disease processes, but also lead to the subsequent development of novel therapeutics that patients who suffer from aspirin-induced reactions desperately need.

  14. Study progress of aspirin in the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer%阿司匹林在结直肠癌防治中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁琦; 孙国平

    2016-01-01

    结直肠癌是我国常见的恶性肿瘤。尽管结直肠癌的致残率和致死率已有下降,且近十年对于结直肠癌的系统治疗有显著进展,但对其有效的预防措施与辅助疗法仍有待进一步研究。阿司匹林是解热镇痛类的经典药物,在风湿免疫疾病及心脑血管疾病有广泛的应用。近年来多个临床研究证实阿司匹林可有效防治结直肠癌。然而,目前关于阿司匹林的抗肿瘤机制仍存在争议。该研究拟就阿司匹林对结直肠癌预防与治疗中的研究进展进行综述。%Colorectal cancer (CRC)is a common malignancy in China.Although in recent decades,system treatments for CRC have a-chieved significant progresses,effective preventive measures and adjuvant therapies remain further research.Aspirin is one of the classi-cal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).It has been widely applied in rheumatoid and cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases.In recent years,a number of clinical trials confirmed that aspirin could effectively control CRC.However,the anti-tumor mechanism of aspi-rin is still controversial at the moment.In this review,we will outline research progresses of aspirin in prevention and treatment of CRC.

  15. A metabolomics strategy to explore urinary biomarkers and metabolic pathways for assessment of interaction between Danhong injection and low-dose aspirin during their synergistic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Zhu, Zhenhua; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Li, Shujiao; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Zhao, Jing; Tang, Zhishu; Duan, Jinao

    2016-07-15

    The drug combination of Danhong injection (DHI) and low-dose aspirin (ASA) was frequently applied for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the drug interactions, a lot of potential benefits and risks might exist side by side in the course of combination therapy. However, there had been no studies of interaction between DHI and ASA. Metabolomics was a powerful tool to explore endogenous biomarkers and metabolic pathways. In present study, metabolic profiling with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was performed to provide insight into understanding the interaction between DHI and low-dose ASA. Eleven potential biomarkers of three types were identified and seven metabolic pathways were constructed. The results showed that the interaction between DHI and low-dose ASA during synergistic treatment indeed affected some key endogenous biomarkers and metabolic pathways, which could not happen when DHI or low-dose ASA was used alone. The quality and quantity of endogenous metabolite were both influenced by interaction between DHI and low-dose ASA. In details, the amount of flavin mononucleotide, L-2, 4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA) and 4-aminohippuric acid were significantly increased. On the contrary, the amount of 3-methyluridine, 4, 6-dihydroxyquinoline, cortolone-3-glucuronide, and serotonin were significantly decreased. Furthermore, O-phosphotyrosine, 3-methyl-2-butenal, indoxyl sulfate and dolichyl diphosphate were disappeared in urine. As to metabolic pathways, riboflavin metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and tryptophan metabolism were all significantly influenced. The emerging alterations of biomarkers and metabolic pathways were associated with a lot of drugs and diseases based on literature researches, which might influence the co-administration of other drugs or the treatments of relevant

  16. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some medication labels may use the words acetylsalicylate, acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic, salicylamide, phenyl salicylate, etc., instead of the word aspirin. There is not data as to other forms ...

  17. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  18. Magnesium and aspirin treatment in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Comparison of effects after endovascular and neurosurgical aneurysm occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Walter M; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aneurysm treatment with endovascular coiling is associated with a better outcome than neurosurgical clipping in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The better outcome after coiling may decrease the risk reduction from other treatments in these patients, and thus may increase sam

  19. Risk analysis for aspirin and postoperative intracranial hemorrhage - report of 3 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-qing; WANG Ji-sheng; JI Nan; LIU Wei; QIAN Ke

    2009-01-01

    @@ Aspirin has been widely used clinically since 1899.For patients with cerebral ischemia and implanted intravascular stents, aspirin has been used routinely for prevention of intracranial hemorrhage and for anticoagulation treatment. However, many multi-center,large sample, controlled studies have shown that aspirin may actually increase the risk of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, and that aspirin was an independent predictor of death shortly after cerebral hemorrhage. Here we report a case series, between July 1 2006 and January 1 2008, of 3 patients who experienced postoperative intracranial hemorrhage after receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the Center of Neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University.Two of them died. There were 86 patients in all receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the same period. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in this group is 3.49%.

  20. Can Aspirin and Cancer Prevention be Ageless Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the rate of cancer diagnosis has increased worldwide due to the increase in population and average life expectancy, and also, due to the advances in diagnostic medical technology that facilitate early cancer detection and recognition. Nonetheless, the treatment options have not been developed proportional to this increase, with a huge number of patients frequently being diagnosed with different types of fatal cancer. This has prompted different health organizations to search for novel strategies to prevent cancer, or even halt its progression. Having failed to provide optimum vascular protection benefits, especially with the introduction of relatively superior antiplatelets, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors; clopidogrel and ticagrelor, regular aspirin use was proposed to reduce the risk of common cancers like colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and haematological malignancies, as suggested by epidemiological studies. However, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions on such weak data, as this could raise false hopes among patients and physicians and could potentially mislead scientific research. Clearly, current evidence highlights a gap in medical research and emphasizes the need to carry out interventional studies in high risk for cancer patients using specific aspirin doses in order to validate the data. This should also shed some light on the risk-benefit profile in view of the potential for bleeding complications, especially with the higher doses.

  1. Effects of long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in the presence or absence of aspirin: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Pfeffer, Marc

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results from a retrospective analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) study suggest that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be less effective in patients receiving aspirin. We aimed to confirm or refute this theory. METHODS: We used the Peto-Yusu...

  2. The effectiveness of antioxidant therapy in aspirin resistance, diabetes population for prevention of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboonabi, Anahita; Singh, Indu

    2016-10-01

    Thrombosis as the main complication of coronary heart disease (CHD) represents the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). In the course of diabetes mellitus some coagulation abnormalities occur, that may result in a thrombogenic propensity. Aspirin (ASA) as a platelet-inhibiting agent through inactivation of Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is mostly used for the prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic disorders. ASA inhibits the COX-1 enzyme and therefore blocks platelet thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis. However, some of the serious vascular events in high-risk vascular patients are attributable to a failure of ASA to suppress platelet aggregation. The consumption of antioxidant or antioxidant rich foods such as vitamin C, E, and polyphenols might impart anti-thrombotic and cardiovascular protective effects via their inhibition of platelet hyper-activation or aggregation similar to the action of aspirin. This review will discuss the risk of thrombosis in diabetes, what aspirin resistance means, and the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy in the prevention and possible treatment of atherothrombotic disorders.

  3. Clinical Risk Factors for Gastroduodenal Ulcer in Romanian Low-Dose Aspirin Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aspirin use for cardiovascular or cancer prevention is limited due to its gastrointestinal side effects. Objective. Our prospective, observational case-control study aims to identify the predictive factors for ulcers in low-dose aspirin consumers (75–325 mg/day). Methods. The study included patients who underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and took low-dose aspirin treatment. Results. We recruited 51 patients with ulcer (ulcer group) and 108 patients with no mucosal lesions (con...

  4. Failure of apoptosis and activation on NFkappaB by celecoxib and aspirin in lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradilone, Angela; Silvestri, Ida; Scarpa, Susanna; Morrone, Stefania; Gandini, Orietta; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Gianni, Walter; Frati, Luigi; Aglianò, Anna Maria; Gazzaniga, Paola

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that antineoplastic activity of Cox-2 inhibitors may depend on targets other than Cox: among those, nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) seems the most promising. Although preclinical studies have suggested that aspirin and Cox-2 inhibitors may influence the progression of lung cancer, the molecular mechanisms of these protective effects in this tumor type has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effects of celecoxib and aspirin in the induction of apoptosis and in the ability to activate NFkappaB in three non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Apoptosis was evaluated by FACS, caspase activation assay and expression of apoptosis-related genes by RT-PCR, while NFkappaB activation was assessed by immunofluorescence. No apoptotic response was observed after treatment with both high and low dose of celecoxib. Nevertheless, celecoxib at both concentrations induced a strong NFkappaB activation, with increased expression of NFkappaB-dependent genes, such as bcl-2, bcl-XL and survivin. Similarly, aspirin at both concentrations did not induce any apoptotic response, but activated NFkappaB in a dose-dependent manner. This study supports the hypothesis that NFkappaB activation is an important effect of NSAIDs in lung cancer, leading to apoptosis resistance. This effect of both aspirin and celecoxib may be considered undesirable in lung cancer chemoprevention.

  5. Preliminary study on effect of aspirin against endogenous protective factors of intestinal mucosa in SD rats%阿司匹林对SD大鼠小肠内源性保护因素影响的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桐; 杨天飞; 车筑平; 谭庆华

    2014-01-01

    IOD of Alcian blue was counted by image analysis in each group.The concentration of SST ,EGFR and PGE2 were detected by ELISA immuno-histochemistry ,and the IOD of each index was measured by image analysis in each group.Results:The score of ileum mucosal injury were highest in aspirin treatment groups ( P<0.05 ) ,but the score was no difference among aspirin treatment groups.The area and IOD of mucus in aspirin treatment groups were less than normal control group .The Area ( 602.17 ±158.03 ) and level of IOD ( 249.54 ± 113.19) in intraperitoneal injection group was the lowest (P<0.05).There were no differences of level of SST ,EGFR was observed among all groups .The concentration and IOD of PGE2 in normal control group was the highest (P<0.05).However,his discrepancy was not obvious among three groups of aspirin.Conclusion: Aspirin, in the four routes of administration , can cause damage to the mucosa of the rat small intestine in two weeks.The integrity of the small intestinal mucosa and mucus secretion were damaged significantly ,and it was the worst in intraperitoneal injection group.These changes might be correlated with the reduction of PGE 2.No clear results showed that the SST and EGFR were involved in the pathophysiology of the NSAIDs .

  6. Aspirin prevents diabetic oxidative changes in rat lacrimal gland structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Angélica Gobbi; Módulo, Carolina Maria; Dias, Ana Carolina; Braz, Alexandre Martins; Filho, Rubens Bertazolli; Jordão, Alceu A; de Paula, Jayter Silva; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether aspirin reduces Diabetis Mellitus (DM) oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland (LG), and ocular surface (OS). Ten weeks after streptozotocin induced DM and aspirin treatment, LG and OS of rats were compared for tear secretion, hidtology, peroxidase activity, and expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). DM reduction of tear secretion was prevented by aspirin (P < 0.01). Alterations of LG morphology and increased numbers of lipofucsin-like inclusions were observed in diabetic but not in aspirin-treated diabetic rats. Peroxidase activity levels were higher and UCP-2 was reduced in DM LG but not in aspirin treated (P = 0.0025 and P < 0.05, respectively). The findings prevented by aspirin indicate a direct inhibitory effect on oxidative pathways in LG and their inflammatory consequences, preserving the LG structure and function against hyperglycemia and/or insulin deficiency damage.

  7. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  8. Profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoping Liu; Yang Yu; Yuanjie Mao; Xinhua Wang; Jianzhong Wang; Yong Huo

    2008-01-01

    Objective Aspirin has been used extensively in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease,particularly for subjects at high risk such as metabolic syndrome.However,the responsiveness to aspirin treatment may vary among individuals.The present study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods In 221 consecutive patients,platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ml) was assessed after 10 days of aspirin treatment (200mg/d).Aspirin resistance was defined as mean optical platelet aggregation =20%.Results Aspirin resistance occurred in 39 patients (17.6%).Serum fibrinogen level was higher in patients with than in those without aspirin resistance (2.6_+0.4g/l vs 2.4±0.4g/L,P=0.017).The 2 groups,aspirin resistance group and no aspirin resistance group,did not differ significantly,with regard to gender,age,body mass index,waist-hip ratio,blood pressure level,serum cholesterol level and history of myocardial or cerebral infarction.Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only serum fibrinogen level entered the model (odds ratio 2.973,p=0.023).Subgroup analysis further showed that aspirin resistance occurred more in male patients with myocardial infarction (50% vs14.5%,P=0.02) and in female patients with diastolic blood pressure=85mmHg (34% vs 15.5%,P=0.043).But after multifactor logistic regression,in women blood pressure=85mmHg was not a predictor any more.Conclusions In patients with metabolic syndrome,aspirin resistance is not uncommon,especially for men with history of myocardial infarction.Patients with aspirin resistance have an increased serum fibrinogen level.(J Geriatr Cardio12008;5:7-10)

  9. Platelet response to increased aspirin dose in patients with persistent platelet aggregation while treated with aspirin 81 mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengo, Fran; Westphal, Erica S; Rainka, Michelle M; Janda, Maria; Robson, Matthew J; Hourihane, J Maurice; Bates, Vernice

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates that patients who are taking 81 mg of aspirin and are nonresponsive benefit from a dose of 162 mg or greater vs a different antiplatelet therapy. We identified 100 patients who were nonresponsive to aspirin 81 mg via whole blood aggregometry and observed how many patients became responsive at a dose of 162 mg or greater. Platelet nonresponsiveness was defined as >10 Ω of resistance to collagen 1 µg/mL and/or an ohms ratio of collagen 1 µg/mL to collagen 5 µg/mL >0.5 and/or >6 Ω to arachidonate. Borderline response was defined as an improvement in 1 but not both of the above criteria. Of the initial 100 patients who were nonresponsive to an aspirin dose of 81 mg, 79% became responsive at a dose of 162 mg or >162 mg. Only 6% did not respond to any increase in dose. We believe that patients treated with low-dose aspirin who have significant risk for secondary vascular events should be individually assessed to determine their antiplatelet response. Those found to have persistent platelet aggregation despite treatment with 81 mg of aspirin have a higher likelihood of obtaining an adequate antiplatelet response at a higher aspirin dose.

  10. Use of Aspirin postdiagnosis improves survival for colon cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaannet, E; Sampieri, K; Dekkers, O M; de Craen, A J M; van Herk-Sukel, M P P; Lemmens, V; van den Broek, C B M; Coebergh, J W; Herings, R M C; van de Velde, C J H; Fodde, R; Liefers, G J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The preventive role of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, in particular, on colorectal cancer is well established. More recently, it has been suggested that aspirin may also have a therapeutic role. Aim of the present observational population-based study was to assess the therapeutic effect on overall survival of aspirin/NSAIDs as adjuvant treatment used after the diagnosis of colorectal cancer patients. Methods: Data concerning prescriptions were obtained from PHARMO record linkage systems and all patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (1998–2007) were selected from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry (population-based cancer registry). Aspirin/NSAID use was classified as none, prediagnosis and postdiagnosis and only postdiagnosis. Patients were defined as non-user of aspirin/NSAIDs from the date of diagnosis of the colorectal cancer to the date of first use of aspirin or NSAIDs and user from first use to the end of follow-up. Poisson regression was performed with user status as time-varying exposure. Results: In total, 1176 (26%) patients were non-users, 2086 (47%) were prediagnosis and postdiagnosis users and 1219 (27%) were only postdiagnosis users (total n=4481). Compared with non-users, a survival gain was observed for aspirin users; the adjusted rate ratio (RR) was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.95; P=0.015). Stratified for colon and rectal, the survival gain was only present in colon cancer (adjusted RR 0.65 (95%CI 0.50–0.84; P=0.001)). For frequent users survival gain was larger (adjusted RR 0.61 (95%CI 0.46–0.81; P=0.001). In rectal cancer, aspirin use was not associated with survival (adjusted RR 1.10 (95%CI 0.79–1.54; P=0.6). The NSAIDs use was associated with decreased survival (adjusted RR 1.93 (95%CI 1.70–2.20; P<0.001). Conclusion: Aspirin use initiated or continued after diagnosis of colon cancer is associated with a lower risk of overall mortality. These findings strongly support initiation of

  11. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  12. Aspirin and coumadin after acute coronary syndromes (the ASPECT-2 study) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, RF; Jonker, JJC; Verheugt, FWA; Deckers, JW; Grobbee, DE

    2002-01-01

    Background Antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and oral anticoagulants reduces reocurrence of ischaemic events after myocardial infarction. We aimed to investigate which of these drugs is more effective in the long term after acute coronary events, and whether the combination of aspirin and oral ant

  13. UP-REGULATION OF ANTITHROMBOTIC ECTONUCLEOTIDASES BY ASPIRIN IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS IN-VITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEUNG, PK; VISSER, J; BAKKER, WW

    1994-01-01

    Ecto ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) activity of human endothelial cells following aspirin treatment has been studied in-vitro. It was shown by HPLC analysis of supernatant samples that pre-incubation of the cultures with aspirin resulted in a significantly increased turnover of supplemented ATP in

  14. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke Also known as aspirin primary prevention. Aspirin is ... taking aspirin to prevent another heart attack or stroke? The information discussed in Who may benefit? only ...

  15. 阿司匹林联合泼尼松治疗复发性流产效果观察%Aspirin combined with prednisone for treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 张宁芝

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察小剂量阿司匹林联合泼尼松治疗复发性流产(RSA)的疗效.方法:将53例RSA的患者随机分为治疗组33例和对照组20例.治疗组每天予以阿司匹林100 mg、泼尼松5 mg 1次口服,共3个月;3个月后阿司匹林减量至25 mg,泼尼松减量至2.5 mg,每晚1次口服,直至妊娠后3个月.对照组常规黄体酮等保胎药物治疗.将生育活婴或者妊娠28周内未出现胎儿异常视为妊娠有效,比较2组治疗有效率、活产率及妊娠合并症发生率.结果:治疗组患者治疗有效率明显高于对照组(P<0.01),且妊娠期使用小剂量阿司匹林及泼尼松并不增加妊娠合并症的发生.结论:小剂量阿司匹林联合泼尼松能有效改善RSA的妊娠结局,具有临床可行性.%Objective:To invesligale the efficacy of low dose of prednisone combined with aspirin on recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Methods:Fifty-three cases of RSA were randomly divided into treatment group(33 cases) and conlrol group(20 cases). The cases in the treatment group were administered low dose of prednisone 100 mg once each day and aspirin 5 mg once every night for 3 months;3 months later, the dosage of aspirin was decreased Lo 25 mg and prednisone Lo 2. 5 mg once every night. The therapy was carried out until 3 months after pregnancy; the controls were given the routine therapy of progeslerone only. The therapy was regarded as effective when the fetal in utero was alive or presenling no fetal disorder at 28 weeks of geslation. The treatment efficacy, the live birth rale and the incidence of pregnancy-coexisled diseases were compared belween the two groups. Results:The efficacy rale in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the conlrol(P <0. 01) and low dose of aspirin and prednisone woutd not increase the incidence of pregnancy-coexisled diseases. Conclusions:The therapy of low dose of prednisone combined with aspirin can effectively prevenl the incidence of RSA and is highly

  16. Low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Charlotte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that aspirin use may protect against prostate cancer. In a nationwide case-control study, using Danish high-quality registry data, we evaluated the association between the use of low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs......) and the risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We identified 35,600 patients (cases) with histologically verified prostate cancer during 2000-2012. Cases were matched to 177,992 population controls on age and residence by risk-set sampling. Aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID exposure was defined by type, estimated dose......, duration, and consistency of use. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs), with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for prostate cancer associated with low-dose aspirin (75-150 mg) or nonaspirin NSAID use, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Use of low-dose aspirin...

  17. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  18. Impact of aspirin and statins on long-term survival in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Aspirin and statins are established therapies for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but their benefits in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain elusive. We investigated the impact of aspirin and statins on long-term survival in patients hospitalized with acute MI complicated by HF....... METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 4251 patients in the Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events (EMMACE)-1 and -2 observational studies, 1706 patients had HF. A propensity score-matching method estimated the average treatment effects (ATEs) of aspirin and statins on survival over 90 months....... ATEs were calculated as relative risk differences in all-cause mortality comparing patients receiving aspirin and statins with controls, respectively. Moreover, combined aspirin and statins vs. none (ATE I), aspirin or statins vs. none (ATE II), and aspirin and statins vs. aspirin or statins (ATE III...

  19. Effect of zinc acexamate on gastric lesions induced by aspirin: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Fontarnau, R; Bulbena, O

    1990-11-06

    The morphology of gastric lesions induced by aspirin in the rat and their modification by pretreatment with zinc acexamate (100 mg/kg) were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of mucosal levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the development of these lesions was also investigated. High (200 mg/kg) or low (50 mg/kg) doses of aspirin inhibited PGE2 production similarly, but the morphology of these lesions differed considerably. While gross exfoliation of extensive areas of gastric mucosa was observed after 200 mg/kg aspirin, only ultrastructural lesions of surface epithelial cells were present after 50 mg/kg aspirin. Regardless of the dose of aspirin administered, pretreatment with zinc acexamate raised PGE2 levels and increased the presence of mucus. Our results showed that after zinc acexamate, the development of deep erosions appearing with high doses of aspirin was prevented and the ultrastructural lesions induced by low doses of aspirin were not observed. The fact that zinc acexamate did not modify the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin in the carrageenin-induced oedema model suggests that the protective effect of zinc acexamate is exerted locally on the gastric mucosa.

  20. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  1. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/aspirin-during-pregnancy/ ...

  2. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K M; Wade, D N

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms ml-1 in the presence of chronic, high-dose aspirin treatment. 4. Tenoxicam percentage free measured in plasma from a normal volunteer was 0.56 +/- 0.05% over the tenoxicam concentration range 1-20 micrograms ml-1 and rose to 1.24 +/- 0.07% in the presence of aspirin 150 micrograms ml-1. 5. The effect of aspirin upon the disposition of tenoxicam was consistent with a competitive protein binding interaction. PMID:3190995

  3. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of high-dose rebamipide treatment for low-dose aspirin-induced moderate-to-severe small intestinal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin (LDA frequently causes small bowel injury. While some drugs have been reported to be effective in treating LDA-induced small intestinal damage, most studies did not exclude patients with mild damage thought to be clinically insignificant.We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a high dose of rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, for LDA-induced moderate-to-severe enteropathy.We enrolled patients who received 100 mg of enteric-coated aspirin daily for more than 3 months and were found to have more than 3 mucosal breaks (i.e., erosions or ulcers in the small intestine by capsule endoscopy. Eligible patients were assigned to receive either rebamipide 300 mg (triple dose 3 times daily or placebo for 8 weeks in a 2:1 ratio. Capsule endoscopy was then repeated. The primary endpoint was the change in the number of mucosal breaks from baseline to 8 weeks. Secondary endpoints included the complete healing of mucosal breaks at 8 weeks and the change in Lewis score (an endoscopic score assessing damage severity from baseline to 8 weeks.The study was completed by 38 patients (rebamipide group: n = 25, placebo group: n = 13. After 8 weeks of treatment, rebamipide, but not placebo, significantly decreased the number of mucosal breaks (p = 0.046. While the difference was not significant (p = 0.13, the rate of complete mucosal break healing in the rebamipide group (32%, 8 of 25 tended to be higher than that in the placebo group (7.7%, 1 of 13. Rebamipide treatment significantly improved intestinal damage severity as assessed by the Lewis score (p = 0.02, whereas placebo did not. The triple dose of rebamipide was well tolerated.High-dose rebamipide is effective for the treatment of LDA-induced moderate-to-severe enteropathy.UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000003463.

  4. Time for aspirin : blood pressure and reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, Tobias Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    Aspirine wordt door miljoenen mensen wereldwijd gebruikt ter preventie van hart- en vaatziekten. De meeste mensen nemen aspirine 's ochtends in, maar het optimale inname tijdstip is niet bekend. In dit proefschrift is onderzocht voordelig is om aspirine 's avonds in te nemen in plaats van 's ochtend

  5. The role of aspirin in women's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to discuss the role of aspirin for various conditions in women. METHODS: A nonsystematic review of articles published on PubMed((R)) that examines the role of aspirin in women. RESULTS: Aspirin is associated with a significant reduction of stroke risk in women,

  6. Aspirin: Pharmacology and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma V. Paez Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet therapy has been documented to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease after acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, and in chronic atrial fibrillation patients, amongst other risk factors. Conventional management of thrombosis-based disorders includes the use of heparin, oral anticoagulants, and the preferred antiplatelet agent aspirin. Interestingly, aspirin was not intended to be used as an antiplatelet agent; rather, after being repurposed, it has become one of the most widely prescribed antithrombotic drugs. To this end, there have been several milestones in the development of antiplatelet agents in the last few decades, such as adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors. However, given some of the limitations of these therapies, aspirin continues to play a major role in the management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders and is expected to do so for years to come.

  7. Induction of lung lesions in Wistar rats by 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone and its inhibition by aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Dong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective chemopreventive agents against cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer could be greatly facilitated by suitable laboratory animal models, such as animals treated with the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. In the current study, we established a novel lung cancer model in Wistar rats treated with NNK. Using this model, we assessed the effects of two chemopreventive agents, aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, on tumor progression. Methods First, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK by intratracheal instillation; control rats received iodized oil. The animals were then sacrificed on the indicated day after drug administration and examined for tumors in the target organs. PCNA, p63 and COX-2 expression were analyzed in the preneoplastic lung lesions. Second, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK (25 mg/kg body weight in the absence or presence of aspirin and/or PEITC in the daily diet. The control group received only the vehicle in the regular diet. The animals were sacrificed on day 91 after bronchial instillation of NNK. Lungs were collected and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical assays. Results NNK induced preneoplastic lesions in lungs, including 33.3% alveolar hyperplasia and 55.6% alveolar atypical dysplasia. COX-2 expression increased similarly in alveolar hyperplasia and alveolar atypical dysplasia, while PCNA expression increased more significantly in the latter than the former. No p63 expression was detected in the preneoplastic lesions. In the second study, the incidences of alveolar atypical dysplasia were reduced to 10%, 10% and 0%, respectively, in the aspirin, PEITC and aspirin and PEITC groups, compared with 62.5% in the carcinogen-treated control group. COX-2 expression decreased after dietary aspirin or aspirin and PEITC treatment. PCNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspirin and PEITC

  8. Low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia (GISP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this pilot study, aimed at exploring the feasibility of a large-scale trial of low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera (PV), 112 PV patients (42 females, 70 males. aged 17-80 years) were selected for not having a clear indication for, or contraindication to, aspirin treatment and randomized to receive oral aspirin (40 mg/d) or placebo. Follow-up duration was 16 +/- 6 months. Measurements of thromboxane A2 production during whole blood clotting demonstrated complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity in patients receiving aspirin. Aspirin administration was not associated with any bleeding complication. Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study indicates that a biochemically effective regimen of antiplatelet therapy is well tolerated in patients with polycythaemia vera and that a large-scale placebo-controlled trial is feasible.

  9. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  10. Is there an ideal way to initiate antiplatelet therapy with aspirin? A crossover study on healthy volunteers evaluating different dosing schemes with whole blood aggregometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeck Ursula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend an early initiation of aspirin treatment in patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Comparative studies on the best starting dose for initiating aspirin therapy to achieve a rapid antiplatelet effect do not exist. This study evaluated the platelet inhibitory effect in healthy volunteers by using three different aspirin loading doses to gain a model for initiating antiplatelet treatment in acute strokes patients. Methods Using whole blood aggregometry, this study with a prospective, uncontrolled, open, crossover design examined 12 healthy volunteers treated with three different aspirin loading doses: intravenous 500 mg aspirin, oral 500 mg aspirin, and a course of 200 mg aspirin on two subsequent days followed by a five-day course of 100 mg aspirin. Aspirin low response was defined as change of impedance exceeding 0 Ω after stimulation with arachidonic acid. Results Sufficient antiplatelet effectiveness was gained within 30 seconds when intravenous 500 mg aspirin was used. The mean time until antiplatelet effect was 74 minutes for 500 mg aspirin taken orally and 662 minutes (11.2 hours for the dose scheme with 200 mg aspirin with a high inter- and intraindividual variability in those two regimes. Platelet aggregation returned to the baseline range during the wash-out phase within 4 days. Conclusion Our study reveals that the antiplatelet effect differs significantly between the three different aspirin starting dosages with a high inter- and intraindividual variability of antiplatelet response in our healthy volunteers. To ensure an early platelet inhibitory effect in acute stroke patients, it could be advantageous to initiate the therapy with an intravenous loading dose of 500 mg aspirin. However, clinical outcome studies must still define the best way to initiate antiplatelet treatment with aspirin.

  11. Effects of Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy on Thermoregulation in Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Serina J.; Reis, Steven E.; Suman, Oscar E.; Hostler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart attack is the most common cause of line-of-duty death in the fire service. Daily aspirin therapy is a preventative measure used to reduce the morbidity of heart attacks but may decrease the ability to dissipate heat by reducing skin blood flow. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, firefighters were randomized to receive 14 days of therapy (81-mg aspirin or placebo) before performing treadmill exercise in thermal-protective clothing in a hot room [38.8 ± 2.1°C, 24.9 ± 9.1% relative humidity (RH)]. Three weeks without therapy was provided before crossing to the other arm. Firefighters completed a baseline skin blood-flow assessment via laser Doppler flowmetry; skin was heated to 44°C to achieve maximal cutaneous vasodilation. Skin blood flow was measured before and after exercise in a hot room, and at 0 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes of recovery under temperature conditions (25.3 ± 1.2°C, 40.3 ± 13.7% RH). Platelet clotting time was assessed before drug administration, and before and after exercise. Results Fifteen firefighters completed the study. Aspirin increased clotting time before and after exercise compared with placebo (p = 0.003). There were no differences in absolute skin blood flow between groups (p = 0.35). Following exercise, cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was 85 ± 42% of maximum in the aspirin and 76 ± 37% in the placebo groups. The percentage of maximal CVC did not differ by treatment before or after recovery. Neither maximal core body temperature nor heart rate responses to exercise differed between trials. Conclusion There were no differences in skin blood flow during uncompensable heat stress following exercise after aspirin or placebo therapy. PMID:26929836

  12. Low dose aspirin after ischemic stroke associated with antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, RHWM; de Groot, PG; Kappelle, LJ

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe course and outcome of eight patients with ischemic stroke as the first thrombotic manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome who received low-dose aspirin as prophylactic treatment. During 8.9 years of follow-up, two patients had a recurrent stroke. Recurrent stroke rate per 100

  13. Aspirin induced fixed drug eruptions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruptions are common cutaneous adverse drug reactions, commonly caused by anticonvulsants, antibiotics and analgesics. Here, we report a case of a 27-year-old male of fixed drug eruptions due to Aspirin which was used in treatment of headache. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 220-221

  14. The influence of BRAF and KRAS mutation status on the association between aspirin use and survival after colon cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frouws (Martine); B. Reimers (Bernhard); M. Swets (Marloes); E. Bastiaannet (Esther); Prinse, B. (Bianca); R. van Eijk (Ronald); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); T. van Wezel (Tom); P.J.K. Kuppen (P. J K); H. Morreau (Hans); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Use of aspirin after diagnosis of colon cancer has been associated with improved survival. Identification of cancer subtypes that respond to aspirin treatment may help develop personalized treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of BRAF and

  15. Compound list: aspirin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aspirin ASA 00014 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aspirin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/aspirin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aspirin....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/aspirin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  16. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10......,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before...... the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum...

  17. The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FA

    2015-08-01

    increase in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also a significant decrease in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. In the aspirin-treated group compared to the control group, the NE had a protective effect on the stomach and caused less injury than aspirin, indicated by significant decreases in TNFα, iNOS, prostaglandin E2, and malondialdehyde levels, and also significant increases in glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The biochemical results were confirmed by histopathological studies.Conclusion: Aspirin nanoemulsion has less toxic effect on the gastric mucosa compared to ordinary aspirin. This can be indicated by the increase of the antioxidant activity and the decrease of the inflammatory mediators in the gastric tissue.Keywords: aspirin, aspirin nanoemulsion, blank nanoemulsion, stomach

  18. Systems Pharmacogenomics Finds RUNX1 Is an Aspirin-Responsive Transcription Factor Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Deepak; Rao, A Koneti; Jalagadugula, Gauthami S; Myers, Rachel; Harris, Emily; Ortel, Thomas L; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin prevents cardiovascular disease and colon cancer; however aspirin's inhibition of platelet COX-1 only partially explains its diverse effects. We previously identified an aspirin response signature (ARS) in blood consisting of 62 co-expressed transcripts that correlated with aspirin's effects on platelets and myocardial infarction (MI). Here we report that 60% of ARS transcripts are regulated by RUNX1 - a hematopoietic transcription factor - and 48% of ARS gene promoters contain a RUNX1 binding site. Megakaryocytic cells exposed to aspirin and its metabolite (salicylic acid, a weak COX-1 inhibitor) showed up regulation in the RUNX1 P1 isoform and MYL9, which is transcriptionally regulated by RUNX1. In human subjects, RUNX1 P1 expression in blood and RUNX1-regulated platelet proteins, including MYL9, were aspirin-responsive and associated with platelet function. In cardiovascular disease patients RUNX1 P1 expression was associated with death or MI. RUNX1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal malignancies. We show that RUNX1 P1 expression is associated with colon cancer free survival suggesting a role for RUNX1 in aspirin's protective effect in colon cancer. Our studies reveal an effect of aspirin on RUNX1 and gene expression that may additionally explain aspirin's effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  19. Systems Pharmacogenomics Finds RUNX1 Is an Aspirin-Responsive Transcription Factor Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Voora, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin prevents cardiovascular disease and colon cancer; however aspirin's inhibition of platelet COX-1 only partially explains its diverse effects. We previously identified an aspirin response signature (ARS in blood consisting of 62 co-expressed transcripts that correlated with aspirin's effects on platelets and myocardial infarction (MI. Here we report that 60% of ARS transcripts are regulated by RUNX1 – a hematopoietic transcription factor - and 48% of ARS gene promoters contain a RUNX1 binding site. Megakaryocytic cells exposed to aspirin and its metabolite (salicylic acid, a weak COX-1 inhibitor showed up regulation in the RUNX1 P1 isoform and MYL9, which is transcriptionally regulated by RUNX1. In human subjects, RUNX1 P1 expression in blood and RUNX1-regulated platelet proteins, including MYL9, were aspirin-responsive and associated with platelet function. In cardiovascular disease patients RUNX1 P1 expression was associated with death or MI. RUNX1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in gastrointestinal malignancies. We show that RUNX1 P1 expression is associated with colon cancer free survival suggesting a role for RUNX1 in aspirin's protective effect in colon cancer. Our studies reveal an effect of aspirin on RUNX1 and gene expression that may additionally explain aspirin's effects in cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  20. Anti-apoptotic effects of aspirin following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Qiu; Bin Du; Ying Li; Hongbin Fan; Zhiyong Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pharmacological effects of aspirin on apoptosis are complex. The underlying mechanisms have not been properly defined. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different doses of aspirin on brain cell apoptosis following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. DESING, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment, performed at the School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University between June and October 2006. MATERIALS: Twenty-six male, adult, Sprague Dawley rats (grade II), weighing 240-290 g, were obtained from Shanghai Experimental Animal Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Aspirin was provided by Sigma (USA). METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operation (SO), CIRI+ vehicle, CIRI+ aspirin (6 mg/kg), and CIRI + aspirin (60 mg/kg). Rats in the lesion groups were intragastrically administrated saline, aspirin (6 mg/kg), or aspirin (60 mg/kg), respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of pyramidal neurons with normal appearance in the cerebral cortex at 2-4 mm from the midline; apoptotic cell death as measured by TUNEL; Bcl-2 and Bax protein localization was determined by immunohistochemistry; maiondiaidehyde (MDA) and super oxidation (SOD) content were determined by biochemistry method; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content measured by capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: Following CIRI, the following parameters were altered compared with sham-operated animals: the number of neurons with normal appearance was significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex; the number of apoptotic cells increased; Bax protein expression was enhanced; and the ratio between Bcl-2 and Bax decreased. In addition, MDA content increased significantly, whereas ATP content decreased (P < 0.01 ). Aspirin ameliorated the loss of healthy pyramidal neurons. Both 6 and 60 mg/kg aspirin increased the ratio between Bcl-2 and Bax, with no significant difference between the treatment groups. In addition, 60 mg

  1. Rapid Aspirin Challenge in Patients with Aspirin Allergy and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin A; White, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin allergy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome represents one of the more urgent challenges an allergist may face. Adverse reactions to aspirin are reported in 1.5% of patients with coronary artery disease. A history of adverse reaction to aspirin often leads to unnecessary withholding of this medication or use of alternative antiplatelet therapy which may be inferior or more costly. Aspirin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Rapid aspirin challenge/desensitization in the aspirin allergic patient has been consistently shown to be both safe and successful in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  2. Secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia of presumed arterial origin: is aspirin still the touchstone?

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPatients who have had a transient ischaemic attack or nondisabling ischaemic stroke of presumed arterial origin have an annual risk of death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, or non-fatal myocardial infarction that ranges between 4% and 11% without treatment. In the secondary prevention of these vascular complications the use of aspirin has been the standard treatment for the past two decades. Discussions about the dose of aspirin have dominated the issue for some time, ...

  3. Aspirin for Prevention of Preeclampsia in Lupus Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, the onset of hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy, is a common medical disorder with high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The underlying pathology remains poorly understood and includes inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and an unbalanced thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio. For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, particularly those with preexisting renal disease or with active lupus, the risk of developing preeclampsia is up to 14% higher than it is among healthy individuals. The mechanism is still unknown and the data for preventing preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies are rare. Modulating the impaired thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio by administration of low-dose aspirin appears to be the current best option for the prevention of preeclampsia. After providing an overview of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies, and previous trials for prevention of preeclampsia with aspirin treatment, we recommend low-dose aspirin administration for all lupus patients starting prior to 16 weeks of gestation. Patients with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome should receive treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin during pregnancy.

  4. Antibody profile of pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy outcome after treatment with low dose aspirin and low-weight-molecular heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasnović, Marija; Bosnjak, Ivica; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Kosuta, Maja; Lenz, Bahrija; Glasnović-Horvatić, Elizabeta; Soldo-Butković, Silva; Mićunović, Nikola

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the research was to show our diagnostic and therapeutic experience with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in pregnant women. 36 pregnant women suspect on APS were included in the study: 32 with primary antiphospholipd syndrome (PAPS) and 4 with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (SAPS). All pregnant women received low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) and low dose aspirin (LDA) therapy. Control group represented 26 women with SAPS and previous bad reproductive anamnesis. Average pregnancy lasted 37.06 +/- 0.707 weeks. LMWH and LDA therapy was successful in 97.22%. Lupus anticoagulant (LA) was found to be more frequent in PAPS group (71.87%). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were found to be more frequent in SAPS (26.66%). For three patients (3.37%), PAPS was diagnosed due to a fact that they had positive antibeta2-glycoproteinl (antibeta-GP1). To make APS diagnosis, it is of great importance to search for all antiphospholipid antibodies. LMWH and low dose of acetylsalicylic acid should be the first choice therapy.

  5. FREQUENCY OF ASPIRIN RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1 AND 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH METABOLIC PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Gokalp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with Type 1 and 2 diabetes and to study its association with metabolic parameters. Methods: Aspirin resistance of patients (n=158 with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM who presented to the center after 7 days of regular aspirin use were compared to age-mathced (55±19 healthy controls (n=164. Similarly, aspirin resistance of patients (n=30 diagnosed with Type 1 DM were compared to age-matched (27±7 healthy subjects (n=41 as the control group. Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100 was used to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin. Results: Aspirin resistance was identified in 72 of 158 patients with Type 2 DM (45.6% and in 47 of 164 healthy controls (28.6% (p=0.001. Aspirin resistance had a prevalence of 50% in patients with Type 1 DM and was significantly higher compared to the control group of 41 healthy subjects (12.2% (p=0.001. No correlations were noted between aspirin resistance and sex, smoking, HbA1c, hypertension and aspirin dose. There was a significant relation between aspirin resistance and LDL-cholesterol in patients with Type 2 DM (p=0.020. Conclusion: Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 DM had a higher frequency of aspirin resistance than the control group. Therefore, treatment choices including administering higher doses of aspirin or using other antiplatelet agents such as clopidogrel should be considered to prevent thrombocytic events in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Down-regulation of β-catenin Nuclear Localization by Aspirin Correlates with Growth Inhibition of Jurkat Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on the growth rates, subcellar distribution of β-catenin protein, the expression of β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway target gene cyclinD1 mRNA,and cell cycle of Jurkat cell line (Human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Our results showed that the treatment with aspirin inhibited the growth of Jurkat cell line. Jurkat cells treated with 3 mmol/L of aspirin could significantly decrease nuclear localization of β-catenin, and at 5 mmol/L of aspirin,the nuclear localization of β-catenin was undetectable. QRT-PCR showed that the target gene cyclinD1 mRNA expression was gradually decreased with the dosage of aspirin. Aspirin induced G0/G1cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells. We are led to conclude that aspirin acts through β-catenin-independent mechanisms. The effects of aspirin include down-regulation of β-catenin nuclear localization and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which might serve as a means of growth inhibition in aspirin-treated human Jurkat cell line.

  7. Aspirin in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: current facts and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Patrono, C

    1996-09-01

    The role of aspirin in the antithrombotic strategy of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) is highly controversial. Long considered unsafe on the basis of a single clinical trial testing very high doses in PV patients, aspirin is being increasingly used at lower dosage. The rationale for the use of aspirin in patients with PV and ET is provided by the efficacy of this agent in the treatment of microcirculatory disturbances of thrombocythemic states associated with myeloproliferative disorders and by recent evidence that asymptomatic PV and ET patients have persistently increased thromboxane (TX) A2-biosynthesis. This increase, which most likely reflects enhanced platelet activation in vivo, is independent of the platelet mass and blood viscosity and largely supressed by a short term low-dose aspirin regimen (50 mg/day for 7 days). Since enhanced TXA2 biosynthesis may play a role in transducing the increased thrombotic risk associated with PV and ET, long-term low-dose aspirin administration has been proposed as a possible antithombotic strategy in these subjects. The safety of this treatment in PV patients has been recently reassessed by the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Policitemia Vera (GISP) which has followed for over one year 112 patients randomized to receive 40 mg/day aspirin or placebo. In the same study, serum TXB2 measurements provided evidence that the low-dose aspirin regimen tested was fully effective in inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase activity. On this basis, a large scale trial aimed at assessing the antithrombotic efficacy of this approach is currently being organized. In patients with ET both the minimal aspirin dose required for complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the safety of long-term aspirin administration need to be established prior to extensive clinical evaluation of this strategy.

  8. European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP): a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Marchioli, R

    1997-01-01

    Thrombotic complications characterize the clinical course of polycythemia vera (PV) and represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality. However, uncertainty still exists as to the benefit/risk ratio of aspirin prophylaxis in this setting. In vivo platelet biosynthesis of thromboxane A2 is enhanced and can be suppressed by low-dose aspirin in PV, thus providing a rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of a low-dose aspirin regimen in these patients. The Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera has recently performed a pilot study on 112 patients randomized to receive aspirin, 40 mg daily, or placebo and followed for 16 +/- 6 months (mean +/- SD). This study showed that low-dose aspirin is well tolerated in PV patients, and that a large-scale efficacy trial is feasible in this setting. In this article we report the protocol of the European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP) study, which is a randomized trial designed to assess the risk/benefit ratio of low-dose aspirin in PV. To estimate the size and the follow-up duration required for the ECLAP trial, a retrospective analysis of the clinical epidemiology of a large PV population has recently been completed by the Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera. On this basis, approximately 3500 patients will be enrolled in the ECLAP study with a follow-up of 3 to 4 years. The uncertainty principle will be used as the main eligibility criterion: Polycythemic patients of any age, having no clear indication for or contraindication to aspirin treatment, will be randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive oral aspirin (100 mg daily) or placebo. According to current therapeutic recommendations, the basic treatment of randomized patients should be aimed at maintaining the hematocrit value 50. Randomization will be stratified by participating center. The study is funded by the European Union BIOMED 2 program.

  9. The role of aspirin in colorectal cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ranger, Gurpreet

    2016-08-01

    Considerable interest has emerged over the last decade regarding the role of aspirin in prevention of colorectal cancer. This disease is one of the commonest cancers in the Western World, therefore, the existence of a simple "everyday" agent, which could have the ability to prevent the disease, represents an invaluable opportunity clinicians may be able to exploit. Evidence from case-control and cohort studies, and recent updates of randomised controlled trials have been very encouraging-indicating benefit from long term use of aspirin at low dose. Possible mechanisms of chemoprevention include inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, or COX-independent mechanisms, for example, the PIK3CA pathway, or therapy-induced senescence of cancer cells. The most serious side effect of prolonged aspirin treatment is haemorrhage, especially from the GI tract. This is likely to be less of a problem with chemoprevention at lower doses. One also needs to consider the impact if aspirin resistance, an increasingly recognised clinical entity.

  10. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The Basics Overview Benefits ... and Risks What are the benefits of taking aspirin daily? Aspirin can reduce your risk of heart ...

  11. Aspirin inhibits hepatitis C virus entry by downregulating claudin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin has previously been reported to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aspirin is involved in blocking HCV entry. We found that aspirin inhibits the entry of HCVpp and infectious HCV. The level of claudin-1, an HCV receptor, is reduced by aspirin. Our results extend the anti-HCV effect of aspirin to the HCV entry step and further reinforce the anti-HCV role of aspirin.

  12. Effect of Aspirin on Cell Growth of Human MG-63 Osteosarcoma Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Luna-Bertos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used in bone tissue repair treatment for their pharmacological action. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin, on osteoblast growth, using MG63 cell line as osteoblast model. MTT spectrophotometry results showed that 20, 100, and 1000 μM aspirin doses have an inhibitory effect on growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed that aspirin doses of 100 and 1000 μM arrest the cell cycle in phase GO/G1. Parallel apoptosis/necrosis studies showed no changes in comparison to control cells after treatment with 1 or 10 μM aspirin but a significantly increased percentage of cells in apoptosis at doses of 20, 100, and 1000 μM. We highlight that treatment of osteoblast-like cells with 1000 μM aspirin increased not only the percentage of cells in apoptosis but also the percentage of necrotic cells, which was not observed in aspirin treatments at lower doses.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of a new synthetic aspirin-decursinol adduct in experimental animal models of ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Chun Yan

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second leading cause of death. Experimental animal models of cerebral ischemia are widely used for researching mechanisms of ischemic damage and developing new drugs for the prevention and treatment of stroke. The present study aimed to comparatively investigate neuroprotective effects of aspirin (ASA, decursinol (DA and new synthetic aspirin-decursinol adduct (ASA-DA against transient focal and global cerebral ischemic damage. We found that treatment with 20 mg/kg, not 10 mg/kg, ASA-DA protected against ischemia-induced neuronal death after transient focal and global ischemic damage, and its neuroprotective effect was much better than that of ASA or DA alone. In addition, 20 mg/kg ASA-DA treatment reduced the ischemia-induced gliosis and maintained antioxidants levels in the corresponding injury regions. In brief, ASA-DA, a new synthetic drug, dramatically protected neurons from ischemic damage, and neuroprotective effects of ASA-DA may be closely related to the attenuation of ischemia-induced gliosis and maintenance of antioxidants.

