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Sample records for aspirin intolerant asthma

  1. Aspirin-intolerant asthma: a comprehensive review of biomarkers and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Juan R; Teran, Luis M

    2013-08-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is a tetrad of nasal polyps, chronic hypertrophic eosinophilic sinusitis, asthma, and sensitivity to aspirin. Unawareness of this clinical condition by patients and physicians may have grave consequences because of its association with near-fatal asthma. The pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma is not related with an immunoglobin E mechanism, but with an abnormal metabolism of the lipoxygenase (LO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways. At present, a diagnosis of aspirin sensitivity can be established only by provocative aspirin challenge, which represents a health risk for the patient. This circumstance has encouraged the search for aspirin intolerance-specific biomarkers. Major attempts have focused on mediators related with inflammation and eicosanoid regulation. The use of modern laboratory techniques including high-throughput methods has facilitated the detection of dozens of biological metabolites associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma disease. Not surprisingly, the majority of these is implicated in the LO and COX pathways. However, substantial amounts of data reveal the participation of many genes deriving from different ontologies. Biomarkers may represent a powerful, noninvasive tool in the diagnosis of aspirin sensitivity; moreover, they could provide a new way to classify asthma phenotypes.

  2. Association of the variants in AGT gene with modified drug response in Korean aspirin-intolerant asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Tae-Joon; Lee, Jin-Sol; Kim, Yongha; Bae, Joon Seol; Kim, Jin Moo; Park, Jong Sook; Park, Choon-Sik; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2011-10-01

    The angiotensinogen (AGT) gene enhances the effect of several bronchoconstrictors and produces a peptide that is accumulated in the airways of asthma patients; events that may underpin the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). To carry out a case-control analysis between AGT and aspirin-induced bronchospasm following treatment with an anti-asthma drug, montelukast (MLK), 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AGT were genotyped in 56 AIA cohort. Genotyping was performed with TaqMan assay and haplotypes were inferred using PHASE algorithm ver. 2.0. Statistical analyses of each SNPs and haplotypes were performed using SAS version 9.1. Among 13 variants displaying significant signals, two SNPs (+2401C>G and +2476C>T) in the intronic region of AGT were significantly associated with modification of drug response even after correction for multiple testing (P=0.0009-0.002; P(corr)=0.02-0.03). Furthermore, the two variants also exhibited associations with MLK response rate (P=0.0003-0.0006; P(corr)=0.006-0.01). Although our results are preliminary and further replication in a larger-scale group of subjects should be warranted, these observations provide evidence that AGT variants might be one of genetic factors involved in the response of anti-asthma drugs in AIA patients.

  3. Aspirin-Intolerant Asthma (AIA Assessment Using the Urinary Biomarkers, Leukotriene E4 (LTE4 and Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 Metabolites

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    Noritaka Higashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical syndrome of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA is characterized by aspirin/nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug intolerance, bronchial asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. AIA reactions are evidently triggered by pharmacological effect of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. Urine sampling is a non-invasive research tool for time-course measurements in clinical investigations. The urinary stable metabolite concentration of arachidonic acid products provides a time-integrated estimate of the production of the parent compounds in vivo. AIA patients exhibits significantly higher urinary concentrations of leukotriene E4 (LTE4 and 1,15-dioxo-9α-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetranorprostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor-PGDM, a newly identified metabolite of PGD2, at baseline. This finding suggests the possibility that increased mast cell activation is involved in the pathophysiology of AIA even in a clinically stable condition. In addition, lower urinary concentrations of primary prostaglandin E2 and 15-epimer of lipoxin A4 at baseline in the AIA patients suggest that the impaired anti-inflammatory elements may also contribute to the severe clinical outcome of AIA. During the AIA reaction, the urinary concentrations of LTE4 and PGD2 metabolites, including tetranor-PGDM significantly and correlatively increase. It is considered that mast cell activation probably is a pathophysiologic hallmark of AIA. However, despite the fact that cyclooxygenease-1 is the dominant in vivo PGD2 biosynthetic pathway, the precise mechanism underlying the PGD2 overproduction resulting from the pharmacological effect of cyclooxygenease-1 inhibitors in AIA remains unknown. A comprehensive analysis of the urinary concentration of inflammatory mediators may afford a new research target in elucidating the pathophysiology of AIA.

  4. [Nasosinusal polyposis and aspirin intolerance. Fernand Widal-Lermoyez syndrome].

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    Wayoff, M; Moneret-Vautrin, D; Gazel, P

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical picture of the aspirin idiosyncrasy and propose to call this peculiar entity: syndrom of Widal and Lermoyez. They compare 25 cases of aspirin nasal polyposis with 26 other cases of various etiologies. Other substances than aspirin seem to be charged. The complications are regular with severe asthma and infection. The pathogenesis is discussed, excluding an allergic mechanism; it remain not quite clear. Essentially prophylactic, the treatment is poor and difficult.

  5. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

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    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  6. Arachidonic acid metabolism and inhibition of cyclooxygenase in platelets from asthmatic subjects with aspirin intolerance.

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    Bonne, C; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Wayoff, M; Descharmes, A; Gazel, P; Legrand, A; Kalt, C

    1985-02-01

    Exaggerated inhibition of cyclooxygenase has been proposed as a mechanism of drug-induced bronchospasm in aspirin-intolerant patients. This study, using platelets, shows that inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis by aspirin is unmodified in patients when compared with healthy subjects. The ratio of cyclooxygenase:lipoxygenase products is similar in platelets from patients and control subjects. We conclude that the cyclooxygenase alteration observed in cells from the respiratory tract is not generalised to other cells such as platelets. We also propose that the major abnormality in NSAID-intolerant patients would affect receptivity to lipoxygenase products more than their biosynthesis.

  7. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria.

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    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO were measured to prove a direct role of TPO in effector cells. The prevalences of serum specific IgE to TPO were significantly higher in AIAU (15.2%) and AICU groups (7.5%) compared to NC (0%, P=0.018: P=0.013, respectively). Flow cytometry showed CD203c induction in a dose dependent manner with serial additions of TPO in some AIAU and AICU patients having high specific IgE to TPO. Our findings show that the prevalence of serum specific IgE to TPO was significantly higher in both AIAU and AICU patients than in NC. It is suggested that specific IgE to TPO play a pathogenic role in AIAU and AICU.

  8. Aspirin induced asthma accompanied with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Rui; ZHANG Hong-yu

    2010-01-01

    @@ In this paper, we describe a patient with a rather severe form of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The patient is a man born in 1948, who first presented with rhinorrhea,nasal congestion and chronic urticaria, and had an episode of asthma after ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the further eight years.

  9. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alka-Seltzer® (as a combination product containing Aspirin, Citric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate) ... Alka-Seltzer® Extra Strength (as a combination product containing Aspirin, Citric Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate)

  10. [Study of cellular inflammatory response with bronchoalveolar lavage in allergic asthma, aspirin asthma and in extrinsic infiltrating alveolitis].

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    Muiño, Juan C; Garnero, Roberto; Caillet Bois, Ricardo; Gregorio, María J; Ferrero, Mercedes; Romero-Piffiguer, Marta

    2002-01-01

    The asthmatic inflammatory responses present different type of cells involved in this process, such as: Lymphocytes and Eosinophils. In experienced hands the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a well-tolerated and valuable tool for investigation of basic mechanisms in asthma and other immunological respiratory diseases. The purpose of this work was to study the different cells involved in asthmatic inflammatory responses in allergic and aspirin sensitivity patients and compared with Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis patients (EAA) by BAL procedure. We studied 27 asthmatic patients. This group was divided by etiological conditions in: allergic asthmatic patients (a) (n: 19), (9 male and 10 female) demonstrated by reversible fall of FEV 1 (3) 20% and 2 or more positive skin test for common aeroallergens. The aspirin asthmatic patients (b) (n: 8) (5 male and 3 female) demonstrated by progressive challenge with aspirin and fall of FEV 1 (3) 20%. The third group with compatible symptoms and signs of EAA, demonstrated by lung biopsy, (n: 9) (8 male and 1 female) (c). We determined in all patients: Total IgE serum level by ELISA test. BAL was performed by standard procedure in all patients. The cells count were performed in BAL and were separated in Eosinophils, T lymphocytes defined by monoclonal anti CD 3 antibody, Lymphocytes CD 4 and CD 8 by monoclonal anti CD 4 and CD 8 antibodies respectively. The B lymphocytes defined by surface immunoglobulin isotypes IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE. The IgE level was in (a) 630 +/- 350 kU/L, in (b) it was 85 +/- 62 kU/L and in EAA (c) 55 +/- 23 kU/L, p allergic asthmatic patients as well as in aspirin sensitivity asthmatic patients. The LBA cellular profile of E.AA patients presented eosinophilia and CE8+ Lymphocite predominance when compared with both asthmatic cellular profile.

  11. Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis.

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    Stevens, Whitney; Buchheit, Kathleen; Cahill, Katherine N

    2015-12-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated diseases are important examples of drug hypersensitivities and include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticaria/angioedema, and aspirin- or NSAID-induced anaphylaxis. While each disease subtype may be distinguished by unique clinical features, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenotypes are not fully understood. However, the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme is thought to play a significant role. Additionally, eosinophils, mast cells, and their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been identified in the pathogenesis of AERD. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for aspirin-exacerbated diseases remain limited, and continued research focusing on each of the unique hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin is essential. This will not only advance the understanding of these disease processes, but also lead to the subsequent development of novel therapeutics that patients who suffer from aspirin-induced reactions desperately need.

  12. Uso de analgésicos e antiinflamatórios em pacientes portadores de polipose nasossinusal eosinofílica tolerantes e intolerantes à aspirina Use of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with eosinophilic nasal polyposis tolerant and intolerant to aspirin

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    Helena M. G. Becker

    2003-06-01

    dipirona e ao álcool, respectivamente, em quase metade e um terço destes pacientes.Following aspirin introduction as medicine, several reports were described concerning adverse reactions after its ingestion. Widal et al. (1922¹ were the first investigators to associate Aspirin intolerance (AI with asthma and nasal polyps (NP followed by Samter & Beers (1967². Such intolerance was manifested mainly by nasal obstruction and/or bronchospasm related to the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 inhibition and consequent overproduction of leukotrienes. This might also be triggered by the administration of other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, food dyes and additives and alcohol. AIM: To analyze the risks of the analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs use in patients with eosinophilic nasal polyposis tolerant and intolerant to aspirin. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 45 patients were selected # 15 suffering from eosinophilic nasosinusal polyposis, tolerant to aspirin (group TA; other 15 with eosinophilic nasosinusal polyposis associated with aspirin intolerance (group AI, and 15 patients without nasosinusal polyposis with septal deviation (control group. The presence of reaction to aspirin, dipyrone, acetaminophen, other non-steroids anti-inflammatory drugs, food dyes and additives, other drugs or chemical substances was detected by inquiry. To exclude aspirin intolerance in TA and control groups, oral provocation test with aspirin was carried out. RESULTS: Bronchospasm was the main aspirin reaction in patients suffering from eosinophilic nasosinusal polyposis and which also showed with ingestion of acetaminophen (20%, alcohol (27%, non-steroids anti-inflammatory drugs (60% and dipyrone (47%. CONCLUSION: In patients with eosinophilic nasosinusal polyposis associated with aspirin intolerance it is important to do the diagnosis of intolerance to other drugs. The use of dipyrone and alcohol is worth attention, once its intolerance was observed

  13. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: Prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and considerations for the future

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    Stoner, Ashley N.; Borish, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a late onset condition characterized by the Samter triad (aspirin sensitivity [as well as sensitivity to any nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor], nasal polyps, asthma) and additional features, including eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, hypereosinophilia, anosmia, frequent absence of atopy, and, intolerance to ingestion of red wine and other alcoholic beverages. The diagnosis is rare, and, because of this, it is also often missed by physicians. However, it is highly overexpressed in patients with severe asthma (and severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps), which makes its recognition essential. For this review, we considered mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this disease and discussed the clinical symptoms of AERD. We also discussed the role of aspirin desensitization in the treatment of AERD. Also, we considered medications (e.g, leukotriene modifiers) and surgical interventions that have a role in the treatment of AERD.

  14. Aspirin overdose

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002542.htm Aspirin overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your ...

  15. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study.

  16. Identifying asthma triggers.

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    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  17. Aspirin revealed

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    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  18. Asthma

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    Kim Harold

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA inhalers are preferred for most adults who fail to achieve control with ICS therapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a potentially disease-modifying therapy for many patients with asthma, but should only be prescribed by physicians with appropriate training in allergy. Regular monitoring of asthma control, adherence to therapy and inhaler technique are also essential components of asthma management. This article provides a review of current literature and guidelines for the appropriate diagnosis and management of asthma.

  19. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.25 million of those individuals have severe asthma, a condition that can be difficult to control and treat. Learn more about his research by visiting the NHLBI Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation website: http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  20. Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Harold; Mazza, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) inhalers are pr...

  1. Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Harold; Mazza Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Asthma is the most common respiratory disorder in Canada. Despite significant improvement in the diagnosis and management of this disorder, the majority of Canadians with asthma remain poorly controlled. In most patients, however, control can be achieved through the use of avoidance measures and appropriate pharmacological interventions. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) represent the standard of care for the majority of patients. Combination ICS/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) inhale...

  2. 24例阿司匹林性哮喘病例分析%Analysis of 24 Cases of Aspirin-induced Asthma

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    胡娟; 吴斌; 林大欢

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatments of aspirin-induced asth-ma( AIA ). Methods 24 A1A patients were selected from April 2005 to January 2011 in our hospital, who were treated with budesonide powder for inhalation( 0. 0002-0. 0004 g,2 times/d ) ,for the cases of ineffective control of the disease through the application of budesonide powder inhalation with the highest recommended dose,the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast( 0.01 g/d )was used as treatment. The baseline pulmonary function changes in patients before and after the treatment were compared. Results The conditions of 16 cases treated with budesonide powder for inhalation were effectively alleviated, and the pulmonary function improved significantly. The conditions of 8 cases couldn't be effectively alleviated which were treated with the maximum recommended dose of budesonide powder for inhalation, but the clinical symptoms of the cases were effectively controlled when treated with montelukast soudium tablets( leukotriene receptor antagonists ), and the lung function returned to normal. Conclusion The corticosteroids are the primary treatment of AIA,as for the cases whose conditions can't be effectively controlle by glucocorticoids, leukotriene receptor antagonists is an effective control of asthma attack.%目的 探讨阿司匹林性哮喘(AIA)的临床特点及治疗方法水平,提高对AIA的认识水平.方法 选择2005年4月至2011年1月我院收治的AIA患者24例,所有使用布地奈德粉吸入剂(0.0002 ~0.0004 g,2次/d)进行治疗,针对应用布地奈德粉吸入剂最高推荐剂量仍不能有效控制者采用白三烯受体拮抗剂孟鲁司特(0.01 g/d)进行治疗.比较上述患者治疗前后基础肺功能的变化.结果 16例阿司匹林哮喘患者经布地奈德粉吸入剂能有效缓解病情,肺功能明显改善;8例患者经布地奈德粉吸入剂最高推荐剂量仍不能有效缓解病情,通过白三烯受体拮抗剂孟

  3. Lactose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... variant for a child to be affected. Premature infants may also have lactose intolerance because of an insufficient lactase level. Factors that ... is uncommon in babies and young children. Ethnicity. Lactose intolerance ... Premature birth. Infants born prematurely may have reduced levels of lactase ...

  4. Lactose Intolerance

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    ... A shortage of calcium intake in children and adults may lead to bones that are less dense and can easily fracture later in life, a condition called osteoporosis. How is lactose intolerance diagnosed? A health care ...

  5. Lactose Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactose intolerance means that you cannot digest foods with lactose in them. Lactose is the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. After eating foods with lactose in them, you may feel sick to your ...

  6. The IL1B-511 Polymorphism (rs16944 AA Genotype Is Increased in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease in Mexican Population

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    Ramcés Falfán-Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD is characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma, and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, current research focuses on cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1 inhibition, metabolism of arachidonic acid, and the COX pathway to the lipoxygenase (LO route, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT. The biological plausibility of this model has led to the search for polymorphisms in genes responsible for proinflammatory cytokines synthesis, such as IL1B and IL8. We performed a genetic association study between IL8-251 (rs4073 and IL1B-511 (rs16944 polymorphisms in AERD, aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, and healthy control subjects. Using allelic discrimination by real-time PCR, we found statistically nonsignificant associations between AERD, ATA, and healthy control subjects for the GG and GA genotypes of IL1B (rs16944. Interestingly, the AA genotype showed an increased frequency in the AERD patients versus the ATA group (GF = 0.19 versus 0.07, =0.018, OR 2.98, and 95% CI 1.17–7.82. This is the first observation that IL1B polymorphisms are involved in AERD. Thus, future studies must investigate whether interleukin-1 is released in the airways of AERD patients and whether it relates to genetic polymorphisms in the IL1B gene.

  7. [Lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The most common problem limiting milk consumption worldwide is lactose intolerance (LI), which is defined as the experience of gastrointestinal symptoms due to the intake of lactose-containing food. When symptoms ensue the intake of milk, the condition is referred as milk intolerance, and it may or may not be due to LI. The most common cause of LI is primary lactase deficiency which occurs in 30% of Mexican adults when one glass of milk is consumed (12-18 g of lactose). LI occurs in less than 15% of adults after the intake of this dose of lactose. Another cause of lactose intolerance is due to secondary lactase deficiency, which occurs because lactase is reduced due to diseases that affect the intestinal mucosa. Lactose intolerance can be eliminated or significantly reduced by elimination or reduction of the intake of milk and milk containing products. Recent studies demonstrate that when β-casein-A1 contained in milk is hydrolyzed it produces β-casomorphine-7 which is an opioid associated with milk intolerance.

  8. Alcohol Intolerance

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    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  9. The abnormal in vitro response to aspirin of platelets from aspirin-sensitive asthmatics is inhibited after inhalation of nedocromil sodium but not of sodium cromoglycate.

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    Marquette, C H; Joseph, M; Tonnel, A B; Vorng, H; Lassalle, P; Tsicopoulos, A; Capron, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Blood platelets from patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma (ASA) generated cytotoxic mediators in the presence of aspirin. This abnormal in vitro response to aspirin was abolished within 1 h after nedocromil sodium inhalation but not after sodium cromoglycate inhalation. 2. Platelets recovered this reactivity to aspirin by 12 hours after nedocromil sodium treatment of ASA-patients. 3. The in vitro reactivity to aspirin of ASA platelets isolated before inhalation was inhibited in the presence of serum isolated 15 and 60 min after nedocromil sodium inhalation. PMID:2161678

  10. Disaccharide intolerance

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    Radlović Nedeljko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaccharide intolerance presents a pathogenic heterogeneous and most complex clinical entity. It usually occurs due to primary or secondary deficit of disaccharide activity, and rarely because of disorders of absorption or monomer metabolism. Symptomatology of disaccharide maldigestion and/or malabsorption depends on the severity of the basic disorder, the level of its overload and the patient’s age. In the youngest children, due to a rapid gastrointestinal transit and a low compensatory capacity of the colon, osmotic-fermentative diarrhoea forms the basis of clinical features. Diarrhoeal disorder can be occasionally so intensive that it disturbs not only water and electrolytic balance, but also the nutritive status of the child. In older children and adults, as well as in milder forms of the disorder, the symptomatology, most often without diarrhoea, is dominated by abdominal colic, loud peristaltic sounds, meteorism and increased flatulence. Metabolic disorders followed by conversion disorders of galactose and fructose into glucose are characterized by a hypoglycaemic crisis, as well as by various multisystemic damages due to the deposit of toxic metabolic products. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal forms of disaccharide intolerance is based on the pathologic clinical and laboratory response during the overload test, while that of the metabolic form is based on the confirmed presence of specific enzyme and/or genetic defect. Treatment of disaccharide intolerance is based on the elimination diet. Besides, in the secondary forms of the disorder, it is also necessary to apply the treatment of the basic disease.

  11. 1例支气管舒张剂不耐受支气管哮喘患者的药学监护%Pharmaceutical care on a bronchodilator intolerance patient with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 舒鹤; 王哲; 李冰; 段小菊

    2015-01-01

    One 74-year-old female patient with acute bronchial asthma, who narrated she was allergic to aminophylline, complained of palpitation after administration of budesonide, terbutaline and ipratropium bromide for diastole bronchus, relieving asthma, anti-infection therapy. The asthma symptom of the patient didn't improve even combination use of intravenous drip of glucocorticoids. Clinical pharmacist assisted with physicians to analyze the cause of intolerance to terbutaline and ipratropium bromide and denied that the patient was allergic to aminophylline. The therapeutic schedules were adjusted, after 25-day therapy, asthma of the patient was controlled, and the patient was discharged. Clinical pharmacists played an important role in the pharmaceutical care on the evaluation of therapeutic regimen, usage of off-label, repeated drug use, etc.%1例74岁女性支气管哮喘急性发作患者,自述对氨茶碱过敏。入院后给予布地奈德、特布他林、异丙托溴铵舒张支气管、平喘、抗炎治疗,患者心悸不能耐受,加用糖皮质激素静脉滴注治疗后哮喘症状仍未明显缓解。临床药师协助医生分析患者对特布他林、异丙托溴铵心悸不能耐受的原因,并经仔细问诊排除氨茶碱过敏,调整治疗方案后哮喘症状得到控制,治疗25 d患者病情好转出院。此次治疗中,药师协助医生制定评估治疗方案,并在药物的超说明书用法、重复用药等方面给予药学监护。

  12. Chemical intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Andersson, Linus; Nordin, Steven;

    2015-01-01

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple...... chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI...

  13. Lactose Intolerance (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lactose Intolerance KidsHealth > For Teens > Lactose Intolerance Print A ... t really consider it a disease. Who Gets Lactose Intolerance? A person may be or may become ...

  14. What Is Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Lactose Intolerance: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is lactose intolerance? People who are lactose intolerant have trouble ...

  15. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-02-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment.

  16. ASTHMA AND RHINITIS INDUCED BY SELECTIVE IMMEDIATE REACTIONS TO PARACETAMOL AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS IN ASPIRIN TOLERANT SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pérez-Alzate

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In subjects with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs- exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD symptoms are triggered by acetyl salicylic acid (ASA and other strong COX-1 inhibitors, and in some cases by weak COX-1 or by selective COX-2 inhibitors. The mechanism involved is related to prostaglandin pathway inhibition and leukotriene release. Subjects who react to a single NSAID and tolerate others are considered selective responders, and often present urticaria and/or angioedema and anaphylaxis (SNIUAA. An immunological mechanism is implicated in these reactions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that selective responders who present respiratory airway symptoms may also exist.Our objective was to determine if subjects might develop selective responses to NSAIDs/paracetamol that manifest as upper/lower airways respiratory symptoms. For this purpose we studied patients reporting asthma and/or rhinitis induced by paracetamol or a single NSAID that tolerated ASA. An allergological evaluation plus controlled challenge with ASA was carried out. If ASA tolerance was found, we proceeded with an oral challenge with the culprit drug. The appearance of symptoms was monitored by a clinical questionnaire and by measuring FEV1 and/or nasal airways volume changes pre and post challenge. From a total of 21 initial cases, we confirmed the appearance of nasal and/or bronchial manifestations in ten, characterised by a significant decrease in FEV1% and/or a decrease in nasal volume cavity after drug administration. All cases tolerated ASA.This shows that ASA tolerant subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis induced by paracetamol or a single NSAID without skin/systemic manifestations exist. Whether these patients represent a new clinical phenotype to be included within the current classification of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs requires further investigation.

  17. Asthma and Rhinitis Induced by Selective Immediate Reactions to Paracetamol and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Aspirin Tolerant Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alzate, Diana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Doña, Inmaculada; Agúndez, José A.; García-Martín, Elena; Cornejo-García, José A.; Perkins, James R.; Blanca, Miguel; Canto, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In subjects with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)- exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) symptoms are triggered by acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and other strong COX-1 inhibitors, and in some cases by weak COX-1 or by selective COX-2 inhibitors. The mechanism involved is related to prostaglandin pathway inhibition and leukotriene release. Subjects who react to a single NSAID and tolerate others are considered selective responders, and often present urticaria and/or angioedema and anaphylaxis (SNIUAA). An immunological mechanism is implicated in these reactions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that selective responders who present respiratory airway symptoms may also exist. Our objective was to determine if subjects might develop selective responses to NSAIDs/paracetamol that manifest as upper/lower airways respiratory symptoms. For this purpose, we studied patients reporting asthma and/or rhinitis induced by paracetamol or a single NSAID that tolerated ASA. An allergological evaluation plus controlled challenge with ASA was carried out. If ASA tolerance was found, we proceeded with an oral challenge with the culprit drug. The appearance of symptoms was monitored by a clinical questionnaire and by measuring FEV1 and/or nasal airways volume changes pre and post challenge. From a total of 21 initial cases, we confirmed the appearance of nasal and/or bronchial manifestations in ten, characterized by a significant decrease in FEV1% and/or a decrease in nasal volume cavity after drug administration. All cases tolerated ASA. This shows that ASA tolerant subjects with asthma and/or rhinitis induced by paracetamol or a single NSAID without skin/systemic manifestations exist. Whether these patients represent a new clinical phenotype to be included within the current classification of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs requires further investigation. PMID:27489545

  18. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  19. Paradoxical Effect of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Doutremepuich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin is an important therapeutic option in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke, basedon its unique cost-effectiveness and widespread availability. In addition, based on the results of a number of large studies, aspirin is also widely used in the primary prevention of MI. This paper provides an update of the available data to offer greater clarity regarding the risks of aspirin with respect to hemorrhagic stroke. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ischemic events, the evidence supports that the benefits of aspirin treatment significantly outweigh the risk of a major hemorrhage. When considering whether aspirin is appropriate, the absolute therapeutic cardiovascular benefits of aspirin must be balanced with the possible risks associated with its use, being hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding these clinical facts, normal, COX 1 −/−, and COX 2 −/− mice were treated with a wide range of doses of aspirin and studied by induced hemorrhagic time. The results outlined three major conclusions: high doses of aspirin induce hemorrhage, while low doses of aspirin do not. In the absence of COX 1, ultra low doses of aspirin produce an antihemorrhagic effect not observed with intermediate doses. The absence of COX 2 induced a hemorrhagic effect that needs further research, probably originated in compensatory phenomena.

  20. Cardiovascular pharmacology core reviews: aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglia, Michael A; Clavijo, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, is perhaps the most well-studied drug in human history, but controversy persists regarding both optimal dose and its use in the primary prevention of atherothrombotic events. This article reviews the following: the effect of aspirin upon the cyclooxygenase pathway; clinical trials of aspirin for both secondary and primary prevention; prospective and retrospective studies of aspirin dose; the potential interaction between aspirin and ticagrelor; and the concept of aspirin resistance. It concludes with a review of major society guidelines regarding aspirin and offers a perspective on the evidence-based use of aspirin in clinical practice.

  1. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Science and Technology Assessment Printer Friendly Version Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin ... information about the hazards of orthostatic intolerance and suspension trauma when using fall arrest systems. This bulletin: ...

  2. Lactose Intolerance (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damaged due to the person's abnormal sensitivity to gluten (a protein found in wheat and certain other grains). Living With Lactose Intolerance Severity of lactose intolerance can vary widely between ...

  3. What Causes Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What causes lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... lactase in the body is the cause of lactose intolerance. The names for the three types of ...

  4. Precipitating factors of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H

    1992-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This feature of the asthmatic diathesis predisposes patients to wheezing in response to a number of different factors. These precipitating factors include specific allergen acting via sensitised mediator cells through an IgE-dependent mechanism. There are irritants which may work through a non-specific manner, or stimuli such as exercise and hyperventilation, which probably also act through mediator release via a non-IgE-dependent manner. The mechanism whereby physical stimuli such as exercise induce bronchoconstriction is of interest, because it increases the context in which the mast cell may participate in acute asthmatic bronchoconstriction. Respiratory infections also commonly provoke asthma, especially in infants and may, indeed, precipitate the asthmatic state itself. Finally, drugs can often trigger asthma attacks and the mechanisms of asthma precipitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin have been the subject of recent research.

  5. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause an intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, while the number of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.7 per 100,000 patients in 2009. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a healthy life without any symptoms. A partnership between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with agents and elimination of causes and risk factors are fundamental to asthma treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate mild to intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS, varying from low to high doses. Long-acting β2 agonists (LABA, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and theophylline sustained-release preparation are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-IgE antibody therapy is a new choice for the most severe and persistent asthma. Inhaled β2 agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, etc., are used as needed against acute exacerbations. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, aspirin induced asthma, pregnancy, and cough variant asthma are also important factors that need to be considered.

  6. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... healthy people who are at low risk for heart disease. You provider will consider your overall medical condition ...

  7. Asthma Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Asthma Basics KidsHealth > For Parents > Asthma Basics A A ... Asthma Categories en español Asma: aspectos fundamentales About Asthma Asthma is a common lung condition in kids ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: lactose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lactose intolerance lactose intolerance Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lactose intolerance is an impaired ability to digest lactose, ...

  9. Dietary fructose intolerance, fructan intolerance and FODMAPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Amy; Rao, Satish S C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intolerances to fructose, fructans and FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) are common, yet poorly recognized and managed. Over the last decade, they have come to the forefront because of new knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Patients with these problems often present with unexplained bloating, belching, distension, gas, abdominal pain, or diarrhea. Here, we have examined the most up-to-date research on these food-related intolerances, discussed controversies, and have provided some guidelines for the dietary management of these conditions. Breath testing for carbohydrate intolerance appears to be standardized and essential for the diagnosis and management of these conditions, especially in the Western population. While current research shows that the FODMAP diet may be effective in treating some patients with irritable bowel syndrome, additional research is needed to identify more foods items that are high in FODMAPs, and to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of dietary interventions.

  10. A disease marker for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wei; Lee, Jeen-Wei; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-07-15

    There are currently no diagnostic methods in vitro for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria (AICU) except for the provocation test in vivo. To identify disease markers for AICU, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the promoter loci of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIα) and CD203c expression level in Chinese patients with AICU. We studied two genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2427827 (-344C/T) and rs2251746 (-66T/C) gene polymorphisms of FcεRIα in 20 patients with AICU, 52 subjects with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance, and 50 controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that the frequencies of two SNPs (-344C>T, -66C>T) were similar to the normal controls. The allele frequency of -344CC was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway sensitivity (p=0.019). We also studied both histamine release and CD203c expression on KU812 cells to assess aspirin-induced basophil activation. We found that the activity of basophil activation of AICU was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance. The mean fluorescence intensity of the CD203c expression were 122.5±5.2 vs. 103.3±3.3 respectively, (phistamine release were 31.3%±7.4% vs. -24.0%±17.5%, (phistamine release were significantly up-regulated by aspirin, they were not affected by anti-IgE antibodies. These results suggest that a single SNP of FcεRIα (-344C>T) is less likely to develop AICU and the basophil activation activity in the sera by measuring CD203c expression can be applicable to confirm the diagnosis of AICU.

  11. Japanese Guideline for Adult Asthma 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult bronchial asthma (hereinafter, asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, reversible airway narrowing, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling to cause intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased, and that of patients who die from asthma has decreased (1.5 per 100,000 patients in 2012. The aim of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to lead a normal life without any symptoms. A good relationship between physicians and patients is indispensable for appropriate treatment. Long-term management with antiasthmatic agents and elimination of the causes and risk factors of asthma are fundamental to its treatment. Four steps in pharmacotherapy differentiate between mild and intensive treatments; each step includes an appropriate daily dose of an inhaled corticosteroid, varying from low to high. Long-acting 02-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and sustained-release theophylline are recommended as concomitant drugs, while anti-immunoglobulin E antibody therapy has been recently developed for the most severe and persistent asthma involving allergic reactions. Inhaled 02-agonists, aminophylline, corticosteroids, adrenaline, oxygen therapy, and others are used as needed in acute exacerbations by choosing treatment steps for asthma exacerbations depending on the severity of attacks. Allergic rhinitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aspirin-induced asthma, pregnancy, asthma in athletes, and coughvariant asthma are also important issues that need to be considered.

  12. Attenuation of aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction by sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuschi, M; Gambaro, G; Sestini, P; Pieroni, M G; Refini, R M; Vaghi, A; Bianco, S

    1997-04-01

    The protective activity of nedocromil sodium and of sodium cromoglycate against aspirin-induced asthma has never been investigated in controlled studies. Because it has been reported that aspirin-induced platelet-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro is inhibited after treatment in vivo with nedocromil but not with cromoglycate, we investigated whether these compounds also exhibit a different protective activity against aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction. Ten patients with aspirin-induced asthma underwent three bronchial challenges with a single dose of lysine acetylsalicylate (LASA) that caused a decrease in FEV1 of 25% or more in a preliminary dose-response test 30 min after inhalation of 4 mg nedocromil sodium, 10 mg sodium cromoglycate, or placebo. FEV1 and SRaw were recorded at intervals for 195 min. After placebo, LASA caused a maximal decrease in FEV1 of 42 +/- 4% of baseline. After cromoglycate and nedocromil the maximal decrease in FEV1 was reduced to 20 +/- 3% and 18 +/- 4%, respectively (p sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are equally effective in attenuating aspirin-induced bronchoconstriction and that it is unlikely that platelet activation participates in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma.