  14. Risk and preventive factors of low-dose aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injuries: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotani, Akiko; Manabe, Noriaki; Kamada, Tomoari; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Sakakibara, Takashi; Haruma, Ken

    2012-04-01

    The risk of peptic ulcer complications, particularly bleeding, is increased in association with the use of low-dose aspirin (LDA). Risk factors for upper gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer or bleeding among LDA users include a history of prior GI events, older age, chronic renal failure, combined antithrombotic therapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Helicobacter pylori and aspirin seem to be independent risk factors for peptic ulcer and bleeding. The studies report conflicting findings about the effect of H. pylori infection on NSAID-related ulcers, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) seem to be superior to eradication only to prevent recurrent ulcer bleeding with LDA. Previous studies indicate that hypoacidity related to corpus atrophy, as well as taking PPIs and co-treatment with angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and statins seem to reduce peptic ulcer among LDA users. In addition, the interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-511 T allele and angiotensinogen (AGT)-20 CC, which work as the high-producer allele of IL-1β and AGT, are significantly associated with ulcer or ulcer bleeding. The SLCO1B1*1b haplotype, which has the highest transport activity, may diminish the preventive effect of statins or ARBs. The data are still lacking and further prospective studies are needed to identify the specific risk or protective factors for upper GI ulcer and its complications associated with LDA.

  15. 不同剂量阿司匹林肠溶片治疗急性脑梗死的临床分析%Analysis Clinical of Different Doses of Aspirin Enteric-coated Tablets in Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白彦君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究不同剂量阿司匹林肠溶片治疗急性脑梗死的临床疗效。方法选取急性肠梗死患者80例,随机分为对照组和观察组各40例,对照组采用小剂量(100 mg/d)阿司匹林肠溶片治疗,观察组采用大剂量(300 mg/d)阿司匹林肠溶片治疗,对比两组患者治疗效果。结果观察组患者治疗总有效率高于对照组,患者神经功能缺损评分低于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论给予急性脑梗死剂量阿司匹林肠溶片治疗可改善患者神经功能缺损情况。%Objective To explore clinical effect on different doses of aspirin enteric-coated tablets in treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Methods Selected 80 cases with acute intestinal infarction, randomly divided into control group and observation group with 40 cases in each group, the control group with small dose (100 mg/d) aspirin enteric-coated tablets treatment, the observation group was treated with high dose (300 mg/d) aspirin enteric-coated tablets treatment, compared two groups of patients the effect. Results The total effective rate of observation group was higher than that of the control group, patients with nerve function defect score lower than the control group .Conclusion Patients with acute cerebral infarction aspirin enteric-coated tablets dose treatment can improve the neurological deifcits.

  16. [Broader indication for treatment with statins; the 'heart protection study'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Stuyt, P.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of statins has been a breakthrough in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Statins are safe and effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in the general population. The 'Heart protection study' has provided evidence for the benefit of statin treatment in much broad

  17. Corrosion protection of reinforcement by hydrophobic treatment of concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Vries, H. de

    1999-01-01

    Penetration of de-icing salts into concrete bridge decks may cause corrosion of reinforcement. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete was studied as additional protection. It was shown that hydrophobic treatment strongly reduces chloride ingress, during semi-permanent contact and in wetting/drying situat

  18. Hydrophobic treatment of concrete as protection against chloride penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Polder, R.B.; Borsje, H.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic treatment makes a concrete surface absorb less water and less chloride. Hydrophobic treatment was studied as a protection agninst chloride penetration from deicing salts. Test methods were designed. Nine hydrophobic products were tested, of which three complied to the requirements on fin

  19. Induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) by aspirin in Caco-2 colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Naveen; Gerner, Eugene W; Casero, Robert A

    2006-02-15

    Epidemiological, experimental and clinical results suggest that aspirin and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) inhibit the development of colon cancer. It has been shown that the NSAID sulindac induces apoptosis and suppresses carcinogenesis, in part, by a mechanism leading to the transcriptional activation of the gene encoding SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase), a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism. In the present study, we show that a variety of NSAIDs, including aspirin, sulindac, ibuprofen and indomethacin, can induce SSAT gene expression in Caco-2 cells. Aspirin, at physiological concentrations, can induce SSAT mRNA via transcriptional initiation mechanisms. This induction leads to increased SSAT protein levels and enzyme activity. Promoter deletion analysis of the 5' SSAT promoter-flanking region led to the identification of two NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) response elements. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed binding of NF-kappaB complexes at these sequences after aspirin treatment. Aspirin treatment led to the activation of NF-kappaB signalling and increased binding at these NF-kappaB sites in the SSAT promoter, hence providing a potential mechanism for the induction of SSAT by aspirin in these cells. Aspirin-induced SSAT ultimately leads to a decrease in cellular polyamine content, which has been associated with decreased carcinogenesis. These results suggest that activation of SSAT by aspirin and different NSAIDs may be a common property of NSAIDs that plays an important role in their chemopreventive actions in colorectal cancer.

  20. Protection of phosphatidylcholine to photosystemⅡ membrane during heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem Ⅱ membrane was reconstituted with phosphatidylcholine (PC) with different kinds of fatty acyl chains and the protection of PC to photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) membrane during heat treatment was investigated using oxygen electrode, variable fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Heat treatment decreased the oxygen evolution rate and the F′v/Fm′ ratio of PSⅡ membrane and influenced CD spectra of PSⅡ membrane, but PC inhibited the effect of heat treatment on the oxygen evolution rate, the F′v/F′m ratio and CD spectra of PSⅡ membrane. The results indicate that PC can protect PSⅡ membrane against heat treatment and the alterations in the unsaturated fatty acid extent in PC can cause the changes of the protection ability.

  1. Laser Removal of Protective Treatments on Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heras, M.; Rebollar, E.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Oujja, M.; Fort, R.; Castillejo, M.

    This work presents an investigation of the laser removal of polymeric materials acting as consolidants and water-repellents on limestone used on buildings of architectural and artistic value. The removal of the consolidant Paraloid B-72 and the water-repellent product Tegosivin HL-100, applied on samples of Colmenarand Bateig limestone, was studied as a function of the laser wavelength, by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). Elimination of the coatings and subsequent surface modifications were monitored through colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing the treatments, although thermal alteration processes were induced on the calcite crystals of the limestone. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  2. Evaluación económica del tratamiento con ácido acetilsalicílico más esomeprazol comparado con clopidogrel en la prevención de la hemorragia gastrointestinal Economic evaluation of the treatment of aspirin plus esomeprazole compared to clopidogrel in gastrointestinal bleeding prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Piñol

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia del ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS más esomeprazol frente a clopidogrel en la prevención de la hemorragia gastrointestinal. Métodos: Análisis coste-efectividad (árbol de decisión de 2 ramas: AAS más esomeprazol y clopidogrel respecto a la evitación de casos de hemorragia gastrointestinal en 2 años, y análisis de sensibilidad. Resultados: El coste total del tratamiento con AAS más esomeprazol (2.865 S por paciente libre de hemorragia fue inferior al clopidogrel (2.965 S. El tratamiento con AAS resultó dominante. En todos los análisis de sensibilidad la combinación siguió siendo dominante. Al sustituir esomeprazol 40 mg por omeprazol 40 mg, el coste del tratamiento combinado descendió hasta 1.934S/por episodio evitado. Conclusiones: La asociación de esomeprazol y AAS es más coste-efectiva que clopidogrel en la prevención de la hemorragia gastrointestinal. La combinación con omeprazol resulta aún más coste-efectiva.Objective: To evaluate the use of aspirin plus esomeprazole vs. clopidogrel in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (two-branch decision tree: aspirin plus esomeprazole or clopidogrel of prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding over a 2-year period, as well as sensitivity analyses. Results: The total cost of aspirin plus esomeprazole treatment (2,865S/patient free of hemorrhage was lower than that of clopidogrel (2,965S. Aspirin treatment was dominant. The combination continued to be dominant in all sensitivity analyses. When esomeprazole 40 mg was substituted by omeprazole 40 mg, the cost of combination therapy decreased to 1,934 S/prevented hemorrhage. Conclusions: The association of esomeprazole and aspirin is more cost-effective than clopidogrel in preventing gastrointestinal bleeding. Aspirin plus omeprazole was even more cost-effective.

  3. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  4. Gastroprotective effects of combination of hot water extracts of turmeric (Curcuma domestica L.), cardamom pods (Ammomum compactum S.) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera DC.) against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mutmainah; Rina Susilowati; Nuning Rahmawati; Agung Endro Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) on gastric mucosa in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model rats.Methods:were administered with the hot water extracts combination consisted of cardamom pods 36.6 mg/200 g body weight and sembung leaf 91.5 mg/200 g body weight (fixed doses). The herbal extracts combination were also consisted of turmeric in various doses i.e. 10 mg/200 g body weight in the second group, 30 mg/200 g body weight in the first and third groups, and 50 mg/200 g body weight in the fourth group. The fifth group rats received sucralfate 72 mg /200 g body weight. Ten minutes after receiving herbal extracts combinations or sucralfate, the rats were induced with aspirin 90 mg/200 g body weight except the first group. Another group (sixth group) only received aspirin without any protective agent. All treatments were adsministered orally for seven days. The number and area of the gastric ulcers were counted and measured macroscopically. Score of mucosal damage and the number of eosinophils as well as the number of mast cells were observed in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin eosin and toluidine blue, respectively.Results:Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into 6 groups. Four groups of gastric ulcers as well as smaller score of mucosal damage in comparison to those of aspirin group (P<0.05). The number of mast cells and eosinophil of herbal groups were also smaller than that of aspirin group.Conclusions:The herbal extracts combination of turmeric (Curcuma domestica), cardamom pods The groups receiving herbal infuse combination exhibited less number and smaller area (Amomum compactum) and sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) has potential gastroprotective effects.

  5. Erythromelalgia: An Uncommon Presentation Precipitated by Aspirin Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder frequently associated with myeloproliferative disorders. We describe a case of elderly patient diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder in remission. The patient was on aspirin for secondary prevention of stroke and was taken off aspirin and developed erythromelalgia within two weeks of withdrawal of aspirin. After restarting aspirin, patient’s symptoms improved within 2 weeks.

  6. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  7. The inhibitory effect of simvastatin and aspirin on histamine responsiveness in human vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absi, Mais; Bruce, Jason I; Ward, Donald T

    2014-04-01

    Statins and aspirin deliver well-established cardiovascular benefits resulting in their increased use as combined polypills to decrease risk of stroke and heart disease. However, the direct endothelial effect of combined statin/aspirin cotreatment remains unclear. Histamine is an inflammatory mediator that increases vascular permeability, and so we examined the effect of treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for 24 h with 1 μM simvastatin and 100 μM aspirin on histamine responsiveness. Subsequent histamine (1 μM) challenge increased intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)i) concentration, an effect that was significantly inhibited by combined simvastatin/aspirin pretreatment but not when then the compounds were given separately, even at 10-fold higher concentrations. In contrast, the Ca(2+)i mobilization response to ATP challenge (10 μM) was not inhibited by combined simvastatin/aspirin pretreatment. The H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine significantly inhibited both histamine-induced Ca(2+)i mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, whereas ranitidine (H2 receptor antagonist) was without effect. However, combined simvastatin/aspirin pretreatment failed to decrease H1 receptor protein expression ruling out receptor downregulation as the mechanism of action. Histamine-induced ERK activation was also inhibited by atorvastatin pretreatment, while simvastatin further inhibited histamine-induced vascular endothelial cadherin phosphorylation as well as altered HUVEC morphology and inhibited actin polymerization. Therefore, in addition to the known therapeutic benefits of statins and aspirin, here we provide initial cellular evidence that combined statin/aspirin treatment inhibits histamine responsiveness in HUVECs.

  8. (Nitrooxyacyloxy)methyl esters of aspirin as novel nitric oxide releasing aspirins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Rolando, Barbara; Chegaev, Konstantin; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Biondi, Stefano; Ongini, Ennio; Gasco, Alberto

    2009-08-27

    A series of (nitrooxyacyloxy)methyl esters of aspirin were synthesized and evaluated as new NO-donor aspirins. Different amounts of aspirin were released in serum from these products according to the nature of nitrooxyacyloxy moiety present. In the aromatic series, there is a rather good linear correlation between the amount of aspirin released and the potencies of the products in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by collagen. Both the native compounds and the related nitrooxy-substituted acid metabolites were able to relax rat aorta strips precontracted with phenylephrine, in keeping with a NO-induced activation of the sGC as a mechanism that underlies the vasodilator effect. The products here described are new improved examples of NO-donor aspirins containing nitrooxy groups. They could represent an alternative to the use of aspirin in a variety of clinical applications.

  9. Síndrome antifosfolípide e gestação: tratamento com heparina e aspirina em doses baixas Antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy: treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Amorim Aquino

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar a eficácia e a segurança do tratamento de gestantes com síndrome antifosfolípide com a heparina associada à aspirina em baixas doses, e determinar possíveis fatores agravantes da síndrome. Métodos: 17 pacientes portadoras da síndrome antifosfolípide foram submetidas a rigoroso acompanhamento pré-natal. A heparina foi utilizada na dose de 10.000 UI/dia e a aspirina na dose de 100 mg/dia. Foram analisados resultados perinatais e maternos, mediante a utilização do teste do chi² e do teste exato de Fischer. Resultados: o índice de recém-nascidos vivos foi de 88,2% nas gestações tratadas dessas pacientes contra 13,3% nas gestações prévias não-tratadas dessas mesmas pacientes. Foi alta a incidência de complicações gestacionais: oligoidrâmnio (40%, sofrimento fetal anteparto (33,3%, crescimento intra-uterino retardado (33,3%, diabetes mellitus gestacional (29,4%, pré-eclâmpsia (23,5% e prematuridade (60%. A presença do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico foi indicação de mau prognóstico. Nenhum efeito colateral significativo foi observado durante o tratamento. Conclusões: o tratamento adotado se mostrou efetivo na obtenção de maior índice de recém-nascidos vivos, seguro, mas incapaz de impedir a alta incidência de complicações maternas e perinatais associadas à síndrome. O lúpus eritematoso sistêmico se mostrou um fator agravante da síndrome antifosfolípide.Purpose: to determine the effectiveness and the safety of treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin in pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome, and to determine possible deteriorating factors for this syndrome. Methods: 17 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome were submitted to a rigorous antenatal care. Patients were treated with a fixed dose of heparin (10,000 IU/day associated with low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day. We analyzed perinatal and maternal results, using chi² test and Fischer's exact test. Results: the overall live

  10. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My alerts Sign In Join Give up seat Facebook Twitter Home About this Journal Editorial Board General Statistics Circulation Doodle → Blip the Doodle Information for Advertisers Author Reprints Commercial Reprints Customer Service and Ordering ...

  11. Aspirin use for primary prophylaxis: Adverse outcomes in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karina M Souk; Hani M Tamim; Hussein A Abu Daya; Don C Rockey; Kassem A Barada

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare outcomes of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding(NVUGIB) taking aspirin for primary prophylaxis to those not taking it.METHODS: Patients not known to have any vascular disease(coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease) who were admitted to the American University of Beirut Medical Center between 1993 and 2010 with NVUGIB were included. The frequencies of in-hospital mortality, re-bleeding, severe bleeding, need for surgery or embolization, and of a composite outcome defined as the occurrence of any of the 4 bleeding related adverse outcomes were compared between patients receiving aspirin and those on no antithrombotics. We also compared frequency of in hospital complications and length of hospital stay between the two groups.RESULTS: Of 357 eligible patients, 94 were on aspirin and 263 patients were on no antithrombotics(controlgroup). Patients in the aspirin group were older, the mean age was 58 years in controls and 67 years in the aspirin group(P < 0.001). Patients in the aspirin group had significantly more co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension [25(27%) vs 31(112%) and44(47%) vs 74(28%) respectively,(P = 0.001)], as well as dyslipidemia [21(22%) vs 16(6%), P < 0.0001).Smoking was more frequent in the aspirin group [34(41%) vs 60(27%), P = 0.02)]. The frequencies of endoscopic therapy and surgery were similar in both groups. Patients who were on aspirin had lower inhospital mortality rates(2.1% vs 13.7%, P = 0.002),shorter hospital stay(4.9 d vs 7 d, P = 0.01), and fewer composite outcomes(10.6% vs 24%, P = 0.01). The frequencies of in-hospital complications and re-bleeding were similar in the two groups.CONCLUSION: Patients who present with NVUGIB while receiving aspirin for primary prophylaxis had fewer adverse outcomes. Thus aspirin may have a protective effect beyond its cardiovascular benefits.

  12. NAC attenuates LPS-induced toxicity in aspirin-sensitized mouse macrophages via suppression of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

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    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774.2 mouse macrophage cell line. Protection from LPS-induced toxicity by NAC was also studied. LPS alone markedly induced ROS production and oxidative stress in macrophage cells. When ASA was added to LPS-treated macrophages, the increase in oxidative stress was significantly higher than that with LPS alone. Similarly, alteration in glutathione-dependent redox metabolism was also observed in macrophages after treatment with LPS and ASA. The combination of LPS and ASA selectively altered the CYP 3A4, CYP 2E1 and CYP 1A1 catalytic activities. Mitochondrial respiratory complexes and ATP production were also inhibited by LPS-ASA treatment. Furthermore a higher apoptotic cell death was also observed in LPS-ASA treated macrophages. NAC pre-treatment showed protection against oxidative stress induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects are presumed, at least in part, to be associated with alterations in NF-κB/Nrf-2 mediated cell signaling. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to LPS when challenged with ASA and that NAC pre-treatment protects the macrophages from these deleterious effects.

  13. Clinical efficacy of Low-molecular-weight Heparin Sodium combined Aspirin in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris%低分子肝素钠联合阿司匹林治疗不稳定型心绞痛疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢平

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察低分子肝素钠联合阿司匹林治疗不稳定型心绞痛(UA)的临床疗效.方法:将67例住院的UA患者随机分为对照组(34例)和治疗组(33例),治疗组使用低分子肝素钠加阿司匹林,对照组单用阿司匹林,疗程为1周,结果:治疗组总有效嘈<为96.96%,对照组为76.47%.两组疗效比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:低分子肝素钠联合阿司匹林治疗UA能明显减少心绞痛的发作,改善临床症状,具有安全有效的特点.%Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of Low-molecular-weight Heparin Sodium combined Aspirin in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris. Methods: 67 cases of patients with unstable angina pectoris were randomly divided into control group (34 cases) and treatment group (33 cases). The control group was received Aspirin for 1 week. The treatment group was received Low-molecular-weight Heparin Sodium for 1 week based on the control group. Results: The total effective rate of treatment group was 96.96% and was significantly higher than that of control group (76.47%) (ρ<0.05). Conclusion: Low-molecular-weight Heparin Sodium combined with Aspirin is effective and safe in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris.

  14. Aspirin reduces hypertriglyceridemia by lowering VLDL-triglyceride production in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Janna A; Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Shoelson, Steven E; Romijn, Johannes A; Havekes, Louis M; Rensen, Patrick C N; Voshol, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Systemic inflammation is strongly involved in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic risk factors that includes hypertriglyceridemia. Aspirin treatment lowers inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB activity but also reduces hypertriglyceridemia in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which aspirin improves hypertriglyceridemia. Human apolipoprotein CI (apoCI)-expressing mice (APOC1 mice), an animal model with elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, as well as normolipidemic wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with aspirin. Aspirin treatment reduced hepatic NF-κB activity in HFD-fed APOC1 and WT mice, and in addition, aspirin decreased plasma TG levels (-32%, P < 0.05) in hypertriglyceridemic APOC1 mice. This TG-lowering effect could not be explained by enhanced VLDL-TG clearance, but aspirin selectively reduced hepatic production of VLDL-TG in both APOC1 (-28%, P < 0.05) and WT mice (-33%, P < 0.05) without affecting VLDL-apoB production. Aspirin did not alter hepatic expression of genes involved in FA oxidation, lipogenesis, and VLDL production but decreased the incorporation of plasma-derived FA by the liver into VLDL-TG (-24%, P < 0.05), which was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in FA uptake and transport. We conclude that aspirin improves hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing VLDL-TG production without affecting VLDL particle production. Therefore, the inhibition of inflammatory pathways by aspirin could be an interesting target for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

  15. Tolerabilidad de Aspirina Aspirin tolerability

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    M. R. Moreno-Brea

    2005-09-01

    ácter atero-trombótico. El síndrome de Reye es un cuadro de rara presentación, pero de graves consecuencias, que contraindica el uso de Aspirina en niños o adolescentes con fiebre o ciertas infecciones virales. Dada la extensa utilización de Aspirina, puede ser considerado un fármaco bien tolerado en general, cuyas reacciones adversas más graves deben ser objeto de una especial farmacovigilancia, prestando especial atención a la población de mayor riesgo. Esta situación aconseja, asimismo, la puesta en marcha de programas de educación sanitaria sobre el uso de los analgésicos. En todo caso, Aspirina sigue siendo un fármaco de referencia con una importante potencialidad terapéutica derivada de los beneficios inherentes a su uso.The acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is a widely used drug worldwide, both as prescription and over-the-counter products, and both as the only active drug or associated to other drugs in fixed doses. It is used either occasionally for the management of acute symptomatic conditions, or continuously in prophylactic anti-thrombotic regimes. Its profile of adverse reactions and potential interactions with other drugs makes it very important to have a well-tolerated and safe substance. Both things are particularly relevant when the population exposed to this drug has reached a certain age, since its specific features may increase its susceptibility to side effects and complications. Aspirin shares the general profile of adverse reactions of the NSAIs and it is considered as its prototype. When acutely administered, the incidence of side effects, most of them light, are the same as with other analgesics. Gastrointestinal effects are the most frequent of all and several risk factors have been identify for the development of severe gastrointestinal complications. These risk factors must be considered along with the need to take prophylactic measures in order to reduce the morbi-mortality. In recent years, special attention has been devoted to

  16. 泼尼松、环磷酰胺、阿斯匹林治疗小血管炎性肾炎的临床研究%Prednisone, cyclophosphamide, aspirin treatment of smal blood vessels of the clinical study of inflammatory nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有跃

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨泼尼松、环磷酰胺、阿斯匹林治疗小血管炎性肾炎的临床效果以及不良反应。方法将103例小血管炎性肾炎患者随机分为A组与B组,两组均给予泼尼松和调节血脂等基础治疗,A组给予环磷酰胺、阿斯匹林治疗,B组不给予环磷酰胺、阿斯匹林治疗;疗程:均为16周。结果 A组24h尿蛋白定量、尿素氮、血肌酐、血脂、血浆白蛋白、贫血、血压等指标的改善、泼尼松的用量和复发率等明显优于B组。结论泼尼松、环磷酰胺、阿斯匹林治疗小血管炎性肾炎的效果明显好于单纯泼尼松、调节血脂等治疗的效果。%Objective Discusses Prednisone, the endoxan, aspirin treatment minute vessel inflammatory nephritis clinical as wel as the untoward effect. Methods Divides into A group stochasticaly 103 example minute vessel inflammatory nephritis patient with B group, two groups give foundation treatments and so on Prednisone and adjustment blood fats, A group gives the endoxan, the aspirin treatment, B group does not give the endoxan, the aspirin treatment; Treatment course: Is 16 weeks. Results A group of 24h urine protein quota, the urea nitrogen, the blood myo- bitter wine, the blood fats, the blood plasma albumin, anemia, the blood pressure, and so on target improvements and Prednisone's amount used, the recurrence rate and so on surpass B group obviously. Conclusion Prednisone, endoxan, aspirin treatment minute vessel inflammatory nephritis's effect obvious good in pure treatment and so on Prednisone, adjustment blood fats effects.

  17. Management of NSAID/aspirin-induced small intestinal damage by GI-sparing NSAIDs, anti-ulcer drugs and food constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, H; Takeuchi, K

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy have revealed that aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause mucosal lesions not only in the upper gastrointestinal tract, but also in the small intestine in humans. Gastric and duodenal lesions caused by NSAIDs can be treated with anti-secretory agents such as proton pump inhibitors or histamine H2-receptor antagonists; however, these drugs are ineffective in treating NSAID-induced lesions in the small intestine. Furthermore, there are few effective agents for the treatment of small intestinal lesions. Therefore, identification of effective therapies for the treatment of NSAID/aspirin-induced small intestinal lesions remains an urgent priority. In the present review, we focus on novel pharmacological treatments to prevent or reduce NSAID-induced intestinal lesions, i.e., 1) GI-sparing NSAIDs (NO- or H2S-NSAIDs, NSAIDs mixed with phosphatidylcholine); 2) anti-ulcer drugs such as mucosal protective agents (misoprostol, rebamipide, teprenone, etc.) and anti-secretory agents (lansoprazole, etc.); 3) antibiotics (metronidazole) and probiotics (Lactobacillus sp.); and 4) food constituents (lactoferrin and soluble dietary fibers). We surveyed data from clinical trials evaluating these novel treatments. Also reviewed herein were the pros and cons of the novel protective methods from the standpoint of safety, efficacy, convenience, and cost.

  18. 奥扎格雷钠联合阿司匹林在脑梗塞治疗中的应用价值分析%Analysis of Application of Ozagrel Sodium Combined with Aspirin in the Treatment of Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊; 马历历

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the application value of sodium ozagrel combined with aspirin in the treatment of cerebral infarction. Methods84 cases of patients with cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups, 40 cases in control group treated with sodium ozagrel in the treatment of the observation group, 44 cases in the control group based on the use of aspirin treatment.ResultsThe total efficiency of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group, neurological deficit score, ADL score after treatment were significantly better than the control group. Conclusion Sodium ozagrel combined with aspirin can promote the nerve function defect of infarction patients significantly improved, significant effect.%目的:分析奥扎格雷钠联合阿司匹林在脑梗塞治疗中的应用价值。方法将84例脑梗塞患者随机分为两组,对照组40例给予奥扎格雷钠治疗,观察组44例在对照组基础上加用阿司匹林治疗。结果观察组治疗总有效率显著高于对照组,治疗后神经功能缺损评分、日常生活能力评分均显著优于对照组。结论奥扎格雷钠联合阿司匹林可促使脑梗塞患者神经功能缺损情况显著改善,疗效显著。

  19. Short-term beneficial effect of aspirin in patient with chronic rhinosinusitis and tolerant to acetylsalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kutlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that desensitization treatment with aspirin can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patient with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. However, its mechanism has not been clearly understood yet. In this case report, 41-year-old male patient was referred to our allergy and immunology department with complaints of chronic rhinosinusitis including postnasal discharge, sneezing, facial pain/pressure, waking up tired, nasal obstruction, smell loss for a long time. According to the patient, the complaints were controlled partially with nasal steroid and antihistamines, and single dose parenteral depot steroids were highly effective in controlling the symptoms and each time this effect lasted at least three weeks. The patient was told to use aspirin when needed analgesic and he started to use aspirin 500 mg bid. po for 10 days for his pain in the joints. The patient stressed the superiority of aspirin over other drugs including oral antihistamine and LTA and its equality to systemic steroid drugs in suppressing symptoms. It seemed that aspirin had positive effects in allergic inflammation at least in some subset of aspirin tolerant patients with chronic sinusitis.

  20. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

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    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  1. 小剂量阿加曲班对比阿司匹林治疗急性脑梗死的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Small-dose Argatroban vs. Aspirin in the Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊云峰

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect and safety of small-dose argatroban vs. aspirin in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. METHODS:136 patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly divided into observation group and control group. All patients were given routine treatment,such as anti-intracranial pressure,oxidative stress,brain protection,oxygen,blood pres-sure,blood sugar control,anti-infective,water and electrolyte acid-base balance,etc. Based on it,control group was treated with Arginine aspirin for injection 100 mg,adding into 0.9% Sodium chloride injection 250 ml,iv,once a day. Observation group was treated with Argatroban injection 40 mg,adding into 0.9% Sodium chloride injection 500 ml,24 h continuous infusion for continu-ous 2 d,iv;then dose was decreased to 10 mg,adding into 0.9% Sodium chloride injection 100 ml,iv,once a day,for continu-ous 5 d. The course of both was 7 d. The clinic data was observed,including clinical efficacy,NIHSS(National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale)score,Bathel index scores before and after treatment,and incidence of adverse reactions. The recurrence rate of cere-bral infraction during the 2-year follow-up period was observed. RESULTS:The total effective rate in observation group was signifi-cantly higher than control group,the recurrence rates of cerebral infarction in observation group within 1 and 2 year(s)were signifi-cantly lower than control group,with significant difference(P0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Based on the conventional treatment,compared with aspirin, small-dose argatroban can significantly commute the nerve function of acute cerebral infarction,and reduce the recurrence rate of cerebral infarction,with good safety.%目的:对比观察小剂量阿加曲班与阿司匹林治疗急性脑梗死患者的疗效与安全性。方法:136例急性脑梗死患者随机均分为观察组和对照组。两组患者均给予抗颅内压增高、抗氧化应激、脑神经保护、吸氧、控制血压血糖、抗

  2. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  3. Blood proteome characterization of the interplay between glycation and aspirin-mediated acetylation in vitro and in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Finamore, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Among post-translational modifications, non-enzymatic glycation is of particular relevance, since it plays a pivotal role in the development of long-term diabetic complications. Beside continuous advances in treatment of those deleterious effects, aspirin was shown to prevent proteins from excessive glycation. However, the interplay between aspirin-induced acetylation and protein glycation was poorly investigated. In this project we studied an in vitro model of the influence between high gluc...

  4. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

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    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  5. Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspirin, especially in those with a history of gastritis or ulcers. However, some researchers think there's no ... HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeartAttack/Aspirin-and-Heart-Disease_UCM_321714_Article.jsp. Accessed Feb. 2, 2015. Sutcliff P, et ...

  6. Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages Approach seemed ... as simple as taking a daily low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence. The intervention appears ...

  7. Pharmacodynamics Drug Interactions of Metformin with Aspirin and Nifedipine

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    Khidir A. M. Hassan, Mahmoud M. E. Mudawi,Mansour I. Sulaiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is now being recognized as the standard therapy in T2D patients who are overweight. Metformin has many drug-disease interactions that can increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Therefore this study was conducted to evaluate any possible pharmacodynamic interactions between metformin and drugs used to treat chronic diseases e.g. Hypertension. The rats were fasted overnight before inducing diabetes with streptozotocin. The rats were given an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg−1 freshly prepared in 0.1M sodium citrate buffer. The diabetic state was confirmed 72 h after streptozotocin injection. Diabetic rats were grouped into seven groups each group of five rats and distributed among the normal control group diabetic control group and the treatment groups. The treatment continued for 10 days. Blood samples were taken before treatment and after 10 days and analyzed for serum glucose, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. In the diabetic control group which was given STZ alone the blood glucose level decreased significantly (p < 0.05 after 10 days but still above the hyperglycemic level (200mg/dl. The same was observed in the group treated with metformin. The group treated with nifedipine and aspirin showed significant reduction (p < 0.01 in the glucose level below the hyperglycemic level (200mg/dl. While the groups treated with (Metformin + Nifedipine and (Metformin +Aspirin showed highly significant reduction (P<0.001 in blood glucose level. These results conclude that the combination of (metformin +Nifedipine and the combination of (Metformin + Aspirin have highly significant hypoglycemic effect. It also showed that Nifedipine has promising role in reducing blood glucose level, lipid profile especially LDL-cholesterol, and body weight.

  8. Toxicity to transferred rat embryos after aspirin treatment during preimplantation stage in vivo%大鼠胚泡植入前期给亲代阿司匹林致移植胚胎的毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼宜嘉; 丁光生; 屠曾宏

    1996-01-01

    目的:探索药源性胚泡异常与着床后胚胎毒性和发育缺陷间的关系.方法:大鼠在孕d 3 ig阿司匹林(0.25,0.5,和1 g·kg-1).孕d 4将胚泡移植于假孕大鼠(与连续5 d ig氯丙二醇5 mg·kg-1♂大鼠交配获得)子宫内.临产前检查子宫内胚胎.结果:孕d 4给药组胚泡异常率增高,着床率低于对照组,试验组的胚胎吸收率(55.2%,69.5%,和85.2%)与畸胎率(3.8%,44.4%,和25%)呈剂量依赖性增高,活胎率降低(44.8%,30.5%,和14.8%),并与胚泡异常率呈相关性.结论:大鼠在胚泡植入前给阿司匹林可导致呈剂量依赖关系的胚胎毒性和畸胎.%AIM: To explore the relationship between druginduced blastopathies and post-implantation embryotoxicity or developmental defects. METHODS: Pregnant rats on d 3 were given intragastri4, the blastocysts were transferred into the uterine horns of pseudopregnant rats (made by matd). Uterine contents were examined at term.RESULTS: The frequency of blastocysts with morphological alterations (FBMA) was increased on d 4 of gestation. The implantation rate was lower than that of the controls. A dose-related increase in resorption (55.2 %, 69.5 %, and 85.2 %) and malformation rate ( 3.8 %,44.4 %, and 25 %), and decrease in viability rate of fetuses (44.8 %, 30.5 %, and 14. 8 %)were observed in test groups with correlations to FBMA. CONCLUTION: Embryotoxicity and fetal malformations were induced by treatment of aspirin before implantation in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. Aspirin, cyclooxygenase inhibition and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Gargallo, Carla Jerusalen; Lanas, Angel

    2014-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. Screening measures are far from adequate and not widely available in resource-poor settings. Primary prevention strategies therefore remain necessary to reduce the risk of developing CRC. Increasing evidence from epidemiological studies, randomized clinical trials and basic science supports the effectiveness of aspirin, as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for chemoprevention of several types of cancer, including CRC. This includes the prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality. The detectable benefit of daily low-dose aspirin (at least 75 mg), as used to prevent cardiovascular disease events, strongly suggests that its antiplatelet action is central to explaining its antitumor efficacy. Daily low-dose aspirin achieves complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 in platelets (in pre-systemic circulation) while causing a limited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2 and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells. Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation (about 20 minutes); nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize acetylated COX isozymes within a few hours, while platelets do not. COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin have been suggested to explain its chemopreventive effects but this concept remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses.

  10. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John A., III

    1998-10-01

    An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.

  11. Aspirin, cyclooxygenase inhibition and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; Sostres; Carla; Jerusalen; Gargallo; Angel; Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC)is the third most common type of cancer worldwide.Screening measures are far from adequate and not widely available in resourcepoor settings.Primary prevention strategies therefore remain necessary to reduce the risk of developing CRC.Increasing evidence from epidemiological studies,randomized clinical trials and basic science supports the effectiveness of aspirin,as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,for chemoprevention of several types of cancer,including CRC.This includes the prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality.The detectable benefit of daily low-dose aspirin(at least 75 mg),as used to prevent cardiovascular disease events,strongly suggests that its antiplatelet action is central to explaining its antitumor efficacy.Daily low-dose aspirin achieves complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase(COX)-1 in platelets(in pre-systemic circulation)while causing alimited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells.Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation(about 20 minutes);nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize acetylated COX isozymes within a few hours,while platelets do not.COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin have been suggested to explain its chemopreventive effects but this concept remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses.

  12. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin but not conventional aspirin improves healing of experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malgorzata Zwolinska-Wcislo; Tomasz Brzozowski; Agata Ptak-Belowska; Aneta Targosz; Katarzyna Urbanczyk; Slawomir Kwiecien; Zbigniew Sliwowski

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the eff ect of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, selective COX-2 inhibitors and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing aspirin in the healing of ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Rats with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis received intragastric (ig) treatment with vehicle, aspirin (ASA) (a nonselective COX inhibitor), celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) or NO-releasing ASA for a period of ten days. The area of colonic lesions, colonic blood flow (CBF), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and expression of proinflammatory markers COX-2, inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assessed. The eff ects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a NO donor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxy-3-oxide, onopotassium salt (carboxy-PTIO), a NO scavenger, administered without and with ASA or NO-ASA, and the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive aff erent nerves in the mechanism of healing the experimental colitis was also determined. RESULTS: Rats with colitis developed macroscopic and microscopic colonic lesions accompanied by a significant decrease in the CBF, a significant rise in colonic weight, MPO activity and plasma IL.1β and TNF-α levels. These eff ects were aggravated by ASA and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC-560), but not celecoxib and counteracted by concurrent treatment with a synthetic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) analog. Treatment with NO-ASA dose-dependently accelerated colonic healing followed by a rise in plasma NOx content and CBF, suppression of MPO and downregulation of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs. Treatment with GTN, the NO donor, significantly inhibited the ASA-induced colonic lesions and increased CBF, while carboxy-PTIO or capsaicin-denervation counteracted the NO-ASAinduced improvement of colonic healing and the accompanying increase in the CBF. These eff ects were restored by co-treatment

  13. 阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗短暂性脑缺血发作的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Aspirin Combined With Clopidogrel in the Treatment of Transient Ischemic Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀霞; 姜勋; 韩磊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the combined therapy with clopidogrel aspirin transient ischemic attack (TIA).Methods90 patients with transient ischemic attack were divided into two groups, 45 cases in the control group used aspirin, the team on the basis of clopidogrel. Results Two groups of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit were better than control group (P<0.05). ConclusionCombined therapy with clopidogrel aspirin has obvious effect in transient ischemic attack.%目的:探讨阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)效果。方法将90例短暂性脑缺血发作患者分为两组各45例,对照组采用阿司匹林片治疗,研究组在此基础上采用氯吡格雷治疗。结果研究组全血黏度、血浆黏度、血细胞比容均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗短暂性脑缺血发作具有明显效果。

  14. Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R; Domschke, W; Konturek, S J

    1994-01-01

    The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the effects of 14 days of continuous, oral administration of aspirin (2 g per day) to eight healthy male volunteers was studied. To estimate the rate of mucosal damage, gastroscopy was performed before (day 0) and at days 3, 7, 14 of aspirin treatment. Gastric microbleeding and gastric mucosal blood flow were measured using laser Doppler flowmeter and mucosal biopsy specimens were taken for the estimation of tissue DNA synthesis and RNA and DNA concentration. In addition, the activation of neutrophils in peripheral blood was assessed by measuring their ability to associate with platelets. Aspirin induced acute damage mainly in gastric corpus, reaching at day 3 about 3.5 on the endoscopic Lanza score but lessened to about 1.5 at day 14 pointing to the occurrence of gastric adaptation. Mucosal blood flow increased at day 3 by about 50% in the gastric corpus and by 88% in the antrum. The in vitro DNA synthesis and RNA concentration, an index of mucosal growth, were reduced at day 3 but then increased to reach about 150% of initial value at the end of aspirin treatment. It is concluded that the treatment with aspirin in humans induces gastric adaptation to this agent, which entails the increase in mucosal blood flow, the rise in neutrophil activation, and the enhancement in mucosal growth. PMID:7959223

  15. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Lianxin; Zhang, Yingying; Gu, Hao; Chai, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin's related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71) and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  16. Pharmacodynamic effects of a new fixed-dose clopidogrel-aspirin combination compared with separate administration of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients treated with coronary stents: The ACCEL-COMBO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Yongwhi; Tantry, Udaya S; Ahn, Jong-Hwa; Kang, Min Gyu; Kim, Kyehwan; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Park, Hyun Woong; Park, Jeong Rang; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Kwak, Choong Hwan; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Gurbel, Paul A; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2017-03-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is a widely prescribed regimen to prevent ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A fixed-dose combination (FDC) capsule (HCP0911) has been developed to provide dosing convenience and improve adherence. We compared the antiplatelet effects of single daily dose HCP0911 with separate treatment with daily 75 mg clopidogrel plus 100 mg aspirin. This was a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover, non-inferiority study conducted in stented patients who had been treated for at least 6 months with clopidogrel and aspirin. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to receive either daily 75 mg clopidogrel plus 100 mg aspirin treatment or HCP0911 for 2 weeks and then were crossed over to the other treatment for 2 weeks. Pharmacodynamic effects were measured with VerifyNow, light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), and thromboelastography (TEG(®)). The primary endpoint was P2Y12 Reaction Units (PRU) measured by VerifyNow. PRUs during treatment with HCP0911 were not inferior to those during separate treatment (202 ± 52 vs. 207 ± 60 PRU; mean difference, -5 PRU; 90% confidence interval of difference, -23 to 13 PRU; P for non-inferiority = 0.015 for predetermined limit). "BASE" and Aspirin Reaction Units by VerifyNow did not differ between the two treatments. During each treatment, there were no differences in maximal and final platelet aggregations by LTA (all P values ≥0.822) and TEG(®) measurements. In conclusion, in stented patients, the antiplatelet effect of a fixed-dose clopidogrel-aspirin combination, HCP0911, was not inferior to separate administration of clopidogrel and aspirin.

  17. Aspirin-induced post-gingivectomy haemorrhage: a timely reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J M; Seymour, R A; Murphy, P; Brigham, K M; Jones, P

    1997-02-01

    A case report is described of significant aspirin-induced haemorrhage following a gingivectory procedure in an organ transplant patient. Aspirin-induced platelet impairment secondary to low-dose aspirin was implicated as the cause of the haemorrhage. Haemostasis was eventually achieved after platelet transfusion. The case illustrates the problems that can arise when carrying out gingival surgery on patients medicated with low-dose aspirin.

  18. Prostate Cancer and Aspirin Use: Synopsis of the Proposed Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilani, Nadeem; Bahmad, Hisham; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a critical health burden, impacting the morbidity and mortality of millions of men around the world. Most of the patients with PCa have their disease at first sensitive to androgen deprivation treatments, but later they develop resistance to therapy and eventually die of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although the newly developed anti-androgen therapies are effectively alleviating symptoms and prolonging lives of patients, there are still no curable treatments for CRPC. Recently, statistical studies have shown that the chronic use of aspirin might be significantly associated with better outcomes in PCa patients. Through this review, we aim to identify the different proposed molecular mechanisms relating aspirin to the pathobiology of PCa neoplasms, with a major focus on basic research done in this context. Methods: Articles were retrieved via online database searching of PubMed and MEDLINE between 1946 and September 2016. Keywords and combinations related to PCa and aspirin were used to perform the search. Abstracts of the articles were studied by two independent reviewers and then data extraction was performed on the relevant articles that met our review objectives. Results: Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), affects the proliferation, apoptosis, resistance and metastasis of PCa cell lines, through both COX-dependent and COX-independent mechanisms. It also lowers levels of the PCa diagnostic marker prostate specific antigen (PSA), suggesting that clinicians need to at least be aware if their patients are using Aspirin chronically. Conclusion: This review strongly warrants further consideration of the signaling cascades activated by aspirin, which may lead to new knowledge that might be applied to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of PCa.

  19. Aspirin and low-molecular weight heparin combination therapy effectively prevents recurrent miscarriage in hyperhomocysteinemic women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratip Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The management of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL still remains a great challenge, and women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS are at a greater risk for spontaneous abortion. Treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH has become an accepted treatment option for women with RPL; however, the subgroup of women, who are likely to respond to LMWH, has not been precisely identified. The present study evaluated the efficacy of LMWH with reference to PCOS and associated metabolic phenotypes including hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, insulin resistance (IR and obesity. This prospective observational study was conducted at Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Kolkata, India. A total of 967 women with history of 2 or more consecutive first trimester abortions were screened and 336 were selected for the study. The selected patients were initially divided on the basis of presence or absence of PCOS, while subsequent stratification was based on HHcy, IR and/or obesity. The subjects had treatment with aspirin during one conception cycle and aspirin-LMWH combined anticoagulant therapy for the immediate next conception cycle, if the first treated cycle was unsuccessful. Pregnancy salvage was the sole outcome measure. The overall rate of pregnancy salvage following aspirin therapy was 43.15%, which was mostly represented by normohomocysteinemic women, while the salvage rate was lower in the HHcy populations irrespective of the presence or absence of PCOS, IR, or obesity. By contrast, aspirin-LMWH combined therapy could rescue 66.84% pregnancies in the aspirin-failed cases. Logistic regression analyses showed that HHcy remained a significant factor in predicting salvage rates in the PCOS, IR, and obese subpopulations controlled for other confounding factors. With regard to pregnancy salvage, combined anticoagulant therapy with aspirin and LMWH conferred added benefit to those with HHcy phenotype.

  20. Low-dose aspirin (ASA) renders human platelets more vulnerable to inhibition of aggregation by prostacyclin (PGI2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R B; Paul, M L

    1983-06-01

    Pre-treatment of human, platelet-rich plasma with concentrations of aspirin that produced 50% or less inhibition of aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid or adenosine diphosphate, significantly increased the % inhibition of platelet aggregation by a low concentration of authentic prostacyclin or by prostacyclin-like activity generated by incubation of rat aorta rings in human platelet-poor plasma. Similarly a single aspirin tablet (325 mg) taken orally by human volunteers significantly increased the sensitivity of their platelets to inhibition of aggregation by authentic prostacyclin (8.1 X 10(-10) M) for 2-48 h after ingestion. Statistical significance was lost at 72 h but the trend was still evident. These results support the contention that low doses of aspirin may be efficacious in the therapy of arterial thromboembolism since this could preserve some arterial prostacyclin-generating activity which might be sufficient to inhibit adhesion and aggregation of the aspirin-treated platelets.

  1. Effect of polymorphism and type Ⅱ diabetes on aspirin resistance in patients with unstable coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; WANG Zan-xin; MEN Jian-long; REN Jing; WEI Min-xin

    2011-01-01

    Background Aspirin is widely used in the secondary prevention of coronary artery diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular related deaths. However, the antiplatelet effect of aspirin appears to be variable and aspirin resistance (AR) is currently still controversial for Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of AR, and identify possible risk factors associated with a lack of response to aspirin treatments in patients with unstable coronary artery disease.Methods Platelet function tests with arachidonic acid (ARA) and urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-DH-TXB2) concentrations were performed in 262 patients with unstable coronary artery disease who had not been taking aspirin before admission. ARA induced platelet aggregation and 11-DH-TXB2 were detected to evaluate the functional and biochemical responses to aspirin before and on days 1, 4, and 10 after aspirin administration. Six-month follow-up was completed in patients who developed AR to evaluate the effect of aspirin in a long-term treatment. GP1 Bα (C1018T), PI(A1/A2), P2Y1(A1622G), TBXA2R (T924C) were also detected to evaluate the influence of genetic variant on aspirin responsiveness.Results A total of 8.8% of patients were indentified as AR at the first day after aspirin treatment. The level of urine 11-DH-TXB2 in the AR group was higher compared to non-AR group (P <0.05). There was no relationship between ARA induced platelet aggregation and urinary 11-DH-TXB2 levels (r=0.038, P=0.412). The results of DNA sequencing showed that TBXA2R-924TT homozygotes had a significantly high rate of AR. Logistic regression demonstrated that diabetes was an independent risk factor of AR.Conclusions In the beginning period of administration, aspirin was not a sufficient factor that inhibits platelet aggregation. TBXA2R-g24T allele was involved in AR. Diabetes was an independent risk factor of AR.

  2. Clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin after femoro-popliteal stenting. The CLAFS project: 1- and 2-year results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter K.; Boos, Irene B.L.; Goettmann, Dieter; Vetter, Sylvia [Department of Imaging, Interventional Radiology, and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissen Hospital, Diakonissenstrasse 28, 76199, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the patency rate after femoro-popliteal stenting followed by oral clopidogrel plus long-term aspirin. In a prospective trial, 31 patients with a total of 33 femoro-popliteal artery lesions (21 stenoses, 12 occlusions; 24 femoral, 9 popliteal) were treated with flexible tantalum stents after unsuccessful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) preceded by local fibrinolysis in 5 of 12 patients with total occlusion. Post-interventionally, oral aspirin 100 mg was started simultaneously for the long term and was combined with an oral loading dose of 300 mg clopidogrel, followed by 75 mg clopidogrel daily for 28 days. Patients were followed for at least 12 months (maximum 34 months) by clinical examination, Doppler pressure measurement, color and duplex sonography, and angiography in case of suspicion of restenosis. In a retrospective analysis, the results were compared with those of historical groups of patients having received aspirin only (41 patients) or a long-term high-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)+aspirin treatment (42 patients). Three small puncture aneurysms were treated successfully by conservative means and were categorized as minor bleeding complication. Cumulative primary patency rate (PPR) was 76{+-}7.5% (1 year), and 70{+-}9.6% (2 years) in the clopidogrel+aspirin group, thus being tendentiously better than in the aspirin-only group showing 75{+-}4.6% (1 year), and 50{+-}8.1% (2 years). Long-term high-dose LMWH+aspirin treatment showed 87{+-}5.8% (1 year), and 72{+-}9.1% (2 years), thus being superior to the other treatment regimes, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the LMWH+aspirin and the aspirin group. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is a safe medication regimen and may be effective in the prevention of early stent thrombosis. Mid- and long-term patency rate seems to be intermediate as compared with other therapeutic regimens. The LMWH+aspirin seems to be superior compared with

  3. Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of fixed-dose combination of clopidogrel and aspirin versus coadministration of individual formulations in healthy Korean men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyang-Ki; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Shon, Jihong; Choi, Young-Kyung; Jung, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Background Simultaneous prescription of clopidogrel and low-dose aspirin is recommended for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome because of improvements in efficacy and patient compliance. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of clopidogrel and aspirin was compared with coadministration of individual formulations to clarify the equivalence of the FDC. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-treatment, crossover study in healthy Korean men aged 20–55 years. Subjects received two FDC capsules of clopidogrel/aspirin 75/100 mg (test) or two tablets of clopidogrel 75 mg and two capsules of aspirin 100 mg (reference) with a 14-day washout period. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel, aspirin, and salicylic acid were measured using validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Bioequivalence was assessed by analysis of variance and calculation of the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the ratios of the geometric means (GMRs) for AUClast and Cmax for clopidogrel and aspirin. Results Sixty healthy subjects were enrolled, and 53 completed the study. Clopidogrel, aspirin, and salicylic acid showed similar absorption profiles and no significant differences in Cmax, AUClast, and Tmax between FDC administration and coadministration of individual formulations. The GMRs (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUClast of clopidogrel were 1.08 (0.95, 1.23) and 0.93 (0.84, 1.03), respectively. The GMRs (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUClast of aspirin were 0.98 (0.84, 1.13) and 0.98 (0.93, 1.04), respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated in the study subjects. Conclusion The FDC of clopidogrel and aspirin was bioequivalent to coadministration of each individual formulation. The FDC capsule exhibited similar safety and tolerability profiles to the individual formulations. Therefore, clopidogrel/aspirin 75 mg/100 mg FDC capsules can be prescribed to improve patient compliance. PMID:27822013

  4. Role of Helicobacter pylori eradication in aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George V. Papatheodoridis; Athanasios J. Archimandritis

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin at any dosage and formulation represent well-established risk factors for the development of uncomplicated and complicated peptic ulcer disease accounting for the majority of such cases. Although the interaction between H pylori and NSAID/aspirin use in the same individuals was questioned in some epidemiological studies, it has now become widely accepted that they are at least independent risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. According to data from randomized intervention trials, naive NSAID users certainly benefit from testing for H pylori infection and, if positive,H pylori eradication therapy prior to the initiation of NSAID. A similar strategy is also suggested for naive aspirin users, although the efficacy of such an approach has not been evaluated yet. Strong data also support that chronic aspirin users with a recent ulcer complication should be tested for H pyloriinfection and, if positive, receive H pylori eradication therapy after ulcer healing, while they appear to benefit from additional long-term therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI).A similar approach is often recommended to chronic aspirin users at a high risk of ulcer complication. H pylori eradication alone does not efficiently protect chronic NSAID users with a recent ulcer complication or those at a high-risk, who certainly should be treated with long-term PPI therapy, but H pylori eradication may be additionally offered even in this setting. In contrast, testing for H pylorior PPI therapy is not recommended for chronic NSAID/aspirin users with no ulcer complications or those at a low risk of complications.

  5. Statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation in diabetic patients without cardiovascular events: the RATIONAL trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Macchia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks, assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018. On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716. The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754.

  6. Mechanisms underlying aspirin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cyclooxygenase-2 negative colon cancer cell line SW480

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal can- cer cell line $W480 and its mechanism. METHODS: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 negative colorec- tal cancer cell line SW480 was treated with aspirin at concentrations of 2.5 retool/L, 5.0 retool/L, 10.0 mmol/L for different periods in vitro. Anti-proliferation effect of aspirin on SW480 was detected by 3-(4,5-dimeth- ylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry (FCM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for morphological study. Apoptosis-as- sociated genes were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: Aspirin inhibited SW480 proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with different concentrations of aspirin significantly increased the proportions of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased the proportions of cells at the S- and G2/M phases in a concentration- dependent manner. Aspirin not only induced apoptosis but also caused cell necrosis at a high concentration as well. After treatment with aspirin, SW480 cells displayed typically morphological features of apoptosis and necrosis under TEM, and increased the Bcl-2 expression in cells, but the expression of Bax was down regulated. CONCLUSION: Aspirin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of SW480 cells. Its anti-tumor mechanism may arrest cell cycle and shift Bax/Bcl-2 balance in cells.

  7. The effect of simvastatin, aspirin, and their combination in reduction of atheroma plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, Neng Fisheri; Permatasari, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by high level of cholesterol especially low density lipoprotein (LDL) and accumulation of neutrophil and macrophage in the artery wall. Thickness of aortic wall is an early stage of atherosclerosis plaque formation. Identification of atherosclerosis plaque formation was done by measuring level of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, interleukin-18 (IL-18), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and measuring the thickness of aortic wall. Atherosclerosis's model induced by high fat diet and CCT (cholesterol, cholic acid, and propyltiouracil) oral administration. Rats induced cholesterol divided into positive control, simvastatin 25 mg/kg bw, aspirin 20 mg/kg bw, and combination simvastatin 25 mg/kg and aspirin 20 mg/kg bw group for 3 weeks. In the third week, therapy was given to atherosclerosis's model. Then, in the fourth and fifth week, therapy was given but induction of high cholesterol was stopped due to the massive loss of body weight. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, MPO, and IL-18 measured by uv-vis spectrophotometry and ELISA. In the end of therapy, aorta's rats was isolated to identify the thickness of aorta wall. In the fourth week, after 1 week of treatment, only combination group showed significantly higher total cholesterol, LDL and MPO compared to positive control group. Level of triglycerides and HDL in all groups did not significantly differ compared to positive control group. After 2 weeks continuing drug treatment, the level of total cholesterol, MPO, and IL-18 were decreased in all groups, and aspirin group showed the lowest level. The level of triglycerides was decreased in simvastatin and aspirin group, and aspirin group showed the lowest. Only combination group showed the lowest level of LDL. Based on histopathology result, the thickness of aortic wall was reduced in all groups and aspirin group showed the lowest.

  8. Topical diclofenac does not affect the antiplatelet properties of aspirin as compared to the intermediate effects of oral diclofenac: A prospective, randomized, complete crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M; Nezami, B; Westphal, E S; Rainka, M; Janda, M; Bates, V; Gengo, F

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely interact with aspirin, diminishing its antiplatelet effect and potentially placing patients at an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events. This crossover study aimed to determine whether the topical NSAID diclofenac epolamine 1.3% patch or oral diclofenac 50 mg interfered with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin 325 mg. Twelve healthy men and women aged 18-50 were included. Participants were randomized into 5 treatment arms: aspirin, diclofenac potassium 50 mg, diclofenac patch, diclofenac potassium plus ASA 325 mg, and diclofenac patch plus aspirin. Platelet responsiveness was determined using whole-blood impedance aggregation (WBA) to collagen 1 μg/mL and arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5 mM and was sampled every 2 hours. No significant difference in platelet function was observed following the diclofenac patch and aspirin vs aspirin alone. Oral diclofenac produced a mixed effect with significant reduction in platelet inhibition at hour 2 and hour 8 following aspirin administration. Topical diclofenac does not significantly interfere with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and may be a safer alternative to the oral formulation.

  9. Gastroprotective [6]-Gingerol Aspirinate as a Novel Chemopreventive Prodrug of Aspirin for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingdong; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Pei; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests daily low-dose aspirin (ASA) reduces heart diseases and colorectal cancers. However, the major limitation to the use of aspirin is its side effect to cause ulceration and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Preclinical studies have shown that ginger constituents ameliorate ASA-induced gastric ulceration. We here report the design and synthesis of a novel prodrug of aspirin, [6]-gingerol aspirinate (GAS). Our data show that GAS exerts enhanced anti-cancer properties in vitro and superior gastroprotective effects in mice. GAS was also able to survive stomach acid and decomposed in intestinal linings or after absorption to simultaneously release ASA and [6]-gingerol. We further present that GAS inactivates both COX-1 and COX-2 equally. Our results demonstrate the enhanced anticancer properties along with gastroprotective effects of GAS, suggesting that GAS can be a therapeutic equivalent for ASA in inflammatory and proliferative diseases without the deleterious effects on stomach mucosa. PMID:28067282

  10. Aspirin and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: bedside to bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Cheng Rui; Zhang Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on clinical results of aspirin's chemopreventive effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and evidences for mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in experimental research.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as aspirin and esophageal cancer.Study selection Articles associated with aspirin and esophageal cancer are analyzed.Results This review focuses on the current evidence for use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent in ESCC.Aspirin is the most widely used among all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),which is cheap and acceptable to patients.Several observational results provide the further investigation of prevention and therapy of aspirin or similar drugs in esophageal cancer.Data from case control studies,cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) also give some support of a beneficial role of aspirin on ESCC.Experimental data suggest that aspirin may prevent carcinogenesis of ESCC by favorably affecting proliferation,apoptosis,or other as yet unidentified growth-regulating processes.But the mechanism by which aspirin influence on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.Conclusion A wealth of evidences ranging from clinical data to experimental results are building to suggest that aspirin has significant effects in reducing both the incidence and mortality of ESCC.

  11. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  12. Benefit of Warfarin Compared With Aspirin in Patients With Heart Failure in Sinus Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Shunichi; Thompson, John L.P.; Sanford, Alexandra R.; Mann, Douglas L.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Levin, Bruce; Pullicino, Patrick M.; Freudenberger, Ronald S.; Teerlink, John R.; Graham, Susan; Mohr, J.P.; Massie, Barry M.; Labovitz, Arthur J.; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Gabriel, André P.; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Estol, Conrado J.; Lok, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) trial found no difference in the primary outcome between warfarin and aspirin in 2305 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in sinus rhythm. However, it is unknown whether any subgroups benefit from warfarin or aspirin. Methods and Results We used a Cox model stepwise selection procedure to identify subgroups that may benefit from warfarin or aspirin on the WARCEF primary outcome. A secondary analysis added major hemorrhage to the outcome. The primary efficacy outcome was time to the first to occur of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or death. Only age group was a significant treatment effect modifier (P for interaction, 0.003). Younger patients benefited from warfarin over aspirin on the primary outcome (4.81 versus 6.76 events per 100 patient-years: hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.48–0.84; P=0.001). In older patients, therapies did not differ (9.91 versus 9.01 events per 100 patient-years: hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.88–1.35; P=0.44). With major hemorrhage added, in younger patients the event rate remained lower for warfarin than aspirin (5.41 versus 7.25 per 100 patient-years: hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.89; P=0.005), but in older patients it became significantly higher for warfarin (11.80 versus 9.35 per 100 patient-years: hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.53; P=0.03). Conclusions In patients <60 years, warfarin improved outcomes over aspirin with or without inclusion of major hemorrhage. In patients ≥60 years, there was no treatment difference, but the aspirin group had significantly better outcomes when major hemorrhage was included. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00041938. PMID:23881846

  13. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  14. Aspirin in pregnancy : clinical and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is the most frequently consumed drug in pregnancy,47 mostly taken without a prescription because of headache or a minor ailment. 226,277 Numerous preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid are freely available over the counter under a variety of proprieta

  15. Curative effect of aspirin combined with clopidogrel in the treatment of patients with progress cerebral arterial thrombosis and its influence on hs-CRP levels%阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗进展性缺血性脑卒中的疗效及对hs-CRP水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱麟; 高正伟; 罗志娟; 李盼; 李少波

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗进展性缺血性脑卒中的疗效及对高敏C反应蛋白( hs-CRP)水平的影响.方法 将108例进展性缺血性脑卒中患者,按随机数字表法分成观察组和对照组,每组各54例. 观察组采用阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗;对照组单用阿司匹林治疗,疗程均为15 d. 治疗前后检测临床神经缺损程度及血清hs-CRP水平,并观察治疗后临床疗效及不良反应. 结果 两组神经功能缺损程度评分及血清hs-CRP水平比较,差异有统计学意义(P0. 05);观察组疗效、总有效率均优于对照组(P0. 05). 结论 阿司匹林联合氯吡格雷治疗进展性缺血性脑卒中患者的神经功能恢复及疗效均优于单用阿司匹林,且血清hs-CRP水平也显著降低.%Objective To investigate the curative effect of aspirin combined with clopidogrel in the treatment of patients with progress cerebral arterial thrombosis and its influence on hs-CRP levels. Methods 108 cases of patients with progress cerebral arterial throm-bosis were randomly divided into two groups of 54 cases in each. The observation group used therapy aspirin combined with clopi-dogrel,control group used aspirin therapy,all for 15 d. Evaluated the clinical neurological defect degree and tested the level of serum hs-CRP before and after treatment,and the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions were observed after treatment. Results The differ-ence of the degree of nerve function defect score and serum hs CRP level between two groups was statistically significant (P0. 05). The effect and the total effective rate of observation group were better than the control group(P0. 05). Conclusion The nerve function and the curative effects of patients with progress cerebral arterial thrombosis who were treated with aspirin combined with clopidogrel were superior to aspirin alone,and the serum hs-CRP level significantly decreased.

  16. The effect of aspirin on atherogenic diet-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Apoorva; Parmar, Hamendra S; Kumar, Anil

    2011-06-01

    insulin secretion because of decrease in pancreatic calcium release, obesity and inflammation. However, aspirin treatment reversed all the above-mentioned parameters to normality.

  17. A Review on the Relationship between Aspirin and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor commonly used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Its users are elderly population susceptible to osteoporosis. It also inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 essential in bone remodeling. This prompts the question whether it can influence bone health among users. This review aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of aspirin on bone health. A literature search on experimental and clinical evidence on the effects of aspirin on bone health was performed using major scientific databases. In vitro studies showed that aspirin could enhance the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the progenitors of osteoblasts, and stimulate the differentiation of preosteoblasts. Aspirin also inhibited the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB pathway and decreased the expression of receptor activator of NFκB ligand, thus suppressing the formation of osteoclast. Aspirin could prevent bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. Despite a positive effect on bone mineral density, the limited human epidemiological studies revealed that aspirin could not reduce fracture risk. A study even suggested that the use of aspirin increased fracture risk. As a conclusion, aspirin may increase bone mineral density but its effect on fracture prevention is inconclusive. More data are needed to determine the effects of aspirin and bone health in human.

  18. Aspirin inhibits formation of cholesterol rafts in fluid lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard J; Toppozini, Laura; Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Harroun, Thad A; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-03-01

    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have a high affinity for phospholipid membranes, altering their structure and biophysical properties. Aspirin has been shown to partition into the lipid head groups, thereby increasing membrane fluidity. Cholesterol is another well known mediator of membrane fluidity, in turn increasing membrane stiffness. As well, cholesterol is believed to distribute unevenly within lipid membranes leading to the formation of lipid rafts or plaques. In many studies, aspirin has increased positive outcomes for patients with high cholesterol. We are interested if these effects may be, at least partially, the result of a non-specific interaction between aspirin and cholesterol in lipid membranes. We have studied the effect of aspirin on the organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes containing cholesterol. Through Langmuir-Blodgett experiments we show that aspirin increases the area per lipid and decreases compressibility at 32.5 mol% cholesterol, leading to a significant increase of fluidity of the membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry provides evidence for the formation of meta-stable structures in the presence of aspirin. The molecular organization of lipids, cholesterol and aspirin was studied using neutron diffraction. While the formation of rafts has been reported in binary DPPC/cholesterol membranes, aspirin was found to locally disrupt membrane organization and lead to the frustration of raft formation. Our results suggest that aspirin is able to directly oppose the formation of cholesterol structures through non-specific interactions with lipid membranes.

  19. Resveratrol and aspirin eliminate tetraploid cells for anticancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissa, Delphine; Senovilla, Laura; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Vitale, Ilio; Michaud, Mickaël; Pietrocola, Federico; Boilève, Alice; Obrist, Florine; Bordenave, Chloé; Garcia, Pauline; Michels, Judith; Jemaà, Mohamed; Kepp, Oliver; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-02-25

    Tetraploidy constitutes a genomically metastable state that can lead to aneuploidy and genomic instability. Tetraploid cells are frequently found in preneoplastic lesions, including intestinal cancers arising due to the inactivation of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Using a phenotypic screen, we identified resveratrol as an agent that selectively reduces the fitness of tetraploid cells by slowing down their cell cycle progression and by stimulating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Selective killing of tetraploid cells was observed for a series of additional agents that indirectly or directly stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) including salicylate, whose chemopreventive action has been established by epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Both resveratrol and salicylate reduced the formation of tetraploid or higher-order polyploid cells resulting from the culture of human colon carcinoma cell lines or primary mouse epithelial cells lacking tumor protein p53 (TP53, best known as p53) in the presence of antimitotic agents, as determined by cytofluorometric and videomicroscopic assays. Moreover, oral treatment with either resveratrol or aspirin, the prodrug of salicylate, repressed the accumulation of tetraploid intestinal epithelial cells in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colon cancer. Collectively, our results suggest that the chemopreventive action of resveratrol and aspirin involves the elimination of tetraploid cancer cell precursors.

  20. Meta-analysis of aspirin-heparin therapy for un-explained recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tong; Xian-Jiang, Wei

    2016-11-20

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin-heparin treatment for un-explained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Methods Literatures reporting the studies on the aspirin-heparin treatment of un-explained recurrent miscarriage with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were collected from the major publication databases. The live birth rate was used as primary indicator, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and adverse reactions (thrombocytopenia ) were used as the secondary indicators. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using RCT bias risk assessment tool in the Cochrane Handbook (v5.1.0). Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan (v5.3) software. Subgroup analyses were conducted with an appropriately combined model according to the type of the treatments if heterogeneity among the selected studies was detected. Results Six publications of RCTs were included in this study. There were a total of 907 pregnant women with diagnosis of URSA, 367 of them were pooled in the study group with aspirin-heparin therapy and 540 women in the control group with placebo, aspirin or progesterone therapy. Meta-analysis showed that the live birth rate in the study group was significantly different from that in the control group [RR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.00-1.39), P=0.04]. Considering the clinical heterogeneity among the six studies, subgroup analysis were performed. Live birth rates in the aspirin-heparin treated groups and placebo groups were compared and no significant difference was found. There were no significant differences found between the two groups in the incidence of preterm delivery [RR=1.22, 95% CI (0.54-2.76), P=0.64], preeclampsia [RR=0.52, 95% CI (0.25-1.07), P=0.08], intrauterine growth restriction [RR=1.19, 95% CI (0.56-2.52), P=0.45] and thrombocytopenia [RR=1.17, 95% CI (0.09-14.42), P=0.90]. Conclusion This meta-analysis did not provide evidence that aspirin-heparin therapy had

  1. Effect of aspirin plus clopidogrel on inflammatory markers in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Aspirin can inhibit inflammatory reactions and platelet aggregation, but little is known about the effects of the combination of aspirin plus clopidogrel, a new antiplatelet agent, on inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aspirin plus clopidogrel can further suppress inflammation in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with NSTEACS were randomized into two groups: group A (aspirin alone, n=58) and group B (aspirin plus clopidogrel, n=57). Patients in group A received a loading dose of 300 mg aspirin, then 100 mg per day. The patients in group B received a loading dose of 300 mg aspirin and 300 mg clopidogrel, then 100 mg aspirin and 75 mg clopidogrel per day. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were measured in all patients at baseline prior to any drug treatment after admission, and at 7 and 30 days after beginning drug treatment. Thirty healthy volunteers on no medications were enrolled as controls (group C).Results Baseline levels of hs-CRP and TNF-αin group A and group B were significantly higher than those in group C. Seven days after administration, the levels of hs-CRP in both group A and group B decreased significantly [Group A: (6.15 ± 1.39) mg/L vs (9.18 ± 1.62) mg/L, P <0.01; Group B:(4.99 ± 1.62) mg/L vs (10.29 ± 1.47) mg/L, P<0.01]. Similarly, levels of TNF-αin both groups decreased at 7 days compared to baseline [Group A: (90.99 ± 28.91) pg/ml vs (117.20 ± 37.13) pg/ml, P <0.01; Group B: (74.32± 21.83) pg/ml vs (115.27 ± 32.11) pg/ml, P <0.01]. Thirty days after administration, the levels of hs-CRP in both group A and group B decreased further to (3.49 ± 1.53) mg/L, and (2.40 ± 1.17) mg/L respectively (P <0.01 for both comparisons). Levels of TNF-αin groups A and B also decreased significantly between 7 and 30 days, to 63.28 ± 29.01 pg/ml (group A) and (43.95 ± 17.10) pg

  2. The utility of Aspirin in dukes C and high risk dukes B colorectal cancer - The ASCOLT study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Raghib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High quality evidence indicates that aspirin is effective in reducing colorectal polyps; and numerous epidemiological studies point towards an ability to prevent colorectal cancer. However the role of Aspirin as an adjuvant agent in patients with established cancers remains to be defined. Recently a nested case-control study within the Nurses Health cohort suggested that the initiation of Aspirin after the diagnosis of colon cancer reduced overall colorectal cancer specific mortality. Although this data is supportive of Aspirin's biological activity in this disease and possible role in adjuvant therapy, it needs to be confirmed in a randomized prospective trial. Methods/Design We hypothesize through this randomized, placebo-controlled adjuvant study, that Aspirin in patients with dukes C or high risk dukes B colorectal cancer (ASCOLT can improve survival in this patient population over placebo control. The primary endpoint of this study is Disease Free Survival and the secondary Endpoint is 5 yr Overall Survival. This study will randomize eligible patients with Dukes C or high risk Dukes B colorectal cancer, after completion of surgery and standard adjuvant chemotherapy (+/- radiation therapy for rectal cancer patients to 200 mg Aspirin or Placebo for 3 years. Stratification factors include study centre, rectal or colon cancer stage, and type of adjuvant chemotherapy (exposed/not exposed to oxaliplatin. After randomization, patient will be followed up with 3 monthly assessments whilst on study drug and for a total of 5 years. Patients with active peptic ulcer disease, bleeding diathesis or on treatment with aspirin or anti-platelet agents will be excluded from the study. Discussion This study aims to evaluate Aspirin's role as an adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer. If indeed found to be beneficial, because aspirin is cheap, accessible and easy to administer, it will positively impact the lives of many individuals in Asia

  3. Formulation and evaluation of novel aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Sankar V.; Dhachinamoorthi D.; Chandra Shekar K.B.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is to design aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories which will reduce the side effects caused by aspirin suppositories.Aspirin nanoparticles were prepared initially based on ionic-gelation mechanism and lyophilized.The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated,and the results confirmed that Fa9 formulation was the best with greater drug entrapment efficiency.Aspirin suppositories were prepared in order to investigate the best base composition.The prepared suppositories were evaluated and FS1,FS3,FS4,FS8,FS11,and FS12 were proved to be the best base compositions based on dissolution performed.The lyophilized aspirin nanoparticles of Fa9 were used to prepare aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories.The in vitro results revealed that Fas 11 was the best formulation.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of Aspirin and Sustained-release Dipyridamole in the Prevention and Treatment of Ischaemic Cerebrovascular Events After Acute Ischemic Stroke%阿司匹林联合缓释型双嘧达莫防治急性缺血性卒中后脑血管缺血事件的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯慧玲; 杨冠涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价阿司匹林联合缓释型双嘧达莫防治急性缺血性卒中后脑血管缺血事件的临床作用.方法 选择2009年2月-2012年1月清苑县人民医院收治的63例急性缺血性卒中患者作为研究对象,根据抗血小板治疗药物使用情况分为A组33例和B组30例,A组采用阿司匹林联合缓释型双嘧达莫治疗,B组仅采用阿司匹林治疗,比较两组对脑血管缺血事件的防治作用.结果 A、B两组治疗后的神经功能缺损评分均明显改善,以A组改善更为明显(P<0.05);随访6个月,A组脑血管缺血事件发生率为3.0%,B组为23.3%,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组均无严重不良反应发生.结论 阿司匹林联合缓释型双嘧达莫防治急性缺血性卒中后脑血管缺血事件的临床作用显著,能明显改善患者的神经功能,减少脑血管缺血事件的发生,并且安全性好,是临床首选的药物治疗方案之一.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of aspirin and sustained - release dipyridamole in the prevention and treatment of ischaemic cerebrovascular events after acute ischemic stroke. Methods From February 2009 to January 2012, 63 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the People's Hospital of Qingyuan County were selected as the research objects. According to the usage of antiplatelet therapy, they were divided into group A (n= 33) and group B (n= 30). The patients in group A were treated with aspirin plus sustained — release dipyridamole, while the patients in group B were only treated with aspirin. The prevention and treatment effects in the two groups were compared. Results After the treatment, the neurological deficit scores of groups A and B were both significantly improved, but the score in group A was improved more significantly (P< 0.05). Six- month follow — up outcome showed that the incidence rates of ischaemic cerebrovascular event in groups A and B were 3.0% and 23.3% respectively, and the difference

  5. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin’s related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71 and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  6. Effect of aspirin on glucose-D transport in intestine of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mazhar Mushtaq; Farah Deeba Khan; M. Naeem Akhtar; Saghir Ahmad Jafri; Mehboob Bari

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect a commonly prescribed Non Steroidal Anti In-flammatory Drug (NSAID) i.e. aspirin on brush border membrane in terms of changes in the intestinal transport level of glucose which is monosaccharide with absolute requirement in the body and hence its absorption is directly proportional on the morphology of the intestinal mucosa. Method: Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus) were divided into two different groups, Group Ⅰ (Control), Group Ⅱ ( aspirin-treated, 50 mg aspirin/kg of body weight). The treatment was continued for 28 days. On the 29th day after o-, vernight fasting, intestine was removed from animals of both groups. Changes in transport of glucose-D in intestine were studied. Result: The results indicated a significant decrease in the transport of glucose-D in aspirin treated group as compared to the con-trol group. Conclusion: Cautious use of NSAID is recommended in commonly observed symptom such as headache and to those patients who are given as a prophylaxis for thrombosis.

  7. Aspirin dosing frequency in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonseok; Becker, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Aspirin has been a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention since the late 1980s. Despite the popularity of aspirin and its wide use, the proper dosing and frequency of aspirin has yet to be determined. Early aspirin trials focused on its utility in broad target populations, but this strategy did not magnify the benefit of aspirin, and rather increased the complication rate. We have learned from previous studies that laboratory and clinical response to aspirin therapy in patients with different conditions and settings are diverse. This difference in aspirin response necessitates a personalized, tailored aspirin therapy. We aim to perform a comprehensive review of the current evidence surrounding aspirin responsiveness in several distinct patient populations and the rationale of different aspirin frequency and dosing strategies. Our conclusions call for future studies to determine individualized aspirin strategies to maximize the benefit and minimize the risk of aspirin.

  8. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  9. Effect of pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine on the change of platelet aggregability after radiofrequency catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利宏; 陈君柱; 郑良荣; 陶谦民

    2002-01-01

    Eighty-two patients with supraventricular tachycardia undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were studied to observe the inhibition effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet aggregability(PAG) and thromboxane B2(TXB2) of the blood samples.Patients were divided into aspirin group A.ticlopidine group B.aspirin+ticlopidine group C and control group D.PAG and TXB2 were increased clearly after RFCA in all groups(P<0.001).Treatment with aspirin or ticlopidine before operation could reduce the patelet aggregability caused by RFCA and the joint effect of two drugs(change rate of group A:52.51±12.51%;group B:54.78±11.27%;group C:30.51±10.59%;group D:91.75±21.43%;(P<0.05)was studied .The much decreased platelet aggregability after antiplatelet therapy was evidence of the potential benefit of the treatment in preventing thromboembolism after ablation.Pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine together is a good way to decrease palateler aggregability after RFCA.

  10. Effect of pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine on the change of platelet aggregability after radiofrequency catheter ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利宏; 陈君柱; 郑良荣; 陶谦民

    2002-01-01

    Eighty-two patients with supraventricular tachycardia undergoing radi o frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) were studied to observe the inhibition effect of aspirin and ticlopidine on platelet aggregability (PAG) and thromboxane B2 (T XB2) of the blood samples. Patients were divided into aspirin group A, ticlopi di ne group B, aspirin+ticlopidine group C and control group D. PAG and TXB2 were i ncreased clearly after RFCA in all groups (P<0.001). Treatment with aspirin or t iclopidine before operation could reduce the platelet aggregability caused by RF CA and the joint effect of two drugs(change rate of group A:52.51±12.51%; group B:54.78±11.27%;group C: 30.51±10.59%;group D:91.75±21.43%; P<0.05)was st udie d. The much decreased platelet aggregability after antiplatelet therapy was evid ence of the potential benefit of the treatment in preventing thromboembolism aft er ablation. Pretreatment with aspirin and ticlopidine together is a good way to decrease palatelet aggregability after RFCA.

  11. 阿司匹林与心脑血管疾病%Aspirin, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴皎; 周刚; 李燕辉

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is the most fatal diseases in the world.The prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are both basic and clinical focus.Aspirin has been used as a prevention medicine in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for over a century, which is the longest one in history.Aspirin use is estimated at 100 billion tablets annually as an analgesic, antipyretic and antiplatelet drugs.However, there are still many new findings about aspirin, such as aspirin resistance and aspirin hydrolase.This paper reviews the current research advances and future directions of aspirin in cardiovascular and cerebravascwlar diseases, mainly focuses on aspirin resistance and personalized medication.%心脑血管疾病为人类死亡原因之首,其预防与治疗始终为医学关注的焦点。阿司匹林作为心脑血管疾病的防治疗药物已经有一个世纪之久,是历史最长,同时也是用量最多的药物。每年大约有1000亿片阿司匹林被用于解热镇痛和心脑血管疾病。人们对阿司匹林的研究和认识还在不断加深,如阿司匹林抵抗的出现以及阿司匹林水解酶的鉴定。本文综述了阿司匹林在心脑血管疾病预防方面的研究热点以及未来的研究方向,主要包括阿司匹林抵抗以及个体化用药。

  12. [The antagonistic effect of aspirin on the expression of prostaglandin participation in the antihypertensive activity of ACE inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimento, M; Campodonico, J; Santambrogio, G; Rossi, M; Trabattoni, D; Celeste, F; Guazzi, M

    1997-06-01

    ACE-inhibitors antagonize both angiotensin production and bradykinin breakdown, resulting in enhancement of vasodilating prostaglandin release. This provides an explanation for the experimental observation that cycloxygenase blockers (such as aspirin or indomethacin) may counteract the antihypertensive efficacy of the ACE-inhibitors; it may be also possible that hypertensive patients taking aspirin as an antiplatelet agent may fail to benefit from ACE-inhibition. This study was aimed at: evaluating the magnitude and incidence of the inhibitory phenomenon; defining the minimal aspirin dosage that produces an antagonistic effect, as well as the possible reasons for a different individual susceptibility. We have studied untreated patients with mild (10 cases, Group 1), moderate (16 cases, Group 2) or severe (26 cases, Group 3) hypertension. The ACE-inhibitor enalapril was used at doses of 10 mg bid (groups 1 and 2) or 20 mg bid (Group 3). Active drug treatment periods had a 5-day duration. A daily dose of aspirin of 100 mg had no effect on the antihypertensive efficacy of enalapril. On the contrary, when a dose of 300 mg was used, 60, 57 and 50% of patients in Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively, showed a > 20% restraint of the mean arterial pressure fall with enalapril (20% was the lower arbitrary limit for defining antagonism). Inhibition was independent of the sequence of drug administration. In these patients counteraction averaged 60, 70 and 90%, respectively. In them, and not in the remaining patients in each group, aspirin substantially attenuated the renin rise elicited by ACE-inhibition. These data suggest that: a dosage of 100 mg aspirin is devoid of any inhibitory effect; more that 50% of ACE inhibited patients are, at least in the short term, susceptible to the action of 300 mg aspirin, regardless of the severity of hypertension; counteraction is seemingly mediated through a prostaglandin inhibition and depends on the individual predominance of prostaglandin

  13. Aspirin is associated with an increased risk of subdural hematoma in normal-pressure hydrocephalus patients following shunt implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Peter; Lauritsen, Jens; Poulsen, Frantz Rom

    2015-01-01

    OBJECT: In this paper the authors investigate whether shunt-treated patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus receiving aspirin therapy are at increased risk of developing subdural hematoma (SDH). METHODS: Records from 80 consecutive patients who had undergone implantation of a cerebrospinal...... fluid shunt for the treatment of normal-pressure hydrocephalus were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Eleven cases of symptomatic SDH occurred, all among patients receiving aspirin or clopidogrel. The 5-year survival estimate was 0.3 (p ...% CI 3.1-53). CONCLUSIONS: Patients on an aspirin therapy regimen have a markedly increased risk of SDH after a shunt has been implanted for the treatment of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Users of clopidogrel may have an even greater risk....

  14. Aspirin content determination with control systems by image processing technology. Gazo shori gijutsu wo katsuyoshita jozai aspirin kensa sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K. (Lion Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    An inspection apparatus for aspirin tablets utilizing image processing technology was developed. One side of a tablet consists of aspirin layer and another side consists of alkiline layer. The alkaline layer is opaque at all but the aspirin layer is translucent. Image of overall configuration of the tablet is taken in CCD camera by illumination from all surrounding sides. The area is measured by using these images. Then, when switching off the surrounding illumination and illuminating the aspirin side, only aspirin side layer shines. The area is determined by taking the image in CCD. Aspirin content is calculated by the ratio of overall images to aspirin image and the predetermined tablet weight. Tablets of different aspirin content were prepared, and the content determined by this method and the chemically determined contents were compared. High correlation was found between both contents, indicating the validity of the image processing method. When the aspirin content is out of 330 {plus minus} 10mg, the controlling mechanism works, by which unmanned operation will be possible. 8 figs.

  15. La aspirina en la prevención primaria del cáncer colorrectal Aspirin in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fernández-Calderón

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La aspirina y otros antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE se han asociado a una reducción en el riesgo de desarrollar adenomas y cáncer colorrectal. Con la evidencia científica disponible, queda justificada la necesidad de más estudios que evalúen el efecto protector de la aspirina u otros AINE como medida preventiva del cáncer de colon, que definan la dosis mínima eficaz, la edad a la que comenzar el tratamiento, la duración más conveniente del mismo y las subpoblaciones para las que los beneficios de la quimioprofilaxis superan los posibles efectos adversos.Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with a reduction in the risk of developing adenomas and colorectal cancer. The available scientific evidence justifies the need for more studies that evaluate the protective effect of aspirin and other NSAIDs as a preventive measure against cancer of the colon; define the minimum efficient dosage; the age at which to begin treatment; the most convenient duration of the latter; and the sub-populations for which the benefits of chemoprophylaxis outweigh possible adverse effects.

  16. Clinical features of gastroduodenal injury associated with long-term low-dose aspirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Junichi; Saito, Yoshifumi; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi

    2013-03-21

    Low-dose aspirin (LDA) is clinically used for the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events with the advent of an aging society. On the other hand, a very low dose of aspirin (10 mg daily) decreases the gastric mucosal prostaglandin levels and causes significant gastric mucosal damage. The incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury and bleeding has increased. It has been noticed that the incidence of LDA-induced gastrointestinal hemorrhage has increased more than that of non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced lesions. The pathogenesis related to inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 includes reduced mucosal flow, reduced mucus and bicarbonate secretion, and impaired platelet aggregation. The pathogenesis related to inhibition of COX-2 involves reduced angiogenesis and increased leukocyte adherence. The pathogenic mechanisms related to direct epithelial damage are acid back diffusion and impaired platelet aggregation. The factors associated with an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications in subjects taking LDA are aspirin dose, history of ulcer or upper GI bleeding, age > 70 years, concomitant use of non-aspirin NSAIDs including COX-2-selective NSAIDs, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Moreover, no significant differences have been found between ulcer and non-ulcer groups in the frequency and severity of symptoms such as nausea, acid regurgitation, heartburn, and bloating. It has been shown that the ratios of ulcers located in the body, fundus and cardia are significantly higher in bleeding patients than the ratio of gastroduodenal ulcers in patients taking LDA. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the risk of developing gastric and duodenal ulcers. In contrast to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulcers, a well-tolerated histamine H2-receptor antagonist is reportedly effective in prevention of LDA-induced gastrointestinal ulcers. The eradication of H. pylori is equivalent to treatment with

  17. Aspirin Could Save 40,000 Lives a Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Reaney; 励蓓蓓

    2002-01-01

    鄙人是服用Aspirin的受益者,所以当我在网上读到此文时,非常兴奋,很想把此短文推荐给我最喜爱的《科技英语学习》的读者们。Aspirin能够稀释人体血液的浓度,因而能有效减少心脏病和中风的危险。服用Aspirin后,体内血液更加流畅,因此,我感到服用Aspirin后,头脑清晰如洗,精神也清朗如浴。 当然,本文的最后一句哲理之言,不能不细读: Aspirin is not an appropriate treatment for everyon but it is important that allthase who might benefit are actually offered it。】

  18. Aspirin Has Antitumor Effects via Expression of Calpain Gene in Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs show efficacy in the prevention of cancers. It is known that they can inhibit cyclooxygenases, and some studies have shown that they can induce apoptosis. Our objective in this study was to investigate the mechanism by which aspirin exerts its apoptosis effects in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The effect of aspirin on the gene expression was studied by differential mRNA display RT-PCR. Among the isolated genes, mu-type calpain gene was upregulated by aspirin treatment. To examine whether calpain mediates the antitumor effects, HeLa cells were stably transfected with the mammalian expression vector pCR3.1 containing mu-type calpain cDNA (pCRCAL/HeLa, and tumor formations were measured in nude mice. When tumor burden was measured by day 49, HeLa cells and pCR/HeLa cells (vector control produced tumors of 2126 mm3 and 1638 mm3, respectively, while pCRCAL/HeLa cells produced markedly smaller tumor of 434 mm3 in volume. The caspase-3 activity was markedly elevated in pCRCAL/HeLa cells. The increased activity levels of caspase-3 in pCRCAL/HeLa cells, in parallel with the decreased tumor formation, suggest a correlation between caspase-3 activity and calpain protein. Therefore, we conclude that aspirin-induced calpain mediates an antitumor effect via caspase-3 in cervical cancer cells.

  19. Retrospective cohort study for the impact on readmission of patients with ischemic stroke after treatment of aspirin plus clopidogrel or aspirin mono-therapy%阿司匹林单独或与氯吡格雷联合治疗对缺血性脑卒中患者再入院影响的回顾性队列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成; 张钰琪; 唐迅; 高培; 魏晨璐; 胡永华

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To see the influence of different antiplatelet therapies on stroke patients’ readmission by performing a deep data-mining into Beijing Healthcare Insuring Database,based on a large sample size.Methods:Aretrospective cohort study,was adopted to extract patients primarily diag-nosed as ischemic stroke from healthcare database.The first hospital records were considered as the pa-tient’s baseline in this study,who were divided into MAPT (aspirin)and DAPT (aspirin and clopi-dogrel)according to the patient’s baseline medications.A follow-up was conducted to see whether the patients would have rehospitalization record because of major result events after medication.The major re-sult events,included:(1 )recurrence of ischemic stroke;(2)hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke;(3)myocardial infarction;(4)the digestive hemorrhage.The Kaplan-Meier figure was used to compare the survival situations between these two groups,the log-rank test was used to test the difference of the survival curve,and 1 ∶1 propensity score matching was calculated from the patients’baseline da-ta.Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR).Results:A total of 27 695 patients From January 201 0 to September 201 3 were included,4 047 with DAPT,and 23 648 with MAPT.Because the baseline characteristics of the patients was disequilibrium,so we used 1 ∶1 pro-pensity score matching,after which,the number of the two groups was 4 046 each.Adjusted for the gen-eral demographic characteristics such as age,sex,nationality,complication and drug combination,no statistical significance was observed between the survival curves of the two groups (P =0.06).HR value of major result events between the groups was 0.91 (0.82 -1 .01 ,P =0.07),which was not statistically significant.The covariate gender HR =1 .36 (1 .20 -1 .55,P 1 .05)did not increase the risk of readmission.Conclusion:There was no difference in prevention of readmission between patients with DAPT

  20. Aspirin Breaks the Crosstalk between 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cytokine Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsieh

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The obesity process is normally accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Infiltration by inflammatory cytokines and immune cells provides a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth, migration, and metastasis. Epidemiological evidence has shown that aspirin is an effective agent against several types of cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 murine breast cancer cells, and their crosstalk. The results showed that aspirin treatment inhibited differentiation and lipid accumulation by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and decreased the secretion of the inflammatory adipokine MCP-1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, possibly by suppressing MCP-1 and VEGF secretion. Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using a transwell plate were performed to clarify the relationship between these two cell lines. Aspirin exerted its inhibitory effects in the transwell co-culture system, as well as the conditioned-medium model. Aspirin treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells, and decreased the production of MCP-1 and PAI-1 in both the Ad-CM model and co-culture system. Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. It also broke the crosstalk between these two cell lines, possibly contributing to its chemopreventive properties in breast cancer. This is the first report that aspirin's chemopreventive activity supports the potential application in auxiliary therapy against obesity-related breast cancer development.

  1. Aspirin Breaks the Crosstalk between 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and 4T1 Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Huang, Yu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The obesity process is normally accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation. Infiltration by inflammatory cytokines and immune cells provides a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth, migration, and metastasis. Epidemiological evidence has shown that aspirin is an effective agent against several types of cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of aspirin on 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 4T1 murine breast cancer cells, and their crosstalk. The results showed that aspirin treatment inhibited differentiation and lipid accumulation by 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and decreased the secretion of the inflammatory adipokine MCP-1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or conditioned medium from RAW264.7 cells. In 4T1 cells, treatment with aspirin decreased cell viability and migration, possibly by suppressing MCP-1 and VEGF secretion. Subsequently, culture of 4T1 cells in 3T3-L1 adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM) and co-culture of 3T3-L1 and 4T1 cells using a transwell plate were performed to clarify the relationship between these two cell lines. Aspirin exerted its inhibitory effects in the transwell co-culture system, as well as the conditioned-medium model. Aspirin treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells, and decreased the production of MCP-1 and PAI-1 in both the Ad-CM model and co-culture system. Aspirin inhibited inflammatory MCP-1 adipokine production by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the cell growth and migration of 4T1 cells. It also broke the crosstalk between these two cell lines, possibly contributing to its chemopreventive properties in breast cancer. This is the first report that aspirin's chemopreventive activity supports the potential application in auxiliary therapy against obesity-related breast cancer development.