  13. Aspirin resistance and other aspirin-related concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaoyu; Zhou, Weijun; Lu, Ya; Chen, Peili; Lu, Zhongjiao; Fu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin is a widely used medication and has become a cornerstone for treating cardiovascular disease. Aspirin can significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular ischemic events, recurrence and mortality, thereby improving the long-term prognosis of patients. However, there has been a staggering increase in the volume of literature addressing the issue of so-called "aspirin resistance" in recent years, and for some patients, it is difficult to avoid adverse reactions to aspirin. In this review, we present both the historical aspects of aspirin use and contemporary developments in its clinical use.

  14. An aspirin a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Philip W

    2014-01-01

    The title of this article is also its punch line. The thesis that I will prove is that every adult, with a few exceptions, should take one 325 mg aspirin tablet each day. The drug is extraordinary and is beneficial in myriad ways. In this dosage the toxicity of the treatment is minimal. Since the drug is sold "over the counter", not requiring prescription, it is cheap and its benefits are easily underestimated. I do not use extensive reference citations; but just tell the story of aspirin.

  15. Idiopathic environmental intolerances: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, P J

    2000-01-01

    The editor discusses usage of the terms "iidiopathic environmental intolerance," "multiple chemical sensitivity," and "environmental illness." Also addressed are prevalence, theories of etiology, evaluation and treatment, and social and political implications.

  16. Debt intolerance: Executive summary

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    Speaking before the IDB Board of Directors, Carmen Reinhart discussed the syndrome of “debt intolerance,” whereby countries with weak institutional structures and problematic political systems borrow in order to avoid difficult fiscal decisions but subsequently find themselves unwilling or unable to repay. Debt intolerance, it should be noted, is by no means a recent phenomenon: the historical record shows repeated defaults by several European countries before 1900 and, in some instances, w...

  17. Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Asthma Epidemic Eating with Asthma Helping Your Child Cope With a Medical Condition Nasal Wash Guide Cleaning Dirty Items Impact on Families Asthma & Pets Peak Flow Meter Athletes & Asthma Helpful Tools for ...

  18. Difficult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Uslu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  19. Difficult asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  20. Tolerabilidad de Aspirina Aspirin tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Moreno-Brea

    2005-09-01

    hypersensitivity reactions, in particular Aspirin-induced asthma, and potential cross-reactions with other frequently used NSAIs. The most susceptible sub-population for asthmatic reactions has well-defined features. The anti-aggregation effects of Aspirin can complicate some conditions associated to hemostasis disorders; however, its benefit has been shown for the prevention of athero-thrombotic vascular accidents. The Reye´s Syndrome is a rare but severe condition in which the use of Aspirin is contraindicated in children or adolescents with fever or certain viral infections. Given the extensive use of Aspirin, it can generally be considered a well-tolerated drug whose most severe adverse reactions require special pharmacovigilance, as well as special attention to high risk populations. This also suggests the need to implement health education programs about the use of analgesics. In any case, Aspirin is still a reference drug with a high therapeutic potential derived from the benefits provided by its use.

  1. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some medication labels may use the words acetylsalicylate, acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic, salicylamide, phenyl salicylate, etc., instead of the word aspirin. There is not data as to other forms ...

  2. Antinuclear Antibodies in Asthma Patients- A Special Asthma Phenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agache Ioana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported the appearance of asthma and autoimmune conditions in the same patient, but the clinical significance of this association was not yet assessed. One hundred asthmatic patients were observed for one year evolution with death, severe exacerbations, intake of > 1000 micrograms of beclometasone or equivalent (high ICS and FEV1 decline >100 ml, in relation with ANA (ELISA, sputum and blood eosinophilia (EO, NSAID intolerance, BMI >25, chronic rhinosinusitis, smoking status and FEV1 After 1 year of observation, there were 5 deaths, 28 severe asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalisations, 24 cases requiring high inhaled corticosteroid intake, and 19 patients with fast FEV1 decline (>100 ml/year. Multiple regression analysis pointed out several different independent risk factors for severe asthma evolution: for death presence of ANA (P=0.037, NSAID intolerance (P100 ml ANA (P=0.006, sputum EO (P=0.037, BMI>25 (P=0.046 and NSAID intolerance (P=0.017The presence of ANA is an independent risk factor in asthma for evolution with death, severe exacerbations, high inhaled corticosteroid intake and FEV1 decline >100 ml.

  3. How Is Lactose Intolerance Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactose intolerance diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... people think that they or their children are lactose intolerant without being tested or diagnosed. 1 As ...

  4. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  5. Evolution and Collective Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhoite, Fred H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Examines behavioral and intellectual conformity as major attitudes in shaping political behavior. Manifestations of coercion within human and animal social units are presented, including religious intolerance, prohibition of artistic activity and literary expression, and rejection of outsiders. Available from: Managing Editor, Department of…

  6. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.

    2016-01-01

    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  7. Aspirin Sensitivity and Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Polyps: A Fatal Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Graefe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD refers to aspirin sensitivity, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS, nasal polyposis, asthma, eosinophil inflammation in the upper and lower airways, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis following the ingestion of NSAIDs. Epidemiologic and pathophysiological links between these diseases are established. The precise pathogenesis remains less defined, even though there is some progress in the understanding of several molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, these combinations of diseases in patients classified by AERD constitute a fatal combination and may be difficult to treat with standard medical and surgical interventions. This paper reviews in brief the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, molecular pathogenesis, and specific therapies of patients classified by AERD and postulates future attempts to gain new insights into this disease.

  8. [Aspirin suppresses microsatellite instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, S; Dietmaier, W; Beyser, K; Bocker, T; Hofstädter, F; Fishel, R; Rüschoff, J

    1999-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exhibit cancer preventive effects and have been shown to induce regression of adenomas in FAP patients. In order to elucidate the probable underlying mechanism, the effect of NSAIDs on mismatch repair related microsatellite instability was investigated. Six colorectal cancer cell lines all but one deficient for human mismatch repair (MMR) genes were examined for microsatellite instability (MSI) prior and after treatment with Aspirin or Sulindac. For rapid in vitro analysis of MSI a microcloning assay was developed by combining Laser microdissection and random (PEP-) PCR prior to specific MSI-PCR. Effects of NSAIDs on cell cycle and apoptosis were systematically investigated by using flow cytometry and cell-sorting. MSI frequency in cells deficient of MMR genes (hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6) was markedly reduced after long-term (> 10 weeks) NSAID treatment. This effect was reversible, time- and concentration dependent. However, in the hPMS2 deficient endometrial cancer cell line (HEC-1-A) the MSI phenotype kept unchanged. According to cell sorting, non-apoptotic cells were stable and apoptotic cells were unstable. These results suggest that aspirin/sulindac induces a genetic selection for microsatellite stability in a subset of MMR-deficient cells and may thus provide an effective prophylactic therapy for HNPCC related colorectal carcinomas.

  9. Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 23 Taking Aspirin to Protect Your Heart What can taking aspirin do for me? If you are at high risk for or if you have heart disease, taking a low dose aspirin every day may help. Aspirin can also help ...

  10. Occupational asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  11. Difficult asthma: assessment and management, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, Christopher H; Long, Aidan A

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe asthma have considerable morbidity related to their asthma and are at risk for serious, life-threatening exacerbations. Their management requires an intensive and comprehensive approach, including attention to reducing exposure to environmental inciters of airway inflammation and triggers of symptoms, patient education (including an asthma action plan), and opportunity for close patient-provider communication. Approved medical options include the lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton; the anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, omalizumab; and bronchial thermoplasty. Nonapproved interventions of potential benefit are ultrahigh-dose inhaled corticosteroids, anticholinergic bronchodilators (tiotropium), macrolide antibiotics, and vitamin D supplementation for the vitamin D-deficient patient. Potentially toxic, "steroid-sparing" therapies such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, and etanercept are best reserved for patients participating in clinical trials. Recognition of specific subtypes of patients with therapy-resistant asthma permits more targeted treatment approaches, such as for aspirin-sensitive asthma, persistent eosinophilic asthma, asthma complicated by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, asthma with persistent airflow obstruction, and asthma with life-threatening (near fatal) asthmatic attacks. Novel therapies based on an improved understanding of the pathobiology of therapy-resistant asthma are greatly needed.

  12. A Disease Marker for Aspirin-Induced Chronic Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hsieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no diagnostic methods in vitro for aspirin-induced chronic urticaria (AICU except for the provocation test in vivo. To identify disease markers for AICU, we investigated the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the promoter loci of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIα and CD203c expression level in Chinese patients with AICU. We studied two genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs2427827 (–344C/T and rs2251746 (–66T/C gene polymorphisms of FcεRIα in 20 patients with AICU, 52 subjects with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance, and 50 controls in a Chinese population. The results showed that the frequencies of two SNPs (–344C>T, –66C>T were similar to the normal controls. The allele frequency of –344CC was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway sensitivity (p = 0.019. We also studied both histamine release and CD203c expression on KU812 cells to assess aspirin-induced basophil activation. We found that the activity of basophil activation of AICU was significantly higher in the patients with AICU compared to those with airway hypersensitivity without aspirin intolerance. The mean fluorescence intensity of the CD203c expression were 122.5 ± 5.2 vs. 103.3 ± 3.3 respectively, (p < 0.05, and the percentages of histamine release were 31.3% ± 7.4% vs. −24.0% ± 17.5%, (p < 0.05 respectively. Although the mean fluorescence intensity of CD203c expression and the percentage of histamine release were significantly up-regulated by aspirin, they were not affected by anti-IgE antibodies. These results suggest that a single SNP of FcεRIα (–344C>T is less likely to develop AICU and the basophil activation activity in the sera by measuring CD203c expression can be applicable to confirm the diagnosis of AICU.

  13. [Research advancement about lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Yin, Shi-An

    2006-05-01

    Lactose intolerance associated with nutrition and health of human especially infant period of time and effect milk product intake. It is important significance to maintain health and cut down the aged risk of osteoporosis because lactose intolerance was understand about grouping, clinical symptom and diagnose. There are extensive perspective for understand prevent and control lactose intolerance for lactose gene polymorphism. It is effective method for earlier period detection gene screen with lactose typing for osteoporosis, however there are carry out multiplicity research in many ways to improve and control lactose intolerance

  14. [Intolerance to food additives: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, F; Mangini, F; Berardi, M; Sterpeta Loffredo, M; Chinellato, I; Dellino, A; Cristofori, F; Di Domenico, F; Mastrototaro, M F; Cappiello, A; Centoducati, T; Carella, F; Armenio, L

    2008-12-01

    Contrary to common believing, the prevalence of the intolerance to food additives in the general population is rather low. Nowadays many doubts persist with regard both to the pathogenetic mechanisms and to the clinical and diagnostic aspects in this field. Symptoms due to, or exacerbated from, food additives usually involve non-IgE-mediate mechanisms (pseudo-allergic reactions, PAR) and are usually less severe of those induced by food allergy. The most frequent clinical feature of the intolerance to food additives still remains the urticaria-angioedema syndrome, although these substances are really involved only in a minority of patients. Other possible clinical features include anaphylaxis, atopic eczema, behaviour disturbances, asthma and non-allergic rhinitis. The diagnostic approach consists in diary cards, reporting symptoms and food habits, elimination diet and double blinded placebo-controlled oral challenge with suspected additives. However, such procedure still remains poorly standardized and numerous uncertainties persist with regard to optimal conditions for performing and interpret the challenge results. The therapeutic approach consists in the exclusion of foods and products containing the additive involved, and, in patients not compliant to the diet, in treatment with symptomatic drugs.

  15. Perimenstrual asthma: from pathophysiology to treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Serafini, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma is about 9,7 % in women and 5,5 % in men. Asthma can deteriorate during the perimenstrual period, a phenomenon known as perimenstrual asthma (PMA), which represents a unique, highly symptomatic asthma phenotype. It is distinguished from traditional allergic asthma by aspirin sensitivity, less atopy, and lower lung capacity. PMA incidence is reported to vary between 19 and 40 % of asthmatic women. The presence of PMA has been related to increases in asthma-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations and emergency treatment including intubations. It is hypothesized that hormonal status may influence asthma in women, focusing on the role of sex hormones, and specifically on the impact of estrogens' fluctuations at ovulation and before periods. This paper will focus on the pathophysiology of hormone triggered cycle related inflammatory/allergic events and their relation with asthma. We reviewed the scientific literature on Pubmed database for studies on PMA. Key word were PMA, mastcells, estrogens, inflammation, oral contraception, hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and hormone free interval (HFI). Special attention will be devoted to the possibility of reducing the perimenstrual worsening of asthma and associated symptoms by reducing estrogens fluctuations, with appropriate hormonal contraception and reduced HFI. This novel therapeutical approach will be finally discussed.

  16. Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aspirin to Prevent a First Heart Attack or Stroke Also known as aspirin primary prevention. Aspirin is ... taking aspirin to prevent another heart attack or stroke? The information discussed in Who may benefit? only ...

  17. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ismail Yasawy; Ulrich Richard Folsch; Wolfgang Eckhard Schmidt; Michael Schwend

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an underrecognized,preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting,abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to Ⅳ fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.

  18. Adult hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasawy, Mohamed Ismail; Folsch, Ulrich Richard; Schmidt, Wolfgang Eckhard; Schwend, Michael

    2009-05-21

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an under-recognized, preventable life-threatening condition. It is an autosomal recessive disorder with subnormal activity of aldolase B in the liver, kidney and small bowel. Symptoms are present only after the ingestion of fructose, which leads to brisk hypoglycemia, and an individual with continued ingestion will exhibit vomiting, abdominal pain, failure to thrive, and renal and liver failure. A diagnosis of HFI was made in a 50-year-old woman on the basis of medical history, response to IV fructose intolerance test, demonstration of aldolase B activity reduction in duodenal biopsy, and molecular analysis of leukocyte DNA by PCR showed homozygosity for two doses of mutant gene. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adult life and may lead to disastrous complications following inadvertent fructose or sorbitol infusion. Several lethal episodes of HFI following sorbitol and fructose infusion have been reported. The diagnosis can only be suspected by taking a careful dietary history, and this can present serious complications.

  19. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  20. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/aspirin-during-pregnancy/ ...

  1. Time for aspirin : blood pressure and reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, Tobias Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    Aspirine wordt door miljoenen mensen wereldwijd gebruikt ter preventie van hart- en vaatziekten. De meeste mensen nemen aspirine 's ochtends in, maar het optimale inname tijdstip is niet bekend. In dit proefschrift is onderzocht voordelig is om aspirine 's avonds in te nemen in plaats van 's ochtend

  2. The role of aspirin in women's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to discuss the role of aspirin for various conditions in women. METHODS: A nonsystematic review of articles published on PubMed((R)) that examines the role of aspirin in women. RESULTS: Aspirin is associated with a significant reduction of stroke risk in women,

  3. Aspirin: Pharmacology and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma V. Paez Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet therapy has been documented to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease after acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, and in chronic atrial fibrillation patients, amongst other risk factors. Conventional management of thrombosis-based disorders includes the use of heparin, oral anticoagulants, and the preferred antiplatelet agent aspirin. Interestingly, aspirin was not intended to be used as an antiplatelet agent; rather, after being repurposed, it has become one of the most widely prescribed antithrombotic drugs. To this end, there have been several milestones in the development of antiplatelet agents in the last few decades, such as adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors. However, given some of the limitations of these therapies, aspirin continues to play a major role in the management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders and is expected to do so for years to come.

  4. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  5. TRUE RESISTANCE AND PSEUDORESISTANCE TO ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Martynov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low dose aspirin reduces the secondary incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke. Drug resistance to aspirin might result in treatment failure. Despite this concern, no clear definition of aspirin resistance has emerged, and estimates of its incidence have varied remarkably. Researchers from university of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, the USA, led by Dr. Tilo Grosser, aimed to determine the specific phenotype of true pharmacological resistance to aspirin — such as might be explained by genetic causes. However the study failed to identify a single case of true drug resistance. Pseudoresistance, reflecting delayed and reduced drug absorption, complicates enteric coated but not immediate release aspirin administration.

  6. Compound list: aspirin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aspirin ASA 00014 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aspirin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/aspirin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aspirin....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/aspirin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  7. How Is Lactose Intolerance Managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How is lactose intolerance managed? Skip sharing on social media links ... 1 But most people who have problems digesting lactose can take steps to minimize symptoms without giving ...

  8. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10......,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before...... the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum...

  9. Rapid Aspirin Challenge in Patients with Aspirin Allergy and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin A; White, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin allergy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome represents one of the more urgent challenges an allergist may face. Adverse reactions to aspirin are reported in 1.5% of patients with coronary artery disease. A history of adverse reaction to aspirin often leads to unnecessary withholding of this medication or use of alternative antiplatelet therapy which may be inferior or more costly. Aspirin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Rapid aspirin challenge/desensitization in the aspirin allergic patient has been consistently shown to be both safe and successful in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and insulin in an aspirin sensitive asthmatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, I

    1976-03-01

    The infrequency of diabetes mellitus and asthma in the same individual is re-examined. The antagonism between epinephrine and insulin, as suggested by Konig in 1935, is indeed accurate. The assays done by the Eli Lilly Research Department revealed no in vitro effect of insulin on the CAMP and GMP level of mast cells as occurs in liver cells. It is felt that this effect is probably an in vivo effect produced via the vagus nerve and alpha-adrenergic receptor system stimulation. This would explain the mechanism of aggravation of asthma by excess insulin. Dr. Petersen's studies, the negative intradermal skin tests to insulin and the absence of change on either beef or pork insulin usage by our patient all point to a nonatopic factor in the aggravation of the asthma of this patient. In the uncommon occurrence of asthma and diabetes in the same patient, insulin dosage should be considered as a factor in all such asthmatics who do not respond well to conventional therapy. Two additional asthmatics who also have diabetes did improve with cessation of nocturnal asthma by a reduction of their evening dose of insulin. A high fat, low carbohydrate diet, as suggested by Abrahamson to avoid dietary hyperinsulinism, is certainly worth considering in patients with nocturnal asthma. If patients cannot be made to follow a diet requiring frequent feedings high in protein and fats and low in carbohydrates, another approach suggests itself. Abrahamson was able to relieve the patients who developed nocturnal asthma with hypoglycemia by having them drink a glass of milk. Assuming other causes have been eliminated and a patient awakens each day at 3:00 a.m., an alarm clock could be set at 2:00 a.m. Milk or a milk substitute in milk sensitive patients could be taken at 2:00 a.m. to raise the blood sugar and hopefully prevent the asthma associated with hypoglycemia. Also to be noted is the ubiquitous use of tartrazine in so many drugs, including those used to relieve asthmatic symptoms

  11. Drug intolerance in patients with idiopathic environmental intolerance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedoszytko, M; Chelminska, M; Buss, T; Roik, E; Jassem, E

    2006-10-01

    The increasing rate of the idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) has been observed for the last decade. The aim of this report was to analyse the allergic component of the disease in particular relation to drug intolerance. Six patients with diagnosed IEI showed a positive skin test reaction to several commonly used antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants, verapamil, etc. In three cases, the thorough diagnosis of sensitivity to anaesthetic agents enabled to perform necessary surgical treatment, in others - facilitated the proper treatment of headaches and hypertension. Symptoms related to allergy contributed to the deterioration of IEI. Thus, a consultation of IEI patients by an allergologist seems to be of a substantial importance.

  12. Prevalence of Asthma in Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryum Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAsthma is exaggerated response of immune system which is a leading cause of death in the third world. Main causes of asthma are allergy, smoking, drugs like NSAID (Aspirin and family history. Objective of study was to check the prevalence of asthma in different age groups and its impact on socioeconomical behaviors of the peoples of southern Punjab, by developing a questionnaire. Incidence of asthmatic attack in the age group of 20 to 60 years was more than in age group of 20 years, furthermore the incidence was found to be more common in females as compare to males. The smokers were at more risk to develop the disease as compared to the nonsmokers.

  13. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0.......026%. The challenged population is 81 children and adults with a history of reproducible clinical symptoms after ingestion of food additives. 4 In the Danish population study a prevalence of 1-2% is found in children age 5-16. In this study a total of 606 children mainly with atopic disease have been challenged. 5...... The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence...

  14. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The Basics Overview Benefits ... and Risks What are the benefits of taking aspirin daily? Aspirin can reduce your risk of heart ...

  15. Aspirin inhibits hepatitis C virus entry by downregulating claudin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, P; Zhang, L

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin has previously been reported to inhibit hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to investigate whether aspirin is involved in blocking HCV entry. We found that aspirin inhibits the entry of HCVpp and infectious HCV. The level of claudin-1, an HCV receptor, is reduced by aspirin. Our results extend the anti-HCV effect of aspirin to the HCV entry step and further reinforce the anti-HCV role of aspirin.

  16. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients = 83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders.

  17. Lactose Intolerance: A Guide for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Lactose Intolerance Posted under Health Guides . Updated 1 June ... any person may experience lactose intolerance. What is lactose? Lactose is a natural sugar found in milk ...

  18. Is it just lactose intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Celso Eduardo; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Pavan, Célia Regina; dos Santos, Raquel Acácia Pereira Gonçalves; dos Santos Lima, Regiane Patussi; Pinto, Daiana Guedes; da Silva, Mariana Dias; de Lima Zollner, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Acquired delayed-onset hypolactasia is a common autosomal recessive condition. Cow's milk allergies, conversely, are less common conditions that may manifest with equivalent symptoms and are able to simulate and/or aggravate lactose intolerance. This study was designed to evaluate the contribution of IgE-mediated cow's milk sensitization to the symptomatology of adult patients with lactose-free diet refractory lactose intolerance. Forty-six adult patients with lactose intolerance and persistent symptoms despite a lactose-free diet underwent skin-prick test to investigate cow's milk, goat's milk, and soy protein-specific-IgE. SDS-PAGE immunoblotting was used to investigate the presence of cow's milk protein-specific IgE. The percentage of patients who had skin reactions to whole cow's milk, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins, goat's milk, and soy was 69.5, 36.9, 56.5, 56.5%, 54.3, and 50%, respectively. The percentage of patients with immunoblot-detected IgE specific for alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins, and bovine serum albumin was 21.7, 63, 67.3, and 2.1%, respectively. IgE-mediated sensitization to cow's milk is a frequent comorbidity in subjects with lactose-free diet refractory lactose intolerance and is worth consideration in patients with this condition.

  19. [Hereditary fructose intolerance (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, F

    1977-07-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is the most important disturbance in human fructose metabolism. This paper deals with the present knowledge of biochemistry and pathophysiology of this inborn error of metabolism, which is often wrongly diagnosed and gives a detailed description of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  20. Asthma pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Minka L

    2014-02-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that leads to airway obstruction via bronchoconstriction, edema, and mucus hypersecretion. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program has outlined evidence-based guidelines to standardize asthma therapy and improve outcomes. The initial recommendation of choice for persistent asthmatic patients is an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Long-acting beta-2 agonists in combination with ICS, oral corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and anti-IgE therapeutic options can be considered for patients with persistent or worsening symptoms. Many novel therapies are being developed, with an emphasis on anti-inflammatory mechanisms, gene expression, and cytokine modification.

  1. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  2. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  3. Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  4. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  5. Asthma Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  6. Recognizing asthma mimics and asthma complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Dennis; Seda, Gilbert; Daheshia, Massoud

    2011-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperreactivity, and underlying inflammation. Two common reasons asthmatics fail standard therapy are incorrect diagnosis and failure to recognize underlying contributing factors. A correct diagnosis of asthma is of great importance to military practitioners since misdiagnosis or uncontrolled asthma affects an individual's operational readiness or determines whether one can receive a medical waiver to enlist in military service. This article presents four cases of patients with dyspnea that have conditions which mimic asthma or complicate asthma management: vocal cord dysfunction misdiagnosed as asthma, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease mistaken as asthma, difficult-to-control asthma because of bronchiectasis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and difficult and fatal asthma. Asthma is contrasted to other respiratory disorders, and an outlined approach to asthma diagnosis and management is presented using the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines.

  7. Erythromelalgia: An Uncommon Presentation Precipitated by Aspirin Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythromelalgia is a rare disorder frequently associated with myeloproliferative disorders. We describe a case of elderly patient diagnosed with myeloproliferative disorder in remission. The patient was on aspirin for secondary prevention of stroke and was taken off aspirin and developed erythromelalgia within two weeks of withdrawal of aspirin. After restarting aspirin, patient’s symptoms improved within 2 weeks.

  8. Tolerable Intolerance: An Evolutionary Model

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gregor

    2005-01-01

    A cornerstone of liberal-democratic regimes is the right of free speech, granted even to nonliberals who manifestly oppose it. Communism and political Islamism are two primary examples of ideologies which are tolerated in spite of calls for the limits on the right of expression. Not surprisingly, it is often argued that a tolerant society needs laws preventing non-tolerant beliefs from attacking tolerance. Yet, does intolerance necessarily prosper in a tolerant society, or is deemed to decay?...

  9. Værdiladninger og intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    for ”nul tolerance” i retspolitik og integrationspolitik. Så at være intolerant kan altså være noget positivt. ”Tolerance” og ”intolerance” har en deskriptiv kernemening, som eventuelle værdidomme kan knyttes til. At være tolerant vil sige, at man undlader at gribe ind overfor afvigelser fra normen eller...

  10. Treating statin-intolerant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigna G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcello Arca, Giovanni PignaAtherosclerosis Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and Allied Medical Specialities, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular events and are safe for almost all patients. Nevertheless, intolerance to statins is frequently faced in clinical practice. This is mostly due to muscular symptoms (myalgia with or without increase of plasma creatinine kinase and/or elevation of hepatic aminotransferases, which overall constitutes approximately two-thirds of reported adverse events during statin therapy. These side effects raise concerns in patients as well as in doctors and are likely to reduce patients' adherence and, as a consequence, the cardiovascular benefit. Therefore, it is mandatory that clinicians improve their knowledge on the clinical aspects of muscular and hepatic side effects of statin therapy as well as their ability to manage patients with statin intolerance. Besides briefly examining the clinical aspects and the mechanisms that are proposed to be responsible for the most common statin-associated side effects, the main purpose of this article is to review the available approaches to manage statin-intolerant patients. The first step is to determine whether the adverse events are indeed related to statin therapy. If so, lowering the dosage or changing statin, alternate dosing options, or the use of nonstatin compounds may be practical strategies. The cholesterol-lowering potency as well as the usefulness of these different approaches in treating statin-intolerant patients will be examined based on currently available data. However, the cardiovascular benefit of these strategies has not been well established, so their use has to be guided by a careful clinical assessment of each patient.Keywords: statin therapy, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, aminotransferase levels, myopathy

  11. Gluten intolerance and skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Philippe; Pelletier, Fabien; Dreno, Brigitte; Puzenat, Eve; Aubin, François

    2006-01-01

    Gluten sensitivity with or without coeliac disease (CD) symptoms and intestinal pathology has been suggested as a potentially treatable cause of various diseases. CD is a chronic disease which improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. There have been numerous reports linking CD with several skin conditions. A body of evidence shows that dermatitis herpetiformis is actually a cutaneous manifestation of CD. Autoimmune diseases, allergic diseases, psoriasis and miscellaneous diseases have also been described with gluten intolerance. Dermatologists should be familiar with the appraisal of gluten sensitive enteropathy and should be able to search for an underlying gluten intolerance (GI). Serological screening by means of antigliadin, antiendomysial and transglutaminase antibodies should be performed. HLA typing is often useful in association with serologic tests. Intestinal biopsy is usually needed to establish the diagnosis of CD or GI. Thus, gluten intolerance gives rise to a variety of dermatological manifestations which may benefit from a gluten-free diet.

  12. (Nitrooxyacyloxy)methyl esters of aspirin as novel nitric oxide releasing aspirins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Donnola, Monica; Rolando, Barbara; Chegaev, Konstantin; Marini, Elisabetta; Cena, Clara; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Biondi, Stefano; Ongini, Ennio; Gasco, Alberto

    2009-08-27

    A series of (nitrooxyacyloxy)methyl esters of aspirin were synthesized and evaluated as new NO-donor aspirins. Different amounts of aspirin were released in serum from these products according to the nature of nitrooxyacyloxy moiety present. In the aromatic series, there is a rather good linear correlation between the amount of aspirin released and the potencies of the products in inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by collagen. Both the native compounds and the related nitrooxy-substituted acid metabolites were able to relax rat aorta strips precontracted with phenylephrine, in keeping with a NO-induced activation of the sGC as a mechanism that underlies the vasodilator effect. The products here described are new improved examples of NO-donor aspirins containing nitrooxy groups. They could represent an alternative to the use of aspirin in a variety of clinical applications.

  13. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My alerts Sign In Join Give up seat Facebook Twitter Home About this Journal Editorial Board General Statistics Circulation Doodle → Blip the Doodle Information for Advertisers Author Reprints Commercial Reprints Customer Service and Ordering ...

  14. Lactose intolerance and other disaccharidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Balvir S

    2014-09-01

    Intolerance to foods which contain lactose can cause a range of intestinal and systemic symptoms. These symptoms are caused by Lactase deficiency which is encoded by a single gene (LCT) of ≈ 50 kb located on chromosome 2q21. In some food items, lactose has been missed because of "hidden" lactose due to inadequately labeled, confusing diagnosis of lactose intolerance based on dietary restriction of dairy foods. Two polymorphisms, C/T13910 and G/A22018, linked to hypolactasia, correlate with breath hydrogen and symptoms after lactose. The key in the management of lactose intolerance is the dietary removal of lactose. Patients diagnosed as lactose intolerant must be advised of "risk" foods, inadequately labeled, including processed meats, bread, cake mixes, soft drinks, and lagers. This review highlights the types, symptoms and management of lactose intolerance and also highlights differences from milk allergy which closely mimics the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  15. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  16. Discrimination And Intolerance in the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Vitor

    2014-01-01

    When the people speak about discrimination and intolerance, it is usually in reference to the racial, religious, political, sexual, age, problems, etc., and does not refer, or refers less, the discrimination and the intolerance determined by artistic reasons, or with these related : the age differences in art, the sexism in art, and the rejection of works of art. In this text we intend to show the existence of these forms of discrimination and intolerance, explain what they mean, its causes, ...

  17. Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

    OpenAIRE

    McSherry, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

  18. Bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008049 Activation ralated genes of memory CD+4 T cells in asthma patients. PI Weifeng(皮卫峰),et al. Dept Respir Med, Xinhua Hosp, Sch Med, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200092. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(12):932-935. Objective To screen and identify the genes of activated memory CD+4 T cells in asthma. Methods Differential display polymerase chain reaction(DDPCR) was utilized to identify genes of memory CD+4 T cells after activation from asthmatic patients and normal individuals,

  19. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  20. [Severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Claudio D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the frequency of severe asthma (SA) according to WHO definition and to compare SA patients' characteristics with those of non-severe asthma (NSA); secondly, to investigate the level of control reached throughout a period of regular treatment. Between 1-1-2005 and 12-31-2014, 471 medical records from patients with bronchial asthma assisted in Buenos Aires City were analyzed. SA frequency was 40.1% (189/471), being significantly higher among patients from the public health system (47.7%, 108/226 vs. 33%, 81/245, p = 0.001). SA patients were older than NSA ones (51.3 ± 17.4 vs. 42.6 ± 17.1 years, p = 0.000), presented longer time since onset of the disease (median 30 vs. 20 years, p = 0.000), lower educational levels (secondary level or higher 41.7% vs. 58.1%, p = 0.000), lower frequency of rhinitis (47% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.004), more severe levels of airway obstruction (FEV% 50.2 ± 13.7 vs. 77.7 ± 12.4, p = 0.000), more frequent antecedents of Near Fatal Asthma (11.1% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.000), higher levels of serum IgE (median of 410 vs. 279 UI/l, p = 0.01) and higher demand of systemic steroids requirements and hospitalizations (68.7% vs. 50.7%, p = 0.000 and 37.5% vs. 15.9%, p = 0.000, respectively). A 30.6% of SA patients (58/189) reached a follow-up period of 12 months, 13 (22.5%) of whom reached the controlled asthma level. The frequency of SA found seems to be considerable. Multicenter studies to investigate the levels of control reached by SA patients with access to proper treatment are recommended.

  1. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2013-01-01

    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  2. Two cases of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, N; Praveenkumar, G S; Rao, K Aravind; Vasanthi; Kakkilaya, Srinivas

    2003-07-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare cause of hepatic cirrhosis in the young. The disorder has a reported frequency of 1 in 20000 live births and no case has been reported from India so far. We report two cases of hereditary fructose intolerance, both with bilateral cataracts and one with cirrhosis of the liver.

  3. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: a systematic review on the diagnostic value of gastrointestinal symptoms and self-reported milk intolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: When lactose malabsorption gives rise to symptoms, the result is called 'lactose intolerance'. Although lactose intolerance is often bothersome for patients, once recognized it may be managed by simple dietary adjustments. However, diagnosing lactose intolerance is not straightforward, e

  4. [Exacerbations of asthma--precipitating factors: drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfiorenzo, C; Pipet, A

    2011-10-01

    Asthmatic exacerbations are sometimes triggered by medications, primarily the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDS) and beta-blockers. Asthma attacks induced by NSAIDS occur rapidly and can be severe. Widal syndrome is a specific disease entity whose physiopathology remains incompletely explained. Asthma is characteristically severe and steroid dependent; desensitisation with aspirin has been proposed, but this remains controversial. Beta-blockers are contra-indicated in asthma; the β1 "cardioselectivity" of some agents is not absolute, disappearing at high doses and the "partial agonists" are not better tolerated. However, certain authors have called into question the harmful effect of beta-blockade in moderate and stable asthma. More studies are needed, but the current data suggest that in some cases beta-blockers may be safe but their use requires close supervision. Other molecules can pose problems in asthmatics (dipyridamole, synthetic sex hormones and certain excipients). On the whole, there has been little innovation concerning the hazard that drugs can pose for some asthmatics. The task for the future will be to specify the physiopathology of Widal syndrome, and to clarify the categories of patients in whom beta-blockers can be safely employed as the public health consequences of cardiovascular pathologies make this an important issue for lung specialists.