  2. The corrosion protection of aluminum by various anodizing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1989-01-01

    Corrosion protection to 6061-T6 aluminum, afforded by both teflon-impregnated anodized coats (Polylube and Tufram) and hard-anodized coats (water sealed and dichromate sealed), was studied at both pH 5.5 and pH 9.5, with an exposure period of 28 days in 3.5 percent NaCl solution (25 C) for each specimen. In general, corrosion protection for all specimens was better at pH 9.5 than at pH 5.5. Protection by a Tufram coat proved superior to that afforded by Polylube at each pH, with corrosion protection by the hard-anodized, water-sealed coat at pH 9.5 providing the best protection. Electrochemical work in each case was corroborated by microscopic examination of the coats after exposure. Corrosion protection by Tufram at pH 9.5 was most comparable to that of the hard-anodized samples, although pitting and some cracking of the coat did occur.

  3. Clinical Observation on Naomaitai Capsule and Aspirin for Treatment of Transient Ischemic Attack%脑脉泰胶囊与阿司匹林治疗短暂性脑缺血发作的随机对照临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李求兵; 杨学青; 田心

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价脑脉泰胶囊对短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)病人的治疗作用,探索中药治疗 TIA 的方法。方法采用随机、双盲双模拟、1∶1∶1对照、单中心探索性研究,将108例病人分为3组:脑脉泰组、脑脉泰+阿司匹林组、阿司匹林组,每组36例,最终完成103例,脱落5例。观察3组治疗前后症状积分变化及临床疗效。结果脑脉泰组临床痊愈率、显效率、有效率、无效率分别为20.59%、8.82%、64.71%、5.88%,合并有效率为94.12%;脑脉泰+阿司匹林组临床痊愈率、显效率、有效率、无效率分别为8.57%、37.14%、51.43%、2.86%,合并有效率为97.14%;阿司匹林组临床痊愈率、显效率、有效率、无效率分别为11.76%、14.71%、50.00%、23.53%,合并总有效率为76.47%。3组有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P =0.0439),PP(符合方案集)分析与 ITT(意向性治疗原则)分析结果基本一致。结论脑脉泰囊胶囊治疗 TIA 安全有效。%Objective To evaluate the effect of Naomaitai capsule(NMTC)on patients of transient ischemic attack (TIA),and to discover the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)method on TIA.Methods A random,double blind,double simulated,and 1∶1∶1 compared and single center discovery study was adopted.One hundred and eight patients were divided into three groups:NMTC group,NMTC plus aspirin group,aspirin group.Each group has 36 cases.At last,103 cases finished the study,5 cases lost.To observe the change of symptom after treatment of three groups.Results The clinical recovery ratio was 20.59%,remarkable effective ratio was 8.82%,effective ratio was 64.71%,invalid ratio was 5.88%,and total effective ratio was 94.12% in NMTC group.The clinical recovery ratio was 8.57%,remarkable effective ratio was 37.14%,effective ratio was 5 1.43%,invalid ratio was 2.86%,and total ef-fective ratio was 97.14% in NMTC plus aspirin group.The clinical recovery ratio was 1 1.76%,remarkable effective ratio was 14

  4. Use of Aspirin postdiagnosis improves survival for colon cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bastiaannet (Esther); K. Sampieri (K.); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); A.J. de Craen (Anton); M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); C.B.M. van den Broek (Colette); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); R. Fodde (Riccardo); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The preventive role of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, in particular, on colorectal cancer is well established. More recently, it has been suggested that aspirin may also have a therapeutic role. Aim of the present observational population-based stud

  5. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  6. Aspirin and spinal haematoma after neuraxial anaesthesia: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Vásquez, R S; Peláez Romero, R

    2015-11-01

    The safety of aspirin therapy in neuraxial anaesthesia has been historically questioned, and the current recommendations are still heterogeneous. A comprehensive review of clinical evidence and a comparative analysis of European and American guidelines were performed. Low-dose aspirin produces a selective, complete and irreversible cyclooxygenase-1 blockade, and higher doses do not increase the antiplatelet effect. Additional cyclooxygenase-2 blockade by high-dose aspirin might decrease the antithrombotic efficacy by inhibiting endothelial prostacyclin synthesis. Different doses of aspirin have been shown to be safe in a broad population subjected to neuraxial anaesthesia or analgesia. In the few case reports of spinal haematoma involving aspirin therapy, additional complicating factors were present. Considering the available evidence, the majority of national scientific societies agree that the isolated use of aspirin does not increase the risk of spinal haematoma and does not represent a contraindication to neuraxial blocks. The precautions regarding higher doses do not seem to be justified. Although aspirin alone is considered to be safe in neuraxial anaesthesia, the concurrent administration of other antithrombotic drugs significantly increases the risk of spinal haematoma and the recommended safety times for each of these other drugs must be strictly followed. An individualized assessment of the risks and benefits should be performed, before performing a neuraxial technique or catheter removal in a patient receiving aspirin.

  7. HSP90 gene expression induced by aspirin is associated with damage remission in a chicken myocardial cell culture exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Qian, Z; Zhu, H; Tang, S; Wu, D; Zhang, M; Kemper, N; Hartung, J; Bao, E

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential protection of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced by aspirin against heat stress damage in chicken myocardial cells, enzyme activities related to stress damage, cytopathological changes, the expression and distribution of HSP90, and HSP90 mRNA levels in the myocardial cells exposed to heat stress (42°C) for different durations with or without aspirin administration (1 mg/ml, 2 h prior) in vitro were investigated. Significant increase of enzyme levels in the supernatant of heat-stressed myocardial cells and cellular lesions characterised by acute degeneration, karyopyknosis and karyorrhexis were observed, compared to non-treated cells. However, the lesions of cells treated with aspirin were milder, characterised by earlier recovery of enzyme levels to the control levels and no obvious heat stress-related cellular necrosis. Stronger positive signals in the cytoplasm and longer retention of HSP90 signal in nuclei were observed in aspirin-treated myocardial cells than those of only heat-stressed cells. HSP90 level in the aspirin-treated myocardial cells was 11.1-fold higher than that in non-treated cells, and remained at a high level at the early stage of heat stress, whereas it was just 4.1-fold higher in only heat-stressed cells and returned rapidly to a low level. Overexpression of HSP90 mRNA in aspirin-treated cells was observed throughout the experiment, whereas HSP90 mRNA decreased significantly only in heat-stressed cells. The early higher HSP90 expression induced by aspirin during heat stress was accompanied by decreased heat stress damage, suggesting that aspirin might play an important role in preventing myocardial cells from heat stress damage in vitro.

  8. Aspirin-induced inhibition of adipogenesis was p53-dependent and associated with inactivation of pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying-Fang; Yang, Shih-Huang; Lee, Yu-Hsien; Wu, Buor-Chang; Huang, Shu-Ching; Liu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Shiow-Ling; Pan, Ya-Fang; Chou, Shih-Shen; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yang, Hui-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem of global significance. Today, aspirin remains the most commonly used medication for the treatment of pyrexia, pain, inflammation and antiplatelet. The present study aims at evaluating the possible existence of a putative p53-dependent pathway underlying the aspirin-induced inhibition of adipogenesis. Cell migration assay was identified by the ability to migrate through Transwell insert. Oil Red O staining was employed to quantify adipose accumulation. The concentration of glucose and triglyceride were measured by using assay kits. The expression levels of several master regulatory molecules controlling various signal pathways were monitored using the immunoblotting techniques. Aspirin significantly inhibited preadipocyte migration and adipose accumulation. The p53-p21 signaling and the expression of differentiation marker glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased in a dose-dependent manner. It indicated that aspirin induced adipocyte differentiation through p53-p21 pathway. The oncogenic ERK 1/2 MAPK signaling was induced, whereas, the expression of adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) and inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were inhibited. Aspirin negatively regulated the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) by inhibiting the expression of rate-limiting enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Knockdown the expression of oncogenic ERK 1/2 MAPK by using 10 μM PD98059 significantly increased triglyceride synthesis, adipose accumulation and activated PPP, however, decreased glucose uptake. Diverted the glucose flux to PPP, rather than increased glucose uptake, was associated with adipogenesis. Down-regulated the expression of tumor suppressor p53 by 10 μM pifithrin-α (PFTα) alone had no effect on adipose accumulation. However, administration

  9. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Laconsay, K L; Agnew, A C; Henderson, M E; Quinn, J M; Holland, B E; DePace, A N

    1993-08-01

    Aspirin is a widely used over-the-counter drug in our society which has wide therapeutic value, yet not all of the behavioral side effects have been studied. Different doses of aspirin solutions were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences among aspirin and saline-control doses. Post hoc sign tests showed that a moderate dose of aspirin increased operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation, yet lower and higher doses decreased and then increased the rate of responding which resulted in an inverted U-shaped trend. Possible multiple effects of aspirin in terms of its thermoregulatory as well as its pain-tolerance properties, and implications for hypothalamic "set point" are discussed.

  10. Regulation effect of Aspirin Eugenol Ester on blood lipids in Wistar rats with hyperlipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Karam, Isam; Ma, Ning; Liu, Xi-Wang; Li, Shi-Hong; Kong, Xiao-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with less side effects. The experiment will be conducted to investigate the efficacy of AEE on curing hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats. The rats were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Results Compared with the model group, the results showed that AEE at 54 mg/kg dosage could significantly decrease the hyperli...

  11. Risk assessment and aspirin use in Asian and Western populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runlin Gao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Runlin Gao1, Xiaoying Li21Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; 2Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, ChinaObjective: The aim of this review was to examine aspirin utilization, cardiovascular risk ­estimation, and clinical evidence for aspirin prophylaxis in Asian versus Western countries.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and the key terms "aspirin" and "Asia" or "Western".Results: Despite the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, aspirin is underutilized in high-risk patients in both Asian and Western countries. A number of risk estimation scores are available; however, validation is needed in countries such as Japan, India, and in South Asia. Underutilization of aspirin in Asia may be linked to an overestimation of bleeding risks. It is possible that a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and genetic differences may make Asians more susceptible to gastrointestinal bleeding. Very low aspirin doses and even the wider use of gastroprotective agents may be the optimal approach to high-risk patients in Asia.Conclusions: Based on the current evidence, aspirin should be used for CVD prevention when the risk:benefit ratio is favorable. A number of trials are underway, including the Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol and Japanese Primary Prevention Project, which will provide key data on the benefits of aspirin in Asian patients at risk of CVD, and may improve aspirin utilization and risk estimation.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular risk estimation, Asia, Western

  12. Radiochromium (chromium-51) evaluation of gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A.; LeBel, E.

    1987-10-30

    Gastrointestinal blood loss is one of the most serious clinical events induced by drugs. To date, almost no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug has been shown to be devoid of that side effect in a strictly controlled study. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively, by use of radioactive chromium (chromium-51)-labeled red blood cells, gastrointestinal blood loss associated with nabumetone (1000 mg daily), aspirin (3.6 g daily), and placebo. A total of 37 normal subjects, divided among the three treatment groups and a fourth group that received no treatment, were assessed clinically and quantitatively for gastrointestinal blood loss over a period of 28 days of active treatment. The results with chromium-51, analyzed on a logarithmic scale, revealed no statistically significant differences between the nabumetone, placebo, and control groups. Gastrointestinal blood loss in the aspirin group, however, was elevated when compared with all other groups at a high level of statistical significance (p less than 0.001). It is concluded that, under conditions in which aspirin causes substantial gastrointestinal microbleeding, nabumetone is not significantly different from placebo.

  13. PREOPERATIVE THERAPY OF LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN IN INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY BYPASS OPERATIONS WITH AND WITHOUT LOW-DOSE APROTININ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; BREDEE, JJ; VANOEVEREN, W; VANZUNDERT, AAJ; VERKROOST, M; TERWOORST, J; BAVINCK, JH; BERREKLOUW, E; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1993-01-01

    The effect of preoperative low-dose aspirin (1 mg/kg of body weight) and intraoperative low-dose aprotinin (2 million kallikrein inactivator units) treatment on perioperative blood loss and blood requirements in patients who undergo internal mammary artery bypass operations is unknown. Therefore, we

  14. Aspirin Plays Dual Role in Helping Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玲梅

    2002-01-01

    贵刊多次介绍“百年老药”aspirin(阿斯匹林,解热镇痛药,又称“乙酰水杨酸”)的神奇作用,我读了贵刊的介绍后,也开始服用aspirin,收到了意想不到的效果。现在,我上网时,对aspirin的报道特别留心。今日又在网上读到此文,特地加注后,发你们。文中有两个单词:interleukin-1(IL-1)/endothelialfunction,查阅了许多词典,仍不得其解。好在紧接其后的同谓语对这两个词作了解释。前者的以意思是:a blood of chemical associated with inflammation(一种炎 症有关的血液化学物质);后者是:the ability of the blood vessels to expand(血管扩张的能力)这两个词与新发现的aspirin两个功能有关,一是,能增加抗炎症作用,二是令血管得以扩张。】

  15. 尼莫地平加小剂量阿司匹林治疗脑血管痉挛性头痛头晕的临床观察%Effect of nimodipine and aspirin in the treatment for brain arterial spasmodic headache and dizziness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秋明

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of nimodipine and aspirin in the treatment for brain arterial spasmodic headache and dizziness.Methods: 80 cases of brain arterial spasmodin headache and dizziness were randomly divided into two groups:the study group(n=40) were given nimodipine (20mg.T.i.d)and aspirin(75mg q.d),the control group(n=40)were only given nimodipine(20ng.T.i.d).To investigate the efficacy after treatment lasted for 4 weeks.Results: Clinical effect:the study group's curative effect was 70% ,P< 0.05.TCD:the study group's curative effect was 70% ,the control group's curative effect was 42.5% P< 0.05.There was one brain ischemic case in the study group,but three cases in the control group.Conclusion: Nimodipine and aspirin in treatment for brain arterial spasmodic headache and dizziness was not only more efficacious nimodipine,but also prevented brain ischemia.%目的观察尼莫地平加小剂量阿司匹林治疗脑血管痉挛性头痛头晕的临床疗效。方法 80例脑血管痉挛性头痛头晕的病人,随机分为两组:对照组 40例,尼莫地平片 20mg,每天三次;治疗组 40例,尼莫地平片 20mg,每天三次,加服阿司匹林 75mg,每天一次;两组疗程均为四周后,观察疗效。结果临床疗效:治疗组总有效率 85%;对照组总有效率 60%; P<0 05。经颅多普勒检查脑血流改善情况:治疗组总有效率 70%;对照组总有效率 42 5%; P<0 05。治疗组有一例发生缺血性脑卒中;对照组有 3例发生缺血性脑卒中。结论尼莫地平加小剂量阿司匹林治疗脑血管痉挛性头痛头晕优于单用尼莫地平,并可预防缺血性脑卒中的发生。

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  17. The Economics of Investor Protection: ISDS versus National Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, Wilhelm Kaspar; Stähler, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes the effects of investor-state dispute settlements (ISDS) and national treatment provisions in a two-period model where foreign investment is subject to domestic regulation and a holdup problem. It shows that ISDS can mitigate the holdup problem and increases aggregate welfare, but comes with additional regulatory distortions for the first period. A national treatment provision avoids these regulatory distortions, but implies entry distortions because it makes the holdup...

  18. The use of Aspirin in Primary Prevention of cardiovascular disease: new updates El uso de la Aspirina en la Prevención Primaria de la enfermedad cardiovascular: nuevas actualizaciones O uso da Aspirina na Prevenção Primária da doença cardiovascular: novas atualizações

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Many times the Family Physicians need to make the decision of start to use or not aspirin in their patients. Although the benefits of treatment with aspirin in reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke or vascular cause of death among men and women with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well established, the role of aspirin in primary prevention is less clear. So, the objective of this work is to determine the indications of aspirin use for the primary preve...

  19. Neuroprotective effect of butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy on progressive cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Bing He

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the neuroprotective effect of butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy on progressive cerebral infarction.Methods:A total of 86 patients with progressive cerebral infarction were randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=43), control group received aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy, observation group received butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy, and then the differences in platelet function, blood coagulation function, middle cerebral artery blood flow state and nerve function index levels were compared between two groups after treatment.Results: After 1 course of treatment, the relative content of P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa on platelet surface as well as TXB2, vWF and D-D content in plasma of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group, while 6-Keto-PGF1 content in plasma was significantly higher than that of control group); thrombelastogram indexes R and K value were higher than those of control group while MA, Angle and CI value were lower than those of control group; middle cerebral artery PSV, EDV, Vm and PI were higher than those of control group while RI value was lower than that of control group; nerve function indexes BDNF and H2S content in plasma were higher than those of control group while NSE, MBP, S100B and MMP-9 content were lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Butylphthalide combined with aspirin and clopidogrel antiplatelet therapy can effectively optimize the platelet and blood coagulation function in patients with progressive cerebral infarction, promote the middle cerebral artery blood flow recovery and exert positive neuroprotective effect.

  20. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... psychological examination, testing, or treatment, in which the primary purpose is to reveal information... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing... RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy...

  1. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-07-23

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming.

  2. Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduce...... and preoperative chronic aspirin use. At the time of randomisation, a subpopulation agreed to a single measurement of serum creatinine between 3 and 12 months after surgery, and the authors will examine intervention effects on this outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The authors were competitively awarded a grant...

  3. Effect of long-term low dose of aspirin on severity of disease following onset of acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xu; Lili Cao; Xiaomei Deng; Enji Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin can decrease the incidence risk of high-risk crowdgroup of cerebral infarction, but there are still controversy if it might decrease the degree of disease in degree of patients with acute cerebral infarction.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of lower dose of aspirin during taking for a long time on disease degree of disease following onset of acute cerebral infarction.DESIGN: Grouping according to the admission time and 1:1 paired observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 321 patients with acute cerebral infarction who received treatments in the Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University from January 1999 to June 2000. There were 190 male and 131 female ,with mean (65±11 )years of age. Inclusive criteria: ① A focal neurological disturbance occurred suddenly and had lasted for more than 24 hours, patients were admitted within 3 days after onset of disease; ② A computed tomography of the brain was performed and excluded hemorrhage in all patients; ③ The patients were proved internal carotid occlusions by clinical features and image findings; ④ The functions of limbs were normal (before the first stroke) or almost normal (before the second stroke). Exclusive criteria: ①The patients who had have cardiogenic cerebral embolism; ②The patients who had taken warfarin orally and other platelet agglutination drugs.METHODS: ①All the patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether they had taken aspirin before: aspirin-treated group (n=110) and blank control group (n=211). There were 70 male and 40 female in aspirin-treated group, with average(65±10) years of age.All patients had taken 50-100 mg/d aspirin for 6 months to 10 years before onset. There were 120 male and 91 female in blank control group, with average (65±13)years of age. Patients received a clinical scoring within 3 days and similar therapeutic measures (such

  4. Implications of altered glutathione metabolism in aspirin-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point for ASA toxicity, we have demonstrated that when GSH synthesis is inhibited in HepG2 cells by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, prior to ASA treatment, cytotoxicity of the drug is augmented. On the other hand, when GSH-depleted cells were treated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, cytotoxicity/apoptosis caused by ASA was attenuated with a significant recovery in oxidative stress, GSH homeostasis, DNA fragmentation and some of the mitochondrial functions. NAC treatment, however, had no significant effects on the drug-induced inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity and ATP synthesis in GSH-depleted cells. Our results have confirmed that aspirin increases apoptosis by increased reactive oxygen species production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory functions. These effects were further amplified when GSH-depleted cells were treated with ASA. We have also shown that some of the effects of aspirin might be associated with reduced GSH homeostasis, as treatment of cells with NAC attenuated the effects of BSO and aspirin. Our results strongly suggest that GSH dependent redox homeostasis in HepG2 cells is critical in preserving mitochondrial functions and preventing oxidative stress associated complications caused by aspirin treatment.

  5. 替格瑞洛联合阿司匹林治疗急性冠状动脉综合征的临床研究%Clinical trial of ticagrelor combined with aspirin in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾珠银; 杨建敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察替格瑞洛联合阿司匹林治疗急性冠状动脉综合征的临床疗效及安全性。方法将84例急性冠状动脉综合征患者随机分为对照组42例和试验组42例。2组患者术前均予以口服阿司匹林150 mg和硫酸氢氯吡格雷300 mg,qd,持续用药7 d。术后,对照组予以口服阿司匹林100 mg,qd;试验组在对照组的基础上,予以口服替格瑞洛90 mg,qd。2组患者均治疗6个月。比较2组患者的临床疗效、急性心肌梗死发作次数、发作持续时间、ST段下移水平、血清肌钙蛋白T、脑钠肽、C反应蛋白、D-二聚体水平以及不良反应发生情况。结果治疗后,试验组的总有效率为95.24%(40/42例)显著高于对照组的83.33%(35/42例,P<0.05)。治疗后,试验组与对照组的急性心肌梗死发作次数分别为每周(2.02±0.23),(4.53±0.52)次;发作持续时间分别为每次(2.76±0.31),(4.14±0.43) min; ST 段下移水平分别为(0.63±0.07),(1.25±0.17) mV;血清肌钙蛋白 T 分别为(0.25±0.03),(1.54±0.18) ng・ mL-1;脑钠肽分别为(28.43±3.02),(63.52±6.73) ng・ L-1, C反应蛋白分别为(4.57±0.55),(8.94±0.94) mg ・ L-1;D -二聚体分别为(59.54±61.74),(133.53±15.73) ng・ mL-1,且试验组治疗后的上述指标均显著低于对照组( P<0.05)。2组患者不良反应均以消化系统和神经系统症状为主,试验组的不良反应发生率为7.14%显著低于对照组的16.67%( P<0.05)。结论替格瑞洛联合阿司匹林治疗急性冠状动脉综合征的临床疗效显著,且安全性较高。%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of ticagrelor combined with aspirin in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome . Methods Eighty-four patients with acute coronary syndrome were ran

  6. Sulphide oxidation in ornamental slates: protective treatment with siloxanes

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, T.; Iglesias, J.; Taboada, J.; Vilán, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the results of the measurement of the effectiveness of two silanes-siloxanes based products applied on roofing slates with the aim of slowing down the oxidation of the iron sulphide inclusions. The products were applied by immersion and spraying and also at different dilutions. The effectiveness of the treatments were evaluated by means of static contact angle measurements and water absorption coefficient variations; also, the durability under thermal cycles and the c...

  7. Combination of Praziquantel and Aspirin Minimizes Liver Pathology of Hamster Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Associated Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudsarn, Pakkayanee; Boonmars, Thidarut; Ruangjirachuporn, Wipaporn; Namwat, Nisana; Loilome, Watcharin; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Nadchanan, Wonkchalee; Jiraporn, Songsri

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchiasis is one of the major risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in northeastern Thailand. An effective drug for killing this parasite is praziquantel. Recently, several reports have shown that with frequent use, praziquantel may itself be a CCA risk and can cause liver cell damage from an immunopathological response after parasite death. Aspirin has many properties including anti-inflammation and anti-cancer. Therefore, we use of aspirin (As) and praziquantel (Pz) to improve hepatobiliary system function in hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) and or administered N-nitrosodimethylamine (ND). Livers of OVNDAsPz, appeared healthy macroscopically, suggesting slow progression of cholangiocarcinoma evident by extent of fibrosis and bile duct cell proliferation was less than OVND although aggregations of inflammatory cells remained. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), and cancer antigen (CA19-9) staining were strongly positive in OVND, but were only slight in OVNDAs. Moreover, OVNDAsPz, appeared a few inflammatory infiltrations, bile duct proliferation, fibrosis and CCA area than the OVNDAs group. Thirty seven point five percent of hamster in this group could not develop CCA. These findings suggest that using aspirin combination with praziquantel treatment can improve the hepatobiliary system after O. viverrini infection and reduce the risk of CCA.

  8. [Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug and Aspirin-induced Peptic Ulcer Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Young Kwang; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-06-25

    Despite decreasing Helicobacter pylori prevalence, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease is increasing in the aged population, mainly due to increasing use of NSAIDs to manage pain and inflammation. In addition, low dose aspirin is employed as an anti-coagulant for those who have suffered or are at high risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular disease. However, NSAIDs and aspirin are injurious to mucosa of stomach and duodenum. NSAID-induced inhibition of mucosal prostaglandin synthesis is thought to be a major mechanism of gastrointestinal mucosal injury. The proportion of elderly has increased rapidly in Korea, with the proportion over 65 years old expected to be 24.3% in 2030. In this higher-risk population, the strategy to reduce the incidence of NSAID-related peptic ulcers and complications such as bleeding, obstruction and perforation is very important. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can be used for reducing the risk of NSAID-related ulcers and upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications. However, continuous use of PPI has several problems. In addition, NSAID-related problems in the lower GI tract have increased, in contrast to the decrease of NSAID-related upper GI disease. The aim of this review is to provide an evidence-based knowledge regarding the mechanism, complications of treatment, and prevention strategies for NSAID- or aspirin-related peptic ulcer disease in Korea.

  9. Aspirin as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. It is widely accepted that neoplasms such as colonic polyps are precursors to CRC formation; with the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequences well described in medical literature [1, 2]. It has been shown that Aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have a negative effect on polyp and cancer formation. This review aims to describe some of the mechanism behind the chemoprotective properties of aspirin; COX 2 inhibition, regulation of proliferation and apoptosis and effects on the immune system and also the current evidence that supports its use as a chemoprevention agent against CRC. We will also aim to explore the side effects with the use of aspirin and the pitfalls of using aspirin routinely for primary prophylaxis against CRC.

  10. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain...... and each intervention has the potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aspirin compared with placebo, and clonidine compared with placebo, alters the risk of perioperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized, blinded, clinical trial of 6905...... patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 88 centers in 22 countries with consecutive patients enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to take aspirin (200 mg) or placebo 2 to 4 hours before surgery and then aspirin (100 mg) or placebo daily up to 30 days...

  11. Aspirin resistance: Prevalence and clinical outcome in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salah

    2015-04-01

    Results: Prevalence of aspirin resistance was 48% in our study group. Aspirin resistance was significantly higher in patients with family history of CAD (p = 0.044, smoking (p = 0.011, history of MI (p = 0.024, history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (p = 0.001, and concomitant NSAIDs intake (p = 0.047. Moreover, aspirin resistance was more common among patients with multi-vessel CAD (p = 0.024. Aspirin-resistant patients had a significantly higher rate of UA (p = 0.001 and all major adverse cardiac events (MACE (p < 0.001.

  12. Clinical Risk Factors for Gastroduodenal Ulcer in Romanian Low-Dose Aspirin Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negovan, Anca; Iancu, Mihaela; Moldovan, Valeriu; Voidazan, Septimiu; Bataga, Simona; Pantea, Monica; Sarkany, Kinga; Tatar, Cristina; Mocan, Simona; Banescu, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aspirin use for cardiovascular or cancer prevention is limited due to its gastrointestinal side effects. Objective. Our prospective, observational case-control study aims to identify the predictive factors for ulcers in low-dose aspirin consumers (75-325 mg/day). Methods. The study included patients who underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and took low-dose aspirin treatment. Results. We recruited 51 patients with ulcer (ulcer group) and 108 patients with no mucosal lesions (control group). In univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with ulcers were male gender (p = 0.001), anticoagulants (p = 0.029), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (p = 0.013), heart failure (p = 0.007), liver (p = 0.011) or cerebrovascular disease (p = 0.004), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.043), ulcer history (p = 0.044), and alcohol consumption (p = 0.018), but not Helicobacter pylori infection (p = 0.2). According to our multivariate regression analysis results, history of peptic ulcer (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.06-8.86), cotreatment with NSAIDs (OR 8, 95% CI 2.09-30.58) or anticoagulants (OR 4.85, 95% CI 1.33-17.68), male gender (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.77-15.34), and stroke (OR 7.27, 95% CI 1.40-37.74) remained predictors for ulcer on endoscopy. Conclusions. Concomitant use of NSAIDs or anticoagulants, comorbidities (cerebrovascular disease), and male gender are the most important independent risk factors for ulcer on endoscopy in low-dose aspirin consumers, in a population with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  13. Clinical Risk Factors for Gastroduodenal Ulcer in Romanian Low-Dose Aspirin Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Negovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aspirin use for cardiovascular or cancer prevention is limited due to its gastrointestinal side effects. Objective. Our prospective, observational case-control study aims to identify the predictive factors for ulcers in low-dose aspirin consumers (75–325 mg/day. Methods. The study included patients who underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and took low-dose aspirin treatment. Results. We recruited 51 patients with ulcer (ulcer group and 108 patients with no mucosal lesions (control group. In univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with ulcers were male gender (p=0.001, anticoagulants (p=0.029, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (p=0.013, heart failure (p=0.007, liver (p=0.011 or cerebrovascular disease (p=0.004, diabetes mellitus (p=0.043, ulcer history (p=0.044, and alcohol consumption (p=0.018, but not Helicobacter pylori infection (p=0.2. According to our multivariate regression analysis results, history of peptic ulcer (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.06–8.86, cotreatment with NSAIDs (OR 8, 95% CI 2.09–30.58 or anticoagulants (OR 4.85, 95% CI 1.33–17.68, male gender (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.77–15.34, and stroke (OR 7.27, 95% CI 1.40–37.74 remained predictors for ulcer on endoscopy. Conclusions. Concomitant use of NSAIDs or anticoagulants, comorbidities (cerebrovascular disease, and male gender are the most important independent risk factors for ulcer on endoscopy in low-dose aspirin consumers, in a population with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  14. An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Synthesis of Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Sangeeta; Goyal, Samta

    1998-06-01

    The synthesis of aspirin is a part of many undergraduate organic synthesis labs and is frequently used in qualitative organic analysis laboratory for the identification of salicylic acid. We have found that aspirin can be synthesized on microscale by a simple and efficient procedure that eliminates the heating step employed in literature procedures and gives a pure, ferric-negative product (no purple color with alcoholic ferric chloride solution).

  15. Sulphide oxidation in ornamental slates: protective treatment with siloxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, T.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of the measurement of the effectiveness of two silanes-siloxanes based products applied on roofing slates with the aim of slowing down the oxidation of the iron sulphide inclusions. The products were applied by immersion and spraying and also at different dilutions. The effectiveness of the treatments were evaluated by means of static contact angle measurements and water absorption coefficient variations; also, the durability under thermal cycles and the colour variations before treatment and before UVA exposition were tested. In all the cases, a very low product consumptions were obtained, due to the particular porous system of these rocks; also, any of the treatments increased the static angle. Nevertheless, the products tested remarkably increased the resistance of sulphides to the oxidation during thermal cycles without producing important changes in rock colour and also they have shown a good durability under UVA exposition

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la medida de la eficacia de dos silanos-siloxanos aplicados en pizarras de techar con el objetivo de reducir la oxidación de las inclusiones de sulfuros de hierro. Los productos fueron aplicados por inmersión y spray a diferentes concentraciones. La efectividad de los tratamientos fue evaluada mediante la medida del ángulo de contacto estático y las variaciones del coeficiente de absorción de agua y su durabilidad mediante ciclos térmicos y de exposición a luz ultravioleta. A pesar del bajo consumo de ambos productos, debido al particular sistema poroso de estas rocas, y del bajo incremento del ángulo de contacto, ambos silanos-siloxanos incrementan notablemente la resistencia de los sulfuros a la oxidación durante los ciclos térmicos sin producir cambios relevantes en el color de la roca y muestran una aceptable durabilidad bajo la luz ultravioleta.

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Liu; Jian Cao; Li Fan; Lin Liu; Jian Li; Guo-Liang Hu; Yi-Xin Hu; Xiao-Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of and related risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Two hundred and forty-six elderly patients (75.9 ± 7.4 years) with CAD who received daily aspirin therapy (≥ 75 mg) over one month were recruited. The effect of aspirin was assessed using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and thrombelastography platelet mapping assay (TEG). Aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 20% arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation and ≥ 70% adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation in the LTA assay. An aspirin semi-responder was defined as meeting one (but not both) of the criteria described above. Based on the results of TEG, aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 50% aggregation induced by AA. Results As determined by LTA, 23 (9.3%) of the elderly CAD patients were resistant to aspirin therapy; 91 (37.0%) were semi-responders. As determined by TEG, 61 patients (24.8%) were aspirin resistant. Of the 61 patients who were aspirin resistant by TEG, 19 were aspirin resistant according to LTA results. Twenty-four of 91 semi-responders by LTA were aspirin resistant by TEG. Multivariate logistic risk factor for aspirin resistance as determined by TEG. Conclusions A significant number of elderly patients with CAD are resistant to aspirin therapy. Fasting blood glucose level is closely associated with aspirin resistance in elderly CAD patients.

  17. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  18. Aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Yen; Chuah, Khoon Leong; Eng, Philip; Leong, Swan Swan; Lim, Elaine; Lim, Tow Keang; Ng, Alan; Poh, Wee Teng; Tee, Augustine; Teh, Ming; Salim, Agus; Seow, Adeline

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) have anti-carcinogenic properties, but their effect on lung cancer, in particular in never-smokers, is unclear. Information on past or current use of anti-inflammatory medication was obtained in 398 Chinese female primary lung cancer cases and 814 controls in a hospital-based study in Singapore. 65% of cases and 88% of controls were never-smokers. Controls were excluded if they had been admitted for conditions associated with aspirin or NSAID use (n=174). Regular aspirin use (twice a week or more, for a month or more) was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 0.31-0.81 in non-smokers; OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.16-0.93 in smokers). Regular use of non-aspirin NSAID, paracetamol, steroid creams and steroid pills was uncommon and no association with lung cancer was detected. Our results suggest that aspirin consumption may reduce lung cancer risk in Asian women and are consistent with current understanding of the role of cyclooxygenase in lung carcinogenesis.

  19. Rebamipide Promotes the Regeneration of Aspirin-Induced Small-Intestine Mucosal Injury through Accumulation of β-Catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lai

    Full Text Available The effect of rebamipide on repairing intestinal mucosal damage induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and its mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we sought to explore the mechanism whereby rebamipide could promote the regeneration of aspirin-induced intestinal mucosal damage.BALB/c mice were administered aspirin (200 mg/kg/d for 5 days to induce acute small intestinal injury (SII. Subsequently, SII mice were treated with rebamipide (320 mg/kg/d for 5 days. The structure of intestinal barrier was observed with transmission electron microscope, and Zo-1 and occludin expressions were detected. The proliferative index was indicated by the percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 levels in the small intestine tissues were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The mRNA and protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX and β-catenin signal were detected in the small intestine using quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively.COX expression was significantly down-regulated in aspirin induced SII (P < 0.05. In SII mice treated with rebamipide, histopathological findings of aspirin-induced intestinal inflammation were significantly milder and tight junctions between intestinal epithelial cells were improved significantly. The proliferative index increased after rebamipide treatment when compared with that in the control mice. The expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and c-myc and the PGE2 concentrations in small intestinal tissues were significantly increased in mice with rebamipide treatments (P < 0.05.Rebamipide administration in aspirin-induced SII mice could improve the intestinal barrier structure and promote the regeneration of small intestinal epithelial injury through up-regulating COX-2 expression and the accumulation of β-catenin.

  20. The prognostic utility of tests of platelet function for the detection of 'aspirin resistance' in patients with established cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretzke, Janine; Riley, Richard D; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Jowett, Susan; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Ensor, Joie; Moloney, Eoin; Price, Malcolm; Raichand, Smriti; Hodgkinson, James; Bayliss, Susan; Fitzmaurice, David; Moore, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of aspirin is well established for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, a proportion of patients suffer repeat cardiovascular events despite being prescribed aspirin treatment. It is uncertain whether or not this is due to an inherent inability of aspirin to sufficiently modify platelet activity. This report aims to investigate whether or not insufficient platelet function inhibition by aspirin ('aspirin resistance'), as defined using platelet function tests (PFTs), is linked to the occurrence of adverse clinical outcomes, and further, whether or not patients at risk of future adverse clinical events can be identified through PFTs. OBJECTIVES To review systematically the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence regarding the association between PFT designation of 'aspirin resistance' and the risk of adverse clinical outcome(s) in patients prescribed aspirin therapy. To undertake exploratory model-based cost-effectiveness analysis on the use of PFTs. DATA SOURCES Bibliographic databases (e.g. MEDLINE from inception and EMBASE from 1980), conference proceedings and ongoing trial registries up to April 2012. METHODS Standard systematic review methods were used for identifying clinical and cost studies. A risk-of-bias assessment tool was adapted from checklists for prognostic and diagnostic studies. (Un)adjusted odds and hazard ratios for the association between 'aspirin resistance', for different PFTs, and clinical outcomes are presented; however, heterogeneity between studies precluded pooling of results. A speculative economic model of a PFT and change of therapy strategy was developed. RESULTS One hundred and eight relevant studies using a variety of PFTs, 58 in patients on aspirin monotherapy, were analysed in detail. Results indicated that some PFTs may have some prognostic utility, i.e. a trend for more clinical events to be associated with groups classified as 'aspirin resistant'. Methodological and clinical

  1. Clopidogrel and Aspirin versus Aspirin Alone for Stroke Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Tan

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet therapy is widely used for the primary or secondary prevention of stroke. Drugs like clopidogrel have emerged as alternatives for traditional antiplatelet therapy, and dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is of particular interest. We conducted this meta-analysis to systematically review studies about dual therapy comparing monotherapy with aspirin alone.Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed (1966-May, 2015, EMBASE (1947-May, 2015, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (1948-May, 2015, WHO International Clinical Trial (ICTRP (2004-May, 2015, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM disc (1978-May, 2015 and were included into the final analysis according to the definite inclusion criteria mentioned in the study selection section. Risk ratio (RR was pooled with 95% confidence interval (CI for dichotomous data. The heterogeneity was considered significant if the χ2 test was significant (P value 50.00%. Subgroup analyses were carried out on the long and short time periods, the race and region.We included 5 studies involving 24,084 patients. A pooled analysis showed that dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin had a lower stroke incidence than monotherapy in both the short term and long term (RR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82, P <0.05; RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.98, P = 0.03, respectively. With regard to safety, dual therapy had a higher risk of bleeding than monotherapy for both periods (RR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.03-2.23, P = 0.04; RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32-1.79, P<0.05, respectively.Dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin could be a preferable choice to prevent stroke in patients who have had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, as well as those who are at high risk for stroke. And the effect of dual therapy seems to be more obvious for short-term. However, it is associated with a higher risk of bleeding.

  2. Effect of Lipo PGE1,Aspirin and Nifedipine in the Treatment of Raynaud Syndrome%前列地尔和阿司匹林联合硝苯地平治疗雷诺综合征的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启茂; 泮飞虎; 龚桂红

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察前列地尔和阿司匹林联合硝苯地平治疗雷诺综合征的临床疗效。方法选取2009年1月-2013年6月仙居县人民医院急诊内科诊治的雷诺综合征患者80例,采用随机数字表法分为对照组40例、治疗组40例。对照组患者给予硝苯地平片10 mg/次,口服,3次/d。治疗组患者在对照组的基础上,给予前列地尔脂微球注射液10μg静脉滴注,1次/d;阿司匹林肠溶片100 mg口服,1次/d,14 d为1个疗程。记录患者手指苍白、青紫、变红缓解时间,疼痛缓解时间,麻木缓解时间;治疗前后冷水试验和握拳试验阳性率;B超测定收缩期指动脉血流峰值;治疗前后血液流变学指标。结果治疗后,治疗组较对照组手指苍白、青紫、变红缓解时间,疼痛缓解时间,麻木缓解时间均缩短;冷水试验、握拳试验阳性率降低;收缩期指动脉血流峰值升高;全血高切黏度、全血中切黏度、全血低切黏度、血浆黏度、红细胞聚集指数、红细胞刚性指数降低,红细胞变形指数升高( P<0.05)。结论前列地尔、阿司匹林片和硝苯地平片联合用药治疗雷诺综合征疗效显著,三药联合优于单用硝苯地平。%Objective To observe the effect of Lipo PGE1,Aspirin and Nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud syn-drome. Methods 80 patients with Raynaud syndrome admitted to the department of emergency of Xianju People's Hospital from January 2009 to June 2013 were randomly divided into control group(40 cases)and treatment group(40 cases). The control group was given 10 mg Nifedipine tablet three times a day per os,while the treatment group was given additional 10 μg Lipo PGE1 dissolved in 250 ml 0. 9% normal saline solution once a day intravenously and 100 mg Aspirin tablet once a day per os for a treatment course of 14 days. The remission time of pale,blue or red,the remission time of pain,the remission time of numb, the

  3. Cooperative antiproliferative signaling by aspirin and indole-3-carbinol targets microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene expression and promoter activity in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Kevin M; Matthew, Susanne; Aronchik, Ida; Firestone, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Antiproliferative signaling of combinations of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural indolecarbinol compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, was investigated in human melanoma cells. Melanoma cell lines with distinct mutational profiles were sensitive to different extents to the antiproliferative response of aspirin, with oncogenic BRAF-expressing G361 cells and wild-type BRAF-expressing SK-MEL-30 cells being the most responsive. I3C triggered a strong proliferative arrest of G361 melanoma cells and caused only a modest decrease in the proliferation of SK-MEL-30 cells. In both cell lines, combinations of aspirin and I3C cooperatively arrested cell proliferation and induced a G1 cell cycle arrest, and nearly ablated protein and transcript levels of the melanocyte master regulator microphthalmia-associated transcription factor isoform M (MITF-M). In melanoma cells transfected with a -333/+120-bp MITF-M promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid, treatment with aspirin and I3C cooperatively disrupted MITF-M promoter activity, which accounted for the loss of MITF-M gene products. Mutational analysis revealed that the aspirin required the LEF1 binding site, whereas I3C required the BRN2 binding site to mediate their combined and individual effects on MITF-M promoter activity. Consistent with LEF1 being a downstream effector of Wnt signaling, aspirin, but not I3C, downregulated protein levels of the Wnt co-receptor LDL receptor-related protein-6 and β-catenin and upregulated the β-catenin destruction complex component Axin. Taken together, our results demonstrate that aspirin-regulated Wnt signaling and I3C-targeted signaling pathways converge at distinct DNA elements in the MITF-M promoter to cooperatively disrupt MITF-M expression and melanoma cell proliferation.

  4. Thrombelastographic haemostatic status and antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass surgery (TEG-CABG trial: assessing and monitoring the antithrombotic effect of clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone in hypercoagulable patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Sulman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypercoagulability, assessed by the thrombelastography (TEG assay, has in several observational studies been associated with an increased risk of post-procedural thromboembolic complications. We hypothesize that intensified antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin, as compared to aspirin alone, will improve saphenous vein graft patency in preoperatively TEG-Hypercoagulable coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG patients and reduce their risk for thromboembolic complications and death postoperatively. Methods/Design This is a prospective randomized clinical trial, with an open-label design with blinded evaluation of graft patency. TEG-Hypercoagulability is defined as a TEG maximum amplitude above 69 mm. Two hundred and fifty TEG-Hypercoagulable patients will be randomized to either an interventional group receiving clopidogrel 75 mg daily for three months (after initial oral bolus of 300 mg together with aspirin 75 mg or a control group receiving aspirin 75 mg daily alone. Monitoring of antiplatelet efficacy and on-treatment platelet reactivity to clopidogrel and aspirin will be conducted with Multiplate aggregometry. Graft patency will be assessed with Multislice computed tomography (MSCT at three months after surgery. Conclusions The present trial is the first randomized clinical trial to evaluate whether TEG-Hypercoagulable CABG patients will benefit from intensified antiplatelet therapy after surgery. Monitoring of platelet inhibition from instituted antithrombotic therapy will elucidate platelet resistance patterns after CABG surgery. The results could be helpful in redefining how clinicians can evaluate patients preoperatively for their postoperative thromboembolic risk and tailor individualized postoperative antiplatelet therapy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01046942

  5. The effect of prostaglandin synthase inhibitor, aspirin on the rat intestinal membrane structure and function El efecto del inhibidor de la sintasa de prostaglandina, aspirina, sobre la estructura y función de la membrana intestinal de la rata

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, G.; J. Kaur; Mittal, N.; S. Nath Sanyal

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight was found to decrease the activity of the rat intestinal brush border membrane (BBM) - associated enzymes such as the sucrase, lactase, maltase and alkaline phosphatase. Aspirin treatment also led to a decrease in the microviscosity in the native as well as the benzyl alcohol treated membrane which might be due to the lipid peroxidative damage in the membrane. Physical correlation of the membrane oxidative damage was evident as the Fourier Transformat...

  6. Effect of atorvastatin combine with aspirin on flammatory factors, endothelial function and the cardiovascular complications with diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wang; Ping Gong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of atorvastatin combine with aspirin on flammatory factors, endothelial function and the cardiovascular complications with diabetic patients.Methods:A total of 85 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly divided into observation group (43 cases) and control group (42 cases). All patients recieved routine treatment of hypoglycemic drug, while patients in observation group also received atorvastatin and aspirin. Levels of blood lipid, flammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) endothelial function(ET-1,NO), and incidence of cardiovascular complications were tested and compared.Results:Blood lipid have statistical significance after treatment between two groups, TC, TG, LDL-C were significantly lower in observation group, HDL-C was significantly higher in observation group (P <0.05). Observation group flammatory factors (hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6) levels decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05); Observation group ET-1 level decreased significantly, NO level increased significantly after treatment (P<0.05); Incidence of cardiovascular complications was lower than control group in observation group.Conclusions:Atorvastatin combine with aspirin treatment has reliable curative effect in diabetic patients, which can regulate flammatory factors, endothelial function and incidence of cardiovascular complications.

  7. PENGARUH DIABETES MELLITUS TERHADAP RESISTENSI ASPIRIN PADA PASIEN STROKE ISKEMIK DI RUMAH SAKIT BETHESDA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Astuti Witasari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The secondary prevention of ischemic stroke can be implemented by giving aspirin. However, some cases of aspirin resistance have been found. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of diabetes mellitus on the risk of aspirin resistance in ischemic stroke patients at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta. This study was using a nested case-control study design. The Cases group was subjects who resistance to aspirin therapy. The control group was subjects who response to aspirin therapy. The factors that affect the incidence of aspirin resistance were analyzed by bivariate analysis chi square test. The proportion of diabetes mellitus in resistant group was bigger than the aspirin responsive group. Its odds ratio (OR was 1.605 (95% CI, 0.641 to 4.017 (p=0.155. Conclusion: Ischemic stroke patients at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta with diabetes mellitus were not proved to have a bigger risk of aspirin resistance than the patients without diabetes mellitus.

  8. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA. Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  9. Treatment with Isorhamnetin Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Jing; Song, Jin-Qing; Pan, Shu-Yi; Wang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, yet lacks effective neuroprotective treatments. The aim of this work was to investigate whether treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Experimental stroke mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion. Treatment with isorhamnetin or vehicle was initiated immediately at the onset of reperfusion. It was found that treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin reduced infarct volume and caspase-3 activity (a biomarker of apoptosis), and improved neurological function recovery. Treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin attenuated cerebral edema, improved blood-brain barrier function, and upregulated gene expression of tight junction proteins including occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-5. Treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin activated Nrf2/HO-1, suppressed iNOS/NO, and led to reduced formation of MDA and 3-NT in ipsilateral cortex. In addition, treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin suppressed activity of MPO (a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration) and reduced protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in ipsilateral cortex. Furthermore, it was found that treatment of experimental stroke mice with isorhamnetin reduced mRNA and protein expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR1 in ipsilateral cortex. In conclusion, treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Isorhamnetin could thus be envisaged as a countermeasure for ischemic stroke but remains to be tested in humans.

  10. Gender differences of low-dose aspirin-associated gastroduodenal ulcer in Japanese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhisa; Okada; Masahiko; Inamori; Kento; Imajyo; Hideyuki; Chiba; Takashi; Nonaka; Tadahiko; Shiba; Takashi; Sakaguchi; Kazuhiko; Atsukawa; Hisao; Takahashi; Etsuo; Hoshino; Atsushi; Nakajima

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the gender differences about the clini-cal features and risk factors of low-dose aspirin (LDA) (81-100 mg daily)-associated peptic ulcer in Japanese patients.METHODS: There were 453 patients under treatment with LDA (298 males, 155 females) who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Hiratsuka City Hospital between January 2003 and December 2007. They had kept taking the LDA or started treatmentduring the study period and kept taking LDA du...

  11. Protective Equipment as Treatment for Stereotypic Hand Mouthing: Sensory Extinction or Punishment Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaleski, Jodi L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing by two women with profound mental retardation. Behavior change appeared to be effected in both conditions. Results suggest either a punishment or a timeout interpretation, rather than an extinction interpretation, for the…

  12. Use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, D; García-Rodríguez, L A; Sørensen, H T;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Few studies have examined the association between use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of glioma and the results have been equivocal. We therefore investigated the influence of NSAID use on glioma risk in a nationwide setting.Methods:We used...... exposure to low-dose aspirin or non-aspirin (NA) NSAIDs into ever use or long-term use, defined as continuous use for 5 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for glioma associated with NSAID use, adjusted for potential...... confounders.Results:A total of 2688 glioma cases and 18 848 population controls were included in the study. Ever use of low-dose aspirin (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.04) or NA-NSAIDs (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.96-1.14) was not associated with glioma risk. Compared with never use, long-term use of low-dose aspirin...

  13. Use and Safety of Non-Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs and Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E. Valkhoff (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin, dates back to the Egyptians in 1534 BC. Aspirin-like compounds are naturally derived from willow tree bark and myr-tle. At the end of the 19th century aspirin was patented by Bayer as the world’s first syn-thetic drug. The recomme

  14. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  15. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  16. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  17. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Grove, Erik; Hansen, Peter Riis;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS...... analysis showed no increase in risk related to use of H(2) receptor blockers (1.04, 0.79 to 1.38; P=0.78). Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events....

  18. Hemorrhagic Cholecystitis in an Elderly Patient Taking Aspirin and Cilostazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Morris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Patients who develop this complication often are receiving anticoagulation therapy or have a pathologic coagulopathy. We present a case of an elderly patient who developed hemorrhagic cholecystitis while taking aspirin and cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The patient underwent an emergent abdominal exploration. A large, blood-filled gallbladder was found along with a large hematoma between the liver and gallbladder. We also briefly review the literature regarding hemorrhagic cholecystitis, hemorrhage into the biliary tree, and hemorrhage as a complication of aspirin and phosphodiesterase inhibitor therapy.

  19. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K. M.; Wade, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 microgr...

  20. Efficiency and resistance of the artificial oxalate protection treatment on marble against chemical weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Pamplona, M. [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica do Instituto Superior Tecnico Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Selvaggi, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Miliani, C. [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)]. E-mail: miliani@thch.unipg.it; Matteini, M. [CNR Istituto, Conservazione e Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali (ICVBC), Via Madonna del Piano, 10, Edifico C-50019, Florence (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (ISTM), Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, B. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto, 8, I-60123 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    The artificial oxalate protection method was analyzed in laboratory experiments in order to achieve an optimum treatment application and concentration giving rise to its most effective protective nature. Spectroscopic (Fourier transform infrared, Micro-Raman and UV-vis colorimetry), microscopic (scanning electron microscope) and contact-angle analyses were carried out to characterize Carrara marble samples before and after application of the treatment to validate its efficiency. The resistance effects against chemical weathering were subsequently observed in a lab-controlled weak acid rain experiment. An acid spray at pH 5.5, representative of normal rain was used to provoke degrade of natural marble, marble treated with the artificial oxalate protective at concentrations of 0.4 and 5% and marble treated with a commercial organic silicon product. Run-off solutions sampled at timely intervals were tested for any change in pH followed by ion chromatography measurements for the presence of calcium ions in solution. The chromatography results of the oxalate treatment applied at a 5% concentration are analogous to an organic commercial product indicating its validity as a method for the conservation of carbonate substrates conferring protection to stone materials against acid environments.

  1. Prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Jørgensen, Bo; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and importance of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by use of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of aspirin resistance, but the clinical relevance...... was measured immediately at admission, and aspirin resistance was defined as a collagen/epinephrine Closure Time (CT(CEPI))diagnosis of an AMI. The prevalence of aspirin resistance...... with symptoms suggestive of an AMI, and aspirin resistance is significantly associated with the diagnosis of a definite AMI....

  2. Impairment of aspirin antiplatelet effects by non-opioid analgesic medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin; Polzin; Thomas; Hohlfeld; Malte; Kelm; Tobias; Zeus

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with enhanced incidence of cardiovascular events. Comedication with non-opioid analgesic drugs has been described to interfere with aspirin,resulting in impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects. Additionally,nonopioid analgesic medication has been shown to enhance the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Pain is very frequent and many patients rely on analgesic drugs to control pain. Therefore effective analgesic options without increased risk of cardiovascular events are desirable. This review focuses on commonly used nonopioid analgesics,interactions with aspirin medication and impact on cardiovascular risk.

  3. Fasting vs dietary restriction in cellular protection and cancer treatment: from model organisms to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Longo, V D

    2011-07-28

    The dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, as described by the American Cancer Society, is to increase calorie and protein intake. Yet, in simple organisms, mice, and humans, fasting--no calorie intake--induces a wide range of changes associated with cellular protection, which would be difficult to achieve even with a cocktail of potent drugs. In mammals, the protective effect of fasting is mediated, in part, by an over 50% reduction in glucose and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) levels. Because proto-oncogenes function as key negative regulators of the protective changes induced by fasting, cells expressing oncogenes, and therefore the great majority of cancer cells, should not respond to the protective signals generated by fasting, promoting the differential protection (differential stress resistance) of normal and cancer cells. Preliminary reports indicate that fasting for up to 5 days followed by a normal diet, may also protect patients against chemotherapy without causing chronic weight loss. By contrast, the long-term 20 to 40% restriction in calorie intake (dietary restriction, DR), whose effects on cancer progression have been studied extensively for decades, requires weeks-months to be effective, causes much more modest changes in glucose and/or IGF-I levels, and promotes chronic weight loss in both rodents and humans. In this study, we review the basic as well as clinical studies on fasting, cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance, and compare them to those on DR and cancer treatment. Although additional pre-clinical and clinical studies are necessary, fasting has the potential to be translated into effective clinical interventions for the protection of patients and the improvement of therapeutic index.

  4. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, A.K.; FitzGerald, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy(3,4,5,6-/sup 2/H4)benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenously with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans.

  5. Monitoring the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets with a fiber-optic dissolution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Ping-Ping Xu; Xin-Xia Li; Kun Nie; Ming-Fu Tuo; Bin Kong; Jian Chen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the process of dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets. Hydrolysis product of salicylic acid can result in adverse effects and affect the determination of dissolution rate assaying. In this study, the technique of differential spectra was employed, which made it possible to monitor the dissolution testing in situ. The results showed that the hydrolyzation of aspirin made the percentage of salicylic acid exceed the limit of free salicylic acid (4.0), and the hydrolyzation may affect the quality detection of aspirin delayed-release tablets.

  6. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin.

  7. In vivo and in vitro metabolism of aspirin eugenol ester in dog by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youming; Liu, Xiwang; Yang, Yajun; Li, Jianyong; Ma, Ning; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) is a promising drug candidate for treatment of inflammation, pain and fever and prevention of cardiovascular diseases with fewer side effects than its precursor, aspirin. Investigation into its metabolic process in target animal species will help to illustrate its mechanism of action and to establish its residual mark compound to formulate its dosage. Six beagle dogs were orally given a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) of AEE and one dog was used to prepare blank liver microsomes. Their liver microsomes were prepared for in vitro study and their plasma and urine were collected for in vivo metabolic analysis using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In this study we identified 10 metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 in phase I and M6, M7, M8, M9, M10 in phase II. Based on the metabolites of AEE, the pathways of AEE metabolism in dog were demonstrated.

  8. Acetaminophen, aspirin and progression of advanced chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Marie; Fored, Carl Michael; Bellocco, Rino; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Fryzek, Jon P.; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Nyren, Olof; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    Background. Although many studies have investigated the possible association between analgesic use (acetaminophen and aspirin) and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of analgesics on the progression of established CKD of any cause has not yet been investigated. Methods. In t

  9. Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease: Evaluation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    worldwide; †removed from the world market 2004 and 2005; ‡ avail- able outside the USA. Table 2. Oral aspirin challenges in patients with suspected...compression of olfactory nerves by inflamed nasal tissues leads to nerve damage. Even when mucosal tissues return to normal, olfactory nerves may not

  10. The neuroprotection of Aspirin on Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-ying; YuJuan; ChenChong-hong; ZhouYu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Aspirin (aeetylsalicylic acid, ASA as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug not only has well-established efficacy in anti-thromboxane, but also has direct neuroprotective effect. In this study, we design to investigate its neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI rats, and its effect on ATP level from occluded brain tis-

  11. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  12. Selective and rapid monitoring of dual platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists by using multiple electrode aggregometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Reinhard

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor platelet inhibition by aspirin or clopidogrel has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. A reliable and facile assay to measure platelet inhibition after treatment with aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist is lacking. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, which is being increasingly used in clinical studies, is sensitive to platelet inhibition by aspirin and clopidogrel, but a critical evaluation of MEA monitoring of dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists is missing. Design and Methods By performing in vitro and ex vivo experiments, we evaluated in healthy subjects the feasibility of using MEA to monitor platelet inhibition of P2Y12 antagonists (clopidogrel in vivo, cangrelor in vitro and aspirin (100 mg per day in vivo, and 1 mM or 5.4 mM in vitro alone, and in combination. Statistical analyses were performed by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test, student' t-test, analysis of variance followed by the Holm-Sidak test, where appropriate. Results ADP-induced platelet aggregation in hirudin-anticoagulated blood was inhibited by 99.3 ± 1.4% by in vitro addition of cangrelor (100 nM; p 95% and 100 ± 3.2%, respectively (p in vitro or ex vivo. Oral intake of clopidogrel did not significantly reduce AA-induced aggregation, but P2Y12 blockade by cangrelor (100 nM in vitro diminished AA-stimulated aggregation by 53 ± 26% (p Conclusions Selective platelet inhibition by aspirin and P2Y12 antagonists alone and in combination can be rapidly measured by MEA. We suggest that dual anti-platelet therapy with these two types of anti-platelet drugs can be optimized individually by measuring platelet responsiveness to ADP and AA with MEA before and after drug intake.

  13. Two doses of rivaroxaban versus aspirin for prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. Rationale for and design of the EINSTEIN CHOICE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Jeffrey I; Bauersachs, Rupert; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A; Cohen, Alexander T; Davidson, Bruce L; Holberg, Gerlind; Kakkar, Ajay; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin; Haskell, Lloyd; van Bellen, Bonno; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S; Prandoni, Paolo

    2015-08-31

    Patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) are at high risk for recurrence. Although rivaroxaban is effective for extended VTE treatment at a dose of 20 mg once daily, use of the 10 mg dose may further improve its benefit-to-risk ratio. Low-dose aspirin also reduces rates of recurrent VTE, but has not been compared with anticoagulant therapy. The EINSTEIN CHOICE study is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, event-driven study comparing the efficacy and safety of two once daily doses of rivaroxaban (20 and 10 mg) with aspirin (100 mg daily) for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients who completed 6-12 months of anticoagulant therapy for their index acute VTE event. All treatments will be given for 12 months. The primary efficacy objective is to determine whether both doses of rivaroxaban are superior to aspirin for the prevention of symptomatic recurrent VTE, while the principal safety outcome is the incidence of major bleeding. The trial is anticipated to enrol 2,850 patients from 230 sites in 31 countries over a period of 27 months. In conclusion, the EINSTEIN CHOICE study will provide new insights into the optimal antithrombotic strategy for extended VTE treatment by comparing two doses of rivaroxaban with aspirin (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02064439).

  14. Comparison of cationic propyl gallate and adenosine diphosphate for the measurement of aspirin effectivity with optical aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motovska, Zuzana; Sujanova, Zdenka; Wimmerova, Sona; Ardo, Jan; Skrakova, Marcela; Widimsky, Petr

    2007-10-01

    To compare the newer inductor of platelet aggregation cationic propyl gallate (CPG) with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) for the examination of aspirin (ASA) effectivity with optical aggregometry. In total,116 patients were prospectively enrolled with a stable cardiovascular disease, taking ASA 100 mg/day for >or=1 month. The control group consisted of 62 healthy volunteers. A platelet aggregation was investigated by optical aggregometry (aggregometer LASER 4x; BIO ART, Sint-Katelijne-Waver, Belgium). CPG and ADP were added as aggregating agents. The measured parameters were CPG-slope (%/min) and ADP max (%). Using the CPG-slope values from the control group, the CPG-slope cut-off value was determined to define a laboratory ASA-noneffectively treated patient. The values from control group followed a normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk test). We calculated the cut-off value using the 1-tailed 95% confidence interval. The CPG-slope cut-off value was 79 %/min for an ASA-effectively treated patient. We marked the patients as laboratory ASA-noneffective treated when the CPG-slope was >79%/min. In the same way we defined the cut-off value for ADP-max. We identified the aspirin treatment as ineffective when the value of ADP-max was >62%. The values of CPG-slope and ADP-max were in close correlation in the group of patients treated with aspirin with a highly significant correlation index (r=0.671, Pinductors, the proportion of ASA-noneffectively treated patients was 25%. Using both tests, 72.4% of patients were equally divided. ASA-noneffectively treated patients were commonly more obese (46.2%), had hypertension (94.9%) and hypercholesterolemia (73.7%), and were less commonly treated with statins (30.8%) than the aspirin effectively treated patients (42%, 88.2%, 59.2%, and 42.1%, respectively). The detected differences were not statistically significant. Cationic propyl gallate is an optimal inductor for optical aggregometry to monitor laboratory effectiveness of aspirin

  15. Microhardness of glass ionomer cements indicated for the ART technique according to surface protection treatment and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Keiko Shintome

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the microhardness of 5 glass ionomer cements (GIC - Vidrion R (V, SS White, Fuji IX (F, GC Corp., Magic Glass ART (MG, Vigodent, Maxxion R (MR, FGM and ChemFlex (CF, Dentsply - in the presence or absence of a surface protection treatment, and after different storage periods. For each GIC, 36 test specimens were made, divided into 3 groups according to the surface protection treatment applied - no protection, varnish or nail varnish. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 and 30 days and the microhardness tests were performed at these times. The data obtained were submitted to the ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey tests (α = 5%. The results revealed that the mean microhardness values of the GICs were, in decreasing order, as follows: F > CF = MR > MG > V; that surface protection was significant for MR, at 24 h, without protection (64.2 ± 3.6a, protected with GIC varnish (59.6 ± 3.4b and protected with nail varnish (62.7 ± 2.8ab; for F, at 7 days, without protection (97.8 ± 3.7ab, protected with varnish (95.9 ± 3.2b and protected with nail varnish (100.8 ± 3.4a; and at 30 days, for F, without protection (98.8 ± 2.6b, protected with varnish (103.3 ± 4.4a and protected with nail varnish (101 ± 4.1ab and, for V, without protection (46 ± 1.3b, protected with varnish (49.6 ± 1.7ab and protected with nail varnish (51.1 ± 2.6a. The increase in storage time produced an increase in microhardness. It was concluded that the different GICs, surface protection treatments and storage times could alter the microhardness values.

  16. Microhardness of glass ionomer cements indicated for the ART technique according to surface protection treatment and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintome, Luciana Keiko; Nagayassu, Marcos Paulo; Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Myaki, Silvio Issáo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the microhardness of 5 glass ionomer cements (GIC) - Vidrion R (V, SS White), Fuji IX (F, GC Corp.), Magic Glass ART (MG, Vigodent), Maxxion R (MR, FGM) and ChemFlex (CF, Dentsply) - in the presence or absence of a surface protection treatment, and after different storage periods. For each GIC, 36 test specimens were made, divided into 3 groups according to the surface protection treatment applied - no protection, varnish or nail varnish. The specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 and 30 days and the microhardness tests were performed at these times. The data obtained were submitted to the ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey tests (alpha = 5%). The results revealed that the mean microhardness values of the GICs were, in decreasing order, as follows: F > CF = MR > MG > V; that surface protection was significant for MR, at 24 h, without protection (64.2 + or - 3.6a), protected with GIC varnish (59.6 + or - 3.4b) and protected with nail varnish (62.7 + or - 2.8ab); for F, at 7 days, without protection (97.8 + or - 3.7ab), protected with varnish (95.9 + or - 3.2b) and protected with nail varnish (100.8 + or - 3.4a); and at 30 days, for F, without protection (98.8 + or - 2.6b), protected with varnish (103.3 + or - 4.4a) and protected with nail varnish (101 + or - 4.1ab) and, for V, without protection (46 + or - 1.3b), protected with varnish (49.6 + or - 1.7ab) and protected with nail varnish (51.1 + or - 2.6a). The increase in storage time produced an increase in microhardness. It was concluded that the different GICs, surface protection treatments and storage times could alter the microhardness values.

  17. Treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes from the perspective of systemic vascular protection and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsunomiya K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Kazunori UtsunomiyaDivision of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: This paper provides an update on the mechanisms of vascular impairment associated with insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and peripheral artery disease (PAD. It also considers the optimal treatment strategies for systemic vascular protection in light of recent findings. This area is of major clinical importance given the ongoing global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and the pivotal role played by insulin resistance in the mechanism of vascular impairment that manifests as macroangiopathy and microangiopathy. Timely diagnosis and intervention is critical in patients with systemic arteriosclerotic disease. Therefore, treatment strategies are aimed not only at targeting the presenting pathology, but also at reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. These efforts can help reduce the risk of both cardiovascular events and mortality. Treatment for PAD includes pharmacotherapy, endovascular treatment, and vascular reconstruction, along with exercise therapy. Because PAD can cause ischemia in the lower extremities, typical drug approaches include use of vasodilators and antiplatelet agents. Beraprost sodium and cilostazol are common choices in Japan, and their risks and benefits are discussed. Of note, beraprost has several therapeutic properties, including vascular endothelial protection, and antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects, in addition to vasodilatory activity. In patients with PAD, these activities improve the pathological process in the lower extremities and reduce the incidence of systemic vascular events. Recent preclinical findings indicate that beraprost improves not only ischemic extremities through its vasodilatory properties, but also reduces the insulin resistance which affects vascular endothelium. In this way, beraprost may contribute to an overall systemic vascular

  18. Combined aspirin and anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Charlotte H; Eckman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    The combined use of aspirin and oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned due to an increased risk of major bleeding with little to no benefit in preventing ischemic events. (1) To better understand patterns and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and identify patients who might reasonably be treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy alone. (2) To perform an updated literature review regarding the use of combined antiplatelet and OAC therapy in patients with AF and stable CAD. Retrospective review. Patients within the University of Cincinnati Health System with a diagnosis of non-valvular AF, excluding those with acute coronary syndrome or revascularization within the last 12 months. Numbers and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and sequence of events leading to the initiation of each. Of 948 patients receiving OAC, 430 (45 %) were receiving concomitant OAC and aspirin. Among patients receiving combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, 49 and 42 % of patients respectively, had CAD or DM. In a more detailed analysis including chart review of 219 patients receiving combined OAC and aspirin, 27 % had a diagnosis of CAD and 14 % had a diagnosis of DM prior to the development of AF. These patients were initially treated with aspirin. Warfarin was added when they subsequently developed AF but aspirin wasn't discontinued. A surprisingly large proportion of patients (22.8 %) had no obvious indication for dual therapy. Prior myocardial infarction, CAD, vascular disease and DM (among others) increase the likelihood of receiving combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy among patients with AF. A literature review suggests this may lead to increased major bleeding with little benefit in decreasing either AF-related stroke or cardiovascular events.

  19. A disease marker for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wei; Lee, Jeen-Wei; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-07-15

    There are currently no diagnostic methods in vitro for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria (AICU) except for the provocation test in vivo. To identify disease markers for AICU, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the promoter loci of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIα) and CD203c expression level in Chinese patients with AICU. We studied two genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2427827 (-344C/T) and rs2251746 (-66T/C) gene polymorphisms of FcεRIα in 20 patients with AICU, 52 subjects with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance, and 50 controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that the frequencies of two SNPs (-344C>T, -66C>T) were similar to the normal controls. The allele frequency of -344CC was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway sensitivity (p=0.019). We also studied both histamine release and CD203c expression on KU812 cells to assess aspirin-induced basophil activation. We found that the activity of basophil activation of AICU was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance. The mean fluorescence intensity of the CD203c expression were 122.5±5.2 vs. 103.3±3.3 respectively, (phistamine release were 31.3%±7.4% vs. -24.0%±17.5%, (phistamine release were significantly up-regulated by aspirin, they were not affected by anti-IgE antibodies. These results suggest that a single SNP of FcεRIα (-344C>T) is less likely to develop AICU and the basophil activation activity in the sera by measuring CD203c expression can be applicable to confirm the diagnosis of AICU.

  20. Protection from ischemia by preconditioning, postconditioning, and combined treatment in rabbit testicular ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Lv, Fangqing; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to investigate the protection of ischemic preconditioning (IPreC), ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) and combined treatment on ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) of testis. A rabbit testicular ischemia reperfusion (IR) model was established with determining of rabbit serum testosterone, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and tissues pathology. After IR, the NO, MDA, PC, SOD, MPO, and GSH-Px expression significantly increased in torsive testis, and significantly decreased after IPreC, IPostC, and combined treatment in torsive testis when compared to contralateral testis. In torsive testis, testicular tissues was severely damaged with spermatogenic cells disappearing, and were filled with light eosin edema liquid. Cell apoptosis index significantly increased, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax significantly decreased. After IPreC, IPostC, and combined treatment, testicular tissues were restored to normal, cell apoptosis index significantly decreased, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax significantly increased. It indicates that IPreC, IPostC, and combined treatment has an obvious protective effect on testicular IRI, by decreasing the oxidative stress index and cell apoptosis, provides a significant reference for the treatment of testicular torsion induced infertility, and exhibits a great value in clinical applications.

  1. Myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction and explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Methods:A total of 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction who received emergency PCI treatment in our hospital from February 2014 to October 2015 were selected for study and randomly divided into and ticagrelor group and clopidogrel group that received different perioperative anti-platelet therapy. Degree of myocardial cell damage, cardiac pump function as well as blood perfusion and platelet aggregation function of two groups were evaluated. Results:Before as well as 10 min and 24 h after PCI, plasma CK-MB and cTnI levels as well as maximum platelet aggregation rate and P2Y12 reaction unit of ticagrelor group were significantly lower than those of clopidogrel group, and ADP-way platelet inhibition rate were higher than those of clopidogrel group; after PCI, TIMI blood flow grade, TMP myocardial perfusion grade and LVEF of ticagrelor group were significantly higher than those of clopidogrel group, LVEDD was significantly lower than that of clopidogrel group and the number of cases with no reflow/slow flow was less than that of clopidogrel group. Conclusions:The myocardium-protective effect of ticagrelor combined with emergency PCI treatment of acute myocardial infarction is better than that of clopidogrel, and ticagrelor can enhance the anti-platelet aggregation effect to exert myocardium-protective effect.

  2. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  3. Differential inhibition of tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation by the nicotinate aspirin prodrug (ST0702) and aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos; Harmon, Shona; Inkielewicz, Iwona; Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Jones, Michael; Cantwell, Paula; Bazou, Despina; Ledwidge, Mark; Radomski, Marek W; Gilmer, John F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) facilitates cancer cell invasion, angiogenesis and the formation of metastatic foci. TCIPA can be modulated by pharmacological inhibitors of MMP-2 and ADP; however, the COX inhibitor aspirin did not prevent TCIPA. In this study, we have tested the pharmacological effects of a new group of isosorbide-based aspirin prodrugs on TCIPA. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TCIPA was induced in human platelets by mixing with human adenocarcinoma or fibrosarcoma cells under no flow and flow conditions. The release of gelatinases and P-selectin expression during TCIPA were studied by zymography and flow cytometry respectively. KEY RESULTS Tumour cells caused platelet aggregation. This aggregation resulted in the release of MMP-2 and a significant up-regulation of P-selectin on platelets, indicative of platelet activation. Pharmacological modulation of TCIPA revealed that ST0702, one of the aspirin prodrugs, down-regulated TCIPA while aspirin was ineffective. The deacetylated metabolite of ST0702, 5-nicotinate salicylate (ST0702 salicylate), down-regulated both ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation and TCIPA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results show that ST0702 was an effective inhibitor of TCIPA in vitro. Its deacetylated metabolite may contribute to the effects of ST0702 by inhibiting ADP-mediated TCIPA. PMID:22122360

  4. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study.

  5. Effects of aspirin dosage and time of administration on arterial prostacyclin production and platelet aggregation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R B; Paul, M L

    1984-07-01

    Previously we reported that electrically-induced carotid artery thrombosis in anesthetized rats was prevented by 3.3 or 10 mg/kg aspirin (ASA) given i.v. 10 min before injury but not by 1.7, 20 or 100 mg/kg and protection was lost by delaying injury to 20 min (Haemostasis 13:42, 1983). Here, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and arterial prostacyclin-generating activity, measured by RIA for 6 keto-PGF1 alpha and by human platelet aggregation bioassay, were studied ex vivo after i.v. ASA to anesthetized rats. In all cases where platelet aggregation was inhibited less than 50%, no protection had been observed (1.7 mg/kg at 10 min, 3.3 at 20 min, 20 at 10 min). In the two cases where protection had been observed, platelet aggregation was inhibited by about 75% or more and in one, prostacyclin activity was about 50% of normal (3.3 mg/kg at 10 min). Thus in five of six dose-time combinations tested, antithrombotic protection could be explained by a requirement for about 50% of normal prostacyclin activity and about 75% of inhibition of collagen aggregation. Aberrant findings are discussed in the light of knowledge of salicylate/aspirin competition for cyclooxygenase.

  6. 阿司匹林、硫酸氢氯吡格雷双联抗血小板聚集联合阿托伐他汀钙治疗进展性脑梗死疗效观察%Aspirin and Clopidogrel Bisulfate Dual Antiplatelet Aggregation Joint Atorvastatin Calcium Treatment of Progressive Cerebral Infarction Curative Effect Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金星; 霍莹; 葛汝丽

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective:Effects of aspirin, Clopidogrel bisulfate dual antiplatelet aggregation joint atorvastatin calcium in the treatment of progressive cerebral infarction clinical curative effect. Method 180 patients with progressive cerebral infarction were randomly divided into group A (control group), Group B (atorvastatin calcium), Group C (combination group), 60 cases in each group. A group was given conventional drug treatment;On the basis of conventional treatment group B, Simvastatin 20 mg every night instead of oral atorvastatin calcium 20 mg oral every night, Stay 2 weeks. In the hospital, Progress stops and 2 weeks after treatment respectively by the national institute of stroke score (NIHSS) scores to evaluate three groups of patients with nerve function defect degree, And observe the onset to the symptoms of peak time. Result Three groups of patients in the onset of symptoms to reach peak time and the treatment 2 weeks after the NIHSS score difference was statistically significant. conclusion aspirin、Clopidogrel bisulfate dual antiplatelet aggregation joint atorvastatin calcium treatment of progressive cerebral infarction curative effect signiifcantly, Safe and reliable, Worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:探讨阿司匹林、硫酸氢氯吡格雷双联抗血小板聚集联合阿托伐他汀钙治疗进展性脑梗死的临床疗效。方法将180例进展性脑梗死患者随机分为A组(对照组)、B组(阿托伐他汀钙组)、C组(联合用药组),每组60例。A组给予常规药物治疗;B组在接受常规治疗的基础上,将辛伐他汀20mg每晚口服改为阿托伐他汀钙片20mg每晚口服,连用2周;C组在B组基础上加用硫酸氢氯吡格雷75mg早上口服,连用2周。在入院时、进展停止时及治疗2周后分别用美国国立研究所脑卒中评分(NIHSS)评估三组患者神经功能缺损程度,并观察发病至症状达高峰的时间。结果3组患者在发病至症状

  7. The Effect of Xuefuzhuyu Oral Liquid on Aspirin Resistance and Its Association with rs5911, rs5787, and rs3842788 Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin should be continued indefinitely in patients after interventional therapy, but 10% to 40% of patients experience recurrent vascular events despite adequate aspirin therapy, a condition known as aspirin resistance (AR. Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid, derived from the classic recipe Xuefuzhuyu decoction, has been well documented to inhibit platelet aggregation and to improve hemorheology. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid on AR in patients with chronic stable angina after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and the possible genetic markers related to the drug response. 43 patients diagnosed as having aspirin resistance or semi-resistance were randomly divided into control and treatment groups after screening 207 stable CHD patients. Platelet aggregation rate was determined using turbidimetry. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms in COX-1 (rs5787, rs3842788 and GP IIb (rs5911 were genotyped in whole blood samples using ABI PRISM 7900 HT Fast Real-Time instrument and ABI PRISM 3730 DNA Sequencer. The results showed that Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid could effectively improve blood stasis syndrome and AR by inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation and that patients with the rs5911 genetic variant exhibited better drug response upon treatment with Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid, which suggests Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid as a new possible drug for the prevention of AR.

  8. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katusin-Razem, Branka [Department of Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: brazem@irb.hr; Razem, Dusan [Department of Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Braun, Mario [Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-15

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruder Boskovic Institute. After the upgrading of the {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruder Boskovic Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  9. Ascorbic Acid may Exacerbate Aspirin-Induced Increase in Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D; Lentle, Roger G

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone, 500 mg ascorbic acid alone and simultaneous dosage of both agents were compared in a cross-over study in 28 healthy female volunteers. These effects were also compared with that of a placebo. The ability of ascorbic acid to mitigate the effects of aspirin when administered either half an hour before or after dosage with aspirin was also assessed in 19 healthy female volunteers. The excretion of lactulose over the 6-hr period was augmented after consumption of either aspirin or ascorbic acid compared with that after consumption of placebo. Dosage with ascorbic acid alone augmented the excretion of lactulose more than did aspirin alone. Simultaneous dosage with both agents augmented the excretion of lactulose in an additive manner. The timing of dosage with ascorbic acid in relation to that with aspirin had no significant effect on the excretion of the two sugars. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid does not prevent aspirin-induced increase in gut permeability rather that both agents augment it to a similar extent. The additive effect on simultaneous dosage with both agents in augmenting the absorption of lactulose suggests that each influences paracellular permeability by different pathways.

  10. [Risk and prevention of gastrointestinal complications due to low-dose aspirin and other antiplatelet agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, Jean-François

    2008-09-15

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhages are the main complications associated with low-dose aspirin or anti-thrombotic drugs. In France, low-dose aspirin or anti-thrombotic agents use has been found in 30% of upper GI and 40% of lower GI bleeding episodes. Main causes of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin are gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and colonic diverticulosis. Recent cohort studies have shown that the relative risk of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was comprised between 2 and 4 and the absolute risk comprised between 1 per 100 and 1 per 1000 aspirin users per year. Main risk factors for upper GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin are concomitant antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or steroids use, and recent history of complicated or non-complicated gastroduodenal ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk for upper GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin, but infection should be searched and treated only in patients with peptic ulcer. Despite eradication of H. pylori in the latter patients, gastroprotection with PPI is strongly recommended. In patients presenting with peptic ulcer bleeding with low-dose aspirin, aspirin should be continued in association with PPI rather than replaced with clopidogrel. Discontinuation of low-dose aspirin which exposes to increased cardiovascular complications and mortality should be avoided, even in cases of peptic ulcer bleeding.

  11. Successful outcome from empirical use of heparin and aspirin in unexplained pregnancy loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babita Panda; Sasmita Das; Lita Mohapatra; Mahesh C Sahu; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Success in pregnancy of a 42-years old woman with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is described. She had a sub-septate uterus with free spillage bilaterally, based on hysterosalpingogram, and it was corrected by hysteroscopy in October 2009, which was followed by transcervical septal resection (TCRS). Clomiphene citrate was given ovulation. She was treated with folic acid supplementation, aspirin 75 mg, micronized progesterone 400 mg/d, and low molecular heparin 2500 IU/d, from the diagnosis of pregnancy at 5 weeks, until the delivery. However, at 28 weeks glucose tolerance test with 100 g glucose revealed mild derangement in first (159 mg/dL) and second (164 mg/dL) hour values;metformin was given for the control of sugar. Heparin injections were given to the patient continuously during the antenatal period. No major bleeding episode was noted during pregnancy or delivery. A male child weighing 3.2 kg with a good APGAR score was delivered at the end of the term. Both anatomical abnormality and advanced maternal age had determinative role in pregnancy loss, but TCRS and antithrombotic heparin and aspirin treatment had the blithesome effect.

  12. Risk Factors for Upper GI Damage in Low-Dose Aspirin Users and the Interaction Between H. pylori Infection and Low-Dose Aspirin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, low-dose aspirin is widely administered at low dose as an antithrombotic drug for the prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. However, aspirin, even at a low dose, can induce varying degrees of gastroduodenal mucosal injury (erosion, ulcer, ulcer bleeding). Hence, co-prescription of proton pump inhibitors with low-dose aspirin is recommended for those at high risk for adverse gastroduodenal events. At present, a history of peptic ulcer, especially that of complicated ulcer, is the most important risk factor for low-dose aspirin-associated gastroduodenal adverse events. Additionally, concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including COX-2 selective inhibitors, anti-platelet agents, anti-coagulants, and oral corticosteroid is recognized to increase the risk for adverse gastroduodenal events in low-dose aspirin users. H. pylori infection could also be associated with the increased risk for adverse gastroduodenal events in low-dose aspirin users, especially in patients with histories of peptic ulcers. Therefore, eradication therapy for such patients can prevent ulcer recurrence. However, the efficacy of eradication therapy on low-dose aspirin-related gastroduodenal lesions in unselected H. pylori-positive lowdose aspirin users without histories of peptic ulcers remains to be clarified.

  13. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...... of statins with UGB were 0.94 (0.78-1.12) for current use, 1.40 (0.89-2.20) for recent use and 1.42 (0.96-2.10) for past use. The lack of effect was consistent across most patient subgroups, different cumulative or current statin doses and different statin substances. In explorative analyses, a borderline...... significant protective effect was observed for concurrent users of low-dose aspirin [OR 0.43 (0.18-1.05)]. CONCLUSION: Statins do not prevent UGB, except possibly in users of low-dose aspirin....

  14. Incorporating financial protection into decision rules for publicly financed healthcare treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C

    2013-02-01

    Almost all health systems seek to offer some form of publicly financed healthcare insurance, and governments must therefore choose the size of the benefit package and the types of treatments to cover. Conventionally, the usual approach of economists has been to recommend choices on the basis of cost effectiveness of treatments, using metrics such as the 'cost per quality adjusted life year'. However, this approach is based on the assumption of health maximization subject to a budget constraint and ignores the potential impact of any additional concern with protecting individuals from the financial consequences of a health shock. Furthermore, it does not take account of the possible availability of complementary privately funded health care. This paper develops a model in which risk-averse individuals care about health but also place a value on protection from the financial consequences of rare but costly events. The paper shows how conventional cost-effectiveness analysis can readily be augmented to take account of financial protection objectives. The results depend on whether or not there exists a market in complementary privately funded health care. They have important implications for the methodology adopted by health technology assessment agencies and for the broader design of publicly funded health systems.

  15. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of indole-3-carbinol and/or omeprazole on aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A; Abd-Elmageid, Samira A; Alshailabi, Eda M A

    2014-05-01

    The present work is an attempt to elucidate the antiulcer activity of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is one of the anticarcinogenic phytochemicals found in the vegetables of Cruciferae family such as broccoli and cauliflower, alone or in combination with omeprazole (OMP), a proton pump inhibitor, to diminish the effects of induced acute gastric ulcer by aspirin (ASA) in male albino rats. A total of 48 adult male albino rats were used in the present study. Animals were divided into eight experimental groups (six animals each group). They were given different experimental inductions of ASA at a dose of 500 mg/kg/body weight, OMP at a dose of 20 mg/kg/body weight and I3C at a dose of 20 mg/kg/body weight either alone or in combination with each other orally for a duration of 7 days. Inner stomach features, ulcer index, pH activity, body weight, stomach weight, hematological investigations, serum total protein albumin and reduced glutathione activity were investigated in addition to the histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical stain of cyclooxygenase-2 to the stomach tissue of normal control, ulcerated and treated ulcerated rats. The results of this study revealed that oral administration of ASA to rats produced the expected characteristic mucosal lesions. OMP accelerated ulcer healing but the administration of I3C either alone or in combination with OMP to ASA-ulcerated rats produced a profound protection to the gastric mucosa from injury induced by ASA. Our results suggested that administration of antiulcer natural substances such as I3C in combination with the perused treatment such as OMP is a very important initiative in the development of new strategies in ulcer healing.

  16. Non-interference by salicylate with aspirin inhibition of arterial thrombosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R B; Paul, M L

    1981-08-01

    Several authors have reported that salicylate blocks and reverses aspirin inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by platelets and arterial wall. Male rats were given sodium salicylate 15 or 100 mg/kg i.v. 2 min before receiving aspirin, 10 mg/kg i.v. Right and left carotid arteries were injured electrically before and after drug administration and thrombus generation recorded by measuring downstream temperature. Significant antithrombotic effect of aspirin was observed in all cases regardless of prior salicylate administration and the results were similar to those obtained with aspirin alone. Thus competition between salicylate and aspirin as reported in vitro does not appear to significantly affect the in vivo antithrombotic action of aspirin in this model.

  17. Aspirin Sensitivity and Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Polyps: A Fatal Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Graefe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD refers to aspirin sensitivity, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS, nasal polyposis, asthma, eosinophil inflammation in the upper and lower airways, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis following the ingestion of NSAIDs. Epidemiologic and pathophysiological links between these diseases are established. The precise pathogenesis remains less defined, even though there is some progress in the understanding of several molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, these combinations of diseases in patients classified by AERD constitute a fatal combination and may be difficult to treat with standard medical and surgical interventions. This paper reviews in brief the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, molecular pathogenesis, and specific therapies of patients classified by AERD and postulates future attempts to gain new insights into this disease.

  18. Accelerated Hydrolysis of Aspirin Using Alternating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinscheid, Uwe M.

    2009-08-01

    The major problem of current drug-based therapy is selectivity. As in other areas of science, a combined approach might improve the situation decisively. The idea is to use the pro-drug principle together with an alternating magnetic field as physical stimulus, which can be applied in a spatially and temporarily controlled manner. As a proof of principle, the neutral hydrolysis of aspirin in physiological phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 at 40 °C was chosen. The sensor and actuator system is a commercially available gold nanoparticle (NP) suspension which is approved for animal usage, stable in high concentrations and reproducibly available. Applying the alternating magnetic field of a conventional NMR magnet system accelerated the hydrolysis of aspirin in solution.

  19. Aspirin prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S P; Carey, M C; LaMont, J T

    1981-03-27

    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  20. Aspirin versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation: decision analysis may help patients' choice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2012-03-01

    the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke in chronic non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) typically involves consideration of aspirin or warfarin. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc estimates annual stroke rates for untreated AF patients, which are reduced by 60% with warfarin and by 20% with aspirin. HAS-BLED estimates annual rates of major bleeding on warfarin. The latter risk with aspirin is 0.5-1.2% per year.

  1. Release kinetic study of RHPC coated aspirin microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Dorle, A K

    1990-01-01

    The present communication deals with the study of the effect of pH on the drug release characteristics and the drug release kinetic from the RHPC (Rosin Hard Paraffin Combination) coated aspirin microcapsules. For the purpose of the present study the aspirin microcapsules were prepared by pan coating method imparting 15 coats using 10 per cent RHPC solution in acetone. A standard coating procedure was used to coat the aspirin granules. Dissolution studies were carried out in media with different pH. To get a clear picture drug release studies were conducted in each media for 3 h. The results showed that the RHPC films were resistant to acidic pH releasing less than 5 per cent and 15 per cent drug in 3 h in pH 1.2 and 3.0 respectively. The T 50% in pH 5.0 media was 163 min. The drug was released very quickly in pH 7.2 and 8.0. The release kinetic study showed that the release followed the classical first order pattern though the coated microcapsules used to be intact during the dissolution process, in case of the acidic pH media. The release kinetic was changed when the pH of the dissolution media was 7.2 and above. It was found that during the dissolution process the granules undergo erosion and the release mechanism does not follow a single process.

  2. Epitope-specific antibody levels in tuberculosis: biomarkers of protection, disease and response to treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham H Bothamley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies restricted to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can measure epitope-specific antibody levels in a competition assay. Immunodominant epitopes were defined from clinical samples and related to the clinical spectrum of disease. Antibody to the immunodominant epitopes was associated with HLA-DR15. Occupational exposure showed a different response and was consistent with recognition of dormancy related proteins and protection despite exposure to tuberculosis. Studies in leprosy revealed the importance of immune deviation and the relationships between T and B cell epitopes. During treatment, antibody levels increased, epitope spreading occurred, but the affinity constants remained the same after further antigen exposure, suggesting constraints on the process of epitope selection. Epitope-specific antibody levels have a potential role as biomarkers for new vaccines which might prevent the progression of latent to active tuberculosis and as tools to measure treatment effects on subpopulations of tubercle bacilli.

  3. [Cardiovascular-protective effect of tadalafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    The enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), widely distributed in the heart, smooth muscle, and blood vessels, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, and is also a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Tadalafil is the first PDE 5 inhibitor approved by FDA for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE-5 inhibitors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension) and diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that tadalafil can not only improve sexual function, but also elevate the endothelial cell-derived NO level, activate protein kinase A, upregulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and improve hemodynamic indexes. Thus, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil, with its cardiovascular-protective effect, can be a therapeutic option for the treatment of ED patients with cardiovascular disease.

  4. Cigarette smoking inhibits the anti-platelet activity of aspirin in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHANG Hong-yin; MIAO Cheng-long; TANG Ri-bo; DU Xin; SHI Ji-hui; MA Chang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which suggests that low-dose aspirin used in common clinical practice may not effectively inhibit platelet activity in smokers with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review was performed to assess the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in patients with CHD.Data sources We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE (starting from the beginning to March 15, 2009)using the term "smoking" or "tobacco" paired with the following: "platelet", "aspirin" or "coronary heart disease".Study selection We looked for review articles regarding the effect of tobacco smoking on platelet activity and on the anti-platelet efficacy of aspirin in healthy people and patients with CHD. The search was limited in "core clinical journal".In total, 1321 relevant articles were retrieved, and 36 articles were ultimately cited.Results Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which can be inhibited by low-dose aspirin in the healthy population. However, in patients with CHD, the increased platelet aggregability can not be effectively inhibited by the same low-dose of aspirin. A recent study indicated that clopidogrel or an increased dose of aspirin can effectively inhibit the increased platelet aggregability induced by tobacco smoking in patients with CHD.Conclusions It is important for patients with CHD to quit smoking. For the current smoker, it may be necessary to take larger doses of aspirin than normal or take an adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor along with aspirin to effectively inhibit the increased platelet activity.

  5. A Disease Marker for Aspirin-Induced Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hsieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no diagnostic methods in vitro for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria (AICU except for the provocation test in vivo. To identify disease markers for AICU, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the promoter loci of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIα and CD203c expression level in Chinese patients with AICU. We studied two genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2427827 (–344C/T and rs2251746 (–66T/C gene polymorphisms of FcεRIα in 20 patients with AICU, 52 subjects with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance, and 50 controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that the frequencies of two SNPs (–344C>T, –66C>T were similar to the normal controls. The allele frequency of –344CC was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway sensitivity (p = 0.019. We also studied both histamine release and CD203c expression on KU812 cells to assess aspirin-induced basophil activation. We found that the activity of basophil activation of AICU was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance. The mean fluorescence intensity of the CD203c expression were 122.5 ± 5.2 vs. 103.3 ± 3.3 respectively, (p < 0.05, and the percentages of histamine release were 31.3% ± 7.4% vs. −24.0% ± 17.5%, (p < 0.05 respectively. Although the mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c expression and the percentage of histamine release were significantly up-regulated by aspirin, they were not affected by anti-IgE antibodies. These results suggest that a single SNP of FcεRIα (–344C>T is less likely to develop AICU and the basophil activation activity in the sera by measuring CD203c expression can be applicable to confirm the diagnosis of AICU.