  5. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage.

  6. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  7. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - mold; Bronchial asthma - mold; Triggers - mold; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are ...

  8. Asthma: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Learn How to Control Asthma Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Treated? Select a Language Español (Spanish) What Is Asthma? Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. ...

  9. Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...

  10. Asthma triggers (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things make your asthma worse. These are called asthma "triggers". Avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. The most common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors ...

  11. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  12. Can Airway Tolerance be Promoted Immunopharmacologically with Aspirin in Aspirin-insensitive Allergic Bonchial Asthmatics by T Regulatory Cells (Tregs-directed Immunoregulatory Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammal Hussain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathobiology of allergic bronchial asthma is mediated by over-expressed T helper type 2 (Th2-biased immune responses to harmless environmental antigens, leading to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness. These Th2 responses are normally suppressed by functional T regulatory cells (Tregs, which maintain the airway tolerance. However, the Tregs activity is conceived to be compromised in allergic asthmatics. The curative therapy to counteract this immune dysregulation is not available so far, and to devise such a remedy is the current research impetus in allergic asthma therapeutics. One of the novel insights is to consider a Tregs-directed immunoregulatory therapy that could harness endogenous Tregs to redress the Th2/Tregs imbalance, thus enhancing the airway tolerance. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is a prototype non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that possesses intriguing immunopharmacological attributes. For example, it can enhance the number or the frequency of functional Tregs, especially natural CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Tregs, either directly or by inducing tolerogenic activity in dendritic cells (DCs. It is also considered to be beneficial for the induction of immunological tolerance in autoimmunity and graft rejection. This raises the question whether ASA, if exploited optimally, may be used to induce and harness endogenous Tregs activity for redressing Th2/Tregs imbalance in allergic asthma. In this paper, we hypothesise that ASA may help to counteract the underlying immune dysregulation in allergic asthma by promoting airway tolerance. Nevertheless, the future research in this regard will selectively need to be targeted to allergic asthma models, which are ASA insensitive, as ASA has some adverse background and is contraindicated in asthmatics who are sensitive to it.

  13. Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspirin, especially in those with a history of gastritis or ulcers. However, some researchers think there's no ... HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeartAttack/Aspirin-and-Heart-Disease_UCM_321714_Article.jsp. Accessed Feb. 2, 2015. Sutcliff P, et ...

  14. Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages Approach seemed ... as simple as taking a daily low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence. The intervention appears ...

  15. Exercise Intolerance in Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Exercise tolerance is affected in patients with heart failure (HF). Although the inability of the heart to pump blood to the working muscle has been the conventional mechanism proposed to explain the lowered capacity of patients with HF to exercise, evidence suggests that the pathophysiological...... mechanisms associated with their exercise intolerance is more complex. Recent findings indicate that lowered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation likely represent limiting factors for exercise capacity in patients with HF. After an overview of cardiac and peripheral responses during acute and chronic...... exercise in healthy individuals, we succinctly review cardiac and noncardiac mechanisms by which HF influences exercise tolerance. We then consider how HF, comorbidity, and HF treatment influence CBF and oxygenation at rest and during exercise. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research...

  16. Asthma essentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Greene

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic, reversible obstructive disease that when in exacerbation can present to the emergency department in a spectrum of severity. Prompt recognition of the potentially severely ill asthmatic requires a careful history and physical exam while considering alternative diagnoses for the presenting symptoms. Early administration of salbutamol and corticosteroids is indicated in almost all patients with other medications such as ipratropium and magnesium and supportive modalities like BiPAP reserved for sicker patients. The global impact of asthma is increasing, especially amongst children. While the benign clinical presentation is most common and mortality has decreased in recent decades due to improved recognition and care, the ubiquity of the condition and frequent lack of regular outpatient management contribute to the disease claiming 250,000 lives worldwide annually. The emergency physician must be prepared to assess and appropriately manage both the young child with a mild wheeze and the adult in respiratory failure.

  17. Aspirin, cyclooxygenase inhibition and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostres, Carlos; Gargallo, Carla Jerusalen; Lanas, Angel

    2014-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. Screening measures are far from adequate and not widely available in resource-poor settings. Primary prevention strategies therefore remain necessary to reduce the risk of developing CRC. Increasing evidence from epidemiological studies, randomized clinical trials and basic science supports the effectiveness of aspirin, as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for chemoprevention of several types of cancer, including CRC. This includes the prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality. The detectable benefit of daily low-dose aspirin (at least 75 mg), as used to prevent cardiovascular disease events, strongly suggests that its antiplatelet action is central to explaining its antitumor efficacy. Daily low-dose aspirin achieves complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 in platelets (in pre-systemic circulation) while causing a limited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2 and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells. Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation (about 20 minutes); nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize acetylated COX isozymes within a few hours, while platelets do not. COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin have been suggested to explain its chemopreventive effects but this concept remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses.

  18. Synthesis of Aspirin: A General Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John A., III

    1998-10-01

    An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.

  19. Aspirin, cyclooxygenase inhibition and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; Sostres; Carla; Jerusalen; Gargallo; Angel; Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC)is the third most common type of cancer worldwide.Screening measures are far from adequate and not widely available in resourcepoor settings.Primary prevention strategies therefore remain necessary to reduce the risk of developing CRC.Increasing evidence from epidemiological studies,randomized clinical trials and basic science supports the effectiveness of aspirin,as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,for chemoprevention of several types of cancer,including CRC.This includes the prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality.The detectable benefit of daily low-dose aspirin(at least 75 mg),as used to prevent cardiovascular disease events,strongly suggests that its antiplatelet action is central to explaining its antitumor efficacy.Daily low-dose aspirin achieves complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase(COX)-1 in platelets(in pre-systemic circulation)while causing alimited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells.Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation(about 20 minutes);nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize acetylated COX isozymes within a few hours,while platelets do not.COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin have been suggested to explain its chemopreventive effects but this concept remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses.

  20. Aspirin-induced post-gingivectomy haemorrhage: a timely reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, J M; Seymour, R A; Murphy, P; Brigham, K M; Jones, P

    1997-02-01

    A case report is described of significant aspirin-induced haemorrhage following a gingivectory procedure in an organ transplant patient. Aspirin-induced platelet impairment secondary to low-dose aspirin was implicated as the cause of the haemorrhage. Haemostasis was eventually achieved after platelet transfusion. The case illustrates the problems that can arise when carrying out gingival surgery on patients medicated with low-dose aspirin.

  1. Orthostatic intolerance: potential pathophysiology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cherng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Tang, Hung-Shang; Tung, Che-Se

    2004-09-30

    Orthostatic intolerance affects an estimated 1 in 500 persons and causes a wide range of disabilities. After essential hypertension, it is the most frequently encountered dysautonomia, accounting for the majority of patients referred to centers specializing in autonomic disorders. Patients are typically young females with symptoms such as dizziness, visual changes, head and neck discomfort, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, syncope. Syncope is the most hazardous symptom of orthostatic intolerance, presumably occurring because of impaired cerebral perfusion and in part to compensatory autonomic mechanisms. The etiology of this syndrome is still unclear but is heterogeneous. Orthostatic intolerance used to be characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest in some patients and by a patchy dysautonomia of postganglionic sympathetic fibers with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic activation in others. However, recent advances in molecular genetics are improving our understanding of orthostatic intolerance, such as several genetic diseases (such as Ehler-Danlos syndrome and norepinephrine transporter deficiency) presenting with symptoms typical of orthostatic intolerance. Future work will include investigation of genetic functional mutations underlying interindividual differences in autonomic cardiovascular control, body fluid regulation, and vascular regulation in orthostatic intolerance patients. The goal of this review article is to describe recent advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance and their clinical significance.

  2. A critical appraisal of the phenomenon of aspirin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Atar, Dan;

    2005-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of 'aspirin...

  3. [Progress on the research of lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Sai, X Y

    2016-02-01

    Our group generalized the research development of lactose intolerance, both internationally and nationally. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis, genetic polymorphisms of lactase deficiency, relevant progress of diagnostic methods and treatment. Through this systematic review, we undedrstood that there were insufficient research efforts made on understanding the epidemiological feature of lactose intolerance in this country. Relevant genetic mutations of people were also not clear, neither the development of simple and effective diagnosis method made. We should continue to extensively and deeply carry out the study regarding methods for early prevention and intervention on lactose intolerance.

  4. Fructose and/or Sorbitol Intolerance in a Subgroup of Lactose Intolerant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Mishkin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and treatment of lactose intolerance often does not resolve all the symptoms of postcibal bloating and flatulence. Included in this study were 104 lactose intolerant patients (71 female, 33 male who complained of residual postcibal discomfort in spite of adherence to and benefit from appropriate measures for their documented lactose intolerance (at least 20 ppm H2 after 25 g lactose as well as appropriate symptomatic discomfort. Clinical characteristics common to this group included: symptomatic diarrhea (12.5%, history of foreign travel (5.8%, endoscopic and pathological evidence of gastritis and helicobacter infection (19.2 and 8.7%, respectively, nonspecific abnormalities of small bowel follow-through (15.4%, Crohn’s disease (8.7% and colonic cliverticulosis (14.4%. Intolerance co fructose (at least 10 ppm H2 after 25 g fructose plus appropriate symptoms or sorbitol (at least 10 ppm H2 after 5 g sorbitol plus appropriate symptoms was documented in 17.3 and 18.3%, respectively. Intolerance to both fructose and sorbicol (administered as separate challenges, more than twice as common as intolerance to either one alone, occurred in 41.4% and was independent of sex. In conclusion, additional carbohydrate intolerances contribute to postcibal discomfort in more than 75% of lactose intolerant patients who remain symptomatic in spite of adherence to appropriate measures for this condition. While 62% of all patients had benefited significantly (greater than 50% from appropriate dietary measures and enzyme replacement for lactose intolerance, only 40% of those who were also fructose intolerant and 47% who were sorbitol intolerant benefited (greater than 50% from appropriate dietary measures (no enzyme replacement yet available for intolerance to these sugars.

  5. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  6. Lactose intolerance: from diagnosis to correct management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzo, T; D'Angelo, G; D'Aversa, F; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Montalto, M; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses one of the most relevant problems in gastrointestinal clinical practice: lactose intolerance. The role of lactase-persistence alleles the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption the development of lactose intolerance symptoms and its management. Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately, 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. Symptoms of lactose intolerance include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and diarrhea with a considerable intraindividual and interindividual variability in the severity. Diagnosis is most commonly performed by the non invasive lactose hydrogen breath test. Management of lactose intolerance consists of two possible clinical choice not mutually exclusive: alimentary restriction and drug therapy.

  7. Intolerance of ambiguity among family practice residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, B R; Sobal, J

    1991-08-01

    The art of clinical medicine involves learning to deal with varying levels of ambiguity and uncertainty. Tolerance of ambiguity was examined by giving Budner's Intolerance of Ambiguity Scale to a sample of 37 family practice residents from a university hospital residency and 22 from a community hospital residency. Residents in both the community and university programs had similar scores. No differences existed between men and women. Compared to studies of medical students, first-year family practice residents were slightly more intolerant of ambiguity. However, intolerance of ambiguity was lower among third-year residents, suggesting that as training advances, residents may become more tolerant of ambiguity. The residency training process may lead to a reduction in intolerance of ambiguity, which produces physicians who can deal with the ambiguity and uncertainty of clinical practice.

  8. [Congenital fructose intolerance. New molecular aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K; Adnanes, O; Aarskog, N K; Runde, I; Ogreid, D

    1994-11-20

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a human autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B that results in an inability to metabolize fructose and related sugars. Molecular analyses have shown that most defects are caused by point mutations in critical regions of the aldolase B gene. We have performed PCR-based DNA analysis of members of two Norwegian families with hereditary fructose intolerance. The affected individuals from both families contained a point mutation (A149P) in exon 5 of the aldolase B gene. Molecular diagnosis of fructose intolerance is rapid and specific, and causes no inconvenience to the patient. It should be preferred to conventional fructose intolerance tests and visceral biopsy analyses.

  9. Gastroprotective [6]-Gingerol Aspirinate as a Novel Chemopreventive Prodrug of Aspirin for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingdong; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Yantao; Wang, Pei; Sang, Shengmin

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests daily low-dose aspirin (ASA) reduces heart diseases and colorectal cancers. However, the major limitation to the use of aspirin is its side effect to cause ulceration and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Preclinical studies have shown that ginger constituents ameliorate ASA-induced gastric ulceration. We here report the design and synthesis of a novel prodrug of aspirin, [6]-gingerol aspirinate (GAS). Our data show that GAS exerts enhanced anti-cancer properties in vitro and superior gastroprotective effects in mice. GAS was also able to survive stomach acid and decomposed in intestinal linings or after absorption to simultaneously release ASA and [6]-gingerol. We further present that GAS inactivates both COX-1 and COX-2 equally. Our results demonstrate the enhanced anticancer properties along with gastroprotective effects of GAS, suggesting that GAS can be a therapeutic equivalent for ASA in inflammatory and proliferative diseases without the deleterious effects on stomach mucosa. PMID:28067282

  10. A Review of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder with hereditary determinism, clinically manifested on terms of fructose intake. Untreated, hereditary fructose intolerance may result in renal and hepatic failure. Unfortunately, there are no formal diagnostic and surveillance guidelines for this disease. If identified and treated before the occurrence of permanent organ damage, patients can improve their symptoms and self-rated health. Implementation and adherence to a strict fructose free diet is often difficult, but not impossible.

  11. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2013-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state. 498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program. 304 patients were evaluated in the process of drug and non-drug treatment. Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corresponds with any of the defined clinico-pathogenetic variants of the disease. Thus, prevailing of atopic bronchial asthma with probability of 0.7 is defined with Savda categories with deficiency' (P<0.01) variants in Chinese Medicine. The combination of infectious-dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74% of cases belongs to the categories of an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma, in 83% of cases

  12. Aspirin and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: bedside to bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Cheng Rui; Zhang Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on clinical results of aspirin's chemopreventive effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and evidences for mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in experimental research.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as aspirin and esophageal cancer.Study selection Articles associated with aspirin and esophageal cancer are analyzed.Results This review focuses on the current evidence for use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent in ESCC.Aspirin is the most widely used among all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),which is cheap and acceptable to patients.Several observational results provide the further investigation of prevention and therapy of aspirin or similar drugs in esophageal cancer.Data from case control studies,cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) also give some support of a beneficial role of aspirin on ESCC.Experimental data suggest that aspirin may prevent carcinogenesis of ESCC by favorably affecting proliferation,apoptosis,or other as yet unidentified growth-regulating processes.But the mechanism by which aspirin influence on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.Conclusion A wealth of evidences ranging from clinical data to experimental results are building to suggest that aspirin has significant effects in reducing both the incidence and mortality of ESCC.

  13. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  14. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  15. Aspirin in pregnancy : clinical and biochemical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAspirin, acetylsalicylic acid, is the most frequently consumed drug in pregnancy,47 mostly taken without a prescription because of headache or a minor ailment. 226,277 Numerous preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid are freely available over the counter under a variety of proprieta

  16. Lactose intolerance in Indonesian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegar, Badriul; Widodo, Ariani

    2015-01-01

    "Lactose intolerance (LI)" is considered a common problem in Asians, and in many parts of the world. Its prevalence and age of manifestation varies between by Asian country, for possible genetic or cultural reasons. Studies in Indonesian children 3-15 years old (y) are available within the past two decades, using a pure lactose tolerance test. The prevalences of lactose malabsorption (LM) in pre-elementary (3-5 y), elementary (6-11 y), and junior high (12-14 y) school-children were 21.3%, 57.8%, and 73%, respectively. An increasing trend for LM prevalence was seen within the pre-elementary group, from 9.1% at 3 y to 28.6% at 5 y. The most frequent symptoms of LI in junior high school (JHS) group were abdominal pain (64.1%), abdominal distention (22.6%), nausea (15.1%), flatulence (5.7%), and diarrhea (1.9%), mostly within one hour of lactose ingestion. In children with regular and irregular milk drinking, LM occurred in 81.2% and 69.6%; LI was found in 56.2% and 52.1%, respectively. Most JHS children with dairy-associated recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) symptoms proved to be malabsorbers. Dairy products most related to RAP were milk and yogurt. LI was found in 81% of RAP children with abdominal pain most frequently, followed by nausea, bloating, diarrhea, borborygmi, and flatulence. Symp-tom onset occurred 30 minutes after lactose ingestion, especially nausea, bloating, and abdominal pain. In RAP children LI symptoms mostly found in breath hydrogen concentration>20 ppm. More LI symptoms were found in lactose malabsorbers, but symptoms were mild and generally disappeared in 7 hours, and in most by 15 hours.

  17. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... normal everyday activities without having asthma symptoms. Action Plans Are Unique Each person's experience with asthma is ...

  18. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  19. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma...... and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard...

  20. A Review on the Relationship between Aspirin and Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor commonly used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Its users are elderly population susceptible to osteoporosis. It also inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 essential in bone remodeling. This prompts the question whether it can influence bone health among users. This review aimed to summarize the current literature on the use of aspirin on bone health. A literature search on experimental and clinical evidence on the effects of aspirin on bone health was performed using major scientific databases. In vitro studies showed that aspirin could enhance the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, the progenitors of osteoblasts, and stimulate the differentiation of preosteoblasts. Aspirin also inhibited the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB pathway and decreased the expression of receptor activator of NFκB ligand, thus suppressing the formation of osteoclast. Aspirin could prevent bone loss in animal models of osteoporosis. Despite a positive effect on bone mineral density, the limited human epidemiological studies revealed that aspirin could not reduce fracture risk. A study even suggested that the use of aspirin increased fracture risk. As a conclusion, aspirin may increase bone mineral density but its effect on fracture prevention is inconclusive. More data are needed to determine the effects of aspirin and bone health in human.

  1. Aspirin inhibits formation of cholesterol rafts in fluid lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard J; Toppozini, Laura; Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Harroun, Thad A; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-03-01

    Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have a high affinity for phospholipid membranes, altering their structure and biophysical properties. Aspirin has been shown to partition into the lipid head groups, thereby increasing membrane fluidity. Cholesterol is another well known mediator of membrane fluidity, in turn increasing membrane stiffness. As well, cholesterol is believed to distribute unevenly within lipid membranes leading to the formation of lipid rafts or plaques. In many studies, aspirin has increased positive outcomes for patients with high cholesterol. We are interested if these effects may be, at least partially, the result of a non-specific interaction between aspirin and cholesterol in lipid membranes. We have studied the effect of aspirin on the organization of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes containing cholesterol. Through Langmuir-Blodgett experiments we show that aspirin increases the area per lipid and decreases compressibility at 32.5 mol% cholesterol, leading to a significant increase of fluidity of the membranes. Differential scanning calorimetry provides evidence for the formation of meta-stable structures in the presence of aspirin. The molecular organization of lipids, cholesterol and aspirin was studied using neutron diffraction. While the formation of rafts has been reported in binary DPPC/cholesterol membranes, aspirin was found to locally disrupt membrane organization and lead to the frustration of raft formation. Our results suggest that aspirin is able to directly oppose the formation of cholesterol structures through non-specific interactions with lipid membranes.

  2. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  3. The molecular basis of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anthony K; Waud, Jonathan P; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2009-01-01

    A staggering 4000 million people cannot digest lactose, the sugar in milk, properly. All mammals, apart from white Northern Europeans and few tribes in Africa and Asia, lose most of their lactase, the enzyme that cleaves lactose into galactose and glucose, after weaning. Lactose intolerance causes gut and a range of systemic symptoms, though the threshold to lactose varies considerably between ethnic groups and individuals within a group. The molecular basis of inherited hypolactasia has yet to be identified, though two polymorphisms in the introns of a helicase upstream from the lactase gene correlate closely with hypolactasia, and thus lactose intolerance. The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by gases and toxins produced by anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine. Bacterial toxins may play a key role in several other diseases, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. The problem of lactose intolerance has been exacerbated because of the addition of products containing lactose to various foods and drinks without being on the label. Lactose intolerance fits exactly the illness that Charles Darwin suffered from for over 40 years, and yet was never diagnosed. Darwin missed something else--the key to our own evolution--the Rubicon some 300 million years ago that produced lactose and lactase in sufficient amounts to be susceptible to natural selection.

  4. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-09-20

    Lactose intolerance is the most prevalent intestinal malabsorption disorder. After presentation of its history, the author describes the emergence of lactose intolerance during the evolution of species, and the biochemistry of lactose as well as features of human and bacterial lactase enzymes are then described. The unequal distribution of lactose intolerance in different continents and population is discussed, followed by presentation of past and present prevalence data in Hungary. Adult-type hypolactasia is caused by a polymorphism of the MCM6 gene located upstream from the lactase gene on the long arm of the chromosome 2. It can be determined with the polymerase chain reaction. The intestinal symptoms of lactose intolerance are well known, but its extra-intestinal manifestations are less recognised. Invasive diagnostic methods (determination of lactase activity from small intestinal biopsies, lactose tolerance test), are accurate, but have been replaced by the non-invasive methods; their gold standard is the H2 breath test. Genetic testing is being used more and more frequently in Hungary too, and, presumably, the methane breath test will be also available in the near future. Lactose intolerance can be accompanied by inflammatory bowel diseases, coeliac disease and irritable bowel syndrome; it could be established whether this association is causal or not in order to start a correct diet and therapy.

  5. Asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of asthma have increased among obese children and adults, particularly among women. Obesity seems to be a predisposing factor for the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanisms of its influence are still uncertain. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between obesity and asthma such as a common genetic predisposition, developmental changes, altered lung mechanics, the presence of a systemic inflammatory process, and an increased prevalence of associated comorbid conditions. Over-diagnosis of asthma does not seem to be more frequent in obese compared to non-obese subjects, but the added effects of obesity on respiratory symptoms can affect asthma control assessment. Obesity can make asthma more difficult to control and is associated with a reduced beneficial effect of asthma medications. This could be due to a change in asthma phenotype, particularly evidenced as a less eosinophilic type of airway inflammation combined to the added effects of changes in lung mechanics. Weight loss is associated with a universal improvement of asthma and should be part of asthma management in the obese patient. Additional research should be conducted to better determine how obesity influences the development and clinical expression of asthma, establish the optimal management of asthma in this population and determine how obesity affects long-term asthma outcomes in these patients.

  6. Gene-Environment Interactions in Asthma: Genetic and Epigenetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Uk; Kim, Jeong Dong; Park, Choon-Sik

    2015-07-01

    Over the past three decades, a large number of genetic studies have been aimed at finding genetic variants associated with the risk of asthma, applying various genetic and genomic approaches including linkage analysis, candidate gene polymorphism studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, contrary to general expectation, even single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by GWAS failed to fully explain the heritability of asthma. Thus, application of rare allele polymorphisms in well defined phenotypes and clarification of environmental factors have been suggested to overcome the problem of 'missing' heritability. Such factors include allergens, cigarette smoke, air pollutants, and infectious agents during pre- and post-natal periods. The first and simplest interaction between a gene and the environment is a candidate interaction of both a well known gene and environmental factor in a direct physical or chemical interaction such as between CD14 and endotoxin or between HLA and allergens. Several GWAS have found environmental interactions with occupational asthma, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, tobacco smoke-related airway dysfunction, and farm-related atopic diseases. As one of the mechanisms behind gene-environment interaction is epigenetics, a few studies on DNA CpG methylation have been reported on subphenotypes of asthma, pitching the exciting idea that it may be possible to intervene at the junction between the genome and the environment. Epigenetic studies are starting to include data from clinical samples, which will make them another powerful tool for re-search on gene-environment interactions in asthma.

  7. Arrhythmia and exercise intolerance in Fontan patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L; Juul, K; Jensen, A S

    2013-01-01

    and estimated to 99.1% per year. Prevalence of clinically relevant arrhythmia and severe exercise intolerance increased significantly with age and was found in 32% and 85% of patients ≥20years, respectively. Thus, from survival data and logistic regression models the future prevalence of patients, clinically......, and blood sampling and medical history was retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Twenty-six (11%) patients died or had heart transplantation (HTx) after a mean (±SD) post-Fontan follow-up of 8.3±5.7years. Excluding perioperative deaths (n=8), a linear probability of HTx-free survival was observed......BACKGROUND: Long-term survival after the Fontan procedure shows excellent results but is associated with a persistent risk of arrhythmias and exercise intolerance. We aimed to analyze the current burden of clinically relevant arrhythmia and severe exercise intolerance in Danish Fontan patients...

  8. Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B

    2006-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition presents an updated review of lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Differences between primary, secondary, congenital, and developmental lactase deficiency that may result in lactose intolerance are discussed. Children with suspected lactose intolerance can be assessed clinically by dietary lactose elimination or by tests including noninvasive hydrogen breath testing or invasive intestinal biopsy determination of lactase (and other disaccharidase) concentrations. Treatment consists of use of lactase-treated dairy products or oral lactase supplementation, limitation of lactose-containing foods, or dairy elimination. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports use of dairy foods as an important source of calcium for bone mineral health and of other nutrients that facilitate growth in children and adolescents. If dairy products are eliminated, other dietary sources of calcium or calcium supplements need to be provided.

  9. High liver glycogen in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, A R; Ryman, B E

    1971-11-01

    A case of hereditary fructose intolerance is reported in a girl aged 2 years at the time of her death. She had apparently progressed normally until the age of 14 months. At 19 months she was admitted to hospital with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, and superficial infections. Investigations revealed hypoglycaemia, persistent acidosis, aminoaciduria, and a high liver glycogen level which suggested that she had glycogen storage disease. There was also some evidence of malabsorption. At necropsy the liver enzyme estimations showed that fructose 1-phosphate aldolase activity was absent and that fructose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase activity was reduced. Hereditary fructose intolerance and glycogen storage disease have been confused in the past on clinical grounds, but a high liver glycogen level has not previously been reported in hereditary fructose intolerance.

  10. Wheat Allergy and Intolerence; Recent Updates and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2016-01-01

    The current review paper highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially α-amylase inhibitors, ω-5 gliadins, prolamins, nonprolamin, glucoprotein, and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions, i.e., celiac disease, baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. This instant paper highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this paper showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The paper would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of novel aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Sankar V.; Dhachinamoorthi D.; Chandra Shekar K.B.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is to design aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories which will reduce the side effects caused by aspirin suppositories.Aspirin nanoparticles were prepared initially based on ionic-gelation mechanism and lyophilized.The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated,and the results confirmed that Fa9 formulation was the best with greater drug entrapment efficiency.Aspirin suppositories were prepared in order to investigate the best base composition.The prepared suppositories were evaluated and FS1,FS3,FS4,FS8,FS11,and FS12 were proved to be the best base compositions based on dissolution performed.The lyophilized aspirin nanoparticles of Fa9 were used to prepare aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories.The in vitro results revealed that Fas 11 was the best formulation.

  12. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Zantek, Nicole D; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Rao, Gundu H R

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Aspirin used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs has been shown to offer significant benefit to patients at high risk of vascular events. Resistance to the action of aspirin may decrease this benefit. Aspirin resistance has been defined by clinical and/or laboratory criteria; however, detection by laboratory methods prior to experiencing a clinical event will likely provide the greatest opportunity for intervention. Numerous laboratory methods with different cutoff points have been used to evaluate the resistance. Noncompliance with aspirin treatment has also confounded studies. A single assay is currently insufficient to establish resistance. Combinations of results to confirm compliance and platelet inhibition may identify "at-risk" individuals who truly have aspirin resistance. The most effective strategy for managing patients with aspirin resistance is unknown; however, studies are currently underway to address this issue.

  13. Aspirin dosing frequency in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonseok; Becker, Richard C

    2016-04-01

    Aspirin has been a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease prevention since the late 1980s. Despite the popularity of aspirin and its wide use, the proper dosing and frequency of aspirin has yet to be determined. Early aspirin trials focused on its utility in broad target populations, but this strategy did not magnify the benefit of aspirin, and rather increased the complication rate. We have learned from previous studies that laboratory and clinical response to aspirin therapy in patients with different conditions and settings are diverse. This difference in aspirin response necessitates a personalized, tailored aspirin therapy. We aim to perform a comprehensive review of the current evidence surrounding aspirin responsiveness in several distinct patient populations and the rationale of different aspirin frequency and dosing strategies. Our conclusions call for future studies to determine individualized aspirin strategies to maximize the benefit and minimize the risk of aspirin.

  14. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  15. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: A practice parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2010;105:S1. Krafczyk ... up exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2012;44:383. Asthma ...

  16. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  17. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narrowing of the bronchi. This can make breathing difficult, particularly expiration (exhaling) and can cause a feeling of tightness in the chest. Answer: D. All of these can make asthma worse. But some things that make asthma worse ...

  18. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  19. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  20. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  1. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  2. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...

  3. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which aspirin exerts an anticancer benefit is uncertain;numerous effects have been described involving both cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathways. |

  4. Critical overview of the benefits and harms of aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Shing Kwok; Loke, Yoon K.

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin is widely used internationally for a variety of indications, with the most prominent one being that of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin has also been proposed as a treatment option in a diverse range of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer prevention, and obstetrics. In our overview, we critically appraise the current evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering the benefits of aspirin across these conditions. We also look at evidence that some pa...

  5. Liberal intolerance in European education debates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2016-01-01

    The reaction against non-western immigrants and especially Muslims has been analysed both in terms of an exclusionary civic nationalism and in terms of an assertive liberalism. Similar to exclusionary civic nationalism, assertive liberalism purports to defend liberal democratic principles...... by subdividing it into four categories of liberal intolerance and demonstrates this by analysing six national debates on the accommodation of cultural and religious diversity in education. The analysis indicates that the nature of liberal intolerance understood as the combination of the four categories...

  6. Genetics of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F

    2015-01-01

    Asthma runs in families, and children of asthmatic parents are at increased risk of asthma. Prediction of disease risk is pivotal for the clinician when counselling atopic families. However, this is not always an easy task bearing in mind the vast and ever-increasing knowledge about asthma genetics...... of methods and advances in asthma genetics in an attempt to help the clinician keep track of the most important knowledge in the field....

  7. Fatal asthma or anaphylaxis?

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow, J; Browne, G

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of anaphylaxis is under-reported. Children with asthma are frequently atopic and prone to allergic reactions. Parents and clinicians may attribute wheeze of rapid onset to acute severe asthma, rather than recognising an anaphylactic event. Two cases of fatal anaphylaxis are reported who were initially diagnosed as acute severe asthma, and responded poorly to bronchodilator treatment. Survivors of "acute asphyxic asthma" should be screened for reactions to common allergens that p...

  8. Asthma and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the airways of the lungs. When an asthma attack occurs, it is difficult for air to pass through the lungs which ... others have not. In these studies, it is difficult to determine whether the problems noted were due to the mother’s asthma, the medicines needed to control the asthma, or ...

  9. Severe asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Bacharier, Leonard B; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into 2 categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, or poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline-based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting β-agonists and other add-on therapies, such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control, including reviewing the diagnosis and removing causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future.

  10. School and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? School and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > School and Asthma A A A What's in this article? Have ... La escuela y el asma If you have asthma , you probably have a routine at home for ...

  11. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma A A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  12. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this article? Pack ... Or how about sleepover camp? If you have asthma , you'll be packing more than your clothes ...

  13. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Kids > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? A A A en español ¿Las alergias provocan ... kinds of allergies are more likely to have asthma. Do you have allergies that affect your nose ...

  14. Antifungals in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parulekar, Amit D.; Diamant, Zuzana; Hanania, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite guideline-based treatment, many patients with severe asthma continue to have uncontrolled disease. Fungal allergy is being increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Limited data exist on the approach to treatment of fungal asthma. This review summarizes

  15. Debates in allergy medicine: food intolerance does not exist

    OpenAIRE

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The term "intolerance" is not mentioned in the World Allergy Organization (WAO) document on allergy nomenclature. "Intolerance" has been used to describe some non-immunological diseases. However, pediatric gastroenterologists mix allergy and intolerance, e.g. by using the term "cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/I)", lumping together all types of mechanisms for not tolerating cow's milk. The basis for this mix is the fact that double-blind oral food challenges are time-c...

  16. Aspirin content determination with control systems by image processing technology. Gazo shori gijutsu wo katsuyoshita jozai aspirin kensa sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K. (Lion Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-08-05

    An inspection apparatus for aspirin tablets utilizing image processing technology was developed. One side of a tablet consists of aspirin layer and another side consists of alkiline layer. The alkaline layer is opaque at all but the aspirin layer is translucent. Image of overall configuration of the tablet is taken in CCD camera by illumination from all surrounding sides. The area is measured by using these images. Then, when switching off the surrounding illumination and illuminating the aspirin side, only aspirin side layer shines. The area is determined by taking the image in CCD. Aspirin content is calculated by the ratio of overall images to aspirin image and the predetermined tablet weight. Tablets of different aspirin content were prepared, and the content determined by this method and the chemically determined contents were compared. High correlation was found between both contents, indicating the validity of the image processing method. When the aspirin content is out of 330 {plus minus} 10mg, the controlling mechanism works, by which unmanned operation will be possible. 8 figs.

  17. Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento RANGEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins or in whey (milk albumin. The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.

  18. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  19. Lactose intolerance : analysis of underlying factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, RJ; Priebe, MG; Koetse, HA; Stellaard, F; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, [No Value; Antoine, JM; Zhong, Y; Huang, CY

    2003-01-01

    Background We studied the degree of lactose digestion and orocecal transit time (OCTT) as possible causes for the variability of symptoms of lactose intolerance (LI) in a sample of a population with genetically determined low lactase activity. Methods Lactose digestion index (LDI) was measured by th

  20. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Woodford, Keith; Kukuljan, Sonja; Ho, Suleen

    2015-08-31

    True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption) is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows' milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows' milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows' milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  1. Dermatitis herpetiformis intolerant to dapsone in Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man with AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis presented with lesions suggestive of dermatitis herpetiformis and intolerance to dapsone. He was managed successfully with a combination of nicotinamide 200 mg/day and indomethacin 75 mg/day, topical steroids and gluten free diet.

  2. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  3. [Lactose intolerance: past and present. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-10-25

    The author summarises the interrelations between lactose intolerance, calcium and vitamin D metabolism and osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance enhances the risk of forearm and hip fractures in some patients. Lactase gene genotype and fracture risk are related in some populations. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increase bone mineral content and they are justified in children, during pregnancy and lactation, and in postmenopausal women. The intake of milk and milk products could increase the risk of ovarian carcinoma. CC genotype of the lactase gene increased the risk of colorectal carcinoma in Finns; no such effect was observed in British, Spanish and Italian patients. Even small quantities of lactose in drugs (10-750 mg) could elicit intolerance symptoms due to individual susceptibility. In spite of public knowledge and advertising, controlled studies did not prove the beneficial effect of either a lactose-free diet, enzyme supplementation or probiotics in an evidence-based manner. While accepted guidelines are lacking, a personalised therapy is mandatory. In spite of increasing public interest in lactose intolerance, many unknown factors must still be studied.

  4. Lactose intolerance : the role of colonic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Dairy products provide us with calcium and other valuable nutrients. However, they also contain lactose which is maldigested by a large part of the world adult population. The mechanisms by which lactose maldigestion causes symptoms of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. Studies on the pat

  5. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  6. Milk Intolerance, Beta-Casein and Lactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebely Pal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available True lactose intolerance (symptoms stemming from lactose malabsorption is less common than is widely perceived, and should be viewed as just one potential cause of cows’ milk intolerance. There is increasing evidence that A1 beta-casein, a protein produced by a major proportion of European-origin cattle but not purebred Asian or African cattle, is also associated with cows’ milk intolerance. In humans, digestion of bovine A1 beta-casein, but not the alternative A2 beta-casein, releases beta-casomorphin-7, which activates μ-opioid receptors expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and body. Studies in rodents show that milk containing A1 beta-casein significantly increases gastrointestinal transit time, production of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase compared with milk containing A2 beta-casein. Co-administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone blocks the myeloperoxidase and gastrointestinal motility effects, indicating opioid signaling pathway involvement. In humans, a double-blind, randomized cross-over study showed that participants consuming A1 beta-casein type cows’ milk experienced statistically significantly higher Bristol stool values compared with those receiving A2 beta-casein milk. Additionally, a statistically significant positive association between abdominal pain and stool consistency was observed when participants consumed the A1 but not the A2 diet. Further studies of the role of A1 beta-casein in milk intolerance are needed.

  7. Orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Ruble, Kathy; Stapert, Anne F.; Chang, Ho-Choong; Rowe, Peter C.; Schwartz, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer and in healthy controls, and to correlate results of self-reported measures of health status with orthostatic testing in survivors of childhood cancer. Patient and methods: Thirty-nine survivo

  8. Chemical Intolerance among Hairdressers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Elberling, Jesper; Skovbjerg, Sine;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms among hairdressers in Denmark compared with the Danish general population. Further, to characterize former hairdressers who are severely chemically intolerant to fragranced products in relation to sex, age and health- an......- and work-related reasons for leaving the hairdressing profession....

  9. [Cytokines and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, F; Senna, G; Piglia, P; Grosso, B; Mezzelani, P; Pozzi, E

    1998-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease in which eosinophils are one of the most important involved cells. These cells accumulate in the lung because of cytokines, which are able to regulate cellular responses. The role of cytokines is well known in allergic asthma: IL4, IL5, IL3, GMCSF are the principally cytokine involved. IL4 regulate IgE synthesis while IL5, (and IL3) cause the activation and accumulation of eosinophils. In non allergic asthma, whilst only IL5 seemed to be important recent data, shows that also IL4 plays an important role. Therefore nowadays no relevant difference seems to exist between allergic and non allergic asthma; instead the primer is different: the allergen in allergic asthma and often an unknown factor in the non allergic asthma. Recently other cytokines have been proved to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL8 is chemotactic not only for neutrophils but also for eosinophils and might cause chronic inflammation in severe asthma. IL13 works like IL4, while RANTES seems to be a more important chemotactic agent than IL5. Finally IL10, which immunoregulates T lymphocyte responses, may reduce asthma inflammation. In conclusion cytokine made us to learn more about the pathogenesis of asthma even if we do not yet know when and how asthma inflammation develops.

  10. Obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    There is a global epidemic of asthma and obesity that is concentrated in Westernized and developed countries. A causal association in some people with asthma is suggested by observations that obesity precedes the onset of asthma and that bariatric surgery for morbid obesity can resolve asthma. The obese asthma phenotype features poor asthma control, limited response to corticosteroids, and an exaggeration of the physiological effects of obesity on lung function, which includes a reduction in expiratory reserve volume and airway closure occurring during tidal breathing. Obesity has important implications for asthma treatment. Increasing corticosteroid doses based on poor asthma control, as currently recommended in guidelines, may lead to overtreatment with corticosteroids in obese asthma. Enhanced bronchodilation, particularly of the small airways, may reduce the component of airway closure due to increased bronchomotor tone and suggests that greater emphasis should be placed on long-acting bronchodilators in obese asthma. The societal implications of this are important: with increasing obesity there will be increasing asthma from obesity, and the need to identify successful individual and societal weight-control strategies becomes a key goal.

  11. Epigenetics of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andrew L; Wiegman, Coen; Adcock, Ian M

    2011-11-01

    Asthma is caused by both heritable and environmental factors. It has become clear that genetic studies do not adequately explain the heritability and susceptibility to asthma. The study of epigenetics, heritable non-coding changes to DNA may help to explain the heritable component of asthma. Additionally, epigenetic modifications can be influenced by the environment, including pollution and cigarette smoking, which are known asthma risk factors. These environmental trigger-induced epigenetic changes may be involved in skewing the immune system towards a Th2 phenotype following in utero exposure and thereby enhancing the risk of asthma. Alternatively, they may directly or indirectly modulate the immune and inflammatory processes in asthmatics via effects on treatment responsiveness. The study of epigenetics may therefore play an important role in our understanding and possible treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biochemistry of Asthma.

  12. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect...... of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  13. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic, M.; Heijstek, M.W.; Verkaaik, M.; Dijkhuizen, E.H. van; Armbrust, W.; Hoppenreijs, E.P.A.H.; Kamphuis, S.; Kuis, W.; Egberts, T.C.; Sinnema, G.; Rademaker, C.M.A.; Wulffraat, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) que

  14. High prevalence of methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis : development and validation of a methotrexate intolerance severity score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatović, Maja; Heijstek, Marloes W; Verkaaik, Marleen; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Armbrust, Wineke; Hoppenreijs, Esther P A; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Kuis, Wietse; Egberts, Toine C G; Sinnema, Gerben; Rademaker, Carin M A; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and validate a new questionnaire for identifying patients with methotrexate (MTX) intolerance, and to determine the prevalence of MTX intolerance in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using this questionnaire. METHODS: The MTX Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) que

  15. [Lactose intolerance: pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutyra, Tomasz; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Lactose malabsorption and milk products intolerance symptoms are the most common alimentary tract disorders. Lactose intolerance is a result of lactase deficiency or lack of lactase and lactose malabsorption. Three types of lactase deficiency were distinguished: congenital, late-onset lactase deficiency and secondary lactase deficiency. Lactose intolerance means the appearance of clinical gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of lactose. To the clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance belongs: nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, cramps, flatulence, flatus, diarrhea and abdominal pain. The diagnosis of lactose intolerance is based on the breath hydrogen test and analysis of lactase activity in the small intestine mucosa. Dietary treatment eliminates clinical symptoms.

  16. Regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increases the risk of adult-onset asthma: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars Rauff;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation between regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of asthma at the population level. The aim of this study was to examine a possible association between intake of NSAIDs and risk of adult-onset asthma. METHODS: Using...... data from two multidisciplinary postal questionnaire surveys concerning health and lifestyle, we prospectively studied 19 349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. RESULTS: We found a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who used NSAIDs (other than aspirin) regularly...

  17. Use of Aspirin postdiagnosis improves survival for colon cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Bastiaannet (Esther); K. Sampieri (K.); O.M. Dekkers (Olaf); A.J. de Craen (Anton); M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); C.B.M. van den Broek (Colette); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); C.J.H. van de Velde (Cornelis); R. Fodde (Riccardo); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The preventive role of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, in particular, on colorectal cancer is well established. More recently, it has been suggested that aspirin may also have a therapeutic role. Aim of the present observational population-based stud

  18. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  19. Aspirin and spinal haematoma after neuraxial anaesthesia: Myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela Vásquez, R S; Peláez Romero, R

    2015-11-01

    The safety of aspirin therapy in neuraxial anaesthesia has been historically questioned, and the current recommendations are still heterogeneous. A comprehensive review of clinical evidence and a comparative analysis of European and American guidelines were performed. Low-dose aspirin produces a selective, complete and irreversible cyclooxygenase-1 blockade, and higher doses do not increase the antiplatelet effect. Additional cyclooxygenase-2 blockade by high-dose aspirin might decrease the antithrombotic efficacy by inhibiting endothelial prostacyclin synthesis. Different doses of aspirin have been shown to be safe in a broad population subjected to neuraxial anaesthesia or analgesia. In the few case reports of spinal haematoma involving aspirin therapy, additional complicating factors were present. Considering the available evidence, the majority of national scientific societies agree that the isolated use of aspirin does not increase the risk of spinal haematoma and does not represent a contraindication to neuraxial blocks. The precautions regarding higher doses do not seem to be justified. Although aspirin alone is considered to be safe in neuraxial anaesthesia, the concurrent administration of other antithrombotic drugs significantly increases the risk of spinal haematoma and the recommended safety times for each of these other drugs must be strictly followed. An individualized assessment of the risks and benefits should be performed, before performing a neuraxial technique or catheter removal in a patient receiving aspirin.

  20. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Laconsay, K L; Agnew, A C; Henderson, M E; Quinn, J M; Holland, B E; DePace, A N

    1993-08-01

    Aspirin is a widely used over-the-counter drug in our society which has wide therapeutic value, yet not all of the behavioral side effects have been studied. Different doses of aspirin solutions were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold environment. Four Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement. Friedman's nonparametric test showed significant differences among aspirin and saline-control doses. Post hoc sign tests showed that a moderate dose of aspirin increased operant behavior reinforced by MW radiation, yet lower and higher doses decreased and then increased the rate of responding which resulted in an inverted U-shaped trend. Possible multiple effects of aspirin in terms of its thermoregulatory as well as its pain-tolerance properties, and implications for hypothalamic "set point" are discussed.

  1. Monitoring aspirin therapy with the Platelet Function Analyzer-100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jette; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Grove, Erik Lerkevang;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low platelet response to aspirin has been reported to be associated with a high incidence of vascular events. The reported prevalence of aspirin low-responsiveness varies, which may be explained by poor reproducibility of the methods used to evaluate aspirin response and low compliance....... The Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) is a commonly used platelet function test. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of the PFA-100 and the agreement with optical platelet aggregometry (OPA) in healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with low-dose aspirin....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 43 patients with CAD took part in the study. During treatment with aspirin 75 mg daily, all participants had platelet function assessed in duplicate with the PFA-100 and OPA on 4 consecutive days. Additionally, platelet function was assessed before...

  2. Critical Overview on the Benefits and Harms of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Shing Kwok

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin is widely used internationally for a variety of indications, with the most prominent one being that of cardiovascular disease. However, aspirin has also been proposed as a treatment option in a diverse range of conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cancer prevention, and obstetrics. In our overview, we critically appraise the current evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses covering the benefits of aspirin across these conditions. We also look at evidence that some patients may not derive benefit due to the concept of aspirin resistance. Aspirin is also associated with the potential for significant harm, principally from haemorrhagic adverse events. We critically appraise the threat of haemorrhagic complications, and weigh up these risks against that of any potential benefit.

  3. Oral anticoagulant treatment with and without aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, R; Rouvier, J; Gurfinkel, E

    1995-07-01

    For preventing thromboembolic events, the concurrent use of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs has been proposed. In prosthetic heart valves the use of moderate intensity anticoagulants [International Normalized Ratio (INR) 2-3] plus aspirin (100 mg/day) decreases the amount and severity of embolic episodes. The possibility that the same regimen could provide benefit in the prevention of thrombotic events in other arterial diseases is also indicated by the ATACS trial in unstable angina. The ongoing studies in ischemic heart diseases will also give the answer to this possibility.

  4. Risk assessment and aspirin use in Asian and Western populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runlin Gao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Runlin Gao1, Xiaoying Li21Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing; 2Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, ChinaObjective: The aim of this review was to examine aspirin utilization, cardiovascular risk ­estimation, and clinical evidence for aspirin prophylaxis in Asian versus Western countries.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and the key terms "aspirin" and "Asia" or "Western".Results: Despite the growing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD, aspirin is underutilized in high-risk patients in both Asian and Western countries. A number of risk estimation scores are available; however, validation is needed in countries such as Japan, India, and in South Asia. Underutilization of aspirin in Asia may be linked to an overestimation of bleeding risks. It is possible that a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and genetic differences may make Asians more susceptible to gastrointestinal bleeding. Very low aspirin doses and even the wider use of gastroprotective agents may be the optimal approach to high-risk patients in Asia.Conclusions: Based on the current evidence, aspirin should be used for CVD prevention when the risk:benefit ratio is favorable. A number of trials are underway, including the Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol and Japanese Primary Prevention Project, which will provide key data on the benefits of aspirin in Asian patients at risk of CVD, and may improve aspirin utilization and risk estimation.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular risk estimation, Asia, Western

  5. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma ... 1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File Formats Help: How do I ...

  6. Examining the association between childhood asthma and parent and grandparent asthma status: Implications for Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Valerio, Melissa A.; Andreski, Patricia M.; Schoeni, Robert F.; McGonagle, Katherine A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of intergenerational asthma beyond maternal asthma has been limited. The association between childhood asthma and intergenerational asthma status among a national cohort of children was examined.

  7. Dairy intolerance syndrome in Iranian young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Adibi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Dairy products intolerance is defined by existing of gastrointestinal symptoms following dairy product consumption. Its prevalence varies among different countries. This study is conducted to determine the frequencies and severities of intolerance symptoms in the consumption of different dairy products in Iranian students of Medical Sciences.
    • METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1041 students from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences who apparently were healthy and had not used any drug before, participated.
    • The questionnaire included information about dairy product consumption and avoidance, severity of dairy intolerance symptoms included gas passing, flatulence, diarrhea and abdominal pain and coexistence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS.
    • RESULTS: The frequencies of dairy intolerance syndromes in milk, yoghurt, cheese and ice cream consumption were 51.1% (532, 16.6% (173, 11.7% (122 and 13.4% (140, respectively. Most severe symptoms for milk, yoghurt, cheese and ice cream intolerance were diarrhea (2.11 ± 0.08, gas passing (1.56 ± 0.09 and flatulence (1.49 ± 0.09, respectively. Fifty (9.4% of symptomatic respondents never drank milk. Correlation coefficient between symptoms severity and the avoidance of consumption in milk intolerance was 0.38.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Students tolerate other dairy products better in comparison with milk. In the present study, the phenomenon as irritable bowel syndrome was not strongly associated with the severity of all symptoms in dairy intolerant persons. Also, there were weak association between the severity of symptoms with dairy consumption and avoidance, but

    • The biochemical basis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bouteldja, Nadia; Timson, David J

      2010-04-01

      Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare, but potentially lethal, inherited disorder of fructose metabolism, caused by mutation of the aldolase B gene. Treatment currently relies solely on dietary restriction of problematic sugars. Biochemical study of defective aldolase B enzymes is key to revealing the molecular basis of the disease and providing a stronger basis for improved treatment and diagnosis. Such studies have revealed changes in enzyme activity, stability and oligomerisation. However, linking these changes to disease phenotypes has not always been straightforward. This review gives a general overview of the features of hereditary fructose intolerance, then concentrates on the biochemistry of the AP variant (Ala149Pro variant of aldolase B) and molecular pathological consequences of mutation of the aldolase B gene.

    • Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

      2012-02-01

      'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

    • Psychological treatment of psychogenic idiopathic environmental intolerance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Staudenmayer, H

      2000-01-01

      This chapter focuses on the psychotherapy of individuals who suffer distress from functional somatic syndromes; specifically, idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). While patients believe environmental intolerances cause their distress, its origin is treated as psychological, mediated through psychophysiological systems and mechanisms associated with the stress response. Factors considered include stress and trauma premorbid to the alleged onset of IEI; somatization and its expression through affective, anxiety, and somatoform disorders; personality disorders and associated psychological defenses; motivation for the sick role; and iatrogenic suggestion and reinforcement of unsubstantiated toxicogenic theories and treatments. Psychotherapies include behavioral desensitization, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and psychotropic medications. The greatest challenge in treatment is to overcome the patient's disabling belief in a toxicogenic explanation for his or her symptoms.

    • Orthostatic intolerance: a disorder of young women

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ali, Y. S.; Daamen, N.; Jacob, G.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

      2000-01-01

      Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a cause of significant disability in otherwise healthy women seen by gynecologists. Orthostatic tachycardia is often the most obvious hemodynamic abnormality found in OI patients, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, fainting (syncope). It is the most common disorder of blood pressure regulation after essential hypertension, and patients with OI are traditionally women of childbearing age. Estimates suggest that at least 500,000 Americans suffer from some form of OI, and such patients comprise the largest group referred to centers specialized in autonomic disorders. This article reviews recent advances made in the understanding of this condition, potential pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to orthostatic intolerance, and therapeutic alternatives currently available for the management of these patients.

    • Aspirin Plays Dual Role in Helping Heart

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      余玲梅

      2002-01-01

      贵刊多次介绍“百年老药”aspirin(阿斯匹林,解热镇痛药,又称“乙酰水杨酸”)的神奇作用,我读了贵刊的介绍后,也开始服用aspirin,收到了意想不到的效果。现在,我上网时,对aspirin的报道特别留心。今日又在网上读到此文,特地加注后,发你们。文中有两个单词:interleukin-1(IL-1)/endothelialfunction,查阅了许多词典,仍不得其解。好在紧接其后的同谓语对这两个词作了解释。前者的以意思是:a blood of chemical associated with inflammation(一种炎 症有关的血液化学物质);后者是:the ability of the blood vessels to expand(血管扩张的能力)这两个词与新发现的aspirin两个功能有关,一是,能增加抗炎症作用,二是令血管得以扩张。】

    • Lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy

      OpenAIRE

      Rangel, Adriano Henrique do Nascimento; SALES,Danielle Cavalcanti; URBANO,Stela Antas; GALVÃO JÚNIOR,José Geraldo Bezerra; ANDRADE NETO,Júlio César de; MACÊDO,Cláudia de Souza

      2016-01-01

      Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). Th...

    • Explaining intolerance in an integrated Europe

      OpenAIRE

      Ana Paula Tostes

      2010-01-01

      The article contends that Euroscepticism is a fundamental variable for a good understanding of the support for new extreme right-wing party platforms in national elections among all Western European countries. Based on voting data for parties aligned with the new far right in European national elections, the article maps the growth of extreme right parties and tests the correlation between the support for intolerance and variables pertaining to economic and social issues, perceptions, and rep...

    • [Electromagnetic field intolerance: a nonexistent disease?].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Safářová, Sárka

      2014-01-01

      Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields is a relatively new phenomenon, which is not fully understood. Extensive research has been carried out to exclude or confirm out that symptoms reported by sufferers are caused by electromagnetic field. This article describes outcomes of recent experiments and meta-analyses. The article may answer to the question if electromagnetic field does really cause reported symptoms, furthermore, it provides hypothetical explanation of this phenomenon.

    • Asthma in the Elderly

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Domenico Lorenzo Urso

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a common problem with enormous medical and economics impacts. It is an inflammatory disease of the airways associated with intermittent episodes of bronchospasm. Asthma is not uncommon in the elderly patients. Prevalence of asthma is similar in older and younger adults. Asthma in the elderly patient is underdiagnosed because of false perceptions by both patient and physician. The high incidence of comorbid conditions in the elderly patient makes the diagnosis and management more difficult. Correct diagnosis is demonstrated with spirometry. The goals of asthma treatment are to achieve and maintain control of symptoms and to prevent development of irreversible airflow limitation. Asthma drugs are preferably inhaled because this route minimizes systemic absorption and, thus, improves the ratio of the therapeutic benefit to the potential side-effects in elderly patients.

    • Tobaksrygning og asthma

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

      2002-01-01

      with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

    • Asthma and obesity

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Ulrik, Charlotte S

      2016-01-01

      PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness...... reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

    • Lactose intolerance and lactase deficiency in children.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rings, E H; Grand, R J; Büller, H A

      1994-10-01

      The term lactase deficiency is widely used to indicate a low or absent level of lactase enzyme in the small intestine, leading to lactose intolerance. This term is correctly used when the intestinal mucosa is damaged and results in secondary lactase deficiency. In the case of the genetically determined decrease of lactase activity during childhood, however, low lactase levels suggest that the majority of the world's population is "abnormal," whereas individuals from caucasian extraction with high levels of lactase enzyme throughout life are then considered "normal." It would be better to ascribe racial and ethnic lactose malabsorption as the result of genetically determined reduction of lactase activity, rather then implying an "abnormality" by the term, "deficiency." Recent studies reveal that this genetic control is at the transcriptional level. The symptomatology of lactose intolerance varies widely, and the diagnostic method of choice is the lactose breath hydrogen test in combination with clinical findings, although small intestinal biopsies should be performed when mucosal diseases are suspected. Treatment of lactose intolerance depends on the age of the child. In young infants complete restriction of lactose containing foods is rarely necessary.

    • Statin intolerance: Now a solved problem

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      P Sikka

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Statins are the most effective and widely used drugs for treating dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. These are one of the safest hypolipidemic drugs but many patients are bound to discontinue statins due to their side effects. Hepatotoxicity, myotoxicity and peripheral neuropathy are important out of them. Discontinuation of statins leads to dylipidemia and its grave consequences. Hence, there should be enough strategies for statin intolerant patients, so that they can be saved from these consequences. These side effects can be avoided by the awareness of certain factors viz. potential drug interactions and dose adjustment according to patho-physiology of the patient. Baseline investigations for liver function and muscle toxicity should be done before initiating statin therapy. Here, we are discussing various options for statin intolerant hyperlipidemic patients such as lower and intermittent dosing of statins, alternate hypolipidemic drugs, red yeast rice, supplementation with coenzyme Q10 and vitamin D. A number of hypolipidemic drugs are in trial phases and hold promise for statin intolerant patients.

  1. Variation and importance of aspirin resistance in patients with known cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Korsholm, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether aspirin resistance is a persistent condition, and to evaluate if aspirin resistance affects one-year clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Previously we studied 298 patients admitted to hospital with symptoms suggestive of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) despite...... treatment with aspirin, and 70 patients (23.5%) were aspirin resistant. In the present study, platelet function was reassessed by use of a Platelet Function Analyzer-100 one year later. A total of 187 patients were re-examined, and 17 (9.1%) demonstrated aspirin resistance. Of these 17 patients, 12 also...... exhibited aspirin resistance at baseline resulting in a 6% (12/187) prevalence of persistent aspirin resistance. A total of 34 patients had changed from aspirin resistant at baseline to aspirin sensitive at follow-up. We found a significant decrease in the prevalence of aspirin resistance from baseline (43...

  2. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  3. Linking obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, E Rand

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that obesity has a significant impact on asthma risk, phenotype, and prognosis. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that asthma is more likely to occur in obese patients, and health status is impaired in obese individuals with asthma, with obese asthmatics experiencing more symptoms, worse quality of life, increased healthcare use, and increased asthma severity. However, obesity has well-described effects on lung function and mechanics that can lead to symptoms of dyspnea without causing the pathophysiologic changes of asthma. Adding to the challenges of evaluating this association, some studies have failed to demonstrate a robust relationship between obesity and traditional biomarkers of airway inflammation in adult asthmatics, leading to the conclusion that obesity does not necessarily worsen airway inflammation in asthma. In this regard, emerging data suggest that nonatopic mechanisms may be relevant in obese asthmatics, and that these mechanisms may have a direct impact on the response of obese asthmatics to asthma therapies, most notably inhaled glucocorticoids. This article will review selected aspects of the contributions of obesity-related airway and systemic inflammation to asthma, with a focus on the impact of obesity as a modifier of risk, prognosis, and therapeutic response in asthma.

  4. Pharmacogenomics of pediatric asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sarika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple genetic and environmental factors contributing to it. A component of this complexity is a highly variable response to pharmacological therapy. Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of genetic determinants in the variable response to therapy. A number of examples of possible pharmacogenomic approaches that may prove of value in the management of asthma are discussed below. Evidence Acquisition: A search of PubMed, Google scholar, E-Medicine, BMJ and Mbase was done using the key words "pharmacogenomics of asthma", "pharmacogenomics of β-agonist, glucocorticoids, leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, muscarinic antagonists in asthma". Results: Presently, there are limited examples of gene polymorphism that can influence response to asthma therapy. Polymorphisms that alter response to asthma therapy include Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, Thr164Ile for β-agonist receptor, polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene, CRHR1 variants and polymorphism of LTC4S, ALOX5. Polymorphic variants of muscarinic receptors, PDE4 and CYP450 gene variants. Conclusion: It was concluded that genetic variation can improve the response to asthma therapy. However, no gene polymorphism has been associated with consistent results in different populations. Therefore, asthma pharmacogenomic studies in different populations with a large number of subjects are required to make possible tailoring the asthma therapy according to the genetic characteristic of individual patient.

  5. Asthma, sports, and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDario, A Geoffrey; Becker, Jack M

    2005-01-01

    The impact of asthma on the general population has been described in detail in medical literature. However, asthma also has a significant impact on the pediatric and adult athlete. This is rarely reported in either the lay press or the medical literature. In 2003, Becker and coworkers conducted a retrospective analysis of the incidence of asthma as a direct cause of death in competitive athletes across the United States between 1993 and 2000. They sought to raise awareness that severe asthma exacerbations and even death can occur during sports from asthma in athletes, while still supporting the concept of maximal participation in sporting activities. To their knowledge, this remains the only published study looking specifically at this issue. Fortunately, fatal asthma events are infrequent in either the adult or the pediatric populations. Those rare cases involving athletes are commonly highlighted in the lay press when they do occur, e.g., when the victim is a college football player such as Rashidi Wheeler. Wheeler died of a fatal asthma exacerbation on August 3, 2002, during a conditioning drill as a member of the Northwestern University football team. Although he was known to have chronic asthma with no obvious barriers to health care, he nevertheless succumbed to his condition. Here, we report a similar, although less well-known, case of an adolescent who died as a direct result of an asthma exacerbation during a high school physical education class. We also offer a brief review of the literature regarding morbidity and mortality in athletes.

  6. Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduce...... and preoperative chronic aspirin use. At the time of randomisation, a subpopulation agreed to a single measurement of serum creatinine between 3 and 12 months after surgery, and the authors will examine intervention effects on this outcome. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The authors were competitively awarded a grant...

  7. Nutrition and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the asthma prevalence in many countries over the recent decades, highlights the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma. Be-cause asthma is the result of interaction between genetic and environmental fac-tors, increasing prevalence is certainly the result of changes in environmental fac-tors because of process of wesernization. That is the reason for higher prevalence in countries where a traditional to a westernized lifestyle occurred earlier. This increasing prevalence has affected both rural and urban communities, suggesting that local environmental factors such as exposure to allergens or industrial air pol-lutions are not the sole cause. In the last few years, nutrition has represented an important conditioning factor of many cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and chronic pulmonary diseases. So it has been hypothesized that dietary constituents influence the immune system and thus, may also be actively involved in the onset of asthma and other allergic diseases. Dietary constituents can play beneficial as well as det-rimental role in asthma. The possible role of diet in the development of asthma can be described as follows: first, a food allergen can cause asthma. Second, there is role of breast-feeding for prevention of asthma later in life. Third, a low intake of antioxidative dietary constituents might be a risk factor for asthma. Moreover, role of cations such as sodium, potassium and magnesium has been described in development of asthma. Finally, intake of fatty acids specially the role of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids play important role in cause of asthma.

  8. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...... on pollen and latex cross-reactivity, systemic reactions to contact allergens and coeliac disease point to a prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in the adult European population of approximately 5%. A mild itch in the mouth and lactose intolerance are not included in this estimate which is a qualified...

  9. Non responsive celiac disease due to coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadia, Lalit; Shivpuri, Deepak

    2012-04-01

    Celiac disease is associated with several genetic disorders, but its association with hereditary fructose intolerance is rare. Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare autosomal recessive disease of fructose metabolism presenting as vomiting after intake of fructose. An association between these two distinct genetic gastrointestinal disorders is important as treatment failure of celiac disease calls for careful evaluation for hereditary fructose intolerance. We report a patient with an association of these two disorders.

  10. How Is Asthma Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1.25 million of those individuals have severe asthma, a condition that can be difficult to control and treat. Learn more about his research by visiting the NHLBI Laboratory of Asthma and Lung Inflammation website: http://www.nhlbi.nih. ...

  11. Traveling and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Traveling and Asthma KidsHealth > For Kids > Traveling and Asthma A A A What's in this ... t have to get in the way of travel fun. Let's find out how to be prepared ...

  12. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  13. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  14. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  15. Reflexology and bronchial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, T; Heinig, J H; Collins, P

    2001-01-01

    Many asthma patients seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology, whereby finger pressure is applied to certain parts of the body. The aim of the study was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. Ten weeks of active...

  16. An assessment by the Statin Intolerance Panel: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Bays, Harold E; Grundy, Scott M; Jacobson, Terry A; The National Lipid Association Statin Intolerance Panel

    2014-01-01

    This article from the National Lipid Association Statin Intolerance Panel provides a framework for understanding statin intolerance and makes general recommendations for health professionals. For specific guidance on adverse events related to muscle, liver, cognition, and glucose metabolism, one should refer to the other reports of the Statin Safety Task Force for those topics. Although statin adverse effects rarely lead to permanent sequelae, symptomatic intolerance frequently hinders cardiovascular risk reduction by statins. We emphasize here the advisory role of the clinician helping each patient to make personal decisions on statin tolerability. We identify a pressing need for further research on statin intolerance and make suggestions for research design.

  17. Enteral nutrition intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentieva, Athina; Kontakiotis, Theodore; Bitzani, Militsa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of enteral feeding intolerance in critically ill septic burn patients, the effect of enteral feeding intolerance on the efficacy of feeding, the correlation between the infection marker (procalcitonin [PCT]) and the nutrition status marker (prealbumin) and the impact of feeding intolerance on the outcome of septic burn patients. From January 2009 to December 2012 the data of all burn patients with the diagnosis of sepsis who were placed on enteral nutrition were analyzed. Septic patients were divided into two groups: group A, septic patients who developed feeding intolerance; group B, septic patients who did not develop feeding intolerance. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed and compared. The diagnosis of sepsis was applied to 29% of all patients. Of these patients 35% developed intolerance to enteral feeding throughout the septic period. A statistically significant increase in mean PCT level and a decrease in prealbumin level was observed during the sepsis period. Group A patients had statistically significant lower mean caloric intake, higher PCT:prealbumin ratio, higher pneumonia incidence, higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Maximum Score, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation, and a higher mortality rate in comparison with the septic patients without gastric feeding intolerance. The authors concluded that a high percentage of septic burn patients developed enteral feeding intolerance. Enteral feeding intolerance seems to have a negative impact on the patients' nutritional status, morbidity, and mortality.

  18. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  19. [Distinguishing asthma from COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kouhei; Samukawa, Takuya; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2016-05-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major public health burdens. Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, airway narrowing with reversibility, and hyperresponsiveness of airways. COPD has been associated with smoking and exposure to environmental fumes, which typically characterized by persistent airflow limitation and chronic inflammation of the airways. These differences are most apparent when young non-smoker with asthma and older smokers with COPD are compared. However, it would be difficult to differentiate asthma from COPD, especially in elderly who currently smoke or have a significant history of smoking. Furthermore, some patients exhibit characteristics of both diseases, this may represent a phenotype known as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). Therefore, the precise understanding of these diseases is important.