  6. Low dose aspirin therapy and renal function in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Rotimi Oluyombo,2 Paul Sunday Ogunro,3 Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,4 Oluyomi Olusola Okunola,5 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele21Department of Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Chemical Pathology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine whether low dose aspirin has any deleterious effects on renal function in elderly patients.Methods: We conducted a prospective pilot study of 30 Nigerians older than 60 years with various chronic ailments necessitating the use of low dose aspirin. Patients gave their consent, and institutional ethical clearance was obtained. Each patient's baseline samples at enrolment (before commencing aspirin use served as a control, and subsequent weekly samples were compared. The weekly mean of each parameter was calculated, and the differences of means from baseline were determined, and values were compared for statistical differences with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16.Results: We found that a majority of patients (86.67% had basal renal functions at chronic kidney disease stages 1 and 2. When compared with the corresponding baseline parameters, the mean weekly serum and urinary electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and uric acid parameters did not change, and the P-value did not show any statistical significance. However, there was positive statistical significance for the creatinine clearance (P = 0.025. Also, unlike in previous studies, anemia and hypoalbuminemia did not affect the renal function parameters.Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effects with short-term, low dose (75 mg daily aspirin use on kidney functions in

  7. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior heart attack: ticagrelor plus aspirin versus aspirin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Frank; Schlesinger, Alex; Mazzoni, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-1800. This Practice Pearl reviews the recent study Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared With Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54 (PEGASUS-TIMI 54). It challenges the current standard of care of 12 months of dual antiplatelet followed by aspirin indefinitely. The study demonstrated that patients who received ticagrelor, either the 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily plus aspirin, showed a decreased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial also proved that the benefit of ticagrelor was seen early and continued to accrue over time, with a median of 33 months of follow-up, meaning that the benefit persists over time. It is important to note that both doses of the ticagrelor were associated with higher incidence of bleeding, but the rates of fatal bleeding did not show any difference between the ticagrelor or placebo.

  8. A Markov model to compare the long-term effect of aspirin, clopidogrel and clopidogrel plus aspirin on prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke due to intracranial artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqiu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of intracranial stenosis as a cause of recurrent ischemic stroke and the lack of evidence supporting a clear choice for prevention of recurrent ischemic events, a computer simulation model for prognostic prediction could be used to improve decision making. Aims: The aim of the following study is to compare the long-term effect of aspirin, clopidogrel and clopidogrel plus aspirin for prevention of recurrent stroke due to atherosclerotic intracranial artery stenosis. Setting and Design: The cohort consisted of 206 patients from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A two-state Markov model was used to predict the prognosis of patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA caused by angiographically verified 50-99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery to receive aspirin, clopidogrel, or dual therapy. Statistical Analysis: Two tests were used: Pearson Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test (for percentages and Kruskal Wallis test (for rank order data. Results: In the 10-year Markov cohort analysis, 36.24% of patients who were treated with clopidogrel plus aspirin developed to recurrent stroke while the probability for patients in the aspirin group and clopidogrel group was 42.60% and 48.39% respectively. Patients with clopidogrel plus aspirin had the highest quality-adjusted life years, followed by aspirin and clopidogrel. Conclusion: To prevent recurrent stroke in patients with intracranial artery stenosis, especially in those patients with a history of TIA or coronary artery disease, medical therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin should be considered in preference to aspirin alone.

  9. Losartan Treatment Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and Alters Scleral Remodeling in Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry A Quigley

    Full Text Available To determine if oral losartan treatment decreases the retinal ganglion cell (RGC death caused by experimental intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in mice.We produced IOP increase in CD1 mice and performed unilateral optic nerve crush. Mice received oral losartan, spironolactone, enalapril, or no drug to test effects of inhibiting angiotensin receptors. IOP was monitored by Tonolab, and blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff device. RGC loss was measured in masked axon counts and RGC bodies by β-tubulin labeling. Scleral changes that could modulate RGC injury were measured including axial length, scleral thickness, and retinal layer thicknesses, pressure-strain behavior in inflation testing, and study of angiotensin receptors and pathways by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry.Losartan treatment prevented significant RGC loss (median loss = 2.5%, p = 0.13, while median loss with water, spironolactone, and enalapril treatments were 26%, 28% and 43%; p < 0.0001. The lower RGC loss with losartan was significantly less than the loss with spironolactone or enalapril (regression model p = 0.001; drug treatment group term p = 0.01. Both losartan and enalapril significantly lowered blood pressure (p< 0.001, but losartan was protective, while enalapril led to worse than water-treated RGC loss. RGC loss after crush injury was unaffected by losartan treatment (difference from control p = 0.9. Survival of RGC in cell culture was not prolonged by sartan treatment. Axonal transport blockade after 3 day IOP elevations was less in losartan-treated than in control glaucoma eyes (p = 0.007. Losartan inhibited effects of glaucoma, including reduction in extracellular signal-related kinase activity and modification of glaucoma-related changes in scleral thickness and creep under controlled IOP.The neuroprotective effect of losartan in mouse glaucoma is associated with adaptive changes in the sclera expressed at

  10. Surface protection treatments of highly porous building stones and sustainability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calia, Angela; Lettieri, Maria Teresa; Matera, Loredana; Sileo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The growing attention to the cultural value and the potential touristic attraction of the historic towns has led to increasing activities of rehabilitation and conservation of the historical built heritage. Chemical treatments have become a common practice for the protection of the stone building surface against the decay agents and traditional methods of protection, such as the application of sacrificial layers, have been even more neglected. The use of chemical products on large scale works on the historical built heritage draws the attention towards the sustainability of the conservation treatments, that involve peculiar features with relation to the different types of stones. Sustainability is undoubtedly in terms of human and environmental impact of the used products, so that the use of new formulations based on aqueous solvent should be preferred. Sustainability also means the equilibrium between the required performances of the treatments and the preservation of the original stone properties (colour, permeability, etc), namely harmlessness and effectiveness of the treatments. This can be a critical aspect when we deal with very porous stones, namely having porosity between 30-40%, that are widely used in many countries as traditional building materials. In most cases no information - or very general recommendations - is reported in the technical sheets of the conservation products with reference to the application to these types of stones. Relevant problems of compatibility can arise from the significant amounts absorbed by the high porous structure, as well as in terms of cost effectiveness of the treatments. In this work several calcarenites with different petro-physic characteristics and porosity between 30 and 45% are concerned for the assessment of the performance of two commercial water based products for stone protection, respectively an alcoxy-siloxane with low molecular weight and a modified organo-silane. This activity is a part of the Apulia

  11. Aspirin for the prevention of cognitive decline in the elderly: rationale and design of a neuro-vascular imaging study (ENVIS-ion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the rationale and design of the ENVIS-ion Study, which aims to determine whether low-dose aspirin reduces the development of white matter hyper-intense (WMH lesions and silent brain infarction (SBI. Additional aims include determining whether a changes in retinal vascular imaging (RVI parameters parallel changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; b changes in RVI parameters are observed with aspirin therapy; c baseline cognitive function correlates with MRI and RVI parameters; d changes in cognitive function correlate with changes in brain MRI and RVI and e whether factors such as age, gender or blood pressure influence the above associations. Methods/Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of three years duration set in two Australian academic medical centre outpatient clinics. This study will enrol 600 adults aged 70 years and over with normal cognitive function and without overt cardiovascular disease. Subjects will undergo cognitive testing, brain MRI and RVI at baseline and after 3 years of study treatment. All subjects will be recruited from a 19,000-patient clinical outcome trial conducted in Australia and the United States that will evaluate the effects of aspirin in maintaining disability-free longevity over 5 years. The intervention will be aspirin 100 mg daily versus matching placebo, randomized on a 1:1 basis. Discussion This study will improve understanding of the mechanisms at the level of brain and vascular structure that underlie the effects of aspirin on cognitive function. Given the limited access and high cost of MRI, RVI may prove useful as a tool for the identification of individuals at high risk for the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive decline. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01038583

  12. Novel role of antiplatelet agents (aspirin plus clopidogrel in an incoagulable blood of a victim of russell's viper snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Bawaskar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake antivenom is a specific antidote to the venom action, neutralizing the circulating venom. However, it fails to neutralize the venom fixed to target organs such as platelets, renal tubules, etc. Russell's viper venom initiates rapid coagulation in a victim by activating blood platelets, factors V, X, and anticoagulant cofactors. Activation of thrombin, resulting in formation of micro-thrombi, fibrinolysis, and a vicious cascade, sets in. Inhibition of activated platelets by aspirin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor and clopidogrel (ADP receptor inhibitor helps to break this vicious circle induced by Russell's venom and may initiate the natural physiological clotting mechanism. They can be utilized as an adjuvant treatment.

  13. Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications of Statin and Aspirin Therapy in Individuals With Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Small, Gary; Yam, Yeung; Chen, Li; McPherson, Ruth; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Berman, Daniel S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cheng, Victor Y.; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Dunning, Allison; Feuchtner, Gundrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Jörg; Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; LaBounty, Troy; Lin, Fay; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert L.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Villines, Todd C.; Min, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine the risk of mortality associated with nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and to determine the impact of baseline statin and aspirin use on mortality. Approach and Results Coronary computed tomographic angiography permits direct visualization of nonobstructive CAD. To date, the prognostic implications of nonobstructive CAD and the potential benefit of directing therapy based on nonobstructive CAD have not been carefully examined. A total of 27 125 consecutive patients who underwent computed tomographic angiography (12 enrolling centers and 6 countries) were prospectively entered into the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) registry. Patients, without history of previous CAD or obstructive CAD, for whom baseline statin and aspirin use was available were analyzed. Each coronary segment was classified as normal or nonobstructive CAD (1%–49% stenosis). Patients were followed up for a median of 27.2 months for all-cause mortality. The study comprised 10 418 patients (5712 normal and 4706 with nonobstructive CAD). In multivariable analyses, patients with nonobstructive CAD had a 6% (95% confidence interval, 1%–12%) higher risk of mortality for each additional segment with nonobstructive plaque (P=0.021). Baseline statin use was associated with a reduced risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.28–0.68; P=0.0003), a benefit that was present for individuals with nonobstructive CAD (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.19–0.55; P<0.001) but not for those without plaque (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.30–1.43; P=0.287). When stratified by National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Program III, no mortality benefit was observed in individuals without plaque. Aspirin use was not associated with mortality benefit, irrespective of the status of plaque. Conclusions The presence and extent of nonobstructive

  14. Protective equipment as treatment for stereotypic hand mouthing: sensory extinction or punishment effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaleski, J L; Iwata, B A; Rodgers, T A; Vollmer, T R; Zarcone, J R

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing exhibited by 2 individuals with profound mental retardation. Results of a functional analysis assessment revealed that neither subject's self-injury was maintained by social reinforcement: One subject's self-injury was cyclical in nature; the other's occurred during all assessment conditions but most frequently when left alone. In the noncontingent-equipment condition, oven mitts were placed on the individual's hands at the beginning of a session and remained on throughout. In the contingent-equipment condition, the mitts were briefly placed on the individual's hands following occurrences of hand mouthing. For 1 subject, noncontingent mitts produced a large decrease in the rate of hand mouthing and contingent mitts produced similar results following a return to baseline. Hand mouthing was also reduced in the 2nd subject, but this individual was exposed only to the contingent-equipment condition (i.e., there was no prior history with the noncontingent-equipment condition). These results suggest either a punishment or a time-out interpretation rather than an extinction interpretation to account for the behavior-reducing effects of contingent protective equipment on self-injury.

  15. Effects of combined octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承薇; 王春晖; 汤丽平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer. Methods Proliferation of gastric cancer cell lines treated with octreotide or aspirin was determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation. After xenografts of human gastric cancer were implanted orthotropically in the stomach of nude mice, they were administered octreotide plus aspirin for 8 weeks. The mRNA of somatostatin receptor in the tissues of gastric carcinoma was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric cancer tissues was measured by immuno~histochemistry. Results Both octreotide and aspirin significantly reduced the 3 H-thymidine incorporation of gastric cancer cells. Xenografts in situ were found in all stomachs of nude mice except for two in the combination group. Either size or weight of tumors treated by octreotide, aspirin or in combination was significantly reduced as compared with that of controls. The inhibition rate for tumor was 60.6% (octreotide), 39.3% (aspirin), and 85.6% (in combination) respectively. No severe side effects were observed in any treated groups. Somatostatin receptor-2 and -3 were expressed in the transplanted gastric adenocarcinomas. Aspirin could down-regulate the strong expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the tissue of gastric adenocarcinomas of nude mice.Conclusion A combination of octreotide and aspirin significantly inhibited proliferation of gastric cancer through mediation of somatosatin receptors and suppression of cyclooxygenase-2.

  16. Aspirin-intolerant asthma: a comprehensive review of biomarkers and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Juan R; Teran, Luis M

    2013-08-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is a tetrad of nasal polyps, chronic hypertrophic eosinophilic sinusitis, asthma, and sensitivity to aspirin. Unawareness of this clinical condition by patients and physicians may have grave consequences because of its association with near-fatal asthma. The pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma is not related with an immunoglobin E mechanism, but with an abnormal metabolism of the lipoxygenase (LO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways. At present, a diagnosis of aspirin sensitivity can be established only by provocative aspirin challenge, which represents a health risk for the patient. This circumstance has encouraged the search for aspirin intolerance-specific biomarkers. Major attempts have focused on mediators related with inflammation and eicosanoid regulation. The use of modern laboratory techniques including high-throughput methods has facilitated the detection of dozens of biological metabolites associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma disease. Not surprisingly, the majority of these is implicated in the LO and COX pathways. However, substantial amounts of data reveal the participation of many genes deriving from different ontologies. Biomarkers may represent a powerful, noninvasive tool in the diagnosis of aspirin sensitivity; moreover, they could provide a new way to classify asthma phenotypes.

  17. HEMOSTATIC FUNCTION OF ASPIRIN-TREATED PLATELETS VULNERABLE TO CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS - ALTERED SHEAR-INDUCED PATHWAY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TABUCHI, N; HUET, RCGG; STURK, A; EIJSMAN, L; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1995-01-01

    The impaired hemostasis of aspirin-treated patients is an annoying problem during and after cardiopulmonary bypass, The hemostatic function of platelets comprises two mechanisms: the shear-induced and the cyclooxygenase pathways, Because the latter is inhibited in aspirin-treated patients, the hemos

  18. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Burn (John); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); J.-P. Mecklin (Jukka-Pekka); F.A. Macrae (Finlay); G. Möslein (Gabriela); S. Olschwang (Sylviane); M.-L. Bisgaard (Marie-Luise); R.S. Ramesar (Rajkumar); D. Eccles (Diana); E.R. Maher (Eamonn); L. Bertario (Lucio); H.J. Jarvinen (Heikki); A. Lindblom (Annika); D.G. Evans (Gareth); J. Lubinski (Jan); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); J.W.C. Ho (Judy); H. Vasen (Hans); L. Side (Lucy); H.J.W. Thomas (Huw ); R.J. Scott (Rodney); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); G. Barker (Gail); F. Elliott (Faye); J.R. Jass (Jeremy ); R. Fodde (Riccardo); H. Lynch (Henry); J.C. Mathers (John )

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplas

  19. Evaluation of nootropic and neuroprotective effects of low dose aspirin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nootropic and neuroprotective effects of aspirin in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR and central 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches were assessed using repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: control (pretreated with distilled water, scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg i.p., ECS (150 V, 50 Hz sinusoidal with intensity of 210 mA for 0.5 s pretreated, aspirin (6.75 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined scopolamine and aspirin pretreated, ondansetron (0.36 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined ECS and ondansetron pretreated and combined ECS and aspirin pretreated groups. Data was analyzed by the chi-square test and ANOVA. Results: Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 8 days results in enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches and in disruption of the retention of CAR. Aspirin and ondansetron administration significantly increased the retention of conditioned avoidance response compared to control. Ondansetron and aspirin significantly prevented ECS-induced attenuation of the retention of conditioned avoidance response also. On the other hand, ondansetron and aspirin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior. Conclusion: Inhibition of the serotonergic transmission by aspirin is responsible for its nootropic and neuroprotective actions.

  20. Study of effects of donepezil and aspirin on working memory in rats using electroconvulsive shock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Manjare

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorder like AD. Combination of aspirin with donepezil increased the nootropic and neuroprotective effect of aspirin and thus may hold great clinical significance in such disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1012-1015

  1. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was le

  2. Affordability Calculations on a Health Education Campaign to Promote the Use of Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Aspirin has far-reaching public health potential in reducing the risk of heart attacks, ischemic strokes and possibly cancer. Balanced against this potential are undesirable effects of the drug. It seems reasonable to allow every individual over the age of 50 years to make an informed choice about whether or not to take aspirin. A health education…

  3. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  4. A study into the genetic basis of aspirin resistance in Pakistani patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarram, Osama; Akhtar, Naveed; Junaid, Ayesha; Mohyuddin, Aisha

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a key player in the management and prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with atherothrombosis. About 12% of Pakistanis suffering from coronary artery disease are resistant to aspirin's effects. Clinical, biochemical and genetic factors are known to be responsible for this phenomenon. We conducted this study to investigate whether previously studied polymorphisms in COX-1, GPIIIa, GPIa and P2RYI genes could be the cause of aspirin resistance in our population. Blood samples were collected from 29 aspirin non-responders and 60 ethnically matched responders. Aspirin response assay was performed on IMPACT-R and DNA prepared from blood using the phenol: chloroform method. Genotyping was carried out for four SNPS including COX-1 C50T (rs3842787), GPIIIA PIA1/A2 polymorphism (rs5918), GPIA C807T (rs1126643) and p2RY1 C893T (rs1065776). No statistically significant differences were observed in the allele or genotype frequencies between the aspirin non responders and responders indicating the possible involvement of different genetic determinants of aspirin resistance in our population. This study paves the way for further research into the field of aspirin resistance in Pakistan.

  5. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. A benefit and harm analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Yu, Tsung; Boyd, Cynthia; Puhan, Milo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin is widely used for prevention of cardiovascular disease. In recent years randomized trials also suggested a preventive effect for various types of cancer. We aimed to assess, in a quantitative way, benefits and harms of aspirin for primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease

  6. Fourteen-Year Follow-Up From CABADAS : Vitamin K Antagonists or Dipyridamole Not Superior to Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Zijlstra, Felix; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background. Secondary prophylaxis using aspirin is standard of care after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Limited data are available for long-term results. We evaluated the effect of aspirin, aspirin with dipyridamole, and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) on 14-year clinical outcome of patients inc

  7. Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A; Yakasai, I A; Aguye, I A

    1996-01-01

    The influence of Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract incorporated in a traditional meal on the bioavailability of aspirin tablets 600 mg dose was studied in 6 healthy volunteers. There was a statistically significant increase in the plasma levels of aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively, when the meal containing Tamarindus indica fruit extract was administered with the aspirin tablets than when taken under fasting state or with the meal without the fruit extract. The Cmax, AUC0-6h and t1/2 for aspirin increased from 10.04 +/- 0.1 mg/ml to 28.62 +/- 0.21 mg/ml (P Tamarindus indica L. fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of aspirin.

  8. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch syndrome...... developed in 141 participants. Of 693 participants randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo, neoplasia developed in 66 participants receiving aspirin (18.9%), as compared with 65 receiving placebo (19.0%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.4). There were no significant...

  9. Using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 for monitoring aspirin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Mickley, Hans; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the test characteristics of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) in patients treated with aspirin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of two sub-studies. In study 1, 10 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 controls had...... period. From the results of study 1, we found that a cut-off value for the PFA-100 collagen/epinephrine cartridge 1.00). A good agreement between the PFA-100 method and optical platelet aggregation was found. Within...

  10. Gastroprotective Effect of Combination of Hot Water Extracts of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari Stem Bark (Alyxia reinwardtii), and Sembung Leaf (Blumea balsamifera) Against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Model Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Wijayanti, Agustin; Mutmainah, Mutmainah; Susilowati, Rina; Rahmawati, Nuning

    2016-10-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) are traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate gastroprotective effect of hot water extracts combination of those herbal against aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. The combination consisted of fixed doses of Licorice 273 mg/kg BW and Sembung leaf 457.5 mg/kg BW, and also consisted of Pulasari stem in various doses i.e. 100 mg/kg BW (first group), 200 mg/kg BW (second and sixth group) and 300 mg/kg BW (third group). The fourth grup rats received sucralfate 360 mg/kg BW. Ten minute after seven consecutive days of drug administration, the rats were induced with aspirin 450 mg/kg BW except sixth group rats. The fifth group rats only received aspirin without any protective agents. The number and area of gastric ulcers were evaluated macroscopically. Whereas, histopatological observation was used for evaluation of mucosal damage score, and the number of eosinophils and mast cells. In the study, herbal extracts combination markedly exhibited protective effects indicated by less number and smaller area of gastric ulcers in comparison to those of aspirin group (P Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pulasari stem bark (Alyxia reinwardtii) and Sembung leaf (Blumea balsamifera) is potential to develop as a gastroprotective agent.

  11. Effect of high-dose aspirin on attenuating angiopathy of artery transplant in rats%大剂量阿司匹林减轻大鼠移植动脉血管病的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文伟; 孙贤斌; 杨亦荣; 夏鹏; 陈必成; 宫念樵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of high-dose aspirin on angiopathy of artery transplant and its underlying mechanisms. Methods The common carotid artery transplantation models of Brown- Norway to Lewis and Lewis to Lewis rats were reproduced, and the recipients were randomly divided into three groups: Aspirin group [Brown-Norway to Lewis, aspirin administered in a dose of 80mg/ (kg · d), n= 7], control group (Brown-Norway to Lewis, received no special treatment, n= 7), and isografts group (Lewis to Lewis, received no special treatment, n=6). Eight weeks after transplantation, the transplanted arteries were harvested to observe the histopathological changes, and the intima thickness was estimated using a computer image analysis system. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (FDGF-B) in the transplanted carotid artery wall was determined by immunohistochemistry method. Results The neointima thickness was significantly lower in isografts group (3.86 ±0.61μm) than in aspirin group (37. 99±9. 99μm) and control group (73.10± 11. 56μm), and in aspirin group it was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). Abundant neocapillaries were observed in neointima of vessel transplant in control group. Imrnunohistochemical analysis showed that FDGF-B and COX-2 were almost negatively expressed in isograft group, but highly expressed in control group, while the expression in aspirin group was lower than that in control group and the count of positive cells decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion High-dose aspirin could attenuate artery angiopathy of transplanted common carotid artery in rats, the mechanism may be related with down-regulation of expression of COX-2 and PDGF-B.%目的 探讨大剂量阿司匹林在移植动脉血管病(TA)发展中的保护作用及其机制.方法 建立Brown-Norway(BN)至Lewis大鼠、Lewis至Lewis大鼠的颈总动脉移植模型,受体

  12. A Randomized trial comparing ticlopidine with aspirin fof the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yizhao; Li Danian; Wang Lei

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect and cafety of t iclopidine in the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke and to compare theeffect of low-dose aspirin with t iclopidine. BACKGROUND The effect and safety of ticlopidine irn the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke in China has not been reported. METHODS 329 patients with TIA or mild ischemic cevebral stroke wasrandonmly assigned to ticlopidine group(165 case) or aspirin group (164 case) in this study.These patrents were randomly allocated to receive either 250mg trclopidine or 50mg aspirin daily and didnd take any other platelet antiaggregating drugs. Time of eacn follow up visit was one to two months. Follow up lasted for 6 to 18 months. RESULTS The event rate for stroke or death from any cause was 8.3% in ticlopidine group arid 14.9% in aspirin group. This repesented a risk reduction of 44.3%(95% cofidence interval, 0.29-0.94) for ticiopidine group as compared with aspirin group. The event raite for ischemic cerebral stroke or myocarction of ticlopidine group(7.0%)was lower than that cf aspirin group(14.8%)(P<0.05).A riskreduction of 52.7%(95% confidence interval,0.24-0.92) for ticlopidine group compared with aspirin group. The rate of adverse effects of ticlopidine group and aspirin group were 6.9% and 11.0% during the trial ,but this was not statistically significant(P<0.05).DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION Therapeutic efficacy for the prevention oi ischemic stroke of ticlopidine was better than that of aspirin, the rate of side effects in ticlopidine group and aspirin group are not statistically significant. So ticiopidine could serve as a first-line drug for the prevention of ischemic stroke.

  13. Serum cholesterol concentration associated with aspirin esterase activity in older people: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Ricardo Hermo, Toshiyuki Yamada, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, Alejandro Gugliucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolism of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, commonly used in older people for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, is important to the effectiveness of this drug. Whereas part of aspirin hydrolysis occurs in blood, there is a paucity of information in regards to circulating aspirin esterase activity in various physiological and pathological conditions. High aspirin esterase activity, corresponding to faster aspirin hydrolysis (thus aspirin non-responsiveness, may occur in cardiovascular disease-prone states. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cardio-metabolic variables such as cholesterol on serum aspirin esterase activity in older people who participated in an intervention study on physical activity. METHODS: A total of 18 non-medicated subjects (7 men/11 women, mean age 67.8 years, body mass index = 23.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2, who completed a 3-month interventional program for a mild-to-moderate increase in physical activity, were analyzed. The body mass index, plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and aspirin esterase activity were measured in the pre- and post-interventional phases of the study. RESULTS: During the interventional period, the changes in aspirin esterase activity correlated significantly and positively with those of total cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.542, P = 0.020; β = 0.609, P = 0.035 in a multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting for all the measured variables. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cholesterol metabolism alterations may be associated with aspirin metabolism in older people.

  14. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentraion (the CORT response and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-ylpropan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steoid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. Material and Methods: The purose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. Conclusion: The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  16. 医院放射诊疗防护管理探析%Radiation Protection Management of Hospital Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of hospital radiology clinics protection and management measures, hopes to provide a valuable reference for hospital radiation protection management. Methods The significance of radiation protection, radiation protection to strengthen the hospital management by improving protection awareness, improve the management system, ready protective equipment and equipment to strengthen the records management, collaboration and other ways to strengthen the sector. Results The larger significance of radiation protection, it should raise protection awareness, improve the management system, ready protective equipment and equipment to enhance file management, strengthening sectoral cooperation in ifve areas to strengthen management. Conclusion The need to pay attention to radiation treatment within the hospital management of protection, by taking effective measures to increase protection efforts, improve the management level.%目的:探析医院放射诊疗防护管理措施,期许为医院放疗防护管理提供有价值的参考。方法结合放射防护管理意义,通过提高防护意识、完善管理体制、备好防护用品及器材、加强档案管理、加强各部门协作等方式加强医院放疗防护管理。结果放射防护管理意义较大,应从提高防护意识、完善管理体制、备好防护用品及器材、加强档案管理、加强部门协作五方面来管理。结论医院内部需重视放射诊疗防护管理,通过采取有效措施,加大防护力度,提高管理水平。

  17. Incorporating Resource Protection Constraints in an Analysis of Landscape Fuel-Treatment Effectiveness in the Northern Sierra Nevada, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christopher B.; Collins, Brandon M.; Stephens, Scott L.

    2016-03-01

    Finding novel ways to plan and implement landscape-level forest treatments that protect sensitive wildlife and other key ecosystem components, while also reducing the risk of large-scale, high-severity fires, can prove to be difficult. We examined alternative approaches to landscape-scale fuel-treatment design for the same landscape. These approaches included two different treatment scenarios generated from an optimization algorithm that reduces modeled fire spread across the landscape, one with resource-protection constrains and one without the same. We also included a treatment scenario that was the actual fuel-treatment network implemented, as well as a no-treatment scenario. For all the four scenarios, we modeled hazardous fire potential based on conditional burn probabilities, and projected fire emissions. Results demonstrate that in all the three active treatment scenarios, hazardous fire potential, fire area, and emissions were reduced by approximately 50 % relative to the untreated condition. Results depict that incorporation of constraints is more effective at reducing modeled fire outputs, possibly due to the greater aggregation of treatments, creating greater continuity of fuel-treatment blocks across the landscape. The implementation of fuel-treatment networks using different planning techniques that incorporate real-world constraints can reduce the risk of large problematic fires, allow for landscape-level heterogeneity that can provide necessary ecosystem services, create mixed forest stand structures on a landscape, and promote resilience in the uncertain future of climate change.

  18. Incorporating Resource Protection Constraints in an Analysis of Landscape Fuel-Treatment Effectiveness in the Northern Sierra Nevada, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Christopher B; Collins, Brandon M; Stephens, Scott L

    2016-03-01

    Finding novel ways to plan and implement landscape-level forest treatments that protect sensitive wildlife and other key ecosystem components, while also reducing the risk of large-scale, high-severity fires, can prove to be difficult. We examined alternative approaches to landscape-scale fuel-treatment design for the same landscape. These approaches included two different treatment scenarios generated from an optimization algorithm that reduces modeled fire spread across the landscape, one with resource-protection constrains and one without the same. We also included a treatment scenario that was the actual fuel-treatment network implemented, as well as a no-treatment scenario. For all the four scenarios, we modeled hazardous fire potential based on conditional burn probabilities, and projected fire emissions. Results demonstrate that in all the three active treatment scenarios, hazardous fire potential, fire area, and emissions were reduced by approximately 50 % relative to the untreated condition. Results depict that incorporation of constraints is more effective at reducing modeled fire outputs, possibly due to the greater aggregation of treatments, creating greater continuity of fuel-treatment blocks across the landscape. The implementation of fuel-treatment networks using different planning techniques that incorporate real-world constraints can reduce the risk of large problematic fires, allow for landscape-level heterogeneity that can provide necessary ecosystem services, create mixed forest stand structures on a landscape, and promote resilience in the uncertain future of climate change.

  19. Clinical study of relation and treatment with different platelet formulations between aspirin and relapsing haemorrhage after operation in hypertensive cerebral haemorrhage patients%阿司匹林与脑出血术后再出血相关性和不同血小板制剂治疗的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓卫; 孙昭胜; 叶艳巧; 陈建超; 李永谦; 赵金恋; 宋德余; 赵旺淼; 毛建辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation and clinical efficiency for fresh apheresis platelets and frozen apheresis platelets between aspirin and relapsing haemorrhage after operation in hypertensive basal ganglia cerebral haemorrhage patients.Methods 816 patients with hypertensive basal ganglia cerebral haemorrhage were treated with craniotomy.Patients without aspirin medication before the onset of the disease were chosen as the control group(group A).There were 326 cases in group A.The patients used aspirin before the onset of the disease were randomly assigned to three groups(group B,C and D).,The patients in group B were given routine therapy without other intervention.On the basis of routine therapy,the patients in group C were received frozen apheresis platelets,and the patients in group D were received fresh apheresis platelets.Except the patients without satisfactory heamostasis during operation,there were 315 patients in group A,154 patients in group B,160 patients in group C and 160 patients in group D.Results The rate of relapsing heamorrhage after operation,heamatoma volume of relapsing haemorrhage,death rate and ADL score grades by 6 months follow-up survey in four groups showed that there were more significant difference between group A and group B,group B and group C,group B and group D(P0.05).Condnsion Aspirin can increase the chance of relapsing haemorrhage after operation,disablement rate and death rate in hypertensive basal ganglia cerebral haemorrhage patients.The chance of relapsing haemorrhage after operation.disablement rate and death rate can be decreased after using fresh apheresis platelets and frozen apheresis platelets.There was no significant difierence of curative effect between used fresh apheresis platelets and frozen one.Fresh apheresis platelets should be used as a first-line therapy.%目的 探讨阿司匹林与高血压基底节区脑出血术后再出血的相关性和新鲜血小板、冰冻血小板的疗效.方法

  20. Resistência à aspirina: realidade ou ficção? Resistencia a la aspirina: realidad o ficción? Aspirin resistance: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaldo Cavalcanti de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    resistentes a la aspirina tuvieron, de acuerdo con tests de laboratorio, en media, 3,8 veces más eventos cardiovasculares cuando fueron comparados a los no resistentes.A meta-analysis of clinical studies of patients with cardiovascular disease demonstrated that the use of aspirin was associated with a 22% decrease in death rates and relevant ischemic vascular events. However, clinical studies demonstrated that patients that regularly took aspirin presented recurrence of cardiovascular events. Such observation led to the question whether, in some patients, the aspirin was not effective in blocking platelet aggregation and these patients were called unresponsive to aspirin or aspirin-resistant. The clinical aspirin resistance is characterized as the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients during treatment with aspirin, whereas the laboratory resistance is defined as the persistence of platelet aggregation, documented by laboratory test, in patients regularly taking aspirin. Patients that are aspirin-resistant presented, according to laboratory tests, on average 3.8 times more cardiovascular events when compared to non-resistant ones.

  1. Effects of copper-aspirin complex on platelet-neutrophil interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang SHEN; Peng CHEN; Ling LI; Peng CHEN; Wei-ping LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat thrombosis and the interaction between platelets and neutrophils. METHODS: The model of electrically stimulated carotid artery thrombosis in Sprague Dawley rats was used; the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat platelet-neutrophil adhesion and platelet aggregation stimulated by activated neutrophils were observed by rosette assay and Born's method, respectively. RESULTS:Intragastric copper-aspirin complex (5, 7, and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently prolonged the occlusion time; it significantly decreased the rosette number formed between thrombin-activated platelets and neutrophils; the 50 % of inhibitory concentration (IC50) was (54.6±4.3) μmol/L. Copper-aspirin complex markedly inhibited rat platelet aggregation induced by either cell free supernatant of activated neutrophils or by activated neutrophil suspension.The values of IC50 were (224.5±16.2) μmol/L and (820.5±21.4) μmol/L, whereas aspirin had no influence.CONCLUSION: Copper-aspirin complex inhibited platelet-neutrophil interactions through a different property from aspirin and resulted in a more potent antithrombotic activity.

  2. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  3. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, O.T. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hallo99@doctors.org.uk; Yadegafar, G. [Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications.

  4. Effect of Aspirin on Spinal Cord Injury: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Reihani Kermani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is an anti-inflammatory drug, peroxyl radical scavenger, and antioxidant agent that inhibits phospholipases, nitric oxide synthetases, and cyclooxygenase enzymes. The existing literature contains no studies on the effects of various doses of aspirin on spinal cord injury (SCI. Therefore, we sought to investigate the putative effects of aspirin on experimental SCI. The weight-drop injury model was used to produce SCI in 100 albino Wistar rats. The animals were allocated to five groups: a control group, where the rats did not undergo any surgical or medical intervention except for anesthesia; a sham-treated group, where laminectomy was performed without SCI and no further therapy was administered; and three other groups, where the rats with SCI received low-dose aspirin [20 mg/kg], high-dose aspirin [80 mg/kg], and a vehicle, respectively. Half of the rats were sacrificed 24 hours later, and their spinal cords were excised for biochemical studies. The other rats were subjected to Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB locomotor rating scale scoring once a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Aspirin decreased lipid peroxidation following SCI as the mean (± standard error catalase level was significantly higher in the high-dose aspirin group (46.10±12.01 than in the sham-treated group (16.07±2.42 and the vehicle-treated group (15.31±3.20 (P<0.05; P<0.05, respectively. Both of the groups treated with high-dose and low-dose aspirin demonstrated a higher mean BBB score than did the control group (P<0.001 and the sham-treated group (P<0.001. Our data provide evidence in support of the potential effects of aspirin in biochemical and neurobehavioral recovery after SCI.

  5. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Zhang; Wei-Hong Wang; Yu Tian; Wen Gao; Jiang Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression.

  6. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness.

  7. Polyhydric alcohol protective effect on Rhizomucor miehei lipase deactivation enhanced by pressure and temperature treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marilyne; Lozano, Pedro; Combes, Didier

    2005-10-01

    The influence of polyhydric alcohols (sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, glycerol) on the thermal stability of Rhizomucor miehei lipase has been studied at high hydrostatic pressure (up to 500 MPa). In the absence of additives, a protective effect (PE) (the ratio between the residual activities determined at 480 MPa for the enzyme in the presence or absence of polyhydric alcohols) of low-applied pressures (from 50 MPa to 350 MPa) against thermal deactivations (at 50 degrees C and 55 degrees C) has been noticed. In the presence of additives, a strong correlation between PE and the total hydroxyl group concentration has been obtained, for the first time, under treatments of combining denaturing temperatures and high hydrostatic pressures. This relationship does not seem to be dependent on the nature polyhydric alcohols as the same effect could be observed with 1 M sorbitol and 2 M glycerol. This PE, against thermal and high pressure combined lipase deactivation, increases with polyhydric alcohol concentrations, and when temperature increases from 25 degrees C to 55 degrees C.

  8. Protective effect of in ovo treatment with the chicken cathelicidin analog D-CATH-2 against avian pathogenic E. coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, Tryntsje; van Dijk, Albert; Matthijs, Mieke G R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and ever stricter control on antibiotic use are a driving force to develop alternatives to antibiotics. One such strategy is the use of multifunctional Host Defense Peptides. Here we examined the protective effect of prophylactic treatment with the D analog of chicke

  9. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of aspirin in post-operative dental pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, R A; Rawlins, M D

    1982-01-01

    1 Soluble aspirin, 600 mg and 1200 mg, and placebo were compared in a double-blind, cross-over study in 12 patients with post-operative pain following removal of impacted lower third molars. 2 Significant analgesia after 600 mg aspirin occurred only at 45 min after administration, whereas significant analgesia after 1200 mg aspirin occurred from 45 to 240 min. The 1200 mg dose produced greater analgesia than the 600 mg dose and is to be recommended in clinical practice. 3 Plasma concentration...

  10. Formulasi dan Evaluasi Pemakaian Cangkang Kapsul Alginat untuk Pembuatan Sediaan Floating dari Dispersi Padat Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Anggono, Jeriko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aspirin is the group of non steroid anti-inflamatory drug besides that is used as antiplatelet drug. Aspirin is poorly soluble in water and can cause the irritation in the stomach in oral route. Therefore, it is necessary to modify solid dispersion dosage form that can remain in the stomach, as the example is floating dosage form by using alginate as capsule shell. Purpose: The aim of this study was to prepare floating dosage form of aspirin solid dispersion that can remain in ...

  11. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  12. Does the African garden egg offer protection against experimentally induced ulcers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anosike Chioma; Abonyi Obiora; Ubaka Chukwuemeka

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possible antiulcer effect of the African garden egg,Solanum aethiopicum (S. aethiopicum)(a domestic vegetable) experimentally in rats.Methods:A methanol extract of the plant fruit was prepared by maceration. Twenty five overnight fasted rats for each model were divided randomly into five groups of five rats. Groups1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 received normal saline, extract dose levels of100, 200 and400 mg/kg and100 mg/kg of ranitidine respectively. All administrations were given orally. For the indomethacin and aspirin models, ulcerogenic agents (indomethacin, 50mg/kg and aspirin200 mg/kg) were given thirty minutes after extract treatments and animals sacrificed8 h later. The acidified ethanol model (ethanol 60% + 0.1 mol/L HCl) was given 1hr after extract treatment and animals sacrificed 1 h later. Ulcer index was checked and analysed with appropriate statistical tools.Results:Extract ofS. aethiopicumshowed positive effect on all the models used. It produced higher ulcer inhibition than ranitidine in the indomethacin and acid-ethanol models. All the anti-ulcer effects of the extract at different doses were dose dependent but only in indomethacin model did it produce statistically significant(P<0.05) ulcer reduction in all doses compared to control.Conclusions:Garden egg, a readily cultivated crop vegetable possesses ulcer protective properties against ulcers induced experimentally making it a cheap source of natural anti-ulcer remedy.

  13. Aspirin and Simvastatin Combination for Cardiovascular Events Prevention Trial in Diabetes (ACCEPT-D: design of a randomized study of the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of cardiovascular events in subjects with diabetes mellitus treated with statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tognoni Gianni

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high cardiovascular risk, evidence of efficacy of preventive strategies in individuals with diabetes is scant. In particular, recommendations on the use of aspirin in patients with diabetes mostly reflect an extrapolation from data deriving from other high risk populations. Furthermore, the putative additive effects of aspirin and statins in diabetes remain to be investigated. This aspect is of particular interest in the light of the existing debate regarding the need of multiple interventions to reduce total cardiovascular risk, which has also led to the proposal of a polypill. Aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin in the primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in diabetic patients candidate for treatment with statins. These preventive strategies will be evaluated on the top of the other strategies aimed at optimizing the care of diabetic patients in terms of metabolic control and control of the other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design The ACCEPT-D is an open-label trial assessing whether 100 mg/daily of aspirin prevent cardiovascular events in patients without clinically manifest vascular disease and treated with simvastatin (starting dose 20 mg/die. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to receive aspirin + simvastatin or simvastatin alone. Eligibility criteria: male and female individuals aged >=50 years with diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes, already on treatment with statins or candidate to start the treatment (LDL-cholesterol >=100 mg/dL persisting after 3 months of dietary advise. The primary combined end-point will include cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospital admission for cardiovascular causes (acute coronary syndrome, transient ischemic attack, not planned revascularization procedures, peripheral vascular disease. A total of 515 first events are needed to detect a reduction in the risk of major

  14. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder [Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Olson, Kenneth R. [Department of Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, South Bend, IN 46617 (United States); Kashfi, Khosrow, E-mail: kashfi@med.cuny.edu [Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin is the first dual acting NO and H{sub 2}S releasing hybrid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its IC{sub 50} for cell growth inhibition is in the low nano-molar range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure-activity studies show that the sum of the parts does not equal the whole. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin reduced tumor growth by 85% in mice bearing a colon cancer xenograft. -- Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC{sub 50}s of 45.5 {+-} 2.5, 19.7 {+-} 3.3, and 7.7 {+-} 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation.

  15. Paroxysmal vascular events in Sturge– Weber syndrome: Role of aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sanghvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS is a rare, sporadically occurring neurocutaneous disorder with a frequency of approximately 1 per 50,000. The hallmark is an intracranial leptomeningeal vascular angioma in association with a port wine nevus, usually involving ophthalmic or maxillary distribution of trigeminal nerve. Other clinical findings associated with SWS are seizures, glaucoma, hemiparesis and mental retardation. The radiological hallmark is "Tram-line" or "Gyri-form" calcification. 25 to 56% of patients experience recurrent episodes of paroxysmal focal neurological deficits in form of transient hemiparesis, which may be due to vascular ischemia or postictal in origin. EEG helps to differentiate the exact etiology, as it is normal in former. Aspirin prophylaxis in those, due to ischemia decreases their recurrences and improves overall neurological prognosis. We report a 25-month-old child of SWS with recurrent episodes of transient hemiparesis and atypical midline location of facial vascular nevus.

  16. Evaluation of compressibility of pentaestergum coated aspirin microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Dorle, A K

    1989-01-01

    We have earlier reported the usefulness of the pentaerythritol rosin ester (pentaestergum) as a coating material, its dissolution kinetics and in vivo release studies in dogs. The present communication deals with the compressibility of the pentaestergum-coated aspirin microcapsules. The microcapsules were prepared by the pan-coating method described earlier. These were compressed into the tablets using a single punch machine. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability loss, disintegration time and dissolution studies. The results showed that there were significant differences in the release characteristics from the microcapsules and the compressed tablets. The effect of 5 per cent starch as a disintegrating agent in the tablet formulation was also studied. The results showed that the tablets can be a suitable dosage form for pentaestergum-coated microcapsules to give a delayed drug release.

  17. Thermodynamics of surface defects at the aspirin/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julian; Zheng, Chen; Reuter, Karsten

    2014-09-01

    We present a simulation scheme to calculate defect formation free energies at a molecular crystal/water interface based on force-field molecular dynamics simulations. To this end, we adopt and modify existing approaches to calculate binding free energies of biological ligand/receptor complexes to be applicable to common surface defects, such as step edges and kink sites. We obtain statistically accurate and reliable free energy values for the aspirin/water interface, which can be applied to estimate the distribution of defects using well-established thermodynamic relations. As a show case we calculate the free energy upon dissolving molecules from kink sites at the interface. This free energy can be related to the solubility concentration and we obtain solubility values in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  18. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for aspirin recognition and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Xianwen; Geng Zhirong; Zhao Yao; Wang Zhilin; Zhu Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, MOE Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: wangzl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn

    2009-04-22

    Core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs) with combined properties of molecular recognition and controlled release were prepared and characterized. Magnetic MIPs were synthesized by the co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) around aspirin (ASP) at the surface of double-bond-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in chloroform. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 500 nm had obvious superparamagnetism and could be separated quickly by an external magnetic field. Binding experiments were carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity and selectivity to ASP. Moreover, release profiles and release rate of ASP from the ASP-loaded magnetic MIPs indicated that the magnetic MIPs also had potential applications in drug controlled release.

  19. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of colorectal cancer: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Poulsen, Aslak H; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2009-01-01

    The optimal duration and dose of aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the potential prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been established. We examined this issue in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Self-reported NSAID use at entry (January...... subjects, we identified 615 CRC cases during 1995-2006. Daily aspirin use at entry was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.49-1.10). A similar risk reduction was seen among subjects with 10 or more prescriptions for aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs and five or more years of follow......-up. Most aspirin prescriptions were for 75-150 mg aspirin tablets. Among non-aspirin NSAID users, only those with body mass index (BMI) above 25 showed risk reductions [RR, 0.69 (0.47-1.03) for 10 or more prescriptions]. Long-term consistent use of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAIDs appears necessary to achieve...

  20. Association of the variants in AGT gene with modified drug response in Korean aspirin-intolerant asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Tae-Joon; Lee, Jin-Sol; Kim, Yongha; Bae, Joon Seol; Kim, Jin Moo; Park, Jong Sook; Park, Choon-Sik; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2011-10-01

    The angiotensinogen (AGT) gene enhances the effect of several bronchoconstrictors and produces a peptide that is accumulated in the airways of asthma patients; events that may underpin the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). To carry out a case-control analysis between AGT and aspirin-induced bronchospasm following treatment with an anti-asthma drug, montelukast (MLK), 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AGT were genotyped in 56 AIA cohort. Genotyping was performed with TaqMan assay and haplotypes were inferred using PHASE algorithm ver. 2.0. Statistical analyses of each SNPs and haplotypes were performed using SAS version 9.1. Among 13 variants displaying significant signals, two SNPs (+2401C>G and +2476C>T) in the intronic region of AGT were significantly associated with modification of drug response even after correction for multiple testing (P=0.0009-0.002; P(corr)=0.02-0.03). Furthermore, the two variants also exhibited associations with MLK response rate (P=0.0003-0.0006; P(corr)=0.006-0.01). Although our results are preliminary and further replication in a larger-scale group of subjects should be warranted, these observations provide evidence that AGT variants might be one of genetic factors involved in the response of anti-asthma drugs in AIA patients.