  20. Asthma control in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control. Poorly controlled asthma is associated with an increased number of days lost from school, exacerbations and days in hospital. Furthermore, children with uncontrolled asthma have more frequent contacts with the health-care system. Recent...... studies have added new information about the effects of poorly controlled asthma on a range of important, but less studied outcomes, including risk of obesity, daily physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, stress, concentration and focused attention, learning disabilities and risk of depression. From...... these studies it seems that poor asthma control may have a greater impact on the child than previously thought. This may have important long-term consequences for the child such as an increased risk of life-style associated diseases and poorer school performance. The level of control seems to be the most...

  1. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  2. Aspirin as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. It is widely accepted that neoplasms such as colonic polyps are precursors to CRC formation; with the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequences well described in medical literature [1, 2]. It has been shown that Aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have a negative effect on polyp and cancer formation. This review aims to describe some of the mechanism behind the chemoprotective properties of aspirin; COX 2 inhibition, regulation of proliferation and apoptosis and effects on the immune system and also the current evidence that supports its use as a chemoprevention agent against CRC. We will also aim to explore the side effects with the use of aspirin and the pitfalls of using aspirin routinely for primary prophylaxis against CRC.

  3. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain...... and each intervention has the potential for harm. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aspirin compared with placebo, and clonidine compared with placebo, alters the risk of perioperative acute kidney injury. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2 × 2 factorial randomized, blinded, clinical trial of 6905...... patients undergoing noncardiac surgery from 88 centers in 22 countries with consecutive patients enrolled between January 2011 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned to take aspirin (200 mg) or placebo 2 to 4 hours before surgery and then aspirin (100 mg) or placebo daily up to 30 days...

  4. Aspirin resistance: Prevalence and clinical outcome in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salah

    2015-04-01

    Results: Prevalence of aspirin resistance was 48% in our study group. Aspirin resistance was significantly higher in patients with family history of CAD (p = 0.044, smoking (p = 0.011, history of MI (p = 0.024, history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (p = 0.001, and concomitant NSAIDs intake (p = 0.047. Moreover, aspirin resistance was more common among patients with multi-vessel CAD (p = 0.024. Aspirin-resistant patients had a significantly higher rate of UA (p = 0.001 and all major adverse cardiac events (MACE (p < 0.001.

  5. Orthostatic intolerance: emerging genetic and environmental etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D; Biaggioni, I; Ertl, A C; Robertson, R M; Diedrich, A; Blakely, R D; Flattem, N; Shannon, J R

    1999-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is common after space flight and resembles the disabling idiopathic orthostatic intolerance commonly observed in otherwise healthy young individuals. OI can arise from reduced sympathetic nervous system activity and, paradoxically, also from increased sympathetic nervous system activity. Patients with early manifestations of pure autonomic failure demonstrate an etiology based upon reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. Patients with hyperadrenergia demonstrate an etiology based on increased sympathetic nervous activity. For many years, we have recognized that the microgravity environment induces adaptation in the cardiovascular system and its autonomic control mechanisms that lead to the presence of OI on return to gravity. Understanding the nature of OI in astronauts returning from space as well as in the relevant patient population on earth has been a priority of Vanderbilt's Center for Space Physiology and Medicine in recent years. A major purpose of the autonomic experiment in the Neurolab mission was to identify whether the OI experienced by astronauts on return to earth was best explained by a hypoadrenergic or hyperadrenergic state. To address this question, we analyzed sympathetic nervous system activity inflight by 1) measurement of plasma catecholamines; 2) assessment of peroneal microneurographic sympathetic nerve traffic; and 3) assessment of norepinephrine spillover and clearance during infusion of tritiated norepinephrine. These studies documented a slight (five bursts per minute) increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, a 200 pg/ml increase in plasma norepinephrine level, and a 350 ng/min increase in norepinephrine clearance. Plasma norepinephrine and norepinephrine spillover and clearance were also raised on recovery day. These data indicate that enhanced sympathetic activation, rather than reduced sympathetic activation, accompanies the orthostatic intolerance following microgravity.

  6. Asthma control: Patient and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssenbeek-Nouwens, L.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Control of asthma, the goal of asthma treatment, seems hard to obtain. However, it is largely unknown why control of asthma remains difficult in many patients in spite of available powerful medication. In this thesis we studied non-pharmacological factors influencing asthma control: patient related

  7. Factors associated with asthma control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Lince, S.; Muris, J.W.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors are associated with asthma control experienced by asthma patients. In a cross-sectional study patients aged 16-60 years with mild to moderate asthma were selected. The influence of the following factors on asthma control was studied in a multivaria

  8. Behavioral conditioning and idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, N D; Lehrer, P M

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a poorly understood condition that may involve disturbances in immunologic, neurologic, endocrine, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive processes. This chapter reviews theories and evidence that behavioral conditioning processes, including pharmacologic sensitization, conditioned immunomodulation, and conditioned odor and taste aversions, may play a role in the development and maintenance of IEI. It also reviews the psychophysiologic concepts of individual response specificity and situational response stereotypy as potential explanations for the individual differences observed in specific responses to environmental stimuli in patients with IEI. Finally, the treatment implications of a conditioning account of IEI are discussed as part of a more comprehensive treatment approach that incorporates other behavioral and nonbehavioral strategies.

  9. Idiopathic environmental intolerance: case definition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, R

    2000-01-01

    Case definitions of the same phenomenon may be different for different purposes. Case definitions usually become more specific over time as more information about the condition becomes available. Idiopathic environmental intolerance is one of many labels for a heterogeneous group of conditions in which subjects describe multiple symptoms that are attributed to exposure to extremely low doses of common chemicals. Dr. Kreutzer presents issues in case definition for clinical purposes and for population-based studies, and makes recommendations for the clinician and for the public health investigator.

  10. Abuse, exclusion and intolerance to being female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bertha Velázquez Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of abuse, exclusion and intolerance to women is a consequence of practices of domination pervasive in contemporary societies. This problem is manifested in the systematic harassment to women's bodies, to her thoughts and personal lifestyles, which constrains her personal dignity and violates her basic human rights. The approach to this analysis is based on the documentary method and is part of an investigation of health and gender issues in the collegiate body Gender and Sustainable Development in the Autonomous University of Mexico State.

  11. An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Synthesis of Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Sangeeta; Goyal, Samta

    1998-06-01

    The synthesis of aspirin is a part of many undergraduate organic synthesis labs and is frequently used in qualitative organic analysis laboratory for the identification of salicylic acid. We have found that aspirin can be synthesized on microscale by a simple and efficient procedure that eliminates the heating step employed in literature procedures and gives a pure, ferric-negative product (no purple color with alcoholic ferric chloride solution).

  12. Advances in pediatric asthma in 2013: coordinating asthma care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szefler, Stanley J

    2014-03-01

    Last year's "Advances in pediatric asthma: moving toward asthma prevention" concluded that "We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to utilize new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma." This year's summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on prenatal and postnatal factors altering the natural history of asthma, assessment of asthma control, and new insights regarding potential therapeutic targets for altering the course of asthma in children, as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2013 and early 2014. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to understand factors that influence the course of asthma, methods to assess and communicate levels of control, and new targets for intervention, as well as new immunomodulators. It will now be important to carefully assess risk factors for the development of asthma, as well as the risk for asthma exacerbations, and to improve the way we communicate this information in the health care system. This will allow parents, primary care physicians, specialists, and provider systems to more effectively intervene in altering the course of asthma and to further reduce asthma morbidity and mortality.

  13. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Liu; Jian Cao; Li Fan; Lin Liu; Jian Li; Guo-Liang Hu; Yi-Xin Hu; Xiao-Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of and related risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Two hundred and forty-six elderly patients (75.9 ± 7.4 years) with CAD who received daily aspirin therapy (≥ 75 mg) over one month were recruited. The effect of aspirin was assessed using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and thrombelastography platelet mapping assay (TEG). Aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 20% arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation and ≥ 70% adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation in the LTA assay. An aspirin semi-responder was defined as meeting one (but not both) of the criteria described above. Based on the results of TEG, aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 50% aggregation induced by AA. Results As determined by LTA, 23 (9.3%) of the elderly CAD patients were resistant to aspirin therapy; 91 (37.0%) were semi-responders. As determined by TEG, 61 patients (24.8%) were aspirin resistant. Of the 61 patients who were aspirin resistant by TEG, 19 were aspirin resistant according to LTA results. Twenty-four of 91 semi-responders by LTA were aspirin resistant by TEG. Multivariate logistic risk factor for aspirin resistance as determined by TEG. Conclusions A significant number of elderly patients with CAD are resistant to aspirin therapy. Fasting blood glucose level is closely associated with aspirin resistance in elderly CAD patients.

  15. Idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI): myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, H

    2001-03-31

    The psychogenic theory presupposes that idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is an overvalued idea explained by psychological and psychosocial processes. The polysomatic symptoms are amplifications of complaints common to the general population, psychophysiological manifestations of stress and the stress-response, or symptoms of psychiatric clinical syndromes. The psychogenic theory is supported by provocation challenge studies which demonstrate that appraisals of 'reactions' are unreliable and cognitively mediated. Clinical studies of IEI cases consistently identify greater incidence of current and premorbid lifetime psychiatric disorders and co-morbidity with functional somatic syndromes that are fashionable 'diagnoses'. The toxicogenic theory presupposes low-level chemical sensitivity or intolerance without objective signs to a plethora of diverse chemical agents. Symptoms are synonymous with disease and attributions are synonymous with cause. Hypotheses about physiological processes and mechanisms are implausible and unsupported by evidence. Advocates claim this phenomenon is so ephemeral that the principles and methods of toxicology do not apply and that a scientific paradigm shift is in order.

  16. [Histamine intolerance--possible dermatologic sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugović-Mihić, Liborija; Seserko, Ana; Duvancić, Tomislav; Situm, Mirna; Mihić, Josip

    2012-12-01

    Although histamine intolerance (HIT) is not very frequently encountered, it can have serious consequences. Food intolerance is a non allergic hypersensitivity to food that does not include the immune system even though the symptoms are similar to those of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. HIT apparently develops as a result of an impaired diamine oxidase (DAO) activity due to gastrointestinal disease or through DAO inhibition, as well as through a genetic predisposition which was proven in a number of patients. The intake of histamine-rich foods as well as alcohol or drugs which cause either the release of histamine or the blocking of DAO can lead to various disorders in many organs (gastrointestinal system, skin, lungs, cardiovascular system and brain), depending on the expression of histamine receptors. Dermatologic sequels can be rashes, itch, urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, eczema and even acne, rosacea, psoriasis, and other. Recognizing the symptoms due to HIT is especially important in treating such patients. The significance of HIT in patients with atopic dermatitis in whom the benefit of a low histamine diet has been proven is becoming increasingly understood recently. Because of the possibility of symptoms affecting numerous organs, a detailed history of symptoms following the intake of histamine-rich foods or drugs that interfere with histamine metabolism is essential for making the diagnosis of HIT. Considering that such symptoms can be the result of multiple factors, the existence of HIT is usually underestimated, but considerable expectations are being made from future studies.

  17. Tobaksrygning og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients with ast......Cigarette smoking is a well-known health hazard, probably not least for patients suffering from asthma. This review gives a short overview of the effects of passive and active smoking on the inception and outcome with of longitudinal changes in the lung function and mortality of patients...... with asthma. Substantial evidence suggests that smoking affects asthma adversely. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, especially maternal smoking in children, may be a significant risk factor for asthma. Such exposure in patients with established asthma is not only associated with more severe symptoms......, but also with a poorer quality of life, reduced lung function, and increased utilisation of health care including hospital admissions. Active smoking does not appear to be a significant risk factor for asthma, but is associated with a worse outcome with regard to both longitudinal changes in lung function...

  18. Asthma in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Hem, Erlend; Stensrud, Trine

    2011-12-01

    Athletes active in endurance sports are at an increased risk of acquiring asthma through their sports activities, especially so for cross-country skiers, biathlon skiers, swimmers and athletes of other endurance sports. Asthma may be present from early childhood or develop while in active sports. This article focuses on the physical activity and sports activities in children and adolescents. Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is found in 8-10% of a normal child population of school age and in about 35% of children with current asthma. EIA is caused by the markedly increased ventilation during exercise, with increased heat and water loss through respiration, leading to bronchial constriction. The risk of developing asthma in the young athlete is related to the repeated daily training activity with increased epithelial damage of the airways, delayed repair due to the daily repetition of the training and increased airway mucosal inflammation. The increased environmental exposure through the sports activity to environmental agents, such as cold, dry air in skiers and chlorine compounds in swimmers, increases symptoms and signs of asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness, either worsening an existing asthma or leading to a novel disease in a previously healthy athlete. Several specific aspects of daily training life, environmental exposure, diagnostic procedures and aspects of treatment related to the regulations of medication use in sports need particular attention when addressing the adolescent athlete with respiratory symptoms.

  19. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  20. Aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Yen; Chuah, Khoon Leong; Eng, Philip; Leong, Swan Swan; Lim, Elaine; Lim, Tow Keang; Ng, Alan; Poh, Wee Teng; Tee, Augustine; Teh, Ming; Salim, Agus; Seow, Adeline

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) have anti-carcinogenic properties, but their effect on lung cancer, in particular in never-smokers, is unclear. Information on past or current use of anti-inflammatory medication was obtained in 398 Chinese female primary lung cancer cases and 814 controls in a hospital-based study in Singapore. 65% of cases and 88% of controls were never-smokers. Controls were excluded if they had been admitted for conditions associated with aspirin or NSAID use (n=174). Regular aspirin use (twice a week or more, for a month or more) was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.50, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 0.31-0.81 in non-smokers; OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.16-0.93 in smokers). Regular use of non-aspirin NSAID, paracetamol, steroid creams and steroid pills was uncommon and no association with lung cancer was detected. Our results suggest that aspirin consumption may reduce lung cancer risk in Asian women and are consistent with current understanding of the role of cyclooxygenase in lung carcinogenesis.

  1. Platelet response to increased aspirin dose in patients with persistent platelet aggregation while treated with aspirin 81 mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengo, Fran; Westphal, Erica S; Rainka, Michelle M; Janda, Maria; Robson, Matthew J; Hourihane, J Maurice; Bates, Vernice

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrates that patients who are taking 81 mg of aspirin and are nonresponsive benefit from a dose of 162 mg or greater vs a different antiplatelet therapy. We identified 100 patients who were nonresponsive to aspirin 81 mg via whole blood aggregometry and observed how many patients became responsive at a dose of 162 mg or greater. Platelet nonresponsiveness was defined as >10 Ω of resistance to collagen 1 µg/mL and/or an ohms ratio of collagen 1 µg/mL to collagen 5 µg/mL >0.5 and/or >6 Ω to arachidonate. Borderline response was defined as an improvement in 1 but not both of the above criteria. Of the initial 100 patients who were nonresponsive to an aspirin dose of 81 mg, 79% became responsive at a dose of 162 mg or >162 mg. Only 6% did not respond to any increase in dose. We believe that patients treated with low-dose aspirin who have significant risk for secondary vascular events should be individually assessed to determine their antiplatelet response. Those found to have persistent platelet aggregation despite treatment with 81 mg of aspirin have a higher likelihood of obtaining an adequate antiplatelet response at a higher aspirin dose.

  2. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, M.J.; Laugesen, N.; Bukowski, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertain

  3. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  4. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, T.; Venema, K.; Priebe, M.G.; Welling, G.W.; Brummer, R.J.M.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fer

  5. Orthostatic intolerance and the cardiovascular response to early postoperative mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, Christoffer Calov; Jørgensen, T B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key element in enhanced postoperative recovery is early mobilization which, however, may be hindered by orthostatic intolerance, that is, an inability to sit or stand because of symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion as intolerable dizziness, nausea and vomiting, feeling of heat...

  6. Use of Aspirin postdiagnosis improves survival for colon cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaannet, E; Sampieri, K; Dekkers, O M; de Craen, A J M; van Herk-Sukel, M P P; Lemmens, V; van den Broek, C B M; Coebergh, J W; Herings, R M C; van de Velde, C J H; Fodde, R; Liefers, G J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The preventive role of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and aspirin, in particular, on colorectal cancer is well established. More recently, it has been suggested that aspirin may also have a therapeutic role. Aim of the present observational population-based study was to assess the therapeutic effect on overall survival of aspirin/NSAIDs as adjuvant treatment used after the diagnosis of colorectal cancer patients. Methods: Data concerning prescriptions were obtained from PHARMO record linkage systems and all patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (1998–2007) were selected from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry (population-based cancer registry). Aspirin/NSAID use was classified as none, prediagnosis and postdiagnosis and only postdiagnosis. Patients were defined as non-user of aspirin/NSAIDs from the date of diagnosis of the colorectal cancer to the date of first use of aspirin or NSAIDs and user from first use to the end of follow-up. Poisson regression was performed with user status as time-varying exposure. Results: In total, 1176 (26%) patients were non-users, 2086 (47%) were prediagnosis and postdiagnosis users and 1219 (27%) were only postdiagnosis users (total n=4481). Compared with non-users, a survival gain was observed for aspirin users; the adjusted rate ratio (RR) was 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–0.95; P=0.015). Stratified for colon and rectal, the survival gain was only present in colon cancer (adjusted RR 0.65 (95%CI 0.50–0.84; P=0.001)). For frequent users survival gain was larger (adjusted RR 0.61 (95%CI 0.46–0.81; P=0.001). In rectal cancer, aspirin use was not associated with survival (adjusted RR 1.10 (95%CI 0.79–1.54; P=0.6). The NSAIDs use was associated with decreased survival (adjusted RR 1.93 (95%CI 1.70–2.20; P<0.001). Conclusion: Aspirin use initiated or continued after diagnosis of colon cancer is associated with a lower risk of overall mortality. These findings strongly support initiation of

  7. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice.

  8. Pediatric asthma disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, T R; Chatburn, R L

    2000-03-01

    The prevalence of asthma in children in the United States is estimated at more than 5% of the population, and it has risen more than 40% in the previous decade. Several guidelines for the management of acute and chronic asthma exist, and they all emphasize several basic components including state-of-the-art pharmacologic treatment, trigger avoidance, and patient self-management skills. This Article highlights the necessary components for pediatric asthma disease management to insure a smooth continuum of care across all disciplines and settings.

  9. Clopidogrel and Aspirin versus Aspirin Alone for Stroke Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Tan

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet therapy is widely used for the primary or secondary prevention of stroke. Drugs like clopidogrel have emerged as alternatives for traditional antiplatelet therapy, and dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is of particular interest. We conducted this meta-analysis to systematically review studies about dual therapy comparing monotherapy with aspirin alone.Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed (1966-May, 2015, EMBASE (1947-May, 2015, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (1948-May, 2015, WHO International Clinical Trial (ICTRP (2004-May, 2015, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM disc (1978-May, 2015 and were included into the final analysis according to the definite inclusion criteria mentioned in the study selection section. Risk ratio (RR was pooled with 95% confidence interval (CI for dichotomous data. The heterogeneity was considered significant if the χ2 test was significant (P value 50.00%. Subgroup analyses were carried out on the long and short time periods, the race and region.We included 5 studies involving 24,084 patients. A pooled analysis showed that dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin had a lower stroke incidence than monotherapy in both the short term and long term (RR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.59-0.82, P <0.05; RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.98, P = 0.03, respectively. With regard to safety, dual therapy had a higher risk of bleeding than monotherapy for both periods (RR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.03-2.23, P = 0.04; RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32-1.79, P<0.05, respectively.Dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin could be a preferable choice to prevent stroke in patients who have had a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, as well as those who are at high risk for stroke. And the effect of dual therapy seems to be more obvious for short-term. However, it is associated with a higher risk of bleeding.

  10. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  11. Lactose intolerance: an unnecessary risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The potential for lactose intolerance causes 25-50 million Americans and an unknown number of people around the world to avoid milk. Milk avoidance is a significant risk factor for low bone density. Individuals who avoid milk, due to intolerance or learned aversion, consume significantly less calcium and have poorer bone health and probable higher risk of osteoporosis. Lactose intolerance is easily managed by: (1) regular consumption of milk that adapts the colon bacteria and facilitates digestion of lactose; (2) consumption of yogurts and cheeses and other dairy foods low in lactose; consumption of dairy foods with meals to slow transit and maximize digestion, and use of lactose-digestive aids. As dairying spreads around the world to new markets and dairy foods become the dominant source of calcium in these markets, the potential for lactose intolerance will grow. Management of lactose intolerance globally will require both education and product development.

  12. [Calcium supplementation uncovering lactose intolerance - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifina, Eva; Geissler, Dietmar; Zwettler, Elisabeth; Klaushofer, Klaus; Mikosch, Peter

    2012-03-01

    A 44 yr-old female with osteoporosis had no relevant gastrointestinal symptoms and did not avoid any specific food. However, after prescription of a lactose-rich calcium supplementation, clinical symptoms suspicious for lactose intolerance occurred, which were thereafter confirmed by a lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance may present with only slight or subtle symptoms. Drugs containing lactose may induce or increase gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with lactose intolerance. In case of gastrointestinal symptoms occurring after the initiation of drugs containing lactose, the possibility of lactose intolerance should be considered and tested by lactose tolerance test or genetic testing for the LCT (-13910) polymorphism. Due to the prevalence of about 15-25% lactose intolerance in the Austrian population, lactose free drugs should be prescribed as widely as possible.

  13. Effects of ticlopidine or ticlopidine plus aspirin on platelet aggregation and ATP release in normal volunteers: why aspirin improves ticlopidine antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, R; Scazziota, A; Rouvier, J; Gonzalez, C

    1999-10-01

    Aspirin and ticlopidine are used to prevent arterial thrombosis. In some clinical settings ticlopidine is administered with aspirin for improving antithrombotic effect. We administered aspirin (100 mg/day), ticlopidine (500 mg/day), or ticlopidine and aspirin for 7 days to healthy volunteers. Platelet aggregation and ATP release induced by sodium arachidonate, ADP, or a combination of both were measured. Sodium arachidonate (0.25 mmol/L), which produces no platelet aggregation, combined with adenosine diphosphate (1 mumol/L), which produced a reversible platelet aggregation of 20% after ticlopidine, resulted in a synergistic platelet aggregation response in normal (74.6 +/- 9.2%) and in ticlopidine platelet-rich plasma (59.1% +/- 14.9%, p < 0.0001). Synergism after sodium arachidonate (0.75 mmol/L) plus adenosine diphosphate (4 mumol/L) fell from 75.8% +/- 11.0% and 59.1% +/- 15.6% after ticlopidine or aspirin, respectively, to 14.8% +/- 18.0% (p < 0.0001) after ticlopidine plus aspirin. Aspirin and ticlopidine alone did not inhibit adenosine triphosphate release as thoroughly as did aspirin plus ticlopidine. Aspirin or ticlopidine does not adequately prevent platelet activity as ticlopidine plus aspirin do. Addition of aspirin to treatment with ticlopidine improves their antiplatelet activity and better results could be obtained in arterial thrombotic prevention strategies.

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking ... people with asthma live healthier lives by gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan ...

  15. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  16. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Flare-Up? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma ... of a straw that's being pinched. Causes of Asthma Flare-Ups People with asthma have airways that ...

  17. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children with Current Asthma Overuse of quick-relief medication among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled Asthma among ...

  18. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki J Hendrick

    Full Text Available The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura, the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus, showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa. With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally

  19. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Asthma Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... remove an animal from the home, it is important to thoroughly clean the floors, walls, carpets and ...

  20. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) The annual flu shot is recommended for ... second or third trimester. Read more about the flu vaccine . Immunotherapy (allergy shots) Allergy shots should not be ...

  1. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... prepared food. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Nutrition: What Every Parent Needs to Know (Copyright © American ...

  2. Interleukin-16 in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jing-min; SHI Huan-zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterized by lymphocyte, eosinophil, and mast cell infiltration of the submucosa along with mucous gland hyperplasia and subepithelial fibrosis.

  3. Zoneterapi og asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, Thor; Heinig, John Hilligsøe; Collins, Philippa;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients with asthma seek alternative or adjunctive therapies. One such modality is reflexology. Our aim was to examine the popular claim that reflexology treatment benefits bronchial asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten weeks of either active or simulated (placebo) reflexology were...... compared in an otherwise blind, controlled trial of 40 patients with asthma. RESULTS: Objective lung function tests did not change. Subjective scores and bronchial sensitivity to histamine improved on both regimens, but no differences were found in the groups receiving active or placebo reflexology....... However, a trend in favour of reflexology became significant when a supplementary analysis of symptom diaries was carried out. At the same time a significant pattern compatible with subconscious un-blinding was found. DISCUSSION: We found no evidence that reflexology has a specific effect on asthma beyond...

  4. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  5. Asthma, Allergies and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  6. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Center Fellows-in-Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice Tools Running a Practice Statements and Practice Parameters About AAAAI Advocacy Allergist / Immunologists: ...

  7. Relvar Ellipta for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ▼Relvar Ellipta (GSK) is a dry powder inhaler that contains a corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate) and a long-acting beta2 agonist (vilanterol trifenatate). It is licensed for once-daily use as maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In a previous article we considered its use in the management of COPD.1 Here we review the evidence for Relvar Ellipta in the treatment of patients with asthma.

  8. [Asthma, obesity and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-α, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program.

  9. [Lactose and gluten intolerance: which to suscept?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gossum, M; Mascart, F; Rickaert, F; Codden, T; Colonius, V

    2000-09-01

    Lactose intolerance affects millions of people world-wide and should be suspected specially when evaluating gastrointestinal symptoms in ethnic populations in which it is prevalent. Fortunately, once a diagnosis is made, management is fairly straightforward. The authors discuss symptoms and methods of detection and offer their recommendations for helping patients with this common disorder. Coeliac disease is the end result of 3 processes that culminate in intestinal damage: genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immunological based inflammation. Epidemiological studies based on serologic tests suggest that the prevalence of coeliac disease has been significantly underestimated. The classic sprue syndrome of steatorrhea and malnutrition may be less common than more subtle and often monosymptomatic presentations of the disease. The authors discuss the diagnostic criteria and the clinical utility of serologic tests.

  10. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattar R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rejane Mattar, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Flair José CarrilhoDepartment of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management.Keywords: hypolactasia, lactase persistence, lactase non-persistence, lactose, LCT gene, MCM6 gene

  11. Comparison of different definitions of feeding intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reintam Blaser, Annika; Starkopf, Liis; Deane, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: While feeding intolerance (FI) is clinically important in the critically ill it is inconsistently defined. By evaluating definitions of FI based on relationships between symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction and mortality the objective was to define FI using...... the definition that was most strongly associated with subsequent mortality. METHODS: Data from all adult patients admitted to a single ICU between 2004 and 2011, and who were receiving enteral nutrition (EN), were analysed. The amount of EN administered, presence of absent bowel sounds (BS), vomiting and....../or regurgitation, diarrhoea, bowel distension, and large gastric residual volumes (GRVs) were documented daily. A GRV ≥500 ml/day was considered as large and the sum of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including large GRV was calculated daily. Various definitions of FI were modelled. Definitions using only GRV...

  12. Chemical intolerance among hairdressers in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thi Dao Tran

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms among hairdressers in Denmark compared with the Danish general population. Further, to characterize former hairdressers who are severely chemically intolerant to fragranced products in relation to sex, age and health- and work-related reasons for leaving the hairdressing profession. METHODS: The study population consisted of all hairdressers who graduated from the public vocational schools in Denmark during 1985 and 2007 (n = 7840 and a random sample of individuals from the Danish general population (n = 6000. Both populations received a postal questionnaire on symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products and the resultant behavioural consequences. All former hairdressers also answered additional questions on health- and work-related reasons for leaving the profession. RESULTS: No differences were found in the prevalence (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.89-1.14 or the severity (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.80-1.51 of symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products in hairdressers compared with the general population. Among hairdressers, however, experience of fragrance-related symptoms (OR = 1.2, CI = 1.01-1.31 and adjustments of social (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.12-2.80 and occupational conditions (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.84-4.25 were reported significantly more often by former hairdressers than current hairdressers. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms were similar in hairdressers and the general population. Former hairdressers were more affected by fragranced products than current hairdressers were. Although fragrance-related symptoms did not seem to be more frequent among hairdressers, the hairdressing profession might pose a problem for those who are chemically intolerant.

  13. Chemical Intolerance among Hairdressers in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Elberling, Jesper; Skovbjerg, Sine; Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lysdal, Susan Hovmand

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms among hairdressers in Denmark compared with the Danish general population. Further, to characterize former hairdressers who are severely chemically intolerant to fragranced products in relation to sex, age and health- and work-related reasons for leaving the hairdressing profession. Methods The study population consisted of all hairdressers who graduated from the public vocational schools in Denmark during 1985 and 2007 (n = 7840) and a random sample of individuals from the Danish general population (n = 6000). Both populations received a postal questionnaire on symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products and the resultant behavioural consequences. All former hairdressers also answered additional questions on health- and work-related reasons for leaving the profession. Results No differences were found in the prevalence (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.89–1.14) or the severity (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.80–1.51) of symptoms from inhalation of fragranced products in hairdressers compared with the general population. Among hairdressers, however, experience of fragrance-related symptoms (OR = 1.2, CI = 1.01–1.31) and adjustments of social (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.12–2.80) and occupational conditions (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.84–4.25) were reported significantly more often by former hairdressers than current hairdressers. Conclusions The prevalence and the severity of fragrance-related symptoms were similar in hairdressers and the general population. Former hairdressers were more affected by fragranced products than current hairdressers were. Although fragrance-related symptoms did not seem to be more frequent among hairdressers, the hairdressing profession might pose a problem for those who are chemically intolerant. PMID:23951117

  14. From 'lactose intolerance' to 'lactose nutrition'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G; Surono, Ingrid S; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of lactose intolerance has become embedded in Western medicine and developing economy medicine. It is based on evidence that intestinal lactase activity persists into later childhood and throughout life in only a minority of the world's population, notably northern European-derived populations. These people have the T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the rs49882359 allele (C/T), also known as C/T-13910, the MCM6 gene which positively influences the lactase LCT gene. Other lactase persistent (LP) populations are found in Africa and the Middle East with different genetic variants. These SNPs represent co-evolution with dairying since the agricultural revolution and nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation. That said, gastrointestinal symptoms considered due to small intestinal lactose malabsorption are poorly correlated with lactase non-persistence (LNP), the situation for most people. With LNP, colonic microbiome lactase enables lactose fermentation to occur so that none is found in faeces. Whether the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases (hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane) produced cause symptoms is dose-dependent. Up to 25 g of lactose at any one time can usually be consumed by a LNP person, but its food and meal pattern context, the microbiomic characteristics, age and other factors may alter tolerance. Thus, the notion that lactose intolerance is a disorder or disease of LNP people is misplaced and has been one of cultural perspective. What actually matters is whether a particular dairy product as normally consumed give rise to symptoms. It is, therefore, proposed that lactose tolerance tests be replaced with dairy food tolerance tests.

  15. High incidence of intolerance to tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    The outlook of inflammatory joint diseases has changed significantly with the advent of TNF blockers. However, these advances come with a trade off-risk of infections, especially tuberculosis. The Irish society of rheumatology has proposed guidelines to investigate and treat latent TB infection (LTBI), which is in accordance with majority of international recommendations. This protocol requires that every patient with LTBI should have chemoprophylaxis. INH and different anti-rheumatic drugs are known to cause hepatic and gastrointestinal complications. We sought to investigate the toxicity of adding prophylactic anti-TB medications to different DMARDs and anti-TNF agents. We prospectively documented the course of all patients who were prescribed chemoprophylaxis for LTBI, from August 2007 to August 2008. Arrangements were made for central re-issuing of prescription of INH or rifampicin, after reviewing monthly liver function tests and following telephone interview seeking presence of adverse events. Out of 132 patients who were commenced on different TNF blockers, only 23 patients (17%) were diagnosed with LTBI and were given prophylaxis as per recommended guidelines. Thirty-nine percent (9 out of 23) of patients discontinued INH because of adverse events. Primary reason for discontinuation in these 9 patients was as follows: 3 patients got marked transaminitis (transaminases >5 times the normal limit), 5 patients had non-resolving gastrointestinal intolerance (mainly nausea), and one patient developed non-resolving rash. We have found a significant number of our patients (39%) who could not continue anti-TB prophylaxis due to either gastrointestinal intolerance or hypertransaminesemia.

  16. [Food intolerances caused by enzyme defects and carbohydrate malassimiliations : Lactose intolerance and Co].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    Apart from allergic conditions, carbohydrate malassimiliations (sugar metabolism disorders) are classified within the group of food intolerances. These dose-dependent, yet non-immunological reactions require gastroenterological or internal diagnosis following nutritional therapy. Intolerances to carbohydrates such as lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) in addition to sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol etc.) have been gaining increasing attention in recent decades as they are the cause of a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms. There are currently various options for both diagnosis and therapy that differ notably in terms of effort, costs, and efficiency. Nutritional change and patient education are the bases of therapy. Non-observance of the trigger will result in increasing complaints and possibly even more infections, e.g., diverticula, rectal disorders, bacterial miscolonization, bile acid malabsorption). For an optimal therapy, the following sugar metabolism disorders have to be differentiated: hypolactasia versus lactose maldigestion, fructose malabsorption versus fructose overload, combined lactose and fructose intolerance, and isolated adverse reactions against sorbitol.For the medical conditions listed above, a three- or four-stage treatment regimen is recommended. Extensive dietary restrictions with regard to the relevant sugar, except for lactose, should not be maintained over a longer period of time.

  17. PENGARUH DIABETES MELLITUS TERHADAP RESISTENSI ASPIRIN PADA PASIEN STROKE ISKEMIK DI RUMAH SAKIT BETHESDA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardi Astuti Witasari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The secondary prevention of ischemic stroke can be implemented by giving aspirin. However, some cases of aspirin resistance have been found. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of diabetes mellitus on the risk of aspirin resistance in ischemic stroke patients at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta. This study was using a nested case-control study design. The Cases group was subjects who resistance to aspirin therapy. The control group was subjects who response to aspirin therapy. The factors that affect the incidence of aspirin resistance were analyzed by bivariate analysis chi square test. The proportion of diabetes mellitus in resistant group was bigger than the aspirin responsive group. Its odds ratio (OR was 1.605 (95% CI, 0.641 to 4.017 (p=0.155. Conclusion: Ischemic stroke patients at Bethesda Hospital Yogyakarta with diabetes mellitus were not proved to have a bigger risk of aspirin resistance than the patients without diabetes mellitus.

  18. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K M; Wade, D N

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms ml-1 in the presence of chronic, high-dose aspirin treatment. 4. Tenoxicam percentage free measured in plasma from a normal volunteer was 0.56 +/- 0.05% over the tenoxicam concentration range 1-20 micrograms ml-1 and rose to 1.24 +/- 0.07% in the presence of aspirin 150 micrograms ml-1. 5. The effect of aspirin upon the disposition of tenoxicam was consistent with a competitive protein binding interaction. PMID:3190995

  19. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA. Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  20. Fenótipos clínicos de asma grave Clinical phenotypes of severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseliane de Souza Araújo Alves

    2008-09-01

    specialized outpatient clinic. A systematic protocol for patient evaluation and follow-up was applied. Treatment compliance and control of the disease at the end of follow-up were defined by clinical and functional data. Patients who did not meet asthma control criteria after six months despite compliance with treatment and correct use of medication were characterized as treatment-resistant. Phenotypes were determined by factorial analysis and compared using various tests. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up, 88 patients were considered treatment compliant and 23 were considered noncompliant. Factorial analysis of the compliant patients identified four phenotypes: phenotype 1 (28 patients comprised patients who were treatment-resistant, more often presenting nocturnal symptoms and exacerbations, as well as more often using rescue bronchodilators; phenotype 2 (48 patients comprised patients with persistent airflow limitation, lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity at baseline, more advanced age and longer duration of symptoms; phenotype 3 (42 patients comprised patients with allergic rhinosinusitis who were nonsmokers and presented predominantly reversible airflow obstruction; and phenotype 4 (15 patients comprised cases with a history of aspirin intolerance to acetylsalicylic acid associated with near-fatal asthma. Conclusions: A significant number of patients with severe asthma are noncompliant with treatment. Although many patients with severe asthma have persistent airflow obstruction, the most relevant clinical phenotype comprises patients who are resistant to the typical treatment.

  1. Role of Asthma Education in the Management of Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Côté

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available When a patient is newly diagnosed as having asthma, he or she is often prescribed new medication without getting much information on the disease and its treatment. This article emphasizes the need to educate asthmatics. Asthma treatment should begin with a proper adjustment of the medication, allowing asthmatics to lead a normal life. All asthmatics should be shown how to use their inhalation device properly. They should he knowledgeable about the basic aspects of asthma, airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction, use or medication and early symptoms heralding an asthma attack. Environmental factors that may trigger an asthma attack should be explained. Patients should be able to self-monitor asthma using either symptom severity or a peak flow meter. Because asthma is an unpredictable disease, patients should have a self-action plan to implement when their asthma deteriorates.

  2. Pediatric asthma controller therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The treatment of children with asthma has historically relied upon expert opinion using data extrapolated from adult studies. Over the past few years, landmark studies have been completed providing healthcare professionals with evidence on which a reasonable approach can be made for children suffering from this common and serious disease. Asthmatic phenotype in children, unlike adults, tends to differ according to age, which must be taken into account as well as triggers, severity, and level of control. The care of the child with asthma is complex, but accumulating data have demonstrated that we are on the right path for optimizing control while reducing the burden of side effects. The newest Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, as well as recent updates from the landmark CAMP (Childhood Asthma Management Program) study and information from the PACT (Pediatric Asthma Control Trial) and budesonide/formoterol controller and reliever studies, along with recent comparisons of higher dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), and ICS/long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) combination and leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) therapies in children have clarified a few of the big questions in pediatric asthma. For children with asthma aged 5 years and older, the CAMP trial demonstrated that regular use of ICS reduces the frequency of symptoms; however, height was adversely affected and there is no evidence for altering the natural history of asthma. In patients aged 6 years and over whose asthma is uncontrolled on ICS alone, combination therapy with ICS and a LABA has been recently compared with the use of higher dose ICS and the addition of an LTRA in pediatric patients. The addition of a LABA statistically will be of most benefit; however, some children will have optimal control with doubling the baseline dose of ICS or addition of an LTRA. Use of budesonide/formoterol as a controller and reliever therapy extends the time to first exacerbation versus

  3. The Significance of Asthma Follow-Up Consultations for Adherence to Asthma Medication, Asthma Medication Beliefs, and Asthma Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Axelsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate adherence to asthma medication treatment, medication beliefs, and asthma control in relation to asthma follow-up consultations in asthmatics in the general population. A further aim was to describe associations between adherence, medication beliefs, and asthma control. Method. In the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study, data allowing calculation of adherence for 4.5 years based on pharmacy records were obtained from 165 adult asthmatics. Additional data were collected through questionnaires and structured interviews. Results. The mean adherence value for filled prescriptions for regular asthma medication was 68% (median 55.3% but varied over the year under study. Adherence to combination inhalers with corticosteroids and long-acting beta2 agonists was higher than adherence to single inhalers with corticosteroids only. More than one-third of participants reported not having seen an asthma nurse or physician for several years. Regular asthma follow-up consultations were associated with both higher adherence and the belief that asthma medication was necessary but were not associated with asthma control. Conclusions. Adherence to asthma medication treatment was low and varied over the year under study. The current study suggests that quality improvements in asthma care are needed if adherence to asthma medication is to be improved.

  4. Questionnaire Survey on Asthma Management of Japanese Allergists I. Diagnosis patient education and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuharu Tsukioka

    1996-01-01

    Responses to the questionnaire on the diagnosis, patient education and management of asthma indicated that a reduced number of patients with severe asthma were seen in 1993 in both Pediatric and Internal Medicine Departments compared with 5 years before, despite the increase in total number of asthma patients in Japan. Specifiic IgE radioallergosorbent test (RAST measurements were frequently performed instead of skin testing for diagnosis, and eosinophil count and bronchodilator response served as an adjunct to the diagnosis. Patients were frequently asked detailed questions about aspirin-induced asthma, which accounted for 8.8, 2.2 and 1.5% of patients with asthma in the adult, schoolchildren (6–16 years and infant (≤ 5 years groups, respectively. In achieving ‘control of asthma’, first priority was given to coping with the symptoms in children aged 5 years or less and to enabling routine daily life activities in patients 6 years of age or older. Usefulness of peak flow measurements was widely recognized and a detailed plan for allergen avoidance (house dust was often given to patients.

  5. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  6. Intolerance of uncertainty, fear of anxiety, and adolescent worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Michel J; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M

    2012-08-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable partially explained change in the other. Fear of anxiety and worry also showed evidence of a bidirectional relation, although change in fear of anxiety had a much weaker mediational effect on change in worry than vice versa. The findings show that relative to fear of anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty may play a greater role in the etiology of worry in adolescents.

  7. Use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, D; García-Rodríguez, L A; Sørensen, H T;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Few studies have examined the association between use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of glioma and the results have been equivocal. We therefore investigated the influence of NSAID use on glioma risk in a nationwide setting.Methods:We used...... exposure to low-dose aspirin or non-aspirin (NA) NSAIDs into ever use or long-term use, defined as continuous use for 5 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for glioma associated with NSAID use, adjusted for potential...... confounders.Results:A total of 2688 glioma cases and 18 848 population controls were included in the study. Ever use of low-dose aspirin (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.04) or NA-NSAIDs (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.96-1.14) was not associated with glioma risk. Compared with never use, long-term use of low-dose aspirin...

  8. Use and Safety of Non-Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs and Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E. Valkhoff (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin, dates back to the Egyptians in 1534 BC. Aspirin-like compounds are naturally derived from willow tree bark and myr-tle. At the end of the 19th century aspirin was patented by Bayer as the world’s first syn-thetic drug. The recomme

  9. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  10. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  11. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: allergic asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 link) American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology: Asthma Treatment and Management General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How are genetic conditions ...

  13. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living With Lung ... written by Respiratory Experts Like no other health magazine, Allergy & Asthma Health Magazine is published by people ...

  14. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get absorbed into upholstery, clothing, and carpeting, leaving carcinogens that can't be washed away with soap ... asthma, let friends, relatives, and caregivers know that tobacco smoke may cause an asthma flare-up. To ...

  15. Hemorrhagic Cholecystitis in an Elderly Patient Taking Aspirin and Cilostazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Morris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Patients who develop this complication often are receiving anticoagulation therapy or have a pathologic coagulopathy. We present a case of an elderly patient who developed hemorrhagic cholecystitis while taking aspirin and cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The patient underwent an emergent abdominal exploration. A large, blood-filled gallbladder was found along with a large hematoma between the liver and gallbladder. We also briefly review the literature regarding hemorrhagic cholecystitis, hemorrhage into the biliary tree, and hemorrhage as a complication of aspirin and phosphodiesterase inhibitor therapy.

  16. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K. M.; Wade, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 microgr...

  17. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  18. Genetics of onset of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F. Nicole; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Most asthma starts early in life. Defining phenotypes of asthma at this age is difficult as many preschool children have asthma-like respiratory symptoms. This review discusses progress in defining early wheezing phenotypes and describes genetic factors associated with the age of o

  19. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  20. How Do Asthma Medicines Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? How Do Asthma Medicines Work? KidsHealth > For Kids > How Do Asthma Medicines Work? A A A en español ¿Cómo funcionan los medicamentos para el asma? People with asthma have what is called a chronic (say: KRAH- ...

  1. Rhinitis: a complication to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J W; Thomsen, S F; Nolte, H;

    2010-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis often co-occur, and this potentially increases the disease severity and impacts negatively on the quality of life. We studied disease severity, airway responsiveness, atopy, quality of life and treatment in subjects with both asthma and rhinitis compared to patients with asthma...

  2. The effect of aspirin nanoemulsion on TNFα and iNOS in gastric tissue in comparison with conventional aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud FA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatma Abd Elhalim Mahmoud,1,2 Khalid S Hashem,3 Asmaa Mohammed M Hussein Elkelawy21Medical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, 2Clinical Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, 3Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, EgyptBackground: No dose of aspirin is free of bleeding risk. Even at a dose as low as 75 mg/day, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is twice as high as among nonusers. Nanoemulsions (NEs are emulsion systems with droplet size in nanometer scale in which oil or water droplets are finely dispersed in the opposite phase with the help of a suitable surfactant to stabilize the system.Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin NE in comparison to conventional aspirin.Materials and methods: A total of 24 male rats were used in the study and arbitrarily assigned to four groups. Group 1 was the control group, and was given saline. Group 2 was given blank NE 1.5 mL/kg orally. Group 3 was given aspirin 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Group 4 was given aspirin NE 30 mg/kg body weight orally. Rats were killed, and gastric tissue was quickly excised after dissection of the animals. The tissues were divided into three pieces. The first one was kept in formalin 10% for pathological investigation. The second piece was kept in liquid nitrogen for molecular investigation. The third piece was homogenized in ten volumes of ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7 using a Teflon homogenizer until a uniform suspension was obtained. The homogenate was centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 30 minutes at 4°C to separate the supernatant from cellular debris. The supernatant was then used for the estimation of biochemical assays.Results: The present study shows that aspirin has a toxic effect on the stomach as a result of inducing marked oxidative damage and the release of reactive oxygen species. This was shown by the significant

  3. The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, T; Venema, K; Priebe, M G; Welling, G W; Brummer, R-J M; Vonk, R J

    2008-08-01

    Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic-active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance.

  4. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  5. What People with Lactose Intolerance Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People With Lactose Intolerance Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available in: PDF (88 KB) Chinese ( 繁體中文 ) ... Health Strategies Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become ...

  6. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Misselwitz, B.; Pohl, D.; Fruhauf, H; Fried, M; Vavricka, S R; Fox, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent stud...

  7. Perceived lactose intolerance in adult Canadians: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2013-08-01

    Although double-blind studies show that lactose-intolerant individuals can consume moderate quantities of milk products without perceptible symptoms, many who perceive that they are lactose intolerant limit or avoid milk products, potentially compromising calcium and vitamin D intakes. Adult Canadians are at risk of inadequate intakes of these nutrients, but no data exist on the prevalence, correlates, and potential impact of perceived lactose intolerance among Canadians. To address this, a Web-based survey of a population-representative sample of 2251 Canadians aged ≥19 years was conducted. Overall, 16% self-reported lactose intolerance. This was more common in women (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 95% CI, 1.46-2.33) and in nonwhites (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.24-2.58) and less common in those >50 years of age (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90) and in those completing the survey in French (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.99). Those with self-reported lactose intolerance had lower covariate-adjusted milk product and alternative intakes (mean ± SE; 1.40 ± 0.08 servings·day(-1) vs. 2.33 ± 0.03 servings·day(-1), p lactose intolerance by sex, age, and language preference was unexpected and suggests that some groups may be more vulnerable to the perception that they are lactose intolerant. Regardless of whether lactose intolerance is physiologically based or perceptual, education is required to ensure that calcium intakes are not compromised.

  8. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).......To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)....

  9. Prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Jørgensen, Bo; Korsholm, Lars

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and importance of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by use of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100. INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of aspirin resistance, but the clinical relevance...... was measured immediately at admission, and aspirin resistance was defined as a collagen/epinephrine Closure Time (CT(CEPI))diagnosis of an AMI. The prevalence of aspirin resistance...... with symptoms suggestive of an AMI, and aspirin resistance is significantly associated with the diagnosis of a definite AMI....

  10. Impairment of aspirin antiplatelet effects by non-opioid analgesic medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin; Polzin; Thomas; Hohlfeld; Malte; Kelm; Tobias; Zeus

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with enhanced incidence of cardiovascular events. Comedication with non-opioid analgesic drugs has been described to interfere with aspirin,resulting in impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects. Additionally,nonopioid analgesic medication has been shown to enhance the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Pain is very frequent and many patients rely on analgesic drugs to control pain. Therefore effective analgesic options without increased risk of cardiovascular events are desirable. This review focuses on commonly used nonopioid analgesics,interactions with aspirin medication and impact on cardiovascular risk.

  11. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  12. Clinical picture of hypolactasia and lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villako, K; Maaroos, H

    1994-01-01

    Selective adult-type hypolactasia, the main cause of primary malabsorption of lactose, shows considerable variation in terms of its symptoms, which mainly depend on the amount of milk consumption. The article discusses congenital lactase deficiency and familial lactose intolerance. Links between hypolactasia and non-specific abdominal complaints, coronary heart disease and cataract are presented. The decrease in lactase activity in the brush border of jejunal mucosa, associated with diseases of the mucosa or any other condition which damages the enterocytes, is discussed as a cause of secondary hypolactasia. It is shown that adult-type primary hypolactasia and selective lactose malabsorption represent a major problem in the everyday work of general practitioners, particularly in populations where hypolactasia is common. Therefore, the examination and treatment of non-selected patients with vague abdominal complaints is important in primary health care. As the need for calcium in humans is largely met by the intake of milk, the consumption of milk has to be in amounts that are tolerable for the individual.

  13. Lysinuric Protein Intolerance Presenting with Multiple Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Jennifer E; Burrage, Lindsay C; Miller, Marcus J; Liu, Pengfei; Hardison, Matthew T; Elsea, Sarah H; Sun, Qin; Yang, Yaping; Willis, Alecia S; Schlesinger, Alan E; Bacino, Carlos A; Lee, Brendan H

    2014-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in SLC7A7, which encodes a component of the dibasic amino acid transporter found in intestinal and renal tubular cells. Patients typically present with vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, failure to thrive, and symptomatic hyperammonemia after protein-rich meals. Long-term complications may include pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, renal disease, and osteoporosis. We present a 5-year-old male who was followed in our skeletal dysplasia clinic for 3 years for multiple fractures, idiopathic osteoporosis, and short stature in the absence of typical features of LPI. Whole exome sequencing performed to determine the etiology of the osteoporosis and speech delay identified a nonsense mutation in SLC7A7. Chromosome microarray analysis identified a deletion involving the second allele of the same gene, and biochemical analysis supported the diagnosis of LPI. Our patient's atypical presentation underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for LPI in patients with unexplained fractures and idiopathic osteoporosis, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of hyperammonemia after protein rich meals or other systemic features of classical LPI. This case further demonstrates the utility of whole exome sequencing in diagnosis of unusual presentations of rare disorders for which early intervention may modify the clinical course.

  14. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  15. Pathogenesis of acidosis in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R M; Little, J A; Patten, R L; Goldstein, M B; Halperin, M L

    1979-11-01

    An 18-yr-old man with a classical history of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) developed typical biochemical changes following an oral fructose load: fructosemia, hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperuricemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hypokalemia (3.1 meq/liter) was also noted. Three aspects of this case expand the published literature on this syndrome: (1) Metabolic acidosis was found to be due to both lactic acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We could quantitate the relative contribution of each, and found that urinary bicarbonate loss due to proximal RTA accounted for less than 10% of the fall in serum bicarbonate. The major cause of the metabolic acidosis was lactic acidosis. (2) Hypokalemia was found to be due to movement of potassium out of the extracellular space rather than to urinary loss. Potassium may have entered cells with phosphate or may have been sequestered in the gastrointestinal tract. (3) The coexistence of proximal RTA and acidemia made it possible to study the effect of acidemia on the urine-blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) gradient in alkaline urine (U-B PCO2). The U-B PCO2 measured during acidemia was much higher at the same urine bicarbonate concentration than in normal controls during alkalemia, providing evidence in humans that acidemia stimulates distal nephron hydrogen-ion secretion.

  16. Lysinuric protein intolerance presenting with multiple fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Posey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in SLC7A7, which encodes a component of the dibasic amino acid transporter found in intestinal and renal tubular cells. Patients typically present with vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, failure to thrive, and symptomatic hyperammonemia after protein-rich meals. Long-term complications may include pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, renal disease, and osteoporosis. We present a 5-year-old male who was followed in our skeletal dysplasia clinic for 3 years for multiple fractures, idiopathic osteoporosis, and short stature in the absence of typical features of LPI. Whole exome sequencing performed to determine the etiology of the osteoporosis and speech delay identified a nonsense mutation in SLC7A7. Chromosome microarray analysis identified a deletion involving the second allele of the same gene, and biochemical analysis supported the diagnosis of LPI. Our patient's atypical presentation underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for LPI in patients with unexplained fractures and idiopathic osteoporosis, even in the absence of clinical symptoms of hyperammonemia after protein rich meals or other systemic features of classical LPI. This case further demonstrates the utility of whole exome sequencing in diagnosis of unusual presentations of rare disorders for which early intervention may modify the clinical course.

  17. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Emily M; Celedonio, Jorge E; Raj, Satish R

    2015-09-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a form of chronic orthostatic intolerance for which the hallmark physiological trait is an excessive increase in heart rate with assumption of upright posture. The orthostatic tachycardia occurs in the absence of orthostatic hypotension and is associated with a >6-month history of symptoms that are relieved by recumbence. The heart rate abnormality and orthostatic symptoms should not be caused by medications that impair autonomic regulation or by debilitating disorders that can cause tachycardia. POTS is a "final common pathway" for a number of overlapping pathophysiologies, including an autonomic neuropathy in the lower body, hypovolemia, elevated sympathetic tone, mast cell activation, deconditioning, and autoantibodies. Not only may patients be affected by more than one of these pathophysiologies but also the phenotype of POTS has similarities to a number of other disorders, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, vasovagal syncope, and inappropriate sinus tachycardia. POTS can be treated with a combination of non-pharmacological approaches, a structured exercise training program, and often some pharmacological support.

  18. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselwitz, Benjamin; Pohl, Daniel; Frühauf, Heiko; Fried, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fox, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a common condition caused by reduced expression or activity of lactase in the small intestine. In such patients, lactose intolerance is characterized by abdominal symptoms (e.g. nausea, bloating, and pain) after ingestion of dairy products. The genetic basis of lactose malabsorption is established and several tests for this condition are available, including genetic, endoscopic, and H2-breath tests. In contrast, lactose intolerance is less well understood. Recent studies show that the risk of symptoms after lactose ingestion depends on the dose of lactose, lactase expression, intestinal flora, and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract. Lactose intolerance has recently been defined as symptoms developing after ingestion of lactose which do not develop after placebo challenge in a person with lactose maldigestion. Such blinded testing might be especially important in those with functional gastrointestinal diseases in whom self-reported lactose intolerance is common. However, placebo-controlled testing is not part of current clinical practice. Updated protocols and high-quality outcome studies are needed. Treatment options of lactose intolerance include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. Documenting the response to multiple doses can guide rational dietary management; however, the clinical utility of this strategy has not been tested. This review summarizes the genetic basis, diagnosis, and treatment of lactose malabsorption and intolerance.

  19. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanyong; Misselwitz, Benjamin; Dai, Ning; Fox, Mark

    2015-09-18

    Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance.

  20. Lactose Intolerance in Adults: Biological Mechanism and Dietary Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyong Deng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactose intolerance related to primary or secondary lactase deficiency is characterized by abdominal pain and distension, borborygmi, flatus, and diarrhea induced by lactose in dairy products. The biological mechanism and lactose malabsorption is established and several investigations are available, including genetic, endoscopic and physiological tests. Lactose intolerance depends not only on the expression of lactase but also on the dose of lactose, intestinal flora, gastrointestinal motility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and sensitivity of the gastrointestinal tract to the generation of gas and other fermentation products of lactose digestion. Treatment of lactose intolerance can include lactose-reduced diet and enzyme replacement. This is effective if symptoms are only related to dairy products; however, lactose intolerance can be part of a wider intolerance to variably absorbed, fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs. This is present in at least half of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and this group requires not only restriction of lactose intake but also a low FODMAP diet to improve gastrointestinal complaints. The long-term effects of a dairy-free, low FODMAPs diet on nutritional health and the fecal microbiome are not well defined. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis, biological mechanism, diagnosis and dietary management of lactose intolerance.

  1. Effect of Air Pollution, Contamination and High Altitude on Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesriene El margoushy*, Mohamad El Nashar**, Hatem Khairy*, Nihad El Nashar*, Hala Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma has risen dramatically worldwide and evidence suggests that environmental factors have an important role in the etiology of the disease. Most respiratory diseases are caused by airborne agents. Our lungs are uniquely vulnerable to contamination from the air we breathe. Air pollution exposure is associated with increased asthma and allergy morbidity and is a suspected contributor to the increasing prevalence of allergic conditions. Observational studies continue to strengthen the association between air pollution and allergic respiratory disease. The effects of air pollution should be viewed in two different groups: healthy people and people with chronic heart or lung disease. Although the fundamental causes of asthma are not completely understood, the strongest risk factors for developing asthma are inhaled asthma triggers. These include: indoor allergens (for example house dust mites in bedding, carpets and stuffed furniture, pollution and pet dander, outdoor allergens (such as pollens and moulds, tobacco smoke and chemical irritants in the workplace. Other triggers can include cold air, extreme emotional arousal such as anger or fear, and physical exercise. Even certain medications can trigger asthma such as aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and beta-blockers. Urbanization has also been associated with an increase in asthma; however the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Medication is not the only way to control asthma. It is also important to avoid asthma triggers - stimuli that irritate and inflame the airways. Prevalence of asthma is generally low within the Middle East, although high rates have been recorded in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Israel. The prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms is high among 16- to 18-year-old adolescents in Saudi Arabia, and the symptoms are more common in boys than in girls

  2. Ion channels in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  3. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  4. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, A.K.; FitzGerald, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy(3,4,5,6-/sup 2/H4)benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenously with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans.

  5. Monitoring the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets with a fiber-optic dissolution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Ping-Ping Xu; Xin-Xia Li; Kun Nie; Ming-Fu Tuo; Bin Kong; Jian Chen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the process of dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets. Hydrolysis product of salicylic acid can result in adverse effects and affect the determination of dissolution rate assaying. In this study, the technique of differential spectra was employed, which made it possible to monitor the dissolution testing in situ. The results showed that the hydrolyzation of aspirin made the percentage of salicylic acid exceed the limit of free salicylic acid (4.0), and the hydrolyzation may affect the quality detection of aspirin delayed-release tablets.

  6. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin.

  7. Aspirin for Prevention of Preeclampsia in Lupus Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, the onset of hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy, is a common medical disorder with high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The underlying pathology remains poorly understood and includes inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and an unbalanced thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio. For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, particularly those with preexisting renal disease or with active lupus, the risk of developing preeclampsia is up to 14% higher than it is among healthy individuals. The mechanism is still unknown and the data for preventing preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies are rare. Modulating the impaired thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio by administration of low-dose aspirin appears to be the current best option for the prevention of preeclampsia. After providing an overview of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies, and previous trials for prevention of preeclampsia with aspirin treatment, we recommend low-dose aspirin administration for all lupus patients starting prior to 16 weeks of gestation. Patients with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome should receive treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin during pregnancy.

  8. Low dose aspirin after ischemic stroke associated with antiphospholipid syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, RHWM; de Groot, PG; Kappelle, LJ

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe course and outcome of eight patients with ischemic stroke as the first thrombotic manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome who received low-dose aspirin as prophylactic treatment. During 8.9 years of follow-up, two patients had a recurrent stroke. Recurrent stroke rate per 100

  9. Acetaminophen, aspirin and progression of advanced chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Marie; Fored, Carl Michael; Bellocco, Rino; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Fryzek, Jon P.; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Nyren, Olof; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2009-01-01

    Background. Although many studies have investigated the possible association between analgesic use (acetaminophen and aspirin) and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of analgesics on the progression of established CKD of any cause has not yet been investigated. Methods. In t

  10. Aspirin induced fixed drug eruptions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruptions are common cutaneous adverse drug reactions, commonly caused by anticonvulsants, antibiotics and analgesics. Here, we report a case of a 27-year-old male of fixed drug eruptions due to Aspirin which was used in treatment of headache. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 220-221

  11. Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease: Evaluation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    worldwide; †removed from the world market 2004 and 2005; ‡ avail- able outside the USA. Table 2. Oral aspirin challenges in patients with suspected...compression of olfactory nerves by inflamed nasal tissues leads to nerve damage. Even when mucosal tissues return to normal, olfactory nerves may not

  12. The neuroprotection of Aspirin on Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-ying; YuJuan; ChenChong-hong; ZhouYu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Aspirin (aeetylsalicylic acid, ASA as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug not only has well-established efficacy in anti-thromboxane, but also has direct neuroprotective effect. In this study, we design to investigate its neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI rats, and its effect on ATP level from occluded brain tis-

  13. The role of aspirin in colorectal cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ranger, Gurpreet

    2016-08-01

    Considerable interest has emerged over the last decade regarding the role of aspirin in prevention of colorectal cancer. This disease is one of the commonest cancers in the Western World, therefore, the existence of a simple "everyday" agent, which could have the ability to prevent the disease, represents an invaluable opportunity clinicians may be able to exploit. Evidence from case-control and cohort studies, and recent updates of randomised controlled trials have been very encouraging-indicating benefit from long term use of aspirin at low dose. Possible mechanisms of chemoprevention include inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, or COX-independent mechanisms, for example, the PIK3CA pathway, or therapy-induced senescence of cancer cells. The most serious side effect of prolonged aspirin treatment is haemorrhage, especially from the GI tract. This is likely to be less of a problem with chemoprevention at lower doses. One also needs to consider the impact if aspirin resistance, an increasingly recognised clinical entity.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  15. The utilization status of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xian-jun; YU Yong-fei; GUO Zhen-li; XU Kang; HAl Hong; ZHANG Ai-he; JIANG Hong; PENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to investigate the usage of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, evaluate the correlated factors, and analyze the reasons for not taking and irregularly taking aspirin. Methods The patients in this group were all stroke survivors who have formerly been diagnosed with a cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in our hospital. We investigated their use of aspirin over a three-year periodfollowing their hospitalization. According to the patients' aspirin usage, they were divided into treatment and non-treatment groups. In addition, the reasons for not taking or irregularly taking aspirin were analyzed in the two groups. Results A total of 1240 patients were studied, including 367 (29.60%) in the treatment group and 873 (70.40%) cases in the non-treatment group. In addition, 201 (16.20%) cases in the treatment group had been regularly taking aspirin (50-325 mg of aspirin daily) for 1 to 3 years or longer. The results demonstrated that the main reasons for not taking aspirin in this study were related to patients' concems regarding the side effects of taking aspirin (46.45%), as well as the doctors' inadequacy in informing their patients to take aspirin (38.71%). The major reasons for patients to irregularly take aspirin were that the doctors did not notify the length of aspirin usage to their patients (41.57%), and that doctors did not prescribe aspirin upon the patients' follow-up visit (26.51%). Conclusion The most effective way to increase patient's compliance for aspirin consumption is to promote the guidelines for stroke treatment and to relay these advances in stroke therapy to the patient.

  16. Glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jiing-Chyuan Luo; Shou-Dong Lee; Full-Young Chang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C and to evaluate the relationship between interferon (IFN)treatment and glucose intolerance in these patients.METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the outpatient clinic of Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Chronic hepatitis C was defined as persistent presence of anti-HCV and persistent elevation of liver transaminase for at least 1.5 folds for at least 6 months. Moreover, patients were further categorized into normal fasting glucose and glucose intolerance (diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose) according to the diagnostic criteria of American Diabetic Association. RESULTS: Totally, 359 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled (212 males and 147 females, mean age=58.1±13.0 years). One hundred and twenty-three patients (34.3 %) had various forms of IFN treatment. One hundred and twenty-five patients (34.6 %)had glucose intolerance, including 99 patients (27.6 %) with DM and 26 patients (7.0 %) with impaired fasting glucose.Tn comparison with those with normal fasting glucose levels,patients with chronic hepatitis C with glucose intolerance were significantly older, had a significantly higher body mass index, and they were more likely to suffer from obesity, to have family history of diabetes and to have had previous IFN treatment. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed significantly that age ≥ 57 years, obesity,previous history of IFN treatment and the presence of family history of diabetes were independent risk factors associated with the presence of glucose intolerance in chronic hepatitis C patients.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 34.6 % of Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C had glucose intolerance. Chronic hepatitis C patients who

  17. Difficult childhood asthma: management and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; de Blic, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of severe asthma implies the definition of different entities, that is, difficult asthma and refractory severe asthma, but also the different phenotypes included in the term refractory severe asthma. A complete evaluation by a physician expert in asthma is necessary, adapted for each child. Identification of mechanisms involved in different phenotypes in refractory severe asthma may improve the therapeutic approach. The quality of care and monitoring of children with severe asthma is as important as the prescription drug, and is also crucial for differentiating between severe asthma and difficult asthma, whereby expertise is required.

  18. Allergy, asthma and the environment; Allergie, Asthma und Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Gfesser, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie am Biederstein, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-10-11

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways. Asthma and other allergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the last decades in many industrialized countries. Among other hypotheses, the possible role of environmental pollutants has received much public and scientific attention. Some pollutants may modulate the different phases of allergic reactions. Inflammation is a critical feature in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore, beside allergen avoidance, anti-inflammatory treatment is the first line therapy of asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are lipid mediators which appear to play a major role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Based on current data, it appears that leukotrience receptor antagonists have bronchodilative and anti-inflammatory effects and may therefore enrich the pharmacotherapeutic spectrum within the therapeutic concept of patient management in asthma. (orig.) [Deutsch] Asthma bronchiale ist eine entzuendliche Erkrankung der Atemwege. Epidemiologische Studien konnten eine deutliche Zunahme der Erkrankung in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten aufzeigen. In der Entstehung von Allergien und Asthma bronchiale spielen Umwelteinfluesse eine grosse Rolle. Luftschadstoffe scheinen mit verschiedenen Allergie-Parametern bei der Sensibilisierung, Symptombildung und Chronifizierung zu interferieren. Da beim Asthma bronchiale neben der Bronchokonstriktion die Entzuendung der Bronchialschleimhaut eine besondere Rolle spielt, wird heute neben Allergenkarenz und prophylaktischen Massnahmen eine fruehzeitige antientzuendliche Asthmatherapie angestrebt. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene gehoeren zu den wirksamsten Entzuendungsmediatoren beim Asthma bronchiale. Leukotrien-Rezeptorantagonisten scheinen sowohl bronchodilatatorische als auch antientzuendliche Wirkungen zu haben und koennten so innerhalb eines Gesamtkonzeptes von antiallergischer und antiasthmatischer Therapie das pharmakotherapeutische Spektrum bereichern. (orig.)

  19. Combined aspirin and anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Charlotte H; Eckman, Mark H

    2017-01-01

    The combined use of aspirin and oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned due to an increased risk of major bleeding with little to no benefit in preventing ischemic events. (1) To better understand patterns and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and identify patients who might reasonably be treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy alone. (2) To perform an updated literature review regarding the use of combined antiplatelet and OAC therapy in patients with AF and stable CAD. Retrospective review. Patients within the University of Cincinnati Health System with a diagnosis of non-valvular AF, excluding those with acute coronary syndrome or revascularization within the last 12 months. Numbers and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and sequence of events leading to the initiation of each. Of 948 patients receiving OAC, 430 (45 %) were receiving concomitant OAC and aspirin. Among patients receiving combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, 49 and 42 % of patients respectively, had CAD or DM. In a more detailed analysis including chart review of 219 patients receiving combined OAC and aspirin, 27 % had a diagnosis of CAD and 14 % had a diagnosis of DM prior to the development of AF. These patients were initially treated with aspirin. Warfarin was added when they subsequently developed AF but aspirin wasn't discontinued. A surprisingly large proportion of patients (22.8 %) had no obvious indication for dual therapy. Prior myocardial infarction, CAD, vascular disease and DM (among others) increase the likelihood of receiving combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy among patients with AF. A literature review suggests this may lead to increased major bleeding with little benefit in decreasing either AF-related stroke or cardiovascular events.

  20. Bronchial Thermoplasty in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mitzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss the potential of a new procedure, termed Bronchial Thermoplasty to prevent serious consequences resulting from excessive airway narrowing. The most important factor in minimizing an asthmatic attack is limiting the degree of smooth muscle shortening. The premise that airway smooth muscle can be either inactivated or obliterated without any long-term alteration of other lung tissues, and that airway function will remain normal, albeit with reduced bronchoconstriction, has now been demonstrated in dogs, a subset of normal subjects, and mild asthmatics. Bronchial Thermoplasty may thus develop into a useful clinical procedure to effectively impair the ability for airway smooth muscle to reach the levels of pathologic narrowing that characterizes an asthma attack. It may also enable more successful treatment of asthma patients who are unresponsive to more conventional therapies. Whether this will remain stable for the lifetime of the patient still remains to be determined, but at the present time, there are no indications that the smooth muscle contractility will return. This successful preliminary experience showing that Bronchial Thermoplasty could be safely performed in patients with asthma has led to an ongoing clinical trial at a number of sites in Europe and North America designed to examine the effectiveness of this procedure in subjects with moderately severe asthma.

  1. Elastin in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddel, Caroline J; Weiss, Anthony S; Burgess, Janette K

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix is generally increased in asthma, causing thickening of the airways which may either increase or decrease airway responsiveness, depending on the mechanical requirements of the deposited matrix. However, in vitro studies have shown that the altered extracellular matrix produced

  2. Occupational Neutrophilic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational asthma is typically associated with an eosinophilic bronchitis. The case of a 41-year-old woman who developed symptoms of asthma after occupational exposure to metal working fluids is reported. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 of 1.7 (59% predicted, with 11% reversibility after inhaled bronchodilator and a provocation concentration of methacholine to cause a fall in FEV1 of 20% (PC20 of 0.4 mg/mL. Induced sputum examination showed a marked neutrophilia. Over the next six months, serial sputum analyses confirmed the presence of a marked sterile neutrophilic bronchitis during periods of occupational exposure to metal working fluids, which resolved when the patient was away from work and recurred when she returned to work. The sputum findings were mirrored by corresponding changes in spirometry and PC20 methacholine. The findings indicate the occurrence of occupational asthma associated with an intense, sterile neutrophilic bronchitis after exposure to metal working fluids.

  3. The microbiome in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yvonne J; Boushey, Homer A

    2015-01-01

    The application of recently developed sensitive, specific, culture-independent tools for identification of microbes is transforming concepts of microbial ecology, including concepts of the relationships between the vast complex populations of microbes associated with ourselves and with states of health and disease. Although most work initially focused on the community of microbes (microbiome) in the gastrointestinal tract and its relationship to gastrointestinal disease, interest has expanded to include study of the relationships of the airway microbiome to asthma and its phenotypes and to the relationships between the gastrointestinal microbiome, development of immune function, and predisposition to allergic sensitization and asthma. Here we provide our perspective on the findings of studies of differences in the airway microbiome between asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and of studies of relationships between environmental microbiota, gut microbiota, immune function, and asthma development. In addition, we provide our perspective on how these findings suggest the broad outline of a rationale for approaches involving directed manipulation of the gut and airway microbiome for the treatment and prevention of allergic asthma.

  4. Managing Asthma at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Julie A.

    2000-01-01

    School personnel must know which students have asthma, typical warning signs, and appropriate actions in an emergency. Administering appropriate medication and reducing environmental triggers are not enough. Policymaking in schools and workplaces and legislation to increase health care access and eliminate substandard housing and air pollution are…

  5. Stress and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Nagata

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three factors in recent medical research and treatment (advances in the field of psychoneuroimmunology, epidemiological evidence regarding important interaction between psychosocial factors and development of disease, and the recognition of the importance of patient education for self-management of asthma have led clinicians and researchers to reconsider the role of psychosocial stress in asthma. There are many reports suggesting that stressful life events, family problems and a behavior pattern that increases psychological conflict may influence the development or relapse of asthma and influence its clinical course. Depression is known as one of the risk factors of fatal asthmatic attack. In laboratory studies, about 20% of asthmatics were considered reactors who showed an airway change after exposure to emotional stress. Studies regarding the pathway of stress effect on allergy and asthma are reviewed and discussed from the standpoint of psychoneuroimmunology; for example, the enhancement of IgE production and increased susceptibility to respiratory infection by stress, conditioned anaphylaxis and nerve/mast cell interaction, the effect of stress on various bronchial responses and the inhibition of the immediate and late asthmatic response by anterior hypothalamic lesioning.

  6. Mast cell-nerve interactions in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, Hanneke Paulina Maria van der

    2002-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the airways. Roughly, asthma can be subdivided into atopic asthma involving elevated levels of serum IgE and a less familiar form, non-atopic asthma. Non-atopic asthma is an increasing problem in the developed world. The mechanisms involv

  7. Do Written Asthma Action Plans Improve Outcomes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, John M.

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate management, children with asthma should expect few symptoms, no limits on activity, rare exacerbations, and normal lung function. Appropriate education of parents and other caregivers of children with asthma has clearly been shown to help achieve these goals. Although recommended in asthma guidelines, providing written asthma action plans does not improve outcomes beyond asthma education alone.

  8. Differential inhibition of tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation by the nicotinate aspirin prodrug (ST0702) and aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos; Harmon, Shona; Inkielewicz, Iwona; Santos-Martinez, Maria Jose; Jones, Michael; Cantwell, Paula; Bazou, Despina; Ledwidge, Mark; Radomski, Marek W; Gilmer, John F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) facilitates cancer cell invasion, angiogenesis and the formation of metastatic foci. TCIPA can be modulated by pharmacological inhibitors of MMP-2 and ADP; however, the COX inhibitor aspirin did not prevent TCIPA. In this study, we have tested the pharmacological effects of a new group of isosorbide-based aspirin prodrugs on TCIPA. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH TCIPA was induced in human platelets by mixing with human adenocarcinoma or fibrosarcoma cells under no flow and flow conditions. The release of gelatinases and P-selectin expression during TCIPA were studied by zymography and flow cytometry respectively. KEY RESULTS Tumour cells caused platelet aggregation. This aggregation resulted in the release of MMP-2 and a significant up-regulation of P-selectin on platelets, indicative of platelet activation. Pharmacological modulation of TCIPA revealed that ST0702, one of the aspirin prodrugs, down-regulated TCIPA while aspirin was ineffective. The deacetylated metabolite of ST0702, 5-nicotinate salicylate (ST0702 salicylate), down-regulated both ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation and TCIPA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results show that ST0702 was an effective inhibitor of TCIPA in vitro. Its deacetylated metabolite may contribute to the effects of ST0702 by inhibiting ADP-mediated TCIPA. PMID:22122360

  9. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin but not conventional aspirin improves healing of experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malgorzata Zwolinska-Wcislo; Tomasz Brzozowski; Agata Ptak-Belowska; Aneta Targosz; Katarzyna Urbanczyk; Slawomir Kwiecien; Zbigniew Sliwowski

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the eff ect of non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, selective COX-2 inhibitors and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing aspirin in the healing of ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Rats with 2,4,6 trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis received intragastric (ig) treatment with vehicle, aspirin (ASA) (a nonselective COX inhibitor), celecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) or NO-releasing ASA for a period of ten days. The area of colonic lesions, colonic blood flow (CBF), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and expression of proinflammatory markers COX-2, inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assessed. The eff ects of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), a NO donor, and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-1H-imidazolyl-1-oxy-3-oxide, onopotassium salt (carboxy-PTIO), a NO scavenger, administered without and with ASA or NO-ASA, and the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive aff erent nerves in the mechanism of healing the experimental colitis was also determined. RESULTS: Rats with colitis developed macroscopic and microscopic colonic lesions accompanied by a significant decrease in the CBF, a significant rise in colonic weight, MPO activity and plasma IL.1β and TNF-α levels. These eff ects were aggravated by ASA and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)- 3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole (SC-560), but not celecoxib and counteracted by concurrent treatment with a synthetic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) analog. Treatment with NO-ASA dose-dependently accelerated colonic healing followed by a rise in plasma NOx content and CBF, suppression of MPO and downregulation of COX-2, iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNAs. Treatment with GTN, the NO donor, significantly inhibited the ASA-induced colonic lesions and increased CBF, while carboxy-PTIO or capsaicin-denervation counteracted the NO-ASAinduced improvement of colonic healing and the accompanying increase in the CBF. These eff ects were restored by co

  10. Children with Asthma and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yuzer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244

  11. Poor awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury with combined protective medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ling Zhu; Ling-Cheng Xu; Yan Chen; Quan Zhou; Su Zeng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate prescribing pattern in low-dose aspirin users and physician awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal (GI) injury with combined protective medications.METHODS:A retrospective drug utilization study was conducted in the 2nd Affiliated Hospital,School of Medicine,Zhejiang University.The hospital has 2300 beds and 2.5 million outpatient visits annually.Data mining was performed on all aspirin prescriptions for outpatients and emergency patients admitted in 2011.Concomitant use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs),histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) and mucoprotective drugs (MPs) were analyzed.A defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was applied to each MP.A further investigation was performed in aspirin users on combination use of GI injurious medicines [non-steoid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),corticosteroids and clopidogrel and warfarin] or intestinal protective drugs (misoprostol,rebamipide,teprenone and gefarnate).Data of major bleeding episodes were derived from medical records and adverse drug reaction monitoring records.The annual incidence of major GI bleeding due to low-dose aspirin was estimated for outpatients.RESULTS:Prescriptions for aspirin users receiving PPIs,H2RA and MPs (n =1039) accounted for only 3.46%of total aspirin prescriptions (n =30 015).The ratios of coadministration of aspirin/PPI,aspirin/H2RA,aspirin/MP and aspirin/PPI/MP to the total aspirin prescriptions were 2.82%,0.12%,0.40% and 0.12%,respectively.No statistically significant difference was observed in age between patients not receiving any GI protective medications and patients receiving PPIs,H2RA or MPs.The combined medication of aspirin and PPI was used more frequently than that of aspirin and MPs (2.82% vs 0.40%,P < 0.05) and aspirin/H2RA (2.82% vs 0.12%,P < 0.05).The values of DDDs of MPs in descending order were as follows:gefarnate,hydrotalcite > teprenone > sucralfate oral suspension > L-glutamine and sodium

  12. Introduction to genetics and genomics in asthma: genetics of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Rasika Ann

    2014-01-01

    While asthma is a heterogeneous disease, a strong genetic basis has been firmly established. Rather than being a single disease entity, asthma consists of related, overlapping syndromes [Barnes (Proc Am Thor Soc 8:143-148, 2011)] including three general domains: variable airway obstruction, airway hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation with a considerable proportion, but not all, of asthma being IgE-mediated further adding to its heterogeneity. This chapter reviews the approaches to the elucidation of genetics of asthma from the early evidence of familial clustering to the current state of knowledge with genome-wide approaches. The conclusion is that research efforts have led to a tremendous repository of genetic determinants of asthma, most of which fall into the above phenotypic domains of the syndrome. We now look to future integrative approaches of genetics, genomics (Chap. 10), and epigenetics (Chap. 11) to better understand the causal mechanism through which, these genetic loci act in manifesting asthma.

  13. Ascorbic Acid may Exacerbate Aspirin-Induced Increase in Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D; Lentle, Roger G

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone, 500 mg ascorbic acid alone and simultaneous dosage of both agents were compared in a cross-over study in 28 healthy female volunteers. These effects were also compared with that of a placebo. The ability of ascorbic acid to mitigate the effects of aspirin when administered either half an hour before or after dosage with aspirin was also assessed in 19 healthy female volunteers. The excretion of lactulose over the 6-hr period was augmented after consumption of either aspirin or ascorbic acid compared with that after consumption of placebo. Dosage with ascorbic acid alone augmented the excretion of lactulose more than did aspirin alone. Simultaneous dosage with both agents augmented the excretion of lactulose in an additive manner. The timing of dosage with ascorbic acid in relation to that with aspirin had no significant effect on the excretion of the two sugars. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid does not prevent aspirin-induced increase in gut permeability rather that both agents augment it to a similar extent. The additive effect on simultaneous dosage with both agents in augmenting the absorption of lactulose suggests that each influences paracellular permeability by different pathways.

  14. [Risk and prevention of gastrointestinal complications due to low-dose aspirin and other antiplatelet agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, Jean-François

    2008-09-15

    Upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhages are the main complications associated with low-dose aspirin or anti-thrombotic drugs. In France, low-dose aspirin or anti-thrombotic agents use has been found in 30% of upper GI and 40% of lower GI bleeding episodes. Main causes of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin are gastroduodenal peptic ulcer and colonic diverticulosis. Recent cohort studies have shown that the relative risk of GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin was comprised between 2 and 4 and the absolute risk comprised between 1 per 100 and 1 per 1000 aspirin users per year. Main risk factors for upper GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin are concomitant antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or steroids use, and recent history of complicated or non-complicated gastroduodenal ulcer. Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk for upper GI bleeding with low-dose aspirin, but infection should be searched and treated only in patients with peptic ulcer. Despite eradication of H. pylori in the latter patients, gastroprotection with PPI is strongly recommended. In patients presenting with peptic ulcer bleeding with low-dose aspirin, aspirin should be continued in association with PPI rather than replaced with clopidogrel. Discontinuation of low-dose aspirin which exposes to increased cardiovascular complications and mortality should be avoided, even in cases of peptic ulcer bleeding.

  15. Aspirin in combination with TACE in treatment of unresectable HCC: a matched-pairs analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Huan; Wang, Yan; Xie, Xiao-Ying; Yin, Xin; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Rong-Xin; Ren, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the principal therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its efficacy is currently limited owing to tumor progression or treatment failure. It has been shown that aspirin reduces the incidence of multiple malignant tumors including HCC and plays a synergistic role with chemotherapy in the treatment of colon cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the adjuvant effect of aspirin on patients with unresectable HCC who underwent TACE therapy. A retrospective matched-pairs analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin in combination with TACE therapy. A total of 120 patients with HCC, including 60 patients treated with aspirin for treatment of cardiovascular disease, transient ischemic attack, and arthritis, and 60 paired matching HCC patients without aspirin treatment in the same period, were enrolled. Compared with non-aspirin users, patients treated with aspirin showed improved OS (P = 0.050). Specifically, patients treated with a full dose of aspirin showed prolonged OS (P = 0.027), which was an independent factor associated with OS in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.498, 95% confidence interval 0.280-0.888, P = 0.018). Aspirin in combination with TACE might improve OS in patients with unresectable HCC. Thus, the impact of aspirin on patients with HCC warrants further investigation prospectively. PMID:27725915

  16. Dietary treatment of lactose intolerance in infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinden, A A; Sutphen, J L

    1991-12-01

    During the past several years there have been many reports of alternative dietary therapies for primary and secondary lactose intolerance. We have learned that it is useful to feed through most episodes of mild diarrhea that previously would have been treated with clear liquid diets. Infant formulas, including both soy-protein and hydrolysate formulas with specially designed carbohydrate, protein, and fat components, are available to treat the infant with diarrheal syndromes and secondary lactase deficiency. Also, the diet can be supplemented with lactase. Specialized lactose-reduced products as well as cultured and fermented dairy products may be used in varying degrees for lactose-intolerant children. The ingestion of milk with food and fiber components in the diet has also been shown to improve symptoms of lactose intolerance. This review summarizes the essentials of diagnosis of and dietary therapy for lactose intolerance. Our findings indicate that a number of specialized formulas and products are available for successful dietary management of lactose intolerance in infants and children.

  17. STUDY OF LACTOSE INTOLERANCE IN CHILDREN BELOW 24 M ONTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabd Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of transient lactose intole rance in children below 24 months and to determine the need of discon tinuation of breast feeding and necessity of lactose free formula. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomly selected 100 children below 24 months of age, who were admitted in department of p ediatrics, S.S. Medical College and Associated G.M. Hospital Rewa, 70 of them were grou ped as cases with diarrhea, abdominal distention, vomiting, perianal excoriation and 30 w ere age and sex matched control. After collection of stool, pH, reducing substances in sto ol was determined and osazone test was performed to identify the types of reducing substan ces. RESULT: Out of 70 cases with diarrhoea, 22 (31.4% were found to have evidence o f lactose intolerance. Besides loose motion, in lactose intolerance positive cases, most common presenting symptoms were abdominal distention, perianal excoriation and vomiting. Inci dence of lactose intolerance was less in children who were on exclusive breast feeding till 6 months. In lactose intolerance positive as well as negative group duration of diarrhea after a dmission was same inspite of continuation of breast feeding. CONCLUSION: - Presence of abdominal distention, frothy character of stool, and perianal excoriation are suggestive of lactose into lerance. Lactose free formula and withdrawal of breast milk are not necessary in children with a cute diarrhea and persistent diarrhea having transient lactose intolerance.

  18. Risk Factors for Upper GI Damage in Low-Dose Aspirin Users and the Interaction Between H. pylori Infection and Low-Dose Aspirin Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, low-dose aspirin is widely administered at low dose as an antithrombotic drug for the prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. However, aspirin, even at a low dose, can induce varying degrees of gastroduodenal mucosal injury (erosion, ulcer, ulcer bleeding). Hence, co-prescription of proton pump inhibitors with low-dose aspirin is recommended for those at high risk for adverse gastroduodenal events. At present, a history of peptic ulcer, especially that of complicated ulcer, is the most important risk factor for low-dose aspirin-associated gastroduodenal adverse events. Additionally, concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including COX-2 selective inhibitors, anti-platelet agents, anti-coagulants, and oral corticosteroid is recognized to increase the risk for adverse gastroduodenal events in low-dose aspirin users. H. pylori infection could also be associated with the increased risk for adverse gastroduodenal events in low-dose aspirin users, especially in patients with histories of peptic ulcers. Therefore, eradication therapy for such patients can prevent ulcer recurrence. However, the efficacy of eradication therapy on low-dose aspirin-related gastroduodenal lesions in unselected H. pylori-positive lowdose aspirin users without histories of peptic ulcers remains to be clarified.

  19. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  20. Influenza vaccination for children with asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2010-01-01

    QUESTION Parents of children with asthma are encouraged by many health organizations to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza viruses. Is the influenza vaccine efficient in preventing asthma exacerbation? Are current vaccinations safe to administer to children with asthma?

  1. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this ...

  2. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  3. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... among persons with active asthma Use of long-term control medication among persons with active asthma Uncontrolled ...

  4. The diagnosis of hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, B; Gitzelmann, R

    1981-09-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially life-threatening disorder and can be suspected from a detailed nutritional history. The usefulness of 2 diagnostic procedures, fructose tolerance test (FTT) and aldolase assay on biopsied liver, was studied. A standardized intravenous FTT with 200 mg/kg b.w. was done on 11 children with HFI, 17 age-matched contrast children, 6 adults with HFI and 6 adult controls. Blood glucose, phosphorus, urate, magnesium and fructose were followed for 2 hours. By the FTT, each HFI individual was reliably distinguished from controls and contrasts and even from those with acute liver disease other than HFI. Both children with non-HFI hepatopathy examined by both procedures had a normal FTT in spite of reduced liver fructaldolase activity. HFI children responded to the FTT by earlier and more pronounced hypoglycemia than adults, and one girl converted to an adult type response between the ages 12 and 181/2 years. Responses of two HFI sibling pairs and of one set of monozygotic twins were typical for age, but resemblance was no greater than within the unrelated HFI probands. The intravenous FTT is judged a reliable diagnostic tool, simple and harmless if done in hospital. Essential fructosuria is readily diagnosed by the FTT, but fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency and HFI are not differentiated with certainty. Liver biopsies were obtained from 35 children with HFI, 14 contrast persons and 10 controls (of which 9 organ donors) and examined enzymatically. Deficiency of fructaldolase was observed in all HFI children but also in some contrast children suffering from acute liver disease other than HFI. In these, HFI could only be excluded when the reduced activity of reference enzymes such as fructose-1,6-diphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase and liver histology were included in the evaluation. In one deceased HFI infant, fructaldolase was deficient in both, liver and kidney cortex. Extent of antibody activation and of heat

  5. Violence and Asthma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that exposure to community violence is, directly and indirectly, associated with asthma. This article reviews the findings on the impact of violence on asthma, and the pathways for the association of violence and asthma are suggested: 1 exposure to violence is directly associated with asthma, mainly through dysregulation of sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, 2 exposure to violence is associated with the change of susceptibility of outdoor air pollution on asthma, probably through the change of an immune response, and 3 behavioral change due to exposure to violence (e.g. keeping children indoors leads to more exposure to indoor pollutants. The suggested framework may be useful to develop health policy on asthma in high-violence communities.

  6. Chinese and Uighur medicine diagnostic criteria of the evaluation of the Modern drug treatment side-effects in bronchial asthma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dubrovin Denis; Igor Gogol; Mikhail Baranov; Nurmuhammat Amat; Halmurat Upur

    2014-01-01

    We studied Chinese and Uighur medicines and create an automated computer diagnostics system according to principals of Uighur medicine for evaluation of bronchial asthma patient′s state .498 patients with bronchial asthma were enrolled the automated computer diagnostic program .304 patients were evalu‐ated in the process of drug and non‐drug treatment .Savda asthma type of Uighur medicine do not corre‐sponds with any of the defined clinico‐pathogenetic variants of the disease .Thus ,prevailing of atopic bron‐chial asthma with probability of 0 .7 is defined with Savda categories with such as ‘Lungs energy deficien‐cy’ ,‘Spleen energy deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P <0 .01) variants in Chinese Medicine . The combination of infectious‐dependent variant of bronchial asthma Abnormal Savda syndrome with atopy with a probability of 0 .8 is accompanied by the categories of ‘Hot and Full’ asthma with such variants as‘Lungs energy deficiency’ ‘Spleen energy deficiency’ ,‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ (P < 0 .01) .Patients with an easier case of Abnormal Savda syndrome bronchial asthma in 71% of cases have prevailing diagnos‐tic categories of ‘External ,Full and Cold’ asthma .Patients with a harder case of Abnormal Savda in 74%of cases belongs to the categories of ‘Internal ,Empty and Hot’ asthma .So ,hormone dependency of the disease in 69% of cases is accompanied by the ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ variant and ,if there is an aspirin component in the pathogenesis of mixed asthma ,in 83% of cases ‘Kidneys Yin deficiency’ and ‘Kidneys Yang deficiency’ variants are defined .

  7. New considerations regarding the risk assessment on Tartrazine An update toxicological assessment, intolerance reactions and maximum theoretical daily intake in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhkim, Mostafa Ould; Héraud, Fanny; Bemrah, Nawel; Gauchard, Françoise; Lorino, Tristan; Lambré, Claude; Frémy, Jean Marc; Poul, Jean-Michel

    2007-04-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the JECFA in 1964, many new studies have been conducted, some of which have incriminated tartrazine in food intolerance reactions. The aims of this work are to update the hazard characterization and to revaluate the safety of tartrazine. Our bibliographical review of animal studies confirms the initial hazard assessment conducted by the JECFA, and accordingly the ADI established at 7.5mg/kg bw. From our data, in France, the estimated maximum theoretical intake of tartrazine in children is 37.2% of the ADI at the 97.5th percentile. It may therefore be concluded that from a toxicological point of view, tartrazine does not represent a risk for the consumer. It appears more difficult to show a clear relationship between ingestion of tartrazine and the development of intolerance reactions in patients. These reactions primarily occur in patients who also suffer from recurrent urticaria or asthma. The link between tartrazine consumption and these reactions is often overestimated, and the pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The prevalence of tartrazine intolerance is estimated to be less than 0.12% in the general population. Generally, the population at risk is aware of the importance of food labelling, with the view of avoiding consumption of tartrazine. However, it has to be mentioned that products such as ice creams, desserts, cakes and fine bakery are often sold loose without any labelling.

  8. Non coeliac gluten sensitivity - A new disease with gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja-Bulsa, Grażyna

    2015-04-01

    Until recently gluten intolerance has been believed to be typical of celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA). In the last few years, however, several study results have been published that have proved that gluten intolerance can also affect people who do not suffer from any of the above mentioned diseases. The new syndrome has been named non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity (GS). It has been included in the new list of gluten-related disorders published in 2012. Researchers believe that NCGS is the most common syndrome of gluten intolerance. This review discusses many aspects of NCGS epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, and treatment and current tools to identify patients suffering from CD, WA, and NCGS.

  9. Clinical symptoms of food allergy/intolerance in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Food allergy is principally a problem in infancy and early childhood. Food allergy/intolerance may cause a broad spectrum of symptoms and signs in children, including generalized reactions, such as anaphylactic shock. Reactions are localized mainly in the gastrointestinal tract, but food allergy....../intolerance may also cause local symptoms in other organs such as the skin and the respiratory tract. About 50-70% demonstrate cutaneous symptoms, 50-60% gastrointestinal symptoms, and 20-30% respiratory symptoms. Among young children with food allergy/intolerance the majority have two or more symptoms...... with symptoms occurring in two or more organ systems. The symptoms occur primarily within a few minutes after food exposure (immediate reactions), however delayed reactions in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and lungs may also occur. Among children with symptoms suggestive of food allergy...

  10. Pediatric obesity and asthma quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Militello, Lisa K; Kouba, Joanne; Harrison, Patrick R; Manion, Amy; Doumit, Rita

    2013-06-01

    Widely researched as separate entities, our understanding of the comorbid effects of childhood obesity and asthma on quality of life is limited. This article discusses the effects of childhood obesity and asthma on self-reported quality of life in low-income African American teens with asthma. When controlling for the influence of symptom frequency, asthma classification, asthma self-efficacy, and asthma self-care levels, body mass index remains a most important factor in determining self-reported quality of life among teens with asthma. Although overweight and obesity did not change the effectiveness of the asthma intervention program, obesity did affect participants quality of life scores.

  11. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  12. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... have been shown to have a different distribution of airway inflammation and unequal response to bronchial provocative test. Elite athletes display signs of exercise-induced symptoms, for example, nonasthmatic inspiratory wheeze, vocal cord dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias, which could limit...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic ß2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  13. Future treatment for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Charriot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of asthma has considerably changed after 40 years of inhaled corticosteroid development and nearly 20 years since the first monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were approved. New members of pharmacological families and more effective drug-delivery devices have been designed but the proportion of uncontrolled patients, unfortunately, remains stable. The most promising treatments now rely on targeted therapies that encourage the improvement of the characterisation of our patients. These clinical (phenotype or new biological (endotype tools lead to palpable personalised medicine. This review examines not only the future of mAbs and other new ways of treating asthma but also describes futuristic views based on the paradigm shifts that are ready to occur.

  14. Steroid resistant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhadia, S K

    2014-03-01

    Inspite of very safe and effective treatment, Bronchial asthmatics do not respond well in 5-10% of cases which are labelled as Refractory Asthma. Besides compliance, presence of psychogenic and trigger factors and comorbid illness, steroid insensitiveness or resistance may play a significant role in the poorly controlled/responding asthmatics. Type I Steroid resistance is due to lack of binding affinity of steroids to glucocorticoid receptors and may respond to higher doses of steroids while type II steroid resistance is because of reduced number of cells with glucocorticoid receptors, which is very rare and do not respond to even higher doses of systemic steroids and these cases require alternative/novel therapies. Future treatment of steroid resistant and severe refractory asthma is likely to be targeted towards cytokines and Bronchial Thermoplasty.

  15. Intravenous magnesium for acute asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Each year in the UK, around 1,500 people die from asthma. Standard treatment has been based on bronchodilators (e.g. beta 2-stimulants) and anti-inflammatory drugs (corticosteroids). The recently revised British Guideline on the Management of Asthma suggests also using a single dose of i.v. magnesium sulphate in patients with acute severe asthma, an unlicensed indication. Here we discuss the rationale for giving i.v. magnesium and whether it offers any advantage for patients with acute severe asthma.

  16. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  17. Adverse reactions to food constituents: allergy, intolerance, and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, D; Yuan, Y; Joneja, J; Scott, F; Szilagyi, A; Amiot, J; Zarkadas, M

    1997-04-01

    Food allergies and intolerance represent important health concerns to consumers who are predisposed to these illnesses. Unlike many current food safety issues, food sensitivities are complicated by both complex and multiple individual adverse reactions, which can vary from emotional to pathophysiological ailments. In some instances, the underlying mechanisms that result in the development of food allergies or intolerance have marked differences but produce common symptoms. The present-day diagnosis of these disorders can be impeded by intrinsic limitations in generating accurate information from patient history and biochemical, physicochemical, and immunochemical tests. Oral challenge tests represent effective methods for confirming and testing food allergens and food intolerance; however, these procedures are often restricted to clinical trials. It is important to be able to distinguish among food allergy, intolerance, and autoimmune disease in the management of these disorders. The role of food in the development of autoimmune disease may be exemplified by celiac disease, a food-induced enteropathy, requiring exposure to prolamins in wheat, rye, and barley. Various wheat and soy protein sources, including the soy protein isolates used to make infant formulas, have been related to juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), a common chronic disease of childhood. Employing food process technologies to eliminate food constituents with potential for intolerance in some individuals is a potentially viable approach for reducing risk to food-related disorders. Finally, the development of food labelling regulations that require the identification of potential food allergens or agents for intolerance in the ingredient declaration on prepackaged food is a positive step toward the prevention of severe adverse reactions in hypersensitive individuals.

  18. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies ...

  19. Aspirin prevents diabetic oxidative changes in rat lacrimal gland structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Angélica Gobbi; Módulo, Carolina Maria; Dias, Ana Carolina; Braz, Alexandre Martins; Filho, Rubens Bertazolli; Jordão, Alceu A; de Paula, Jayter Silva; Rocha, Eduardo Melani

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether aspirin reduces Diabetis Mellitus (DM) oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland (LG), and ocular surface (OS). Ten weeks after streptozotocin induced DM and aspirin treatment, LG and OS of rats were compared for tear secretion, hidtology, peroxidase activity, and expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs). DM reduction of tear secretion was prevented by aspirin (P < 0.01). Alterations of LG morphology and increased numbers of lipofucsin-like inclusions were observed in diabetic but not in aspirin-treated diabetic rats. Peroxidase activity levels were higher and UCP-2 was reduced in DM LG but not in aspirin treated (P = 0.0025 and P < 0.05, respectively). The findings prevented by aspirin indicate a direct inhibitory effect on oxidative pathways in LG and their inflammatory consequences, preserving the LG structure and function against hyperglycemia and/or insulin deficiency damage.

  20. Non-interference by salicylate with aspirin inhibition of arterial thrombosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, R B; Paul, M L

    1981-08-01

    Several authors have reported that salicylate blocks and reverses aspirin inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by platelets and arterial wall. Male rats were given sodium salicylate 15 or 100 mg/kg i.v. 2 min before receiving aspirin, 10 mg/kg i.v. Right and left carotid arteries were injured electrically before and after drug administration and thrombus generation recorded by measuring downstream temperature. Significant antithrombotic effect of aspirin was observed in all cases regardless of prior salicylate administration and the results were similar to those obtained with aspirin alone. Thus competition between salicylate and aspirin as reported in vitro does not appear to significantly affect the in vivo antithrombotic action of aspirin in this model.

  1. Risk analysis for aspirin and postoperative intracranial hemorrhage - report of 3 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-qing; WANG Ji-sheng; JI Nan; LIU Wei; QIAN Ke

    2009-01-01

    @@ Aspirin has been widely used clinically since 1899.For patients with cerebral ischemia and implanted intravascular stents, aspirin has been used routinely for prevention of intracranial hemorrhage and for anticoagulation treatment. However, many multi-center,large sample, controlled studies have shown that aspirin may actually increase the risk of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, and that aspirin was an independent predictor of death shortly after cerebral hemorrhage. Here we report a case series, between July 1 2006 and January 1 2008, of 3 patients who experienced postoperative intracranial hemorrhage after receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the Center of Neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University.Two of them died. There were 86 patients in all receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the same period. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in this group is 3.49%.

  2. Accelerated Hydrolysis of Aspirin Using Alternating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinscheid, Uwe M.