  1. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela-Corina Rosu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 °C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  2. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela-Corina Rosun; Ioan Bratu

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 1C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber) with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin) it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  3. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  4. Role of Dispersion Interactions in the Polymorphism and Entropic Stabilization of the Aspirin Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin has been used and studied for over a century but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  5. Mobile compression devices and aspirin for VTE prophylaxis following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Johnson, Staci R; Keeney, James A; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Levy et al questioned the effectiveness of mobile compression devices (MCDs) as the sole method of thromboprophylaxis following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study's purpose was to assess if the addition of aspirin to MCDs improves venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention following simultaneous bilateral TKA. Ninety-six patients (192 TKAs) were retrospectively reviewed: 47 patients received MCDs for 10 days and aspirin for 6 weeks postoperatively based on a risk stratification protocol, while 49 patients received warfarin for 4 weeks postoperatively. One symptomatic VTE was noted in the warfarin cohort, while one patient in the MCD/aspirin cohort and three patients in the warfarin cohort were readmitted within 3 months of surgery. In appropriately selected patients, MCDs with aspirin shows promise in VTE prevention following simultaneous bilateral TKA.

  6. Aspirin Augments IgE-Mediated Histamine Release from Human Peripheral Basophils via Syk Kinase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Aspirin enhanced histamine release from basophils via increased Syk kinase activation, and that the augmentation of histamine release by NSAIDs or FAs may be one possible cause of worsening symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and FDEIA.

  7. Bleeding tendency in dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin/clopidogrel: rescue of the template bleeding time in a single-center prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Raul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with heightened platelet reactivity in response to antiplatelet agents are at an increased risk of recurrent ischemic events. However, there is a lack of diagnostic criteria for increased response to combined aspirin/clopidogrel therapy. The challenge is to identify patients at risk of bleeding. This study sought to characterize bleeding tendency in patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel. Patients/methods In a single-center prospective study, 100 patients under long-term aspirin/clopidogrel treatment, the effect of therapy was assayed by template bleeding time (BT and the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA by light transmission aggregometry (LTA. Arachidonic acid (0.625 mmol/L and adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 2, 4, and 8 μmol/L were used as platelet agonists. Results Bleeding episodes (28 nuisance, 2 hematuria [1 severe], 1 severe proctorrhagia, 1 severe epistaxis were significantly more frequent in patients with longer BT. Template BT ≥ 24 min was associated with bleeding episodes (28 of 32. Risk of bleeding increased 17.4% for each 1 min increase in BT. Correlation was found between BT and IPAmax in response to ADP 2 μmol/L but not to ADP 4 or 8 μmol/L. Conclusion In patients treated with dual aspirin/clopidogrel therapy, nuisance and internal bleeding were significantly associated with template BT and with IPAmax in response to ADP 2 μmol/L but not in response to ADP 4 μmol/L or 8 μmol/L.

  8. Aspirin and pravastatin reduce lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression, adhesion molecules and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-wei; ZHOU Shi-bei; TAN Zhi-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress and inflammation are important steps in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We postulated that therapeutic concentrations of aspirin and pravastatin, especially in combination, may suppress oxidative stress and inflammation in endothelial cells, and this concept was examined in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs).Methods Human coronary artery endothelial cells were cultured and treated with oxidized-low density iipoprotein (ox-LDL, 60 μg/ml for 24 hours) alone, or pre-treated with aspirin (1, 2 or 5 mmol/L), pravastatin (1, 5 or 10 μmol/L) or their combination (1 mmol/L aspirin and 5 μmol/L pravastatin), followed by ox-LDL treatment. After respective treatment,superoxide anion production, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and transcription factor NF-κB activation, protein expression of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and adhesion molecules, and monocyte adhesion were measured.Results Ox-LDL treatment greatly elicited its receptor LOX-1 expression, superoxide anion production and inflammatory response, which were minimally affected by low concentration of aspidn (1 mmol/L) or pravastatin (5 μmol/L), but were markedly decreased by their combination. Activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase and NF-κB, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, which were only mildly affected by aspirin or pravastatin alone, were significantly attenuated by their combination. As a consequence, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells was markedly attenuated by the combination of the two agents. Well-known anti-oxidants α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol had similar inhibitory effects on ox-LDL-mediated oxidative stress and LOX-1 expression as well as monocyte adhesion as did the combination of aspirin and pravastatin.Conclusions These studies point to a positive interaction between aspidn and pravastatin with regard to endothelial biology. Anti-oxidant and subsequent anti

  9. Efecto de diferentes dosis de aspirina sobre el precondicionamiento contra el atontamiento en ovejas Effect of different doses of aspirin on preconditioning against stunning in conscious sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena C. Lascano

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Se ha postulado que los antiinflamatorios no esteroides que actuan inhibiendo la ciclooxigenasa (COX podrían tener efectos nocivos sobre el corazón. Recientemente se ha demostrado que los inhibidores de la COX-2 bloquean la protección por precondicionamiento tardío (PT. Se desconoce sin embargo, el efecto que pudiera tener la aspirina, el antiinflamatorio no esteroide más ampliamente utilizado en la clínica, sobre el PT en mamíferos grandes. La aspirina actúa inhibiendo las dos isoenzimas de la ciclooxigenasa (COX-1 y COX-2, siendo empleada en dosis altas como droga antiinflamatoria y en dosis bajas como agente antitrombótico. El propósito de este estudio fue analizar qué efecto tienen distintas dosis de aspirina sobre la protección del PT contra el atontamiento y las arritmias en ovejas conscientes. Se consideraron 5 grupos; control (C: 12 min de isquemia (I y 2 hr de reperfusión (R; PT: 6 períodos de 5 min I-5 min R, 24 hr antes de la I de 12 min, y tres grupos igual que PT, pero con 1.5 (PTA1.5, 8 (PTA8 y 20 (PTA20 mg/kg de aspirina respectivamente, administrados 10 min antes de la primera I de precondicionamiento. Los resultados demostraron que la dosis antiinflamatoria de aspirina (20 mg/kg fue capaz de inhibir el PT contra el atontamiento (C vs PTA20, NS, mientras que las dosis bajas (1.5 mg/kg e intermedia (8 mg/kg no afectaron la protección (C vs PT, PT1.5 y PT8, pNon-steroid antiinflammatory drugs, inhibitors of cyclooxigenase (COX, have been postulated to have deletereous effects on the heart. Recently, COX-2 inhibitors have also been found to block late preconditioning (LP protection. Aspirin is the most widely clinically used non-steroid antiinflammatory drug; yet its effect on LP in big mammals has not been determined. It inhibits the two cyclooxigenase isoenzymes (COX-1 and COX-2, at high doses being used as an antiinflammatory drug and at low doses as an antithrombotic agent. The goal of this study was thus, to

  10. Preservative effects of Aspirin on Human Hemoglobin glycation in Diabetic Condition

    OpenAIRE

    A. Divsalar; J Behroozi; AA Saboury; NN Poursasan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Diabetes is a common disease which is characterized by hyperglycemia and the increase of protein glycation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aspirin-induced damage in human hemoglobin in diabetic glycation. Materials & Methods: In this study, hemoglobin extracted from the blood of healthy individuals was incubated in the presence and absence of glucose and aspirin for 5 weeks. The rate of haem glycotation was determined in different cond...

  11. Aspirin inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated fractalkine expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG De-qian; LIU Hong; ZHANG She-bing; ZHANG Xiao-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Fractalkine is an important chemokine mediating local monocyte accumulation and inflammatory reactions in the vascular wall. Aspirin inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression closely related to atherosclerosis through the way independent of platelet and cyclooxygenase (COX). There has been no report about the effect of aspirin on fractalkine expression. We aimed to determine the fractalkine expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the effect of aspirin intervention.Methods Six of 8 HUVEC groups received either different concentrations of aspirin (0.02, 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mmol/L) or 40 μmol/L pyrrolidinecarbodithioc acid (PDTC) or 0.5 μmol/L NS-398. The other two groups were negative control and positive control (TNF-α-stimulated). After being incubated for 24 hours, cells of the 8 groups except the negative control one were stimulated with TNF-a (4 ng/ml) for another 24 hours. After that, the cells were collected for RNA isolation and protein extraction.Results Both mRNA and protein expressions of fractalkine in HUVEC were upregulated by 4 ng/ml TNF-α stimulation,Aspirin inhibited fractalkine expression in a dose-dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels. Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor, PDTC, effectively decreased the fractalkine expression. Fractalkine expression was not influenced by COX-2 selective inhibitor NS-398. COX-1 protein expression was not changed by either TNF-α stimulation or aspirin, PDTC,NS-398 intervention. Both mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 in HUVEC were upregulated by 4 ng/ml TNF-α stimulation. Aspirin decreased COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels.Conclusions TNF-α-stimulated fractalkine expression is suppressed by aspirin in a dose-dependent manner through the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 pathway.

  12. Studies on the hydrolysis of biocompatible acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Z W; Li, F M; Feng, X D; Voong, S T

    1983-01-01

    Both the homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis of five new acrylic polymers having aspirin-moieties, i.e. polymers of beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate,beta-(acetylsalicylyloxy) ethyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl methacrylate, beta-hydroxy-gamma-(acetylsalicylyloxy) propyl acrylate were investigated in acidic or alkaline medium at 30 degrees C or 60 degrees C, respectively. It was observed that the chief hydrolyzed product is always aspirin with minor amount of salicylic acid.

  13. Gender differences in the activities of aspirin-esterases in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The activities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid-esterases were measured in several tissues (liver, kidney, adrenal glands, brain and serum from adult male and female Wistar rats. In males, both aspirin-esterase I (assayed at pH 5.5 and II (assayed at pH 7.4 activities were higher in liver homogenates when compared to females (aspirin-esterase I: males 48.9 ± 4.8 (N = 8 and females 29.3 ± 4.2 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 41.4 ± 4.1 (N = 8 and females 26.1 ± 4.5 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In serum, enzyme activity was higher in females than in males (aspirin-esterase I: males 0.85 ± 0.06 (N = 6 and females 1.18 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 1.03 ± 0.13 (N = 6 and females 1.34 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In the other tissues assayed, no statistically significant difference between males and females was found. There were no statistically significant differences when the enzymes were assayed in different phases of the estrous cycle in liver and serum. These results show that the differences in aspirin-esterase activity observed between males and females are not due to the estrous cycle. The gender difference obtained in our study may indicate an involvement of gonadal hormones in the control of the hydrolysis of aspirin. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  14. Effectiveness of combined salmon calcitonin and aspirin therapy for osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinsong; Wang, Jian; Gong, Yan; Zeng, Rong

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of combined salmon calcitonin (sCT) and aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] treatment in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Following 12 weeks of treatment, therapeutic efficacy was assessed by evaluating changes in the biochemical and biophysical properties of bone (n=8 rats per group). Serological markers of bone metabolism were measured by ELISA; bone mineral densities (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; bone biomechanics of the femur and lumbar vertebrae by three-point stress test; trabecular bone morphology of lumbar vertebrae by hematoxylin and eosin staining; messenger RNA expression levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in bone marrow cells by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and OPG and RANKL protein expression levels in the proximal tibia were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Compared with treatment by sCT or ASA alone, combined treatment (sCT+ASA) increased BMD, improved femur bone strength, normalized trabecular network architecture and morphology, and increased mRNA and protein expression of OPG, while reducing the expression of RANKL. Collectively, these results demonstrated that combined treatment (sCT+ASA) of osteoporotic symptoms in OVX rats was more effective than treatment with sCT or ASA alone. Furthermore, these two drugs appeared to alter the expression of two distinct factors in the OPG/RANKL/RANK system, suggesting that their effects may be synergistic. Since sCT and ASA are currently approved for use in humans, the results of the present study suggest that the safety and efficacy of sCT+ASA combined therapy for post-menopausal osteoporosis should be assessed in clinical trials.

  15. SOX7 is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhou; Shu-Yan Huang; Jing-Xin Feng; Yan-Yan Gao; Li Zhao; Jun Lu; Bai-Qu Huang; Yu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To confirm the role of sex-determining region Y-box 7 (Sox7) in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of COX-independent human colorectal cancer cells.METHODS: The cell survival percentage was examined by MTT (Moto-nuclear cell direc cytotoxicity) assay.SOX7 expression was assessed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SB203580 was used to inhibit the p38MAPK signal pathway. SOX7 promoter activity was detected by Luciferase reporter assay.RESULTS: SOX7 was upregulated by aspirin and was involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. The p38MAPK pathway played a role in aspirin-induced SOX7 expression, during which the AP1 transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos upregulated SOX7 promoter activities.RESULTS: SOX7 is upregulated by aspirin and is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer SW480 cells.

  16. Effects of aspirin on metastasis-associated gene expression detected by cDNA microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-qin GAO; Jin-xiang HAN; Hai-yan HUANG; Shi YAN; Chang-zheng SONG; Hai-nan HUANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of aspirin on the metastasis-associated gene expression in 3AO ovarian cancer cells.METHODS: 3AO cells were treated with aspirin at the concentration of 1.2 mmol/L for 16 and 48 h, respectively.The total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagents and reverse transcribed with Superscript II and hybridized with cDNA microarray (containing oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, signal transduction pathway molecules, adhesive molecules, growth factors and ESTs) fabricated in our lab. After normalization, the ratio of gene expression of aspirin treated to untreated 3AO cells being either 2 fold up higher or 0.5 fold down (lower) were defined as differential expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray results. RESULTS: Among the 447 metastasis-associated genes, 4 genes were up-regulated and 14 genes were down-regulated in 3AO cells treated with aspirin for 16 h compared with untreated cells. While 24 genes were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated in cells treated with aspirin for 48 h. Several up or down-regulated gene expression changes continued from 16 h to 48 h. CONCLUSION: Aspirin might exert its anti-metastasis effects on ovarian cancer by affecting metastasis-associated gene expression.

  17. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on aspirin : An experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, R.; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Parameswari, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on aspirin molecule adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were synthesized by the solution-combustion method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. The averaged particle size of synthesized AgNPs was calculated as ˜55 nm. The normal Raman spectrum (nRs) and SERS spectrum of the aspirin were recorded. The molecular structure of the aspirin and aspirin adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/ B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The calculated nRs and SERS frequencies were correlated well with the observed frequencies. The flat-on orientation was predicted from the nRs and SERS spectra, when the aspirin adsorbed on the AgNPs. Hence, the present studies lead to the understanding of adsorption process of aspirin on the AgNPs, which paves the way for biomedical applications.

  18. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  19. The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Don D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI. Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether gender mix might play a role in explaining the large variation of aspirin efficacy across primary and secondary MI prevention trials. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the efficacy of aspirin therapy on MI were identified by using the PUBMED database (1966 to October 2006. Weighted linear regression technique was used to determine the relationship between log-transformed relative risk (RR of MI and the percentage of male participants in each trial. The reciprocal of the standard error of the RR in each trial (1/SE was used as the weight. Results A total of 23 trials (n = 113 494 participants were identified. Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.64–0.81, p Conclusion Gender accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in the efficacy of aspirin in reducing MI rates across these trials, and supports the notion that women might be less responsive to aspirin than men.

  20. Evaluation of Bistar 80SC (bifenthrin) as a tent treatment for protection against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, D; Frances, S P; Sweeney, A W; Brown, M D; Cooper, R D

    2008-11-01

    A field trial to assess the efficacy of Bistar 80 SC as a barrier treatment of Australian military tents was conducted over 10 d at Mount Bundey Military Training Area, Northern Territory, Australia, in March 2003. Four pairs of standard eight-person tents were erected, with a single tent in each pair treated with 0.1% Bistar 80 SC as a course spray, and the remainder left as untreated control tents. Carbon dioxide-baited traps were operated in each tent nightly, and biting collections conducted over 8 nights. There was a mean increase in protection of 81% for mosquitoes entering treated tents and 90.4% increase in protection against biting of predominantly Culex annulirostris Skuse. In addition, bifenthrin applied to the military tents enhances the protection of occupants against bites from this important arbovirus vector.

  1. Aspirin resistance may be identified by miR-92a in plasma combined with platelet distribution width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aspirin is a widely used drug for prevention of thrombotic events in cardiovascular patients, but approximately 25% of patients experience insufficient platelet inhibition due to aspirin, and remain in risk of cardiovascular events. This study aimed to investigate the value...... of circulating miR-92a and platelet size as biomarkers of the individual response to aspirin therapy. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 50 healthy blood donors without antithrombotic medication and 50 patients with intermittent claudication on daily aspirin therapy. Based on results from the arachidonic...... acid stimulated aggregation test on Multiplate®analyzer (ASPItest), patients were defined as aspirin resistant (n=10) or aspirin responders (n=40). Plasma levels of miR-92a were evaluated by RT-qPCR analysis and platelet distribution width (PDW) was used to assess platelet size variability. Receiver...

  2. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

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    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  3. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  4. Aspirin Modulates Innate Inflammatory Response and Inhibits the Entry of Trypanosoma cruzi in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Donizette Malvezi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, a serious disorder that affects millions of people in Latin America. Cell invasion by T. cruzi and its intracellular replication are essential to the parasite’s life cycle and for the development of Chagas disease. Here, we present evidence suggesting the involvement of the host’s cyclooxygenase (COX enzyme during T. cruzi invasion. Pharmacological antagonist for COX-1, aspirin (ASA, caused marked inhibition of T. cruzi infection when peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with ASA for 30 min at 37°C before inoculation. This inhibition was associated with increased production of IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO∙ by macrophages. The treatment of macrophages with either NOS inhibitors or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 restored the invasive action of T. cruzi in macrophages previously treated with ASA. Lipoxin ALX-receptor antagonist Boc2 reversed the inhibitory effect of ASA on trypomastigote invasion. Our results indicate that PGE2, NO∙, and lipoxins are involved in the regulation of anti-T. cruzi activity by macrophages, providing a better understanding of the role of prostaglandins in innate inflammatory response to T. cruzi infection as well as adding a new perspective to specific immune interventions.

  5. Chronic subdural hematoma in elderly patient with EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia recently treated with aspirin and warfarin: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Masato; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ishihama, Yumiko; Nishimura, Shigeko; Ide, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    A 78-year-old man who had a history of myocardial and cerebral infarction and who was treated with aspirin and warfarin, presented with left chronic subdural hematoma. Cerebral computed tomography showed severe brain compression of hematoma with midline shift, indicating the need for emergent surgery. The hematology and clotting tests upon admission revealed severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count, 1.3 × 10(4)/μL) with normal clotting activity. Because platelet aggregation was evident in the smear, we re-examined the patient for hematology using tubes that contained heparin, showing also low platelet count (2.3 × 10(4)/μL). The day on admission, we performed irrigation and drainage of the chronic subdural hematoma through single burr-hole craniostomy. During surgery, we used 10 units of platelet concentrates (PCs) for the reason that the patient was taking aspirin and coagulopathy derived from low platelet count could not be excluded. After surgery, we re-evaluated the hematology of the blood stored in tubes that contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with or without kanamycin (KM). Treatment with KM dissociated EDTA-induced platelet aggregation and revealed platelet counts with highest accuracy (no KM treatment, 1.3 × 10(4)/μL; KM treatment, 15.2 × 10(4)/μL). This phenomenon is called EDTA-Dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) defined as falsely low platelet counts reported by automated hematology analyzers due to platelet aggretgation. Awareness of the phenomenon will enable neurosurgeons to manage patients with PTCP appropriately and clinical laboratory especially in emergency hospital is recommended to prepare for the hematological tubes being added KM in routine analysis, resulting in preventing mistaken diagnosis.

  6. CONTRAST ADVERSE EFFECT STUDY OF ASPIRIN AND CLOPIDOGREL IN STROKE PATIENTS USING COMBINATION AND INDIVIDUAL MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Giri Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and hemorrhage are the conditions which may lead to stroke. As stroke is a medical emergency, treated with medications such as aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole. In the present study the combination and individual adverse effects of aspirin and clopidogrel medication were studied. The study during was around nine months in one of the private hospital at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Adverse effects evaluation was based on WHO guide lines and Naranjo’s Algorithm. Total 69 stroke patients were taken in to studies. 46 (66.66% were males and 23 (33.33% were females. The number of ischemic stroke patients was 39(56.5% and hemorrhage stroke was 30(43.4%. Among 41 patients, 19 patients was on Aspirin (46.34%, 10 patients was on clopidogral (24.34% and 12 patients was on combinations medication (29.26%. Adverse effects reported among the antiplatelate users were 6 patients. Among these 6 patients 4 patients were observed with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI the overall percentage was 66.66% and 2 patients were observed with Vomiting, the overall percentage was 33.33%. In this study, the relative risk reduction for secondary stroke prevention was 37% with use of a combination of extended- release dipyridamole and aspirin. Importantly, the risk of major bleeding attributable to the combination therapy was no greater than that seen with aspirin alone. The benefit of clopidogrel over aspirin for the prevention of vascular events was a relative risk reduction of 8.7%.In addition, there was less major bleeding in the clopidogrel group, yielding a relative net benefit of about 10%. This study revels clopidogrel is the safe drug when compared with Aspirin and as well as combination therapy.

  7. Effects of aspirin on atherosclerosis and the cyclooxygenase-2 expression in atherosclerotic rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi; WANG Qi-zhang; TANG Bing-shan; ZUO Yan-fang; LI Fang-ming; JIANG Xin; WANG Ling; MA Ke-fu

    2006-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a complex vascular inflammatory disease. Aspirin is a mainstay in the prevention of vascular complications of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effectiveness of aspirin in suppressing atherosclerosis and the inflammation process was evaluated in rabbits fed with a high fat diet.Methods Eighteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, untreated cholesterol-fed group, aspirin treated cholesterol-fed group, which were fed for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the aorta was harvested for pathologic morphology observation. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) was performed. The statistical analysis was performed by the statistical program SPSS 10.0.Results The aorta plaque/intima size (P/I) by pathologic morphology observation was 0%, (59.6± 13.7)% and (36.3± 16.5)% in the control, untreated cholesterol-fed group and aspirin treated group, respectively. The maximum plaque thickness, the degree of artery stenosis and the proportion of the intimal circumference occupied by atheroma of the 3 groups were significantly different from each other (P<0.01). The expression of COX-2 and macrophage in plaque of the aspirin treated group were decreased compared with that in untreated cholesterol-fed group. However, no difference was found in the expression of VSMC between the aspirin treated and the untreated cholesterol-fed group.Conclusion The mechanism of atherosclerosis suppression by aspirin in cholesterol-fed rabbits is related to the inhibition of COX-2 expression together with the reduced inflammation followed by, but not related to the hypolipidemic effects.

  8. How to test the effect of aspirin and clopidogrel in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoly, Zsuzsa; Homoródi, Nóra; Kovács, Emese Gyöngyvér; Sarkady, Ferenc; Csiba, László; Édes, István; Muszbek, László

    2016-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is frequently used for the prevention of recurrent ischemic events. Various laboratory methods are used to detect the effect of these drugs administered in monotherapy, however their value in dual therapy has not been explored. Here, we determined which methods used for testing the effect of clopidogrel or aspirin are influenced by the other antiplatelet agent. One arm of the study included 53 ischemic stroke patients being on clopidogrel monotherapy showing effective inhibition of the P2Y12 ADP receptor. Laboratory tests routinely used for the detection of aspirin resistance (arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation/secretion, AA-induced thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production in platelet-rich plasma and VerifyNow Aspirin assay) were carried out on samples obtained from these patients. The other arm of the study involved 52 patients with coronary artery disease being on aspirin monotherapy. Methods used for testing the effect of clopidogrel (ADP-induced platelet aggregation and secretion, flow cytometric analysis of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and a newly developed P2Y12-specific platelet aggregation (ADP[PGE1] test)) were performed on samples obtained from these patients. Clopidogrel monotherapy significantly inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation and secretion, moreover, AA-induced TXB2 production was also significantly decreased. VASP phosphorylation and AA-induced platelet aggregation showed fair correlation in patients taking clopidogrel only. Clopidogrel did not inhibit the VerifyNow Aspirin test significantly. Aspirin monotherapy influenced ADP-induced platelet aggregation and secretion, but did not have an effect on VASP phosphorylation and on the ADP[PGE1] platelet aggregation test.

  9. Determinants of reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Bøjet Larsen

    Full Text Available Aspirin is a cornerstone in management of coronary artery disease (CAD. However, considerable variability in the antiplatelet effect of aspirin has been reported.To investigate independent determinants of reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin in stable CAD patients.We performed a cross-sectional study including 900 stable, high-risk CAD patients. Among these, 795 (88% had prior myocardial infarction, 250 (28% had type 2 diabetes, and 170 (19% had both. All patients received 75 mg aspirin daily as mono antiplatelet therapy. The antiplatelet effect of aspirin was assessed by measurement of platelet aggregation employing 1 multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA, Multiplate Analyzer in whole blood anticoagulated with citrate or hirudin using arachidonic acid (AA or collagen as agonists, and 2 VerifyNow Aspirin Assay. Compliance was assessed by measurement of serum thromboxane B2.Platelet count, prior myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes and body mass index were independent determinants of increased AA-induced MEA platelet aggregation in citrate and hirudin anticoagulated blood (p-values ≤ 0.045. Similar results were found with VerifyNow. Prior coronary artery bypass grafting, age, smoking (MEA, AA/citrate and female gender (MEA, AA/hirudin were also independent determinants of increased platelet aggregation (p-values ≤ 0.038. Compliance was confirmed by low serum thromboxane B2 levels in all patients (median [25%;75%]: 0.97 [0.52;1.97], range 0.02-26.44 ng/ml.Platelet count, prior myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes and body mass index were independent determinants of increased platelet aggregation, indicating that these characteristics may be key factors in reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin in stable CAD patients.

  10. Social franchising of TB care through private GPs in Myanmar: an assessment of treatment results, access, equity and financial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Knut; Aung, Tin; Maung, Win; Kluge, Hans; Uplekar, Mukund

    2007-05-01

    This article assesses whether social franchising of tuberculosis (TB) services in Myanmar has succeeded in providing quality treatment while ensuring equity in access and financial protection for poor patients. Newly diagnosed TB patients receiving treatment from private general practitioners (GPs) belonging to the franchise were identified. They were interviewed about social conditions, health seeking and health care costs at the time of starting treatment and again after 6 months follow-up. Routine data were used to ascertain clinical outcomes as well as to monitor trends in case notification. The franchisees contributed 2097 (21%) of the total 9951 total new sputum smear-positive pulmonary cases notified to the national TB programme in the study townships. The treatment success rate for new smear-positive cases was 84%, close to the World Health Organization target of 85% and similar to the treatment success of 81% in the national TB programme in Myanmar. People from the lower socio-economic groups represented 68% of the TB patients who access care in the franchise. Financial burden related to direct and indirect health care costs for tuberculosis was high, especially among the poor. Patients belonging to lower socio-economic groups incurred on average costs equivalent to 68% of annual per capita household income, with a median of 28%. However, 83% of all costs were incurred before starting treatment in the franchise, while 'shopping' for care. During treatment in the franchise, the cost of care was relatively low, corresponding to a median proportion of annual per capita income of 3% for people from lower socio-economic groups. This study shows that highly subsidized TB care delivered through a social franchise scheme in the private sector in Myanmar helped reach the poor with quality services, while partly protecting them from high health care expenditure. Extended outreach to others parts of the private sector may reduce diagnostic delay and patient costs

  11. Effects of Aspirin with Antihypertensive Drugs on Mild Hypertension%不同时间服用阿司匹林联合不同种类降压药物对轻度高血压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨菊; 孙晓晖; 周晓玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨不同时间服用阿司匹林且分别予钙离子拮抗剂(CCB)及血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂(ACEI)降压药联合对轻度高血压患者血压的影响.方法 120例轻度高血压患者经积极改良生活方式2个月后,血压仍未达标者,在继续生活方式改良的基础上,随机分为6组,每组20例.组1:晨服氨氯地平5 mg;组2:晨服氨氯地平5 mg+晨服拜阿司匹林100 mg;组3:晨服氨氯地平5 mg+睡前服拜阿司匹林100 mg;组4:晨服贝那普利10 mg;组5:晨服贝那普利10 mg +晨服拜阿司匹林100 mg;组6:晨服贝那普利10 mg+睡前服拜阿司匹林100 mg,观察3个月.治疗前后分别进行血压监测和血生化指标的测定.结果 治疗后6组血压均明显下降(P0.05);阿司匹林睡前服用组的降压幅度较晨服组和不服组增高(P0.05).结论 睡前服用阿司匹林比晨服有利于降低血压,与CCB合用效果更明显.%Objective To explore the effects of aspirin with calcium channel blocker (CCB) and angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI) on mild primary hypertension. Methods One hundred and twenty patients (pts) with mild hypertension were divided into six groups(n=20 in each group) :Group 1(amlodipine 5 mg administered at morning) ,Group 2 (amlodipine 5 mg and aspirin 100 mg at morning) , Group 3 (amlodipine 5 mg and aspirin 100 mg at night), Group 4 (benazepril 10 mg at the morning), Group 5 (benazepril 10 mg and aspirin 100 mg at morning) ,and Group 6 (benazepril 10 mg at morning and aspirin 100 mg at night). The blood pressures and blood biochemical indexes were monitored before and after treatment. Results After the treatment,the blood pressure in six groups was decreased obviously (P<0.01). The blood pressure was decreased significantly in group 3 compared with that in other groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The decrease of pressure in group 6 was more than that in group 1,group 2,group 4,and group 5 (P>0.05). The decrease extent in pts who took aspirin

  12. Protective efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and parasite resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie T Griffin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in infants using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTi is recommended by WHO for implementation in settings where resistance to SP is not high. Here we examine the relationship between the protective efficacy of SP-IPTi and measures of SP resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the relationship between protective efficacy reported in the 7 SP-IPTi trials and contemporaneous data from 6 in vivo efficacy studies using SP and 7 molecular studies reporting frequency of dhfr triple and dhps double mutations within 50 km of the trial sites. We found a borderline significant association between frequency of the dhfr triple mutation and protective efficacy to 12 months of age of SP-IPTi. This association is significantly biased due to differences between studies, namely number of doses of SP given and follow up times. However, fitting a simple probabilistic model to determine the relationship between the frequency of the dhfr triple, dhps double and dhfr/dhps quintuple mutations associated with resistance to SP and protective efficacy, we found a significant inverse relationship between the dhfr triple mutation frequency alone and the dhfr/dhps quintuple mutations and efficacy at 35 days post the 9 month dose and up to 12 months of age respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A significant relationship was found between the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation and SP-IPTi protective efficacy at 35 days post the 9 month dose. An association between the protective efficacy to 12 months of age and dhfr triple and dhfr/dhps quintuple mutations was found but should be viewed with caution due to bias. It was not possible to define a more definite relationship based on the data available from these trials.

  13. Enhancement of photoelectrochemical and photocathodic protection properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays by simple surface UV treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jun; Wang, Daoai

    2017-02-01

    A simple and efficient surface treatment method toward practical applications to enhance photo response of TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) photoelectrode was reported. TiO2 NTs were prepared by two-step electrochemical anodization methods, following by surface ultra violet light (UV) illumination treatment, which can produce amounts of hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO2 NTs photoelectrode. The photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrate that the photocurrent density of the UV treated TiO2 NTs photoelectrode enhances by 50% than that of the pristine TiO2 NTs photoelectrode. More interestingly, the decayed photocurrent density of TiO2 NTs can recover the high value by illumination treatment again after using/storing for several days. Additionally, open circuit potential, tafel curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements exhibit that the UV illumination treatment for TiO2 NTs photoelectrode is an easy and effective strategy to protect 304 stainless steel from corrosion by photogenerated cathode protection.

  14. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF MUTUAL PRODRUG OF ASPIRIN AND CHLORZOXAZONE

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    Sandeep Walsangikar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin chlorzoxazone ester linked mutual prodrug was synthesized with the aim of improving the therapeutic index through prevention of gastrointestinal irritation and bleeding. The structure of the synthesized ester prodrug was confirmed by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and their purity was established by elemental analysis, HPLC and TLC. The release of ASP as well as CZX, from the ester prodrug was studied. A validated analytical HPLC method for the estimation of the ASP, and the prodrug was developed. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis was studied in four different non-enzymatic buffer solutions, at pH 3, 4, 5 and 7.4 as well as in experimental plasma. Study of skeletal muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory properties in comparison with the reference compounds has shown that both skeletal muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory activities were present at the same doses of the investigated compounds. The ester was found to be less irritating to gastric mucosal membrane than the parent drugs. These results suggest that the synthesized prodrug is characterized by better therapeutic index than the parent drugs.

  15. New nitric oxide or hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Marini, Elisabetta; Rolando, Barbara; Borretto, Emily; Guglielmo, Stefano; Joseph, Sony; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2011-08-11

    A new series of (((R-oxy)carbonyl)oxy)methyl esters of aspirin (ASA), bearing nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) releasing groups, was synthesized, and the compounds were evaluated as new ASA co-drugs. All the products were quite stable in buffered solution at pH 1 and 7.4. Conversely, they were all rapidly metabolized, producing ASA and the NO/H(2)S releasing moiety used for their preparation. Consequent on ASA release, the compounds were capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The simple NO/H(2)S donor substructures were able to relax contracted rat aorta strips, with a NO- and H(2)S-dependent mechanism, respectively, but they either did not trigger antiaggregatory activity or displayed antiplatelet potency markedly below that of the related co-drug. The new products might provide a safer and improved alternative to the use of ASA principally in its anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic applications.

  16. Efficacy of an aspiration device with distal protection for the treatment in acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoto Inoue

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hiroshi Fujita Kenji Suzuki Akiko Matsuo Reo Nakamura Tetsuya Tanaka Keiji Inoue Hisayuki Hyogo Takaomi Tokura Objective Percutaneous coronary interventions in the setting of acute myocardial infarction(AMI)have been associated with increased risk of distal embolization and no-reflow phenomenon. To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a distal protection using the PercuSurge Guardwire Plus( PSG) in AMI.

  17. Aspirin inhibits glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity in HCT 116 cells through acetylation: Identification of aspirin-acetylated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, and generates ribose sugars, which are required for nucleic acid synthesis, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for neutralization of oxidative stress. The expression of G6PD is elevated in several types of tumor, including colon, breast and lung cancer, and has been implicated in cancer cell growth. Our previous study demonstrated that exposure of HCT 116 human colorectal cancer cells to aspirin caused acetylation of G6PD, and this was associated with a decrease in its enzyme activity. In the present study, this observation was expanded to HT‑29 colorectal cancer cells, in order to compare aspirin‑mediated acetylation of G6PD and its activity between HCT 116 and HT‑29 cells. In addition, the present study aimed to determine the acetylation targets of aspirin on recombinant G6PD to provide an insight into the mechanisms of inhibition. The results demonstrated that the extent of G6PD acetylation was significantly higher in HCT 116 cells compared with in HT‑29 cells; accordingly, a greater reduction in G6PD enzyme activity was observed in the HCT 116 cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of aspirin‑acetylated G6PD (isoform a) revealed that aspirin acetylated a total of 14 lysine residues, which were dispersed throughout the length of the G6PD protein. One of the important amino acid targets of aspirin included lysine 235 (K235, in isoform a) and this corresponds to K205 in isoform b, which has previously been identified as being important for catalysis. Acetylation of G6PD at several sites, including K235 (K205 in isoform b), may mediate inhibition of G6PD activity, which may contribute to the ability of aspirin to exert anticancer effects through decreased synthesis of ribose sugars and NADPH.

  18. Comparative gastrointestinal blood loss associated with placebo, aspirin, and nabumetone as assessed by radiochromium (/sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussier, A.; Davis, A.; Lussier, Y.; Lebel, E.

    1989-03-01

    Nabumetone differs from most other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is presented to the gut as a nonacidic prodrug, and is metabolized to its active form after absorption. Studies in animals and humans suggest it is less irritating to the gastrointestinal mucosa. This study compared the gastrointestinal microbleeding induced by nabumetone to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA), and placebo in a double blind parallel study using chromium /sup 51/Cr labelled red cells to quantitate fecal blood loss (FBL) in healthy volunteers. Thirty subjects were randomized to treatment with nabumetone (2000 mg), ASA (3.6 g) or placebo for 21 days following a 7 day placebo period. Six subjects served as untreated controls. FBL in nabumetone treated subjects was not significantly different to placebo or untreated subjects. In contrast, ASA-treated subjects exhibited significantly increased FBL than the other 3 groups (P less than .0001).

  19. Role of gastric blood flow, neutrophil infiltration, and mucosal cell proliferation in gastric adaptation to aspirin in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T; Stachura, J; Dembinski, A; Majka, J

    1994-01-01

    Gastric mucosa exhibits the ability to adapt to ulcerogenic action of aspirin but the mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. In this study, acute gastric lesions were produced by single or repeated doses of acidified aspirin in rats with intact or resected salivary glands and with intact or suppressed synthase of nitric oxide. A single oral dose of aspirin produced a dose dependent increase in gastric lesions accompanied by considerable blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, significant reduction in gastric blood flow, and almost complete suppression of biosynthesis of prostaglandins. After rechallenge with aspirin, the mucosal damage became smaller and progressively declined with repeated aspirin insults. Gastric adaptation to aspirin was accompanied by a significant rise in gastric blood flow, reduction in both blood neutrophilia and mucosal neutrophil infiltration, and a remarkable increase in mucosal cell regeneration and mucosal content of epidermal growth factor. Salivectomy, which reduced the mucosal content of epidermal growth factor, aggravated the initial mucosal damage induced by the first exposure to acidified aspirin but did not prevent the adaptation of this mucosa to repeated aspirin insults. Pretreatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), a specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, eliminated the hyperaemic response to repeated aspirin but did not abolish the development of adaptation to aspirin showing that the maintenance of the gastric blood flow plays little part in this adaptation. In conclusion, the stomach adapts readily to repeated aspirin insults and this is accompanied by a considerable reduction in blood neutrophilia and the severity of neutrophil infiltration and by an extensive proliferation of mucosal cells possibly involving epidermal growth factor. PMID:7525421

  20. A prospective study of aspirin use and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Huang

    Full Text Available Data regarding the influence of dose and duration of aspirin use on risk of gastrointestinal bleeding are conflicting.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32,989 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS in 1994 who provided biennial aspirin data. We estimated relative risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization or a blood transfusion.During 14 years of follow-up, 707 men reported an episode of major gastrointestinal bleeding over 377,231 person-years. After adjusting for risk factors, regular aspirin use (≥2 times/week had a multivariate relative risk (RR of gastrointestinal bleeding of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.55 compared to non-regular use. The association was particularly evident for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (multivariate RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.92. Compared to men who denied any aspirin use, multivariate RRs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 1.05 (95% CI 0.71-1.52 for men who used 0.5-1.5 standard tablets/week, 1.31 (95% CI 0.88-1.95 for 2-5 aspirin/week, 1.63 (95% CI, 1.15-2.32 for 6-14 aspirin/week and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.10-5.22 for >14 aspirin/week (P(trend<0.001. The relative risk also appeared to be dose-dependent among short-term users <5 years; P(trend<.001 and long-term users (≥5 years; P(trend = 0.015. In contrast, after controlling for dose, increasing duration of use did not appear to be associated with risk (P(trend = 0.749.Regular aspirin use increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, especially from the upper tract. However, risk of bleeding appears to be more strongly related to dose than to duration of use. Risk of bleeding should be minimized by using the lowest effective dose among short-term and long-term aspirin users.

  1. Retaliation against reporters of unequal treatment: Failing employee protection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.S.; Genugten, van M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Equal treatment in the workplace is considered one of the most fundamental rights of employees. This right also implies that employees must be able to address any form of unequal treatment freely and effectively, without fear of retaliation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the

  2. Effect of Glucose or Fat Challenge on Aspirin Resistance in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein N. Yassine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has lower antiplatelet activity in diabetic patients. Our aim is to study the roles of acute hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia on aspirin function in diabetic subjects with and without cardiovascular disease. Using urine thromboxane (pg/mg creatinine and VerifyNow (Aspirin Resistance Measures-ARU, we investigated diabetic subjects during a 2-hour glucose challenge (n=49 or a 4-hour fat challenge (n=11. All subjects were currently taking aspirin (81 or 325 mg. After fat ingestion, urine thromboxane increased in all subjects (Mean ± SE before: after (1209 ± 336: 1552 ±371, P=.01, while we noted a trend increase in VerifyNow measures (408±8: 431±18, P=.1. The response to glucose ingestion was variable. Diabetic subjects with cardiac disease and dyslipidemia increased thromboxane (1693±364: 2799 ± 513, P<.05 and VerifyNow (457.6 ± 22.3: 527.1 ± 25.8, P<.05 measures after glucose. We conclude that saturated fat ingestion increases in vivo thromboxane production despite aspirin therapy.

  3. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry.

  4. Combining aspirin with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)--a potential new tool for controlling possum populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David R; Arrow, Jane; Smith, Mark P

    2013-01-01

    The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested.

  5. Should we recommend universal aspirin for all pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Fionnuala; Mulcahy, Cecilia; McParland, Peter; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2017-02-01

    Low-dose aspirin has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in at-risk populations. Its role in low-risk populations is as yet unknown. Novel preeclampsia screening tests are emerging that can predict the risk of the development of preeclampsia from as early as 11 weeks of gestation. It may be more efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective to prescribe low-dose aspirin to all pregnant women from the first trimester as opposed to performing a screening test in the first instance. There is variation in opinion: the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests the use of aspirin only in women who are at risk of preeclampsia, based on patient history; the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, UK, and the US Preventative Services Task Force recommend the use of low-dose aspirin if there is 1 major or 2 moderate risk factors. This point-counterpoint discussion shall address (1) controversies regarding the real impact of low-dose aspirin; (2) controversies in the actual guidelines among the different national societies; (3) controversies regarding emerging preeclampsia screening tests in terms of cost-effectiveness and efficacy, and (4) points in favor of the provision of universal vs screened-positive women.

  6. Does Utilitarian Policy such as Smoking Cessation Lend Support to Wider Aspirin Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco control policy seems to be based on a utilitarian principle that public health is best served by a range of measures that will provide overall population benefit. Aspirin may have a potential wider role since meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials shows it reduces the risk of a first vascular event and also cancer. Are smoking cessation and the public health potential of aspirin different? The benefit versus risk balance of aspirin, an inexpensive and easily available medicine, deserves serious consideration as a public health measure in middle age. Smoking cessation and wider aspirin use are not seen as either competing or duplicating policy areas, but complementary. Their comparison has been purposefully selected because of common impacts, namely reduced vascular disease and cancer with increases in undesirable effects, notably gastrointestinal pathology. Part of the driver for this paper is to convey the message that public health policy has benefits and risks and the concept of a universally effective policy is unrealistic. Is it time for public health action to increase the use of aspirin?

  7. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Mizukami; Kazunari Murakami; Takashi Abe; Kunimitsu Inoue; Masahiro Uchida; Tadayoshi Okimoto; Masaaki Kodama; Toshio Fujioka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a singlecenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebocontrolled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications.

  8. Combining aspirin with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3--a potential new tool for controlling possum populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Morgan

    Full Text Available The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested.

  9. RP-HPLC analysis of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate in formulation. The separation was achieved by octadecyl column (C 18 and acetonitrile:methanol:20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 3 (50:7:43 v/v as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 240 nm. Quantitation was done by external standard calibration method. The retention time of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate was found to be 2.40 and 9.27 min, respectively. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity for aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate were in the range of 10-50 µg/ml for both the drugs. The mean recoveries obtained for aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate were 100.86% and 100.20%, respectively. The developed method was found to be accurate, precise, selective and rapid for the simultaneous estimation of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate in capsules.

  10. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  11. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  12. Intensive insulin treatment attenuates burn-initiated acute lung injury in rats: role of the protective endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Fu; Zhu, Xiong-Xiang; Hu, Da-Hai; Xu, Cheng-Feng; Wang, Yun-Chuan; Lv, Gen-Fa

    2011-01-01

    Nonmetabolic effects of intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients have been reported, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that intensive insulin treatment would attenuate burn-induced acute lung injury by protecting the pulmonary microvascular endothelium. The rat model of burn injury was achieved by exposure to 92°C water for 18 seconds. The rats were randomly allocated into the sham, burn/normal saline (NS), and burn/intensive insulin treatment groups. Blood glucose level was maintained between 5 and 7 mmol/L in rats in the burn/intensive insulin treatment group. Pulmonary injury was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, scanning electron microscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentrations, the lung wet:dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of caspase-3. Intensive insulin treatment markedly attenuated the acute lung injury, revealed by improvements in histological features and significant decreases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentrations, pulmonary wet:dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity at 12 hours after injury (P insulin treatment group when compared with the burn/NS group. Overall, intensive insulin treatment efficiently attenuated pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction, decreased cell apoptosis, and inhibited acute lung injury after a burn. These findings may be useful in preventing organ failure after burn injury.

  13. Effects of School-Based Risk and Protective Factors on Treatment Success Among Youth Adjudicated of a Sexual Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jamie R; Hansen, Jesse; Ruch, Donna; Hodge, Ashleigh

    2016-04-01

    Youth with sexually problematic behaviors are impacted by the reciprocal interplay between individual characteristics and the key social and ecological systems in which they are embedded. The paucity of research on protective factors mitigating risks within various socioecological systems is of concern, as the school is one such system that has been overlooked. This study retroactively investigated probation files among youth who were adjudicated of a sexual crime (N = 85) to determine how school-level variables are associated with treatment completion. A sequential logistical regression model revealed reduced odds for school-based risk factors and a greater proportion of variance explained when school-based protective factors were included. Implications and research considerations are discussed.

  14. Astaxanthin treatment confers protection against oxidative stress in U937 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide reducing O2- production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franceschelli

    Full Text Available Recently, astaxanthin (ASTA studies have focused on several biological functions such as radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, anti-carcinogenesis, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, anti-melanogenesis, and immune enhancement activities. In this study, we investigated the potential role protective of ASTA, an antioxidant marine carotenoid, in restoring physiological conditions in U937 cells stimulated with LPS (10 µg/ml. Our results show that pre-treatment with ASTA (10 µM for 1 h attenuates the LPS-induced toxicity and ROS production. The beneficial effect of ASTA is associated with a reduction intracellular O2 (- production by restoring the antioxidant network activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, which influence HO-1 expression and activity by inhibiting nuclear translocation of Nrf2. We accordingly hypothesize that ASTA has therapeutic properties protecting U937 cells from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress.