    2009-08-01

    The major problem of current drug-based therapy is selectivity. As in other areas of science, a combined approach might improve the situation decisively. The idea is to use the pro-drug principle together with an alternating magnetic field as physical stimulus, which can be applied in a spatially and temporarily controlled manner. As a proof of principle, the neutral hydrolysis of aspirin in physiological phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 at 40 °C was chosen. The sensor and actuator system is a commercially available gold nanoparticle (NP) suspension which is approved for animal usage, stable in high concentrations and reproducibly available. Applying the alternating magnetic field of a conventional NMR magnet system accelerated the hydrolysis of aspirin in solution.

  3. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  4. Acute bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Ramuscello

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the main causes of morbidity worldwide. It affects some 300 million individuals and has risen over the past 20 years, especially in the paediatric population. Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the airways, subject to periodic exacerbations, characterised by coughing and progressive dyspnoea. Clinical conditions may vary greatly, ranging from moderate exacerbation with an increase in nocturnal awakening and a less than 20% reduction in the flow peak, through to severe respiratory insufficiency that requires immediate intubation of the airways. Pharmacological treatment envisages a step approach that aims to obtain and maintain control over the symptoms, taking into consideration the effectiveness of the treatment available, potential side effects and cost. β2-agonists and corticosteroids are the drugs of election for both maintenance therapy and for treating exacerbations. Other therapeutic devices may prove useful in particular cases. One fundamental key point in treatment over time is the cooperation between patient and attending doctor. The latest review of the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA guidelines was published in 2006.

  5. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lusia Godoy Fernandes

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A asma relacionada ao trabalho é uma das principais doenças respiratórias ocupacionais em termos de prevalência. Inúmeras substâncias químicas utilizadas nas mais diversas atividades produtivas podem desencadear ou agravar essa doença. A definição e a classificação da asma relacionada ao trabalho são descritas, bem como, suas repercussões epidemiológicas, história natural, critérios diagnósticos, evolução, prognóstico e seus aspectos legais, de forma resumida, objetivando alertar sobre essa doença e suas implicações trabalhistas.Work-related asthma is one of the principal occupational respiratory diseases in terms of prevalence. Innumerable chemical substances used in various production processes can cause or aggravate occupational asthma. This chapter contains a brief description of the definition and classification of work-related asthma, as well as the epidemiological repercussions, natural course, diagnostic criteria, progression and legal aspects of the disease, with the objective of raising an alert regarding this disease and its implications for workers.

  6. Asthma and PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour M Ian

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.

  7. [Glycoprotein hexoses in feces of infants with lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippvskiĭ, G K; Klimov, L Ia

    1995-01-01

    A modified method for estimation of total glycoprotein hexoses in feces, based on their measurements in the blood serum, is presented. Sixty-six nursing children with lactose intolerance, breastfed or formula fed, were examined; formula fed babies were kept on mixtures with high and low lactose content. Glycoprotein hexose parameters were as follows (X +/- m): 13.51 +/- 1.93, 12.05 +/- 2.20, and 3.69 +/- 0.47 g/l feces. In control children without lactose intolerance (n = 33) this value was 3.6 +/- 0.79 g/l. Increased glycoprotein excretion is connected with glycocalix and small intestinal enterocyte alteration.

  8. The molecular basis of hereditary fructose intolerance in Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, R; Scarano, M I; Esposito, G; Chiandetti, L; Izzo, P; Salvatore, F

    1993-10-01

    We investigated the molecular defects of the aldolase B gene in five unrelated patients affected by hereditary fructose intolerance. The techniques used were DNA amplification, direct sequencing and allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization. The most frequent substitutions found in the hereditary fructose intolerance alleles analysed were the A174D and the A149P mutations, which account for 50% and 30% of the alleles, respectively. In two unrelated families, we found a rare mutation, the MD delta 4 previously described only in one British family, which may be an important cause of the disease in Italy.

  9. Repressive coping and alexithymia in ideopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously...... participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS...

  10. Glucose intolerance states in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A

    2013-09-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common hyperandrogenic disorder affecting 4-7% of women, is often associated with metabolic alterations, chiefly insulin resistance and obesity. Based on available scientific evidence, PCOS should be regarded as an independent risk for the development of glucose intolerance states. This short review summarizes the available literature on the prevalence and incidence of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes in this disorder. In addition, some insights on potential factors responsible for individual susceptibility are discussed. Targeted intervention studies focused on prevention and treatment of glucose intolerance states in PCOS are warranted.

  11. Lysinuric protein intolerance in a 5-month-old girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viplav Narayan Deogaonkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI, also known as cationic aminoaciduria, hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2, or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive defect of diamino acid transport. LPI is characterized by the inability of the body to digest and utilize certain amino acids, namely lysine, arginine, and ornithine. As a result, there is an increased excretion of these amino acids, which in turn affects the liver, the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, immune system, spleen, and organs producing blood. We report a 5-month-old girl born of third degree consanguineous marriage who presented with hepatosplenomegaly with sepsis and worsening jaundice due to LPI.

  12. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route.

  13. Aspirin prevention of cholesterol gallstone formation in prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S P; Carey, M C; LaMont, J T

    1981-03-27

    When prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are fed a diet containing cholesterol, a marked increase in gallbladder mucin secretion parallels the evolution of cholesterol supersaturated bile. Gelation of mucin precedes the precipitation of cholesterol liquid and solid crystals and the development of gallstones. Aspirin given to prairie dogs inhibited mucin hypersecretion and gel accumulation and prevented gallstone formation without influencing the cholesterol content of supersaturated bile. This suggests that gallbladder mucin is a nucleation matrix for cholesterol gallstones.

  14. Profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoping Liu; Yang Yu; Yuanjie Mao; Xinhua Wang; Jianzhong Wang; Yong Huo

    2008-01-01

    Objective Aspirin has been used extensively in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease,particularly for subjects at high risk such as metabolic syndrome.However,the responsiveness to aspirin treatment may vary among individuals.The present study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods In 221 consecutive patients,platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ml) was assessed after 10 days of aspirin treatment (200mg/d).Aspirin resistance was defined as mean optical platelet aggregation =20%.Results Aspirin resistance occurred in 39 patients (17.6%).Serum fibrinogen level was higher in patients with than in those without aspirin resistance (2.6_+0.4g/l vs 2.4±0.4g/L,P=0.017).The 2 groups,aspirin resistance group and no aspirin resistance group,did not differ significantly,with regard to gender,age,body mass index,waist-hip ratio,blood pressure level,serum cholesterol level and history of myocardial or cerebral infarction.Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only serum fibrinogen level entered the model (odds ratio 2.973,p=0.023).Subgroup analysis further showed that aspirin resistance occurred more in male patients with myocardial infarction (50% vs14.5%,P=0.02) and in female patients with diastolic blood pressure=85mmHg (34% vs 15.5%,P=0.043).But after multifactor logistic regression,in women blood pressure=85mmHg was not a predictor any more.Conclusions In patients with metabolic syndrome,aspirin resistance is not uncommon,especially for men with history of myocardial infarction.Patients with aspirin resistance have an increased serum fibrinogen level.(J Geriatr Cardio12008;5:7-10)

  15. Clinical Risk Factors for Gastroduodenal Ulcer in Romanian Low-Dose Aspirin Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aspirin use for cardiovascular or cancer prevention is limited due to its gastrointestinal side effects. Objective. Our prospective, observational case-control study aims to identify the predictive factors for ulcers in low-dose aspirin consumers (75–325 mg/day). Methods. The study included patients who underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and took low-dose aspirin treatment. Results. We recruited 51 patients with ulcer (ulcer group) and 108 patients with no mucosal lesions (con...

  16. Aspirin versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation: decision analysis may help patients' choice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2012-03-01

    the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke in chronic non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) typically involves consideration of aspirin or warfarin. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc estimates annual stroke rates for untreated AF patients, which are reduced by 60% with warfarin and by 20% with aspirin. HAS-BLED estimates annual rates of major bleeding on warfarin. The latter risk with aspirin is 0.5-1.2% per year.

  17. Release kinetic study of RHPC coated aspirin microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Dorle, A K

    1990-01-01

    The present communication deals with the study of the effect of pH on the drug release characteristics and the drug release kinetic from the RHPC (Rosin Hard Paraffin Combination) coated aspirin microcapsules. For the purpose of the present study the aspirin microcapsules were prepared by pan coating method imparting 15 coats using 10 per cent RHPC solution in acetone. A standard coating procedure was used to coat the aspirin granules. Dissolution studies were carried out in media with different pH. To get a clear picture drug release studies were conducted in each media for 3 h. The results showed that the RHPC films were resistant to acidic pH releasing less than 5 per cent and 15 per cent drug in 3 h in pH 1.2 and 3.0 respectively. The T 50% in pH 5.0 media was 163 min. The drug was released very quickly in pH 7.2 and 8.0. The release kinetic study showed that the release followed the classical first order pattern though the coated microcapsules used to be intact during the dissolution process, in case of the acidic pH media. The release kinetic was changed when the pH of the dissolution media was 7.2 and above. It was found that during the dissolution process the granules undergo erosion and the release mechanism does not follow a single process.

  18. Acid-NSAID/aspirin interaction in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Richard H; Yuan, Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    The presence of gastric acid plays a critical role in the mechanisms of NSAIDs/aspirin-associated gastric and duodenal mucosal injury and ulceration. The role of gastric acid and its relationship to NSAIDs/aspirin in mucosal damage, ulcer and ulcer complications continues to be an important concern because of the increasing worldwide use of NSAIDs and aspirin. Acid suppression continues to be an important prevention strategy for NSAID-associated gastric and duodenal ulcer and ulcer complications. While a coxib or an NSAID and PPI in combination are considered to have comparable safety profiles, the evidence from direct comparisons in high-risk patients is limited, and the cardiovascular safety of coxibs and NSAIDs remains a concern especially in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease. An evaluation of individual gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks and benefits, selection of the most appropriate NSAID and dose for each particular patient should always be emphasized. Twice daily PPI is more appropriate to protect a patient who is taking NSAIDs twice daily. PPI co-therapy is still recommended in patients receiving dual antiplatelet treatment, although conflicting results have been reported about adverse drug interactions between PPIs and clopidogrel.

  19. How Many People Are Affected or At Risk for Lactose Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people are affected or at risk for lactose intolerance? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content How many people are lactose intolerant? The true number of people with lactose ...

  20. Occupational asthma often goes unrecognised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinan, Paul; Cannon, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Occupational asthma is induced de novo by an airborne agent encountered in the workplace. The risk of occupational asthma is greater in those with a prior atopic history. Work-exacerbated asthma is the provocation of pre-existing, or coincidental, disease by one or more irritant exposures at work. Distinguishing occupational from work-exacerbated asthma can be difficult but it is important since the two have very different clinical, occupational and legal implications. Occupational asthma is underrecognised, the disease often develops in young people who are otherwise fit. They may not recognise their symptoms as anything out of the ordinary, or may confuse them with hay fever or a cold. It is sensible to consider occupational and work-exacerbated asthma in every working adult who has asthma or who presents with suggestive symptoms such as rhinitis. Occupational asthma almost always arises from an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to a respiratory sensitising agent in the workplace. The disease has a short latency with symptoms developing 6 to 36 months after employment in a new job. Rhinitis is common and in those working in an environment with airborne proteins the absence of rhinitis effectively rules out occupational asthma. In occupational asthma, symptoms (including nasal symptoms) improve away from work. Once the disease is established symptoms are provoked by even very small exposures at work and begin to be provoked by a wide variety of irritant exposures both at, and away from, work. It is good practice to enquire into the employment of every working-age adult with asthma, or rhinitis, and particularly in those presenting with new symptoms or symptoms that have become more difficult to manage. Patients should routinely be asked whether their symptoms improve when they are not at work.

  1. Cigarette smoking inhibits the anti-platelet activity of aspirin in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHANG Hong-yin; MIAO Cheng-long; TANG Ri-bo; DU Xin; SHI Ji-hui; MA Chang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which suggests that low-dose aspirin used in common clinical practice may not effectively inhibit platelet activity in smokers with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review was performed to assess the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in patients with CHD.Data sources We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE (starting from the beginning to March 15, 2009)using the term "smoking" or "tobacco" paired with the following: "platelet", "aspirin" or "coronary heart disease".Study selection We looked for review articles regarding the effect of tobacco smoking on platelet activity and on the anti-platelet efficacy of aspirin in healthy people and patients with CHD. The search was limited in "core clinical journal".In total, 1321 relevant articles were retrieved, and 36 articles were ultimately cited.Results Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which can be inhibited by low-dose aspirin in the healthy population. However, in patients with CHD, the increased platelet aggregability can not be effectively inhibited by the same low-dose of aspirin. A recent study indicated that clopidogrel or an increased dose of aspirin can effectively inhibit the increased platelet aggregability induced by tobacco smoking in patients with CHD.Conclusions It is important for patients with CHD to quit smoking. For the current smoker, it may be necessary to take larger doses of aspirin than normal or take an adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor along with aspirin to effectively inhibit the increased platelet activity.

  2. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  3. Gastrointestinal ulcers, role of aspirin, and clinical outcomes: pathobiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cryer B

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Byron Cryer,1 Kenneth W Mahaffey2 1University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, 2Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Peptic ulcer disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the US with more than six million diagnoses annually. Ulcers are reported as the most common cause of hospitalization for upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding and are often a clinical concern due to the widespread use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, both of which have been shown to induce ulcer formation. The finding that Helicobacter pylori infection (independent of aspirin use is associated with the development of ulcers led to a more thorough understanding of the causes and pathogenesis of ulcers and an improvement in therapeutic options. However, many patients infected with H. pylori are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed. Complicating matters is a current lack of understanding of the association between aspirin use and asymptomatic ulcer formation. Low-dose aspirin prescriptions have increased, particularly for cardioprotection. Unfortunately, the GI side effects associated with aspirin therapy continue to be a major complication in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. These safety concerns should be important considerations in the decision to use aspirin and warrant further education. The medical community needs to continue to improve awareness of aspirin-induced GI bleeding to better equip physicians and improve care for patients requiring aspirin therapy. Keywords: low-dose aspirin, cardioprotection, ulcers, Helicobacter pylori, gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular disease

  4. AsthmaVent – Effect of Ventilation on Asthma Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogaard, Nina Viskum; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Halken, Susanne

    Background House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma among children. Children spend 14 hours of their time indoor everyday in aberage, where they are exposed to different components in the indoor air. These components are children with asthma and HDM allergy specially...... air quality and thereby asthma symptoms and quality of life, in children with house dust mite allergy and asthma. Materials and Methods Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study, including 80 children from 3 Danish Pediatric outpatient clinics, with: Verified asthma, requiring...... a minimum of 400 µg of inhaled steroid daily Verified HDM allergy Verified exposure to HDMallergene No pet- or birch allergy A ventilation system will be placed in to the child’s bedroom, ventilating the room with a rate of 2-3 air changes per hour for 9 months during the winter season. We monitor indoor...

  5. Low dose aspirin therapy and renal function in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Rotimi Oluyombo,2 Paul Sunday Ogunro,3 Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,4 Oluyomi Olusola Okunola,5 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele21Department of Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Chemical Pathology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine whether low dose aspirin has any deleterious effects on renal function in elderly patients.Methods: We conducted a prospective pilot study of 30 Nigerians older than 60 years with various chronic ailments necessitating the use of low dose aspirin. Patients gave their consent, and institutional ethical clearance was obtained. Each patient's baseline samples at enrolment (before commencing aspirin use served as a control, and subsequent weekly samples were compared. The weekly mean of each parameter was calculated, and the differences of means from baseline were determined, and values were compared for statistical differences with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16.Results: We found that a majority of patients (86.67% had basal renal functions at chronic kidney disease stages 1 and 2. When compared with the corresponding baseline parameters, the mean weekly serum and urinary electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and uric acid parameters did not change, and the P-value did not show any statistical significance. However, there was positive statistical significance for the creatinine clearance (P = 0.025. Also, unlike in previous studies, anemia and hypoalbuminemia did not affect the renal function parameters.Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effects with short-term, low dose (75 mg daily aspirin use on kidney functions in

  6. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior heart attack: ticagrelor plus aspirin versus aspirin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Frank; Schlesinger, Alex; Mazzoni, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-1800. This Practice Pearl reviews the recent study Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared With Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54 (PEGASUS-TIMI 54). It challenges the current standard of care of 12 months of dual antiplatelet followed by aspirin indefinitely. The study demonstrated that patients who received ticagrelor, either the 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily plus aspirin, showed a decreased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial also proved that the benefit of ticagrelor was seen early and continued to accrue over time, with a median of 33 months of follow-up, meaning that the benefit persists over time. It is important to note that both doses of the ticagrelor were associated with higher incidence of bleeding, but the rates of fatal bleeding did not show any difference between the ticagrelor or placebo.

  7. 75 FR 2551 - NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance... Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health'' to be held February 22-24, 2010, in the..., abdominal pain, and diarrhea. These symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by intestinal...

  8. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  9. Environment and asthma in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moual, Nicole; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Dumas, Orianne; Kauffmann, Francine; Nadif, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    The present review addresses recent advances and especially challenging aspects regarding the role of environmental risk factors in adult-onset asthma, for which the causes are poorly established. In the first part of the review, we discuss aspects regarding some environmental risk factors for adult-onset asthma: air pollution, occupational exposures with a focus on an emerging risk represented by exposure to cleaning agents (both at home and in the workplace), and lifestyle and nutrition. The second part is focused on perspectives and challenges, regarding relevant topics on which research is needed to improve the understanding of the role of environmental factors in asthma. Aspects of exposure assessment, the complexity of multiple exposures, the interrelationships of the environment with behavioral characteristics and the importance of studying biological markers and gene-environment interactions to identify the role of the environment in asthma are discussed. We conclude that environmental and lifestyle exposures play an important role in asthma or related phenotypes. The changes in lifestyle and the environment in recent decades have modified the specific risk factors in asthma even for well-recognized risks such as occupational exposures. To better understand the role of the environment in asthma, the use of objective (quantitative measurement of exposures) or modern tools (bar code, GPS) and the development of multidisciplinary collaboration would be very promising. A better understanding of the complex interrelationships between socio-economic, nutritional, lifestyle and environmental conditions might help to study their joint and independent roles in asthma.

  10. Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been recognized that asthma is not a single disease, but comprises several clinical syndromes, which all share respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities, associated with different types of airway inflammation. These syndromes are now known as different asthma p

  11. The management of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, S

    1997-04-01

    Health professionals likely to come into contact with people experiencing an acute episode of asthma, such as school nurses, ambulance personnel and A&E staff, need clear guidelines on management. The British Thoracic Society guidelines, revised this year, advise on the categorisation of asthma, assessment and treatment.

  12. Asthma in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, A S; Skov, L; Skytthe, A;

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the report by Fang and colleagues of the relationship between psoriasis and asthma in a large retrospective case-control study from Taiwan [1]. The study found a 1.38-fold increased risk of asthma among patients with psoriasis, and with an increasing risk according to higher...

  13. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  14. DNA vaccine and asthma therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Huan-zhong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Allergic asthma is currently considered a chronic airway inflammatory disorder associated with the presence of activated CD4+ Th2-type lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells. Interestingly, therapeutic strategies based on immune deviation and suppression have been shown to successfully attenuate the development of the asthma phenotype.

  15. Occupational asthma in maritime environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    In 2006 we published our first review based on the available literature on occupational asthma in maritime environments in the “International Maritime Health” journal. Since then, we have obtained a great deal of new knowledge on asthma in seafood workers and fishermen and on the impact of exposu...

  16. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  17. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma A A A What's in this ... family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, from kids' birthday ...

  18. Prenatal Stress, Prematurity, and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medsker, Brock; Forno, Erick; Simhan, Hyagriv; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma." Prenatal stress may cause not only abnormalities in the HPA axis but also epigenetic changes in the fetal glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), leading to impaired glucocorticoid metabolism. Moreover, maternal stress can alter fetal cytokine balance, favoring TH2 (allergic) immune responses characteristic of atopic asthma: interleukin 6 (IL-6), which has been associated with premature labor, can promote TH2 responses by stimulating production of IL-4 and IL-13. Given a link among stress, prematurity, and asthma, future research should include birth cohorts aimed at confirming and better characterizing "premature asthma." If confirmed, clinical trials of prenatal maternal stress reduction would be warranted to reduce the burden of these common comorbidities. While awaiting the results of such studies, sound policies to prevent domestic and community violence (eg, from firearms) are justified, not only by public safety but also by growing evidence of detrimental effects of violence-induced stress on psychiatric and somatic health.

  19. Tolerating extremism : to what extent should intolerance be tolerated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiora, Amos Neuser

    2013-01-01

    In discussing extremism, the key questions are: to whom is a duty owed and what are the limits of intolerance that are to be tolerated? Answering these questions requires examining limits and rights; analyzing them in the context of extremism is the ‘core’ of this book. While freedom of speech and f

  20. Intolerance of Ambiguity and Political Orientation among Israeli University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibert, Zigi; Ressler, William Harris

    1998-01-01

    Explores relations between political orientation and cognitive style among Israeli university students. Finds that intolerance of ambiguity contributed significantly to political orientation and that the political Left showed more complex cognitive styles than the Right. Notes implications for testing competing hypotheses about cognitive style and…

  1. The Black Vote: Racial Intolerance or the Politics of Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard R.

    Voting behavior of blacks is examined with specific regard to racial intolerance. Factors studied include racial identification, amount of interracial contact, and the black candidate's job performance. In 1969, interviewers collected data on 400 black respondents' attitudes about Carl Stokes (the black incumbent mayoralty candidate), the other…

  2. The role of colonic microbiota in lactose intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, Y; Priebe, MG; Vonk, RJ; Huang, CY; Antoine, JM; He, T; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW

    2004-01-01

    In a previous study we observed a clear difference in lactose intolerance symptoms after a 25-g lactose load in two groups of persons with lactase nonpersistence and similar small intestinal lactase activity. From this observation we hypothesized a colon resistance factor. To identify this factor, t

  3. Reducing the incidence of allergy and intolerance to cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    During recent decades, allergies and certain food intolerances have shown a worldwide gradual increase in prevalence, concomitantly with economic growth, urbanization, and changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns. They are triggered in humans with an unbalanced immune system and intestinal micro-fl

  4. Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This chronic digestive condition is triggered by eating gluten, a protein found in wheat and other grains. If you have a reaction after eating a particular food, see your doctor to determine whether you have a food intolerance or a food allergy. If you have a ...

  5. Does goal-directed fluid therapy affect postoperative orthostatic intolerance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Jans, Øivind; Müller, Rasmus Gamborg;

    2013-01-01

    Early mobilization is important for postoperative recovery but is limited by orthostatic intolerance (OI) with a prevalence of 50% 6 h after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative OI is assumed to include hypovolemia besides dysregulation of vasomotor tone. Stroke volume-guided fluid...

  6. Risk factors for glucose intolerance in active acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreze A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present retrospective study we determined the frequency of glucose intolerance in active untreated acromegaly, and searched for risk factors possibly supporting the emergence of the diabetic condition. Among 43 patients, 8 (19%; 95% CI: 8-33% had diabetes mellitus and 2 (5%; 1-16% impaired glucose tolerance. No impaired fasting glycemia was demonstrable. The frequency of diabetes was on average 4.5 times higher than in the general Slovak population. Ten factors suspected to support progression to glucose intolerance were studied by comparing the frequency of glucose intolerance between patients with present and absent risk factors. A family history of diabetes and arterial hypertension proved to have a significant promoting effect (P<0.05, chi-square test. A significant association with female gender was demonstrated only after pooling our data with literature data. Concomitant prolactin hypersecretion had a nonsignificant promoting effect. In conclusion, the association of active untreated acromegaly with each of the three categories of glucose intolerance (including impaired fasting glycemia, not yet studied in this connection was defined as a confidence interval, thus permitting a sound comparison with the findings of future studies. Besides a family history of diabetes, female gender and arterial hypertension were defined as additional, not yet described risk factors.

  7. Aldosterone aggravates glucose intolerance induced by high fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherajee, Shamshad J; Rafiq, Kazi; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Akira

    2013-11-15

    We previously reported that aldosterone impaired vascular insulin signaling in vivo and in vitro. Fructose-enriched diet induces metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in animal. In the current study, we hypothesized that aldosterone aggravated fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance in vivo. Rats were divided into five groups for six-week treatment; uninephrectomy (Unx, n=8), Unx+aldosterone (aldo, 0.75 µg/h, s.c., n=8), Unx+fructose (fruc, 10% in drinking water, n=8), Unx+aldo+fruc, (aldo+fruc, n=8), and Unx+aldo+fruc+spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (aldo+fruc+spiro, 20mg/kg/day, p.o., n=8). Aldo+fruc rats manifested the hypertension, and induced glucose intolerance compared to fruc intake rats assessed by oral glucose tolerance test, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. Spironolactone, significantly improved the aldosterone-accelerated glucose intolerance. Along with improvement in insulin resistance, spironolactone suppressed upregulated mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) target gene, serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinases-1 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle in aldo+fruc rats. In conclusion, these data suggested that aldosterone aggravates fructose feeding-induced glucose intolerance through MR activation.

  8. Tolerance of Intolerance: Values and Virtues at Stake in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlenius, Kennert

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the…

  9. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical? A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yusuke; Fujino, Junya; Ideno, Takashi; Okubo, Shigetaka; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Miyata, Jun; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Hirose, Kimito; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person's reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, "ambiguity aversion" and "ambiguity intolerance," are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, "ambiguity aversion" represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, "ambiguity intolerance" describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM) volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred to in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  10. Are ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance identical?: A neuroeconomics investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke eTanaka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing interest in understanding a person’s reaction to ambiguous situations, and two similar constructs related to ambiguity, ambiguity aversion and ambiguity intolerance, are defined in different disciplines. In the field of economic decision-making research, ambiguity aversion represents a preference for known risks relative to unknown risks. On the other hand, in clinical psychology, ambiguity intolerance describes the tendency to perceive ambiguous situations as undesirable. However, it remains unclear whether these two notions derived from different disciplines are identical or not. To clarify this issue, we combined an economic task, psychological questionnaires, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in a sample of healthy volunteers. The individual ambiguity aversion tendency parameter, as measured by our economic task, was negatively correlated with agreeableness scores on the self-reported version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. However, it was not correlated with scores of discomfort with ambiguity, one of the subscales of the Need for Closure Scale. Furthermore, the ambiguity aversion tendency parameter was negatively correlated with gray matter (GM volume of areas in the lateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex, whereas ambiguity intolerance was not correlated with GM volume in any region. Our results suggest that ambiguity aversion, described in decision theory, may not necessarily be identical to ambiguity intolerance, referred in clinical psychology. Cautious applications of decision theory to clinical neuropsychiatry are recommended.

  11. Hereditary fructose intolerance and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, G; Schneppenheim, R; Oldigs, H D; Santer, R

    2000-07-01

    A patient with coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency (alpha(1)ATD) is described. Protease inhibitor typing was not conclusive, presumably because of impaired N-glycosylation secondary to HFI. The case underlines the diagnostic role of molecular genetic techniques in inborn errors of metabolism.

  12. Rainbow Visibility: How One Catholic University Responded to Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Cheryl; Kirkley, Evelyn A.

    2002-01-01

    When intolerance of gays and lesbians at the University of San Diego became a problem, a group of students, staff, and faculty decided to do something about it. The result was a project called Rainbow Visibility that works on many forms to educate the campus community. (Author)

  13. Disease and intolerability documentation in electronic patient records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, H.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Kruijtbosch, M.; Egberts, A.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Documentation of diseases and intolerabilities in electronic patient records (EPRs) in pharmacies is needed to produce an alert in case a contraindicated medicine is prescribed. Limited research is available concerning EPRs in pharmacies. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and quality of

  14. Association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Jovanovic, Lois; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno; Dias, Adriano; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha

    2009-02-01

    There is an association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and essential hypertension, but the relation between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hypertension diagnosed during pregnancy is not well understood. Transient hypertension of pregnancy, the new-onset nonproteinuric hypertension of late pregnancy, is associated with a high risk of later essential hypertension and glucose intolerance; thus, these conditions may have a similar pathophysiology. To assess the association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, essential hypertension, and subsequent development of proteinuric and nonproteinuric hypertension in pregnancy in women without underlying essential hypertension, we performed a prospective study comparing glucose (fasting, 1 and 2 hours postglucose load), insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides levels on routine screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Women who developed hypertension in pregnancy (n = 37) had higher glycemic levels (fasting, 1 and 2 hours postglucose load) on a 100-gram oral glucose loading test, although only the fasting values showed a statistical significance (p or=140 mg/dL) (p hypertension in pregnancy, particularly preeclampsia, and support the hypothesis that insulin resistance may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

  15. "Kickin' Asthma": School-Based Asthma Education in an Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Patel, Bina; Davis, Adam; Edelstein, Joan; Tager, Ira B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: In urban communities with high prevalence of childhood asthma, school-based educational programs may be the most appropriate approach to deliver interventions to improve asthma morbidity and asthma-related outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of "Kickin' Asthma", a school-based asthma curriculum…

  16. A Markov model to compare the long-term effect of aspirin, clopidogrel and clopidogrel plus aspirin on prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke due to intracranial artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinqiu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of intracranial stenosis as a cause of recurrent ischemic stroke and the lack of evidence supporting a clear choice for prevention of recurrent ischemic events, a computer simulation model for prognostic prediction could be used to improve decision making. Aims: The aim of the following study is to compare the long-term effect of aspirin, clopidogrel and clopidogrel plus aspirin for prevention of recurrent stroke due to atherosclerotic intracranial artery stenosis. Setting and Design: The cohort consisted of 206 patients from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods: A two-state Markov model was used to predict the prognosis of patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA caused by angiographically verified 50-99% stenosis of a major intracranial artery to receive aspirin, clopidogrel, or dual therapy. Statistical Analysis: Two tests were used: Pearson Chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test (for percentages and Kruskal Wallis test (for rank order data. Results: In the 10-year Markov cohort analysis, 36.24% of patients who were treated with clopidogrel plus aspirin developed to recurrent stroke while the probability for patients in the aspirin group and clopidogrel group was 42.60% and 48.39% respectively. Patients with clopidogrel plus aspirin had the highest quality-adjusted life years, followed by aspirin and clopidogrel. Conclusion: To prevent recurrent stroke in patients with intracranial artery stenosis, especially in those patients with a history of TIA or coronary artery disease, medical therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin should be considered in preference to aspirin alone.

  17. Asthma symptoms in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2016-01-01

    The association between asthma and obesity is well-described, but not straightforward, and according to current guidelines asthma control is more difficult to achieve in obese patients. The currently available studies evaluating response to pharmacological asthma therapy in obese patients show...... that these patients have an altered, in general less favorable, response to both reliever and controller medication compared to normal weight patients. However, at present, the limited available evidence precludes evidence-based recommendations. The 'obesity-related asthma' phenotype has different characteristics......, including association with atopy and type of airway inflammation, compared to 'classic' asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in patients with this phenotype leads to an improvement in symptoms, lung function, and airway responsiveness, as well as a reduction in medication utilization and hospital admissions...

  18. Infectious triggers of pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2003-06-01

    Respiratory infections can cause wheezing illnesses in children of all ages and also can influence the causation and disease activity of asthma. For years it has been recognized that respiratory syncytial virus infections often produce the first episode of wheezing in children who go on to develop chronic asthma. More recently, it has been proposed that repeated infections with other common childhood viral pathogens might help the immune system develop in such a way as to prevent the onset of allergic diseases and possibly asthma. In addition to the effects of viral infections, infections with certain intracellular pathogens, such as chlamydia and mycoplasma, may cause acute and chronic wheezing in some individuals, whereas common cold and acute sinus infections can trigger acute symptoms of asthma. In this article, the epidemiologic, mechanistic, and treatment implications of the association between respiratory infections and asthma are discussed.

  19. BENEFIT OF ASTHMA ACTION PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagadpally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of asthma action plan on asthma control, reducing unscheduled hospital visits of children with asthma. The study also was to know if the instructions regarding management are being documented in the patient notes. METHOD: It was a retrospective study. The data was collected from a random sample of 100 patients with asthma between Jan . 2012 to Dec . 2014 who were admitted as in - patients to the children’s ward in our hospital. RESULTS: Children who received asthma action plan had fewer exacerbations and fewer lost school days. Good documentation of symptoms led to better compliance and outcome in the child KEYWORDS: A sthma; A ction plan.

  20. Asthma mortality in the Danish child population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Inger Merete; Jensen, V B; Bülow, S

    2003-01-01

    Child death due to asthma is a rare and potentially preventable event. We investigated possible risk factors for death due to asthma in children and adolescents, as a step towards preventing or minimizing asthma death in this age group, and improving asthma management and care. We reviewed all 10...

  1. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Know ... Breathing Easier [PDF – 1.1 MB] ASL Asthma Film Asthma Clinical Guidelines Air Pollution & Respiratory Health File ...

  2. Exploring the obesity-asthma link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, R V; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Vidal, C;

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently.......Obesity and risk of asthma are linked. Different distributions of adiposity, such as visceral, subcutaneous or ectopic adiposity, may affect asthma risk differently....

  3. Sources of Stress in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michelle; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy M.

    1992-01-01

    Children with asthma were studied to determine