  15. Role of aspirin on regulating the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the kidney of diabetic rats%阿司匹林对糖尿病大鼠肾脏COX-2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶林; 夏芳珍; 陆颖理; 施超; 郭明皓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and pathological change in the kidney of diabetic rats, and study how aspirin influences on the kidney and its possible mechanisms. Methods 24 Sprague Dawley (SD)rats were randomly divided into 3 groups t Control group (C), Diabetes group (D) : received peritoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ,60mg/kg), Aspirin treatment group(DT) received aspirin (lmg. Kg-1. D-l)from the fourth day after treatment as in group D. At the end of 8 weeks, the pathological changes in the kidney were observed under light microscope and electron microscope. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to examine the expression of COX-2 in the kidney. Results There was no prominent pathological change in C group. The renal pathological and lesions of rats in D group were obvious. The kidney of D group shows extra cellular matrix increasing and basilar membrane thickening. We can also see inflammatory cell infiltrating in the kidney interstitial under light microscope. The kidney glomerulus basilar membranes are uneven thickening and the structure is obscure, the close together foot processes are mainly coalition or losing under electron microscope. Compare with C group, the expression of COX-2 in renal tissue increased in D group. (P<0. 01) However, aspirin treatment could significantly decrease the expression Of COX-2(P<0. 01) and lessen the pathological lesions in comparison with those in D group. Conclusion Aspirin has a reno-protective effect on diabetic rats, it may be mediated by suppressing the expression of COX-2 and attenuating pathological change.%目的 探讨阿司匹林对糖尿病大鼠肾脏COX-2表达和病理的影响及其可能的作用机制.方法 将24只SD大鼠随机分成3组,分别为正常对照(C)组、糖尿病(D)组[腹腔注射链酶佐菌素(STZ) 60mg/kg]和糖尿病阿司匹林治疗(DT)组(先腹腔注射STZ 60mg/kg,第4天起给予0.9%氯

  16. PREVENTION OF ONE-YEAR VEIN-GRAFT OCCLUSION AFTER AORTOCORONARY-BYPASS SURGERY - A COMPARISON OF LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN, LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN PLUS DIPYRIDAMOLE, AND ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEER, J; HILLEGE, HL; KOOTSTRA, GJ; ASCOOP, CAPL; PFISTERER, M; VANGILST, WH; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    Aspirin, alone or in combination with dipyridamole, is known to prevent occlusion of aortocoronary vein grafts. The benefit of dipyridamole in addition to aspirin remains controversial, and the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants for prevention of vein-graft occlusion have not been establishe

  17. Nanotechnology based surface treatments for corrosion protection and deposit control of power plant equipment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Nanotechnology can provide possibilities for obtaining new valuable information regarding performance and corrosion protection in power plants. In general the desired performance of the contact surfaces is an easy-to-release effect. This is in order to prolong the time interval between cleaning periods or make the cleaning procedures easier and less expensive. Corrosion protection is also desired in order to extend the life time of various parts in the power plants and thus optimize the energy output and overall efficiency of the plant. Functional sol-gel coating based on nanotechnology is tested in a variety of conditions. Applications of functional sol-gel coatings were performed in the condenser and on seven air preheaters at Fynsvaerket, Odense, with corrosion protection as the main issue. Coatings with easy-to-clean effects were tested in the Flue Gas Desulphurization plant at Nordjyllandsvaerket, Aalborg, with the aim of reducing gipsum deposit. Thermo stabilized coatings were tested on tube bundles between in the passage from the 1st to 2end pass and on the wall between 1st and 2end pass at Amagervaerket, Copenhagen, and in the boiler at Haderslev CHP plant. The objective of this test were reducing deposits and increasing corrosion protection. The tested coatings were commercial available coatings and coatings developed in this project. Visual inspections have been performed of all applications except at Nordjyllandsvaerket. Corrosion assessment has been done at DTU - Mechanical Engineering. The results range from no difference between coated and uncoated areas to some improvements. At Amagervaerket the visual assessment showed in general a positive effect with a sol-gel hybrid system and a commercial system regarding removal of deposits. The visual assessment of the air preheaters at Fynsvaerket indicates reduced deposits on a sol-gel nanocomposite coated air preheater compared to an uncoated air preheater. (Author)

  18. Atomic Oxygen Treatment for Non-Contact Removal of Organic Protective Coatings from Painting Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Cales, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Current techniques for removal of varnish (lacquer) and other organic protective coatings from paintings involve contact with the surface. This contact can remove pigment, or alter the shape and location of paint on the canvas surface. A thermal energy atomic oxygen plasma, developed to simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit, easily removes these organic materials. Uniform removal of organic protective coatings from the surfaces of paintings is accomplished through chemical reaction. Atomic oxygen will not react with oxides so that most paint pigments will not be affected by the reaction. For paintings containing organic pigments, the exposure can be carefully timed so that the removal stops just short of the pigment. Color samples of Alizarin Crimson, Sap Green, and Zinc White coated with Damar lacquer were exposed to atomic oxygen. The lacquer was easily removed from all of the samples. Additionally, no noticeable change in appearance was observed after the lacquer was reapplied. The same observations were made on a painted canvas test sample obtained from the Cleveland Museum of Art. Scanning electron microscope photographs showed a slight microscopic texturing of the vehicle after exposure. However, there was no removal or disturbance of the paint pigment on the surface. It appears that noncontact cleaning using atomic oxygen may provide a viable alternative to other cleaning techniques. It is especially attractive in cases where the organic protective surface cannot be acceptably or safely removed by conventional techniques.

  19. The Active Component of Aspirin, Salicylic Acid, Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation in a PIA-dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Cristian; Lombarte Serrat, Andrea; Cattelan, Natalia; Barbagelata, María S; Yantorno, Osvaldo M; Sordelli, Daniel O; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Grunert, Tom; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin has provided clear benefits to human health. But salicylic acid (SAL) -the main aspirin biometabolite- exerts several effects on eukaryote and prokaryote cells. SAL can affect, for instance, the expression of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors. SAL can also form complexes with iron cations and it has been shown that different iron chelating molecules diminished the formation of S. aureus biofilm. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the iron content limitation caused by SAL can modify the S. aureus metabolism and/or metabolic regulators thus changing the expression of the main polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation. The exposure of biofilm to 2 mM SAL induced a 27% reduction in the intracellular free Fe(2+) concentration compared with the controls. In addition, SAL depleted 23% of the available free Fe(2+) cation in culture media. These moderate iron-limited conditions promoted an intensification of biofilms formed by strain Newman and by S. aureus clinical isolates related to the USA300 and USA100 clones. The slight decrease in iron bioavailability generated by SAL was enough to induce the increase of PIA expression in biofilms formed by methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains. S. aureus did not produce capsular polysaccharide (CP) when it was forming biofilms under any of the experimental conditions tested. Furthermore, SAL diminished aconitase activity and stimulated the lactic fermentation pathway in bacteria forming biofilms. The polysaccharide composition of S. aureus biofilms was examined and FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed a clear impact of SAL in a codY-dependent manner. Moreover, SAL negatively affected codY transcription in mature biofilms thus relieving the CodY repression of the ica operon. Treatment of mice with SAL induced a significant increase of S aureus colonization. It is suggested that the elevated PIA expression induced by SAL might be responsible for the high nasal

  20. The Active Component of Aspirin, Salicylic Acid, Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation in a PIA-dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Cristian; Lombarte Serrat, Andrea; Cattelan, Natalia; Barbagelata, María S.; Yantorno, Osvaldo M.; Sordelli, Daniel O.; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Grunert, Tom; Buzzola, Fernanda R.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin has provided clear benefits to human health. But salicylic acid (SAL) -the main aspirin biometabolite- exerts several effects on eukaryote and prokaryote cells. SAL can affect, for instance, the expression of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors. SAL can also form complexes with iron cations and it has been shown that different iron chelating molecules diminished the formation of S. aureus biofilm. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the iron content limitation caused by SAL can modify the S. aureus metabolism and/or metabolic regulators thus changing the expression of the main polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation. The exposure of biofilm to 2 mM SAL induced a 27% reduction in the intracellular free Fe2+ concentration compared with the controls. In addition, SAL depleted 23% of the available free Fe2+ cation in culture media. These moderate iron-limited conditions promoted an intensification of biofilms formed by strain Newman and by S. aureus clinical isolates related to the USA300 and USA100 clones. The slight decrease in iron bioavailability generated by SAL was enough to induce the increase of PIA expression in biofilms formed by methicillin-resistant as well as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus strains. S. aureus did not produce capsular polysaccharide (CP) when it was forming biofilms under any of the experimental conditions tested. Furthermore, SAL diminished aconitase activity and stimulated the lactic fermentation pathway in bacteria forming biofilms. The polysaccharide composition of S. aureus biofilms was examined and FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed a clear impact of SAL in a codY-dependent manner. Moreover, SAL negatively affected codY transcription in mature biofilms thus relieving the CodY repression of the ica operon. Treatment of mice with SAL induced a significant increase of S aureus colonization. It is suggested that the elevated PIA expression induced by SAL might be responsible for the high nasal colonization

  1. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  2. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  3. Patients with previous definite stent thrombosis have a larger fraction of immature platelets and a reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Grove, Erik; Wulff, Lise Nielsen;

    turnover. Key Words: aspirin; immature platelets; platelet aggregation; platelet function tests; stent thrombosis Abbreviations: ARU, aspirin reaction units; AU, aggregation units; BMS, bare-metal stent(s); DES, drug-eluting stent(s); IPF, immature platelet fraction; MEA, multiple electrode aggregometry...

  4. Time-dependent effects of aspirin on blood pressure and morning platelet reactivity: a randomized cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, T.N.; Snoep, J.D.; Assendelft, W.J.; Zwaginga, J.J.; Eikenboom, J.; Huisman, M.V.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Bom, J.G. Van Der

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is used for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention by millions of patients on a daily basis. Previous studies suggested that aspirin intake at bedtime reduces blood pressure compared with intake on awakening. This has never been studied in patients with CVD. Moreover, platelet reactivity an

  5. Effects of aspirin on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and left ventricular dilation one year after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterga, M; Anthonio, RL; de Kam, PJ; Kingma, JH; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH

    1998-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the interaction of aspirin with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure and systemic hypertension. A past hoc analysis of the Captopril and Thrombolysis Study (CATS) study was conducted. At randomization, 94 patients (31.5%) took aspirin. In patient

  6. Do Aspirin and Other Antiplatelet Drugs Reduce the Mortality in Critically Ill Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lösche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activation has been implicated in microvascular thrombosis and organ failure in critically ill patients. In the first part the present paper summarises important data on the role of platelets in systemic inflammation and sepsis as well as on the beneficial effects of antiplatelet drugs in animal models of sepsis. In the second part the data of retrospective and prospective observational clinical studies on the effect of aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs in critically ill patients are reviewed. All of these studies have shown that aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs may reduce organ failure and mortality in these patients, even in case of high bleeding risk. From the data reviewed here interventional prospective trials are needed to test whether aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs might offer a novel therapeutic option to prevent organ failure in critically ill patients.

  7. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    through 24 h in patients with previous definite ST. Furthermore, we explored whether increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin are associated with a particularly rapid recovery of platelet function. METHODS: This case-control study included 50 patients with previous definite ST matched...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...... activation, immature platelets, and thrombopoietin were measured. RESULTS: Platelet aggregation increased by 109±150 (arachidonic acid) and 47±155 (collagen) aggregation units per minute from 1 to 24 h after aspirin intake (p-values 1 ng/ml, p

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and electronic structure of aspirin and paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motozaki, W.; Nagatani, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Endo, K.; Takemura, T.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and antioxidant activity of phenolic antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol). X-ray photoelectron and emission spectra of the antioxidants have been simulated by deMon density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the molecules. The chemical bonding of aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen 'lone-pair' π-orbitals which can neutralize free radicals and thus be related to antioxidant properties of the drug. In the case of paracetamol the additional nitrogen 'lone pair' is formed which can explain toxicity of the drug. We propose an evaluation method of antioxidant activity based on the relationship between experimental half-wave oxidation potential ( Ep/2 ) and calculated ionization potentials ( IP) by the DFT calculations, and can conclude that paracetamol has the higher antioxidant activity than aspirin.

  9. Low-dose aspirin use and the risk of ovarian cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kjaer, S K; Olsen, J H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A comprehensive body of evidence has shown that aspirin has cancer-preventive effects, particularly against gastrointestinal cancer, but its effects on the risk of ovarian cancer are less well established. This nationwide case-control study examined the association between low......-dose aspirin and the risk of ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients in the Danish Cancer Registry aged 30-84 years old with a histologically verified first diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011. Each patient was sex- and age-matched to 15 population controls using...... risk-set sampling. Prescription use, comorbidity, reproductive history, and demographic characteristics data were obtained from nationwide registries. The use of low-dose (75-150 mg) aspirin was defined according to the dose as well as the duration and consistency of use. Conditional logistic...

  10. Synthesis of 1-O-(2'-acetoxy)benzoyl-alpha-D-2-deoxyglucopyranose, a novel aspirin prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, J E; Hussain, A A; Kostenbauder, H B

    1980-02-01

    The synthesis and characterization of 1-O-(2'-acetoxy)benzoyl-alpha-D-2-deoxyglucopyranose, a novel aspirin prodrug, are described. 3,4,6-Tri-O-benzyl-alpha-D-2-deoxyglucopyranose was synthesized by methylating the anomeric hydroxyl group of 2-deoxyglucose, benzylating the 3-, 4-, and 6-hydroxy functional grups, and cleaving hydrolytically the anomeric methyl group. Reaction of the tribenzylated sugar with the acid chloride of aspirin and subsequent hydrogenolysis of the benzyl groups resulted in the prodrug, mp 128 degrees. The compound was further characterized by elemental analysis and PMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. In vitro, the compound cleaved to aspirin with a half-life of 7 min at 37 degrees. Prodrug cleavage was independent of pH over the pH 3--9 range.

  11. Protective effects of surfactant protein D treatment in 1,3-β-glucan-modulated allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Dalia; Pilecki, Bartosz; Schlosser, Anders; Jepsen, Christine S; Thomsen, Laura K; Ormhøj, Maria; Watson, Alastair; Madsen, Jens; Clark, Howard W; Barfod, Kenneth K; Hansen, Soren; Marcussen, Niels; Jounblat, Rania; Chamat, Soulaima; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith L

    2015-12-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin important in lung immunity. SP-D-deficient mice (Sftpd(-/-)) are reported to be susceptible to ovalbumin (OVA)- and fungal allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation, while treatment with exogenous SP-D has therapeutic effects in such disease models. β-Glucans are a diverse group of polysaccharides previously suggested to serve as fungal ligands for SP-D. We set out to investigate if SP-D could interact with 1,3-β-glucan and attenuate allergic pulmonary inflammation in the presence of 1,3-β-glucan. Allergic airway disease was induced in Sftpd(-/-) and Sftpd(+/+) mice by OVA sensitization and subsequent challenge with OVA, 1,3-β-glucan, or OVA/1,3-β-glucan together. Mice in the combined treatment group were further treated with a high dose of recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D). We demonstrated direct interaction between SP-D and 1,3-β-glucan. OVA-induced mucous cell metaplasia was increased in Sftpd(-/-) mice, supporting previously reported protective effects of endogenous SP-D in allergy. OVA-induced parenchymal CCL11 levels and eosinophilic infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage were unaffected by 1,3-β-glucan, but were reversed with rfhSP-D treatment. 1,3-β-Glucan treatment did, however, induce pulmonary neutrophilic infiltration and increased TNF-α levels in bronchoalveolar lavage, independently of OVA-induced allergy. This infiltration was also reversed by treatment with rfhSP-D. 1,3-β-Glucan reduced OVA-induced mucous cell metaplasia, T helper 2 cytokines, and IFN-γ production. rfhSP-D treatment further reduced mucous metaplasia and T helper 2 cytokine secretion to background levels. In summary, rfhSP-D treatment resulted in attenuation of both allergic inflammation and 1,3-β-glucan-mediated neutrophilic inflammation. Our data suggest that treatment with high-dose SP-D protects from mold-induced exacerbations of allergic asthma.

  12. [Low-dose aspirin in patients with diabete melitus: risks and benefits regarding macro and microvascular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Eduardo G; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Weinert, Letícia S; Lavinsky, Joel; Silveiro, Sandra P

    2007-04-01

    Aspirin is recommended as cardiovascular disease prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus. Due to the increased risk of bleeding and because of the hypothesis that there could be a worsening of microvascular complications related to aspirin, there has been observed an important underutilization of the drug. However, it is now known that aspirin is not associated with a deleterious effect on diabetic retinopathy and there is evidence indicating that it also does not affect renal function with usual doses (150 mg/d). On the other hand, higher doses may prove necessary, since recent data suggest that diabetic patients present the so called "aspirin resistance". The mechanisms of this resistance are not yet fully understood, being probably related to an abnormal intrinsic platelet activity. The employment of alternative antiplatelet strategies or the administration of higher aspirin doses (150-300 mg/d) should be better evaluated regarding effective cardiovascular disease prevention in diabetes as well as the possible effects on microvascular complications.

  13. Cytostatic action of aspirin and its effect on mitomycin C activity. A study in vitro under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammerer, Cornelia; Getoff, Nikola E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2001-04-01

    Experiments in vitro using E. coli bacteria (AB 1157) proved that aspirin possesses a cytostatic ability under various experimental condition (pH=7.4) in airfree, aerated as well as in media containing N{sub 2}O (converting e{sub aq}{sup -} into OH- radicals). In the last case the highest effect of aspirin was observed. The combination of aspirin with the well-known cytostaticum, mitomycin C (MMC) leads in airfree as well as in aerated media to a significant decrease of the MMC activity. However, the mixture of aspirin and MMC in the presence of N{sub 2}O causes a synergistic effect, resulting in an enhancement of the MMC activity by a factor of 1.5. Probable reaction steps are presented and discussed. Using the pulse radiolysis method the rate constants for the reactions of e{sub aq}{sup -}, H and OH- species with aspirin were also determined.

  14. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E.; Bennett, Braden W.; Lyons, Eric M.; Carney, Laura T.

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The “crash” of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  15. Safety of ultrasound-guided transrectal extended prostate biopsy in patients receiving low-dose aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kariotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether the peri-procedural administration of low-dose aspirin increases the risk of bleeding complications for patients undergoing extended prostate biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2007 to September 2008, 530 men undergoing extended needle biopsies were divided in two groups; those receiving aspirin and those not receiving aspirin. The morbidity of the procedure, with emphasis on hemorrhagic complications, was assessed prospectively using two standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean number of biopsy cores (12.9 ± 1.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.2 cores, p = 0.09. No major biopsy-related complications were noted. Statistical analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in the rate of hematuria (64.5% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.46, rectal bleeding (33.6% vs. 25.9%, p = 0.09 or hemospermia (90.1% vs. 86.9%, p = 0.45. The mean duration of hematuria and rectal bleeding was significantly greater in the aspirin group compared to the control group (4.45 ± 2.7 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6, p = < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only younger patients (mean age 60.1 ± 5.8 years with a lower body mass index (< 25 kg/m2 receiving aspirin were at a higher risk (odds ratio = 3.46, p = 0.047 for developing hematuria and rectal bleeding after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing use of low-dose aspirin in patients undergoing extended prostatic biopsy is a relatively safe option since it does not increase the morbidity of the procedure.

  16. Comparison of Anticoagulant Effects on Vein Grafts between Human TFPI Gene Transfection and Aspirin Oral Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deguang FENG; Cheng ZHOU; Quan LI; Kailin ZHANG; Xionggang JIANG; Song LENG; Heping DENG; Jiane FENG; Tucheng SUN; Long WU

    2008-01-01

    To develop a more efficient antithrombotic way after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the anticoagulant effects were compared of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene transfection and aspirin oral administration (traditional method) on vein grafts. An eukaryotic expression plasmid pCMV-(Kozak) TFPI was prepared. Animal model of carotid artery bypass grafting was constructed. In operation, endothelial cells of vein grafts in TFPI group and empty plasmid control group were transfected with pCMV-(Kozak) TFPI and empty plasmid pCMV respectively, while no transfection was conducted in aspirin control group. After operation, aspirin (2 mg·kg-1·d-1) was administered (I.g.) in aspirin control group. Three days later, grafts (n=10) were harvested for RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses of exogenous gone expression and for pathological, scanning electron microscopic observation of thrombus. Thirty days later, the patency rates of remnant grafts (n=10) were recorded by vessel Doppler ultrasonography. Human TFPI gene products were detected in gene transferred vein grafts. Three days later, thrombi were found in 7 animals of aspirin control group and in 8 animals of empty plasmid control group, but in only 1 of TFPI group (P<0.01). Thirty days later, 5 grafts were occluded in empty plasmid control group, but none of grafts was occluded in the other groups (P<0.05). The endothelial surfaces of grafts in both of the control groups were covered with aggregated erythrocytes and platelets, and it were not seen in TFPI group. R was suggested that the anticoagulant effects on vein grafts of human TFPI gene trans- fection are better than those of aspirin.

  17. Investigating the role of Acanthamoeba polyphaga in protecting Human Adenovirus from water disinfection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Marco; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Tammaro, Carmine; Carducci, Annalaura

    2016-06-01

    Human adenoviruses are responsible for a wide range of clinical infections and are present in aquatic environments, including river, seawater, drinking-water and sewage. Free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba) in the same environments may internalize them and other microorganisms can act as a reservoir for the internalized viruses. In this study, we studied the interaction between Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Human Adenovirus type 5 (HAdV 5) to determine whether the amoeba played a role in protecting the internalized viruses from chemical disinfection. The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite disinfection against A. polyphaga and HAdV 5 either singly or in combination was assessed at three different concentrations. Individually, the amoeba were more resistant to chemical disinfection than HAdV 5 and remained alive after exposure to 5mg/l of sodium hypochlorite. In contrast, HAdV 5 lost infectivity following exposure to 2.5mg/l of sodium hypochlorite. When the amoeba and HAdV 5 were co-cultured, infectious virus was found in the cytoplasm of the amoeba at 5mg/l disinfectant concentration. These findings suggest that the A. polyphaga is providing protection for the HAdV 5.

  18. Parental authority to refuse acute burn treatment versus the protection our children deserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarrah, K; Khashaba, H; Wilson, Y; Al-Fadhli, A; Moiemen, N

    2013-03-31

    Our society has empowered parents to care for their children and take legally binding decisions on their behalf. One of the areas where such decision making is required is in medical care when a child's health is at stake. Three cases of child abuse and neglect were identified and reported. Literature searches were done to identify cases of child abuse in Kuwait using Medline and PubMed. News of child abuse was searched for using search engines (bbc.co.uk, cnn.com, and foxnews.com). The British Child Protection Act and the Kuwaiti Criminal Prosecution Code were studied. Child abuse and neglect exist in Kuwait and are probably underreported. The laws in Kuwait are designed to punish child abuse once it has occurred rather than aiming at preventing it. It is reported that 75% of those responsible for child abuse are the parents. They retain full authority to restrict medical access. Medical staff are offered very limited support and are restricted as to what they can achieve due to the Kuwaiti legal infrastructure, which should be amended so as to protect children rather than prosecute offenders. A local authority has to be established and empowered to investigate, report, and act when suspicions of child abuse arise.

  19. Maternal Antibiotic Treatment Protects Offspring from Diabetes Development in Nonobese Diabetic Mice by Generation of Tolerogenic APCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjia; Peng, Jian; Tai, Ningwen; Hu, Changyun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease that involves the slow, progressive destruction of islet β cells and loss of insulin production, as a result of interaction with environmental factors, in genetically susceptible individuals. The gut microbiome is established very early in life. Commensal microbiota establish mutualism with the host and form an important part of the environment to which individuals are exposed in the gut, providing nutrients and shaping immune responses. In this study, we studied the impact of targeting most Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of NOD mice at different time points in their life, using a combination of three antibiotics--neomycin, polymyxin B, and streptomycin--on diabetes development. We found that the prenatal period is a critical time for shaping the immune tolerance in the progeny, influencing development of autoimmune diabetes. Prenatal neomycin, polymyxin B, and streptomycin treatment protected NOD mice from diabetes development through alterations in the gut microbiota, as well as induction of tolerogenic APCs, which led to reduced activation of diabetogenic CD8 T cells. Most importantly, we found that the protective effect was age dependent, and the most profound protection was found when the mice were treated before birth. This indicates the importance of the prenatal environment and early exposure to commensal bacteria in shaping the host immune system and health.

  20. Comparing quality of the wastewater treatment plant effluent in Lia industrial zone (Qazvin with Iranian environmental protection standards (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Emamjomeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to prevent water pollution, protect public health, and reuse of the treated wastewater; controlling on quality of the wastewater treatment plant effluent has been considered a necessary. Objective: To compare the quality of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Lia industrial zone with Iranian environmental protection standards. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in one of the industrial zones in Qazvin (Lia. Samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant from May to September 2015 and analyzed in the laboratory. Chemical oxygen demand (COD parameters were determined twice per week when the pH values were daily measured by pH meter. Sampling was carried out weekly to determine other important operational parameters including biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, total coliform (TC and fecal coliform (FC. Sampling and experiments were done according to the latest standard methods. The data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software (T-Test a single group. Findings: The average of BOD, COD, TSS, FC, TC in effluent were achieved to 73.3±13.2, 156.2±42, and 76.43±50.8 mg/L 1.1×103,1.1×103 MPN/100 ml respectively. The total average of removal efficiencies for BOD, COD and TSS were calculated 92.41%, 92.75%, and 87.46%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained that the wastewater treatment plant systems can be used as an efficient system for reduction of common pollutants by providing the Iranian standards for irrigating when the most important such as BOD, COD, TSS and PH are considered. The quality of the treated wastewater was found to be within the permissible Iranian standards for irrigating. However, it is important to keep in mind that reduce microbial contamination within standards is needed to be considered.

  1. Arachidonic acid metabolism and inhibition of cyclooxygenase in platelets from asthmatic subjects with aspirin intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, C; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Wayoff, M; Descharmes, A; Gazel, P; Legrand, A; Kalt, C

    1985-02-01

    Exaggerated inhibition of cyclooxygenase has been proposed as a mechanism of drug-induced bronchospasm in aspirin-intolerant patients. This study, using platelets, shows that inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by aspirin is unmodified in patients when compared with healthy subjects. The ratio of cyclooxygenase:lipoxygenase products is similar in platelets from patients and control subjects. We conclude that the cyclooxygenase alteration observed in cells from the respiratory tract is not generalised to other cells such as platelets. We also propose that the major abnormality in NSAID-intolerant patients would affect receptivity to lipoxygenase products more than their biosynthesis.

  2. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  3. Solid-state 17O NMR of pharmaceutical compounds: salicylic acid and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianqi; Shan, Melissa; Terskikh, Victor; Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong; Wu, Gang

    2013-08-22

    We report solid-state NMR characterization of the (17)O quadrupole coupling (QC) and chemical shift (CS) tensors in five site-specifically (17)O-labeled samples of salicylic acid and o-acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin). High-quality (17)O NMR spectra were obtained for these important pharmaceutical compounds under both static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions at two magnetic fields, 14.0 and 21.1 T. A total of 14 (17)O QC and CS tensors were experimentally determined for the seven oxygen sites in salicylic acid and Aspirin. Although both salicylic acid and Aspirin form hydrogen bonded cyclic dimers in the solid state, we found that the potential curves for the concerted double proton transfer in these two compounds are significantly different. In particular, while the double-well potential curve in Aspirin is nearly symmetrical, it is highly asymmetrical in salicylic acid. This difference results in quite different temperature dependencies in (17)O MAS spectra of the two compounds. A careful analysis of variable-temperature (17)O MAS NMR spectra of Aspirin allowed us to obtain the energy asymmetry (ΔE) of the double-well potential, ΔE = 3.0 ± 0.5 kJ/mol. We were also able to determine a lower limit of ΔE for salicylic acid, ΔE > 10 kJ/mol. These asymmetrical features in potential energy curves were confirmed by plane-wave DFT computations, which yielded ΔE = 3.7 and 17.8 kJ/mol for Aspirin and salicylic acid, respectively. To complement the solid-state (17)O NMR data, we also obtained solid-state (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra for salicylic acid and Aspirin. Using experimental NMR parameters obtained for all magnetic nuclei present in salicylic acid and Aspirin, we found that plane-wave DFT computations can produce highly accurate NMR parameters in well-defined crystalline organic compounds.

  4. Cognitive Impairment and Age-Related Vision Disorders: Their Possible Relationship and the Evaluation of the Use of Aspirin and Statins in a 65 Years-and-Over Sardinian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandas, Antonella; Mereu, Rosa Maria; Catte, Olga; Saba, Antonio; Serchisu, Luca; Costaggiu, Diego; Peiretti, Enrico; Caminiti, Giulia; Vinci, Michela; Casu, Maura; Piludu, Stefania; Fossarello, Maurizio; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Dessí, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    disorders but with dementia, and, similarly, none in subjects with vision disorders but without dementia. Overall, these results confirm the general impression so far; namely, that macular degeneration may contribute to cognitive disorders (Alzheimer’s disease in particular). In addition, they also suggest that, while statin and aspirin use may undoubtedly have some protective effects, they do not appear to be magic pills against the development of cognitive impairment or vision disorders in the elderly. PMID:25426067

  5. Posttransplantation antibody mediated rejection: new insights into mechanism, treatment and protective strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO You-ying; CHEN Jiang-hua

    2011-01-01

    @@ Acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) is receiving more and more attention, which is mediated by different mechanisms from T cell mediated rejection, thereby requiring other approaches to prevention and treatment. Preexisting alloantibodies and pre-transplant sensitization are important risk factors for development of acute AMR early after renal transplantation.

  6. Influence of the surface pre-treatment of aluminum on the processes of formation of cerium oxides protective films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, R.; Stoyanova, E.; Tsanev, A.; Stoychev, D.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that there is special interest in the contemporary investigations on conversion treatment of aluminum aimed at promoting its corrosion stability, which is focused on electrolytes on the basis of salts of metals belonging to the group of rare-earth elements. Their application is especially attractive, as it enables a successful substitution of the presently applied highly efficient, but at the same time toxic Cr6+-containing electrolytes. The present paper presents a study on the influence of the preliminary alkaline activation and acidic de-oxidation of the aluminum surface on the processes of immersion formation of protective cerium oxides films on Al 1050. The results obtained show that their deposition from simple electrolytes (containing only salts of Ce3+ ions) on the Al surface, treated only in alkaline solution, occurs at a higher rate, which leads to preparing thicker oxide films having a better protective ability. In the cases when the formation of oxide films is realized in a complex electrolyte (containing salts of Ce3+ and Cu2+ ions), better results are obtained with respect to the morphology and protective action of cerium oxides film on samples that have been consecutively activated in alkaline solution and deoxidized in acidic solution. Electrochemical investigations were carried out in a model corrosion medium (0.1 M NaCl); it was shown that the cerium protective films, deposited by immersion, have a cathodic character with regard to the aluminum support and inhibit the occurrence of the depolarizing corrosion process -- the reaction of oxygen reduction.

  7. Unsaturated lipid matrices protect plant sterols from degradation during heating treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, Blanca; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2016-04-01

    The interest in plant sterols enriched foods has recently enhanced due to their healthy properties. The influence of the unsaturation degree of different fatty acids methyl esters (FAME: stearate, oleate, linoletate and linolenate) on a mixture of three plant sterols (PS: campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) was evaluated at 180 °C for up to 180 min. Sterols degraded slower in the presence of unsaturated FAME. Both PS and FAME degradation fit a first order kinetic model (R(2)>0.9). Maximum oxysterols concentrations were achieved at 20 min in neat PS and 120 min in lipid mixtures and this maximum amount decreased with increasing their unsaturation degree. In conclusion, the presence of FAME delayed PS degradation and postponed oxysterols formation. This protective effect was further promoted by increasing the unsaturation degree of FAME. This evidence could help industries to optimize the formulation of sterol-enriched products, so that they could maintain their healthy properties during cooking or processing.

  8. Antithrombotic treatment for patients on oral anticoagulation undergoing coronary stenting: a review of the available evidence and practical suggestions for the clinician.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubboli, A.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and a thienopyridine is the antithrombotic treatment recommended after coronary stenting. Such strategy is generally not applicable in most patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC), for whom however, information about the optimal

  9. Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Patients After Surgical Treatment of Maxillary Tumors with Respect to Upper Airway Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolski, D; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Nieborak, R; Przybyłowska, D; Stopa, Z; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of surgical treatment of maxillary tumors, a connection between oral and nasal cavities is formed, which leads to serious functional disorders, manifested by inability to normally ingest food, proper speech articulation, and to respiratory route disorders and upper airway inflammation. These morphological and functional disorders are intensified by adjunctive radio- or chemotherapy. The aim of this paper is to present different possible methods of rehabilitation, including application of interim obturators and individually planned prosthetic restorations to improve respiratory efficiency in patients after extensive maxillary resections. In the course of prosthetic treatment, cooperation with the laryngologist to consider every aspect of chronic paranasal sinusitis, accompanied by concurrent inflammation of oral, nasal, or laryngeal mucous membranes, was of paramount importance. Based on the quality of life questionnaire, used in this study, evident improvement in the masticatory efficiency, speech articulation, and respiration was observed. Particularly good effects were obtained in edentulous patients, in whom implant-prosthetic treatment was possible to apply. Comprehensive and multidisciplinary care of postoperative patients greatly contributes to their better quality of life and facilitates their return to prior living conditions, as well as to occupational and family lives.

  10. Physicochemical impact studies of gamma rays on "aspirin" analgesics drug and its metal complexes in solid form: Synthesis, spectroscopic and biological assessment of Ca(II), Mg(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) aspirinate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Sharshar, T.; Elsabawy, Khaled M.; Heiba, Zein K.

    2013-09-01

    Metal aspirinate complexes, M2(Asp)4, where M is Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II) are formed by refluxed of aspirin (Asp) with divalent non-transition metal ions of group (II) and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic measurements (infrared, electronic, 1H NMR, Raman, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy). Elemental analysis of the chelates suggests the stoichiometry is 1:2 (metal:ligand). Infrared spectra of the complexes agree with the coordination to the central metal atom through three donation sites of two oxygen atoms of bridge bidentate carboxylate group and oxygen atom of sbnd Cdbnd O of acetyl group. Infrared spectra coupled with the results of elemental analyzes suggested a distorted octahedral structure for the M(II) aspirinate complexes. Gamma irradiation was tested as a method for stabilization of aspirin as well as their complexes. The effect of gamma irradiation, with dose of 80 Gy, on the properties of aspirinate complexes was studied. The aspirinate chelates have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacteria, gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two strains of fungus (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans). The metal chelates were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the free aspirin chelate.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and insulin in an aspirin sensitive asthmatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, I

    1976-03-01

    . Inasmuch as tartrazine so frequently aggravates the aspirin sensitive asthmatic, it would be wise for pharmaceutical companies to become cognizant of this fact and delete tartrazine from their antiasthmatic preparations.

  12. Electromagnetic field treatment protects against and reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendash, Gary W; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Mori, Takashi; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Lin, Xiaoyang; Runfeldt, Melissa; Wang, Li; Zhang, Guixin; Sava, Vasyl; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, there is no definitive evidence that high-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is a risk to human health. To the contrary, this report presents the first evidence that long-term EMF exposure directly associated with cell phone use (918 MHz; 0.25 w/kg) provides cognitive benefits. Both cognitive-protective and cognitive-enhancing effects of EMF exposure were discovered for both normal mice and transgenic mice destined to develop Alzheimer's-like cognitive impairment. The cognitive interference task utilized in this study was designed from, and measure-for-measure analogous to, a human cognitive interference task. In Alzheimer's disease mice, long-term EMF exposure reduced brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition through Abeta anti-aggregation actions and increased brain temperature during exposure periods. Several inter-related mechanisms of EMF action are proposed, including increased Abeta clearance from the brains of Alzheimer's disease mice, increased neuronal activity, and increased cerebral blood flow. Although caution should be taken in extrapolating these mouse studies to humans, we conclude that EMF exposure may represent a non-invasive, non-pharmacologic therapeutic against Alzheimer's disease and an effective memory-enhancing approach in general.

  13. Von Willebrand Factor Antigen Predicts Response to Double Dose of Aspirin and Clopidogrel by PFA-100 in Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplasty for St Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Gianetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Willebrand factor (VWF is an emerging risk factor in acute coronary syndromes. Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100 with Collagen/Epinephrine (CEPI is sensitive to functional alterations of VWF and also identifies patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of double dose (DD of aspirin and clopidogrel on HPR detected by PFA-100 and its relation to VWF and to its regulatory metalloprotease ADAMTS-13. Between 2009 and 2011 we enrolled 116 consecutive patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI with HPR at day 5 after PCI. Patients recruited were then randomized between a standard dose (SD, n=58 or DD of aspirin and clopidogrel (DD, n=58, maintained for 6 months follow-up. Blood samples for PFA-100, light transmittance aggregometry, and VWF/ADAMTS-13 analysis were collected after 5, 30, and 180 days (Times 0, 1, and 2. At Times 1 and 2 we observed a significantly higher CEPI closure times (CT in DD as compared to SD (P<0.001. Delta of CEPI-CT (T1-T0 was significantly related to VWF (P<0.001 and inversely related to ADAMTS-13 (0.01. Responders had a significantly higher level of VWF at T0. Finally, in a multivariate model analysis, VWF and ADAMTS-13 in resulted significant predictors of CEPI-CT response (P=0.02. HRP detected by PFA-100 in acute myocardial infarction is reversible by DD of aspirin and clopidogrel; the response is predicted by basal levels of VWF and ADAMTS-13. PFA-100 may be a useful tool to risk stratification in acute coronary syndromes given its sensitivity to VWF.

  14. Comparison of Proton Pump Inhibitor and Histamine-2 Receptor Antagonist in the Prevention of Recurrent Peptic Ulcers/Erosions in Long-Term Low-Dose Aspirin Users: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Proton pump inhibitor and histamine-2 receptor antagonist can prevent aspirin-related ulcers/erosions but few studies compare the efficacy of these two agents. Aims. We evaluated the efficacy of omeprazole and famotidine in preventing recurrent ulcers/erosions in low-dose aspirin users. Methods. The 24-week clinical outcomes of the patients using low-dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection with a history of ulcers/erosions and cotherapy of omeprazole or famotidine were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms, recurrent ulcers/erosions, erosive esophagitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thromboembolic events was analyzed. Results. A total of 104 patients (famotidine group, 49 patients; omeprazole group, 55 patients were evaluated. Famotidine group had more gastrointestinal symptoms episodes than omeprazole group (46.9% versus 23.6%, P=0.01. Fifteen famotidine group patients and 5 omeprazole group patients had recurrent ulcers/erosions (30.6% versus 9.1%, P=0.005. Lanza scale was significantly lower in omeprazole group than in famotidine group (1.2±0.7 versus 1.7±1.1, P=0.008. Only 1 famotidine group patient had ulcer bleeding. The incidences of erosive esophagitis and thromboembolic events were comparable between both groups. Conclusions. Omeprazole was superior to famotidine with less gastrointestinal symptoms and recurrent ulcers/erosions in patients using 24-week low-dose aspirin. The risk of erosive esophagitis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and thromboembolic events was similar between both groups.

  15. The protective effect of intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Akyüz, Cebrail; Baştürk, Ahmet; Polat, Cemal; Gündüz, Umut; Mayir, Burhan; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on the methotrexate acute induced hepatotoxicity in rats that has not reports elsewhere. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, Mtx and Mtx with ozone. Hepatotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx to group 2 and group 3 at the fifteenth day. The medical ozone preconditioning was administered intraperitonealy in group 3 for fifteen days and more five days after inducing Mtx. The other rats of the group 1 and 2 received saline injection. At the twentyfirst day the blood and the liver tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST, proinflamatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. And the histolopatological examination was evaluated for injury score. In our study Mtx administration caused a significant increase on the liver enzymes ALT and AST, the tissue MDA and MPO activity and significant decrease in the tissue GSH. Moreover the both pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the Mtx group. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment reversed all these biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the hepatotoxicity induced by Mtx. We conclude that medical ozone ameliorates Mtx induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  16. Percutaneous carbon dioxide mist treatment has protective effects in experimental myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Yamazaki, Takanori; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Shiota, Masayuki; Shimada, Kenei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Iwao, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Izumi, Yasukatsu

    2015-04-01

    Percutaneous treatment with carbon dioxide (CO2) mist, CO2 gas dissolved in water, contributes to improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated pretreatment with CO2 mist on cardiac dysfunction after MI. The CO2 mist was generated by a dry mist production unit. The whole body of rats below the axilla was wrapped in a polyethylene bag, which was sealed and filled with the CO2 mist in the draft cabinet for 30 min daily for 7 days. MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery in untreated (UT), CO2 gas-pretreated (CG), and CO2 mist-pretreated (CM) rats. The infarct size and the increase in oxidative stress due to MI were significantly smaller in the CM rats than in the UT rats. Furthermore, the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and fibrosis-related genes, such as transforming growth factor-β1, was significantly suppressed in the CM rats. The CM rats had a better left ventricular ejection fraction than the UT rats 7 days after MI. These parameters in the CG rats were the same as in the UT group. Thus, CO2 mist preparative treatment may be potentially useful for the reduction of MI.

  17. Aspirin desensitization in patients undergoing planned or urgent coronary stent implantation. A single-center experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luca, G. De; Verdoia, M.; Binda, G.; Schaffer, A.; Suryapranata, H.; Marino, P.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and ADP-antagonists) is mandatory after stent implantation in order to avoid stent thrombosis, especially in the era of DES. In fact, a delayed re-endothelization process may enlarge the window of occurrence of stent thrombosis beyond 1-year after imp

  18. Evaluation of small bowel blood flow in healthy subjects receiving low-dose aspirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Urara Nishida; Mototsugu Kato; Mutsumi Nishida; Go Kamada; Takeshi Yoshida; Shouko Ono; Yuichi Shimizu; Masahiro Asaka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-dose aspirin-induced small bowel mucosal damage and blood flow, and the effect of rebamipide.METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into two groups:a placebo group given low-dose aspirin plus placebo and a rebamipide group given low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide for a period of 14 d. Capsule endoscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed before and after administration of drugs. Areas under the curves and peak value of time-intensity curve were calculated.RESULTS: Absolute differences in areas under the curves were -1102.5 (95% CI: -1980.3 to -224.7, P = 0.0194) in the placebo group and -152.7 (95% CI:-1604.2 to 641.6, P = 0.8172) in the rebamipide group.Peak values of time intensity curves were -148.0 (95%CI: -269.4 to -26.2, P = 0.0225) in the placebo group and 28.3 (95% CI: -269.0 to 325.6, P = 0.8343) in the rebamipide group. Capsule endoscopy showed mucosal breaks only in the placebo group.CONCLUSION: Short-term administration of low-dose aspirin is associated with small bowel injuries and blood flow.

  19. Analgesic effect of fendosal, ibuprofen and aspirin in postoperative oral surgery pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, J A; Barkaszi, B A; Ragland, R N; Hankle, J J

    1984-01-01

    The analgesic efficacy of a single 200-mg dose of fendosal, a nonnarcotic, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory analgesic, was compared, in a double-blind study, with aspirin 650 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg and placebo in outpatients who had moderate or severe pain after the surgical removal of impacted third molars. Using a self-rating record, patients rated their pain and its relief hourly for up to 12 hours after medicating. Each active medication was significantly superior to placebo. The peak analgesic effect of fendosal 200 mg was similar to that of the aspirin 650-mg standard. Although fendosal's onset of action was slow (3 hours), its effect persisted for 8 hours, substantially longer than that of aspirin. Ibuprofen 400 mg was statistically significantly superior to aspirin 650 mg and fendosal 200 mg for most measures of peak and total analgesia, and its effect persisted for 8 hours. The results of this study raise some questions concerning the comparability of data from studies that employ different criteria for remedication and/or different criteria for the inclusion of data in the analyses of efficacy.

  20. NIH study finds regular aspirin use may reduce ovarian cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women who take aspirin daily may reduce their risk of ovarian cancer by 20 percent, according to a study by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. However, further research is needed before clinical r

  1. Aspirin as a Promising Agent for Decreasing Incidence of Cerebral Aneurysm Rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, David M.; Mahaney, Kelly B.; Brown, Robert D.; Meissner, Irene; Piepgras, David G.; Huston, John; Capuano, Ana W.; Torner, James C.; Groen, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Chronic inflammation is postulated as an important phenomenon in intracranial aneurysm wall pathophysiology. This study was conducted to determine if aspirin use impacts the occurrence of intracranial aneurysm rupture. Methods-Subjects enrolled in the International Study of Un

  2. Effect of exercise on platelet activation during aspirin or clopidogrel intake in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth Madsen, Esben; Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Schmidt, Erik Berg;

    2009-01-01

    aggregometry. A significant increase in plasma von Willebrand Factor was also found in response to exercise. In conclusion, platelet activation occurs during exercise in healthy individuals. This activation is not prevented by use of aspirin or clopidogrel, and may partly be explained by an increase in plasma...

  3. APROTININ PRESERVES HEMOSTASIS IN ASPIRIN-TREATED PATIENTS UNDERGOING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TABUCHI, N; HUET, RCG; STURK, A; EIJSMAN, L; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    Various clinical trials have shown that hemostasis is improved by the administration of aprotinin during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, this effect has not been proved for those patients treated preoperatively with aspirin. Therefore, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to test

  4. Correlation between erosive esophagitis and low-dose aspirin in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between erosive esophagitis (EE) and low dose aspirin in elderly patients.Methods From January 2009 to August 2012,a total of 304 patients to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in our hospital without history of upper gastrointestinal operation,malignant tumor,liver cirrhosis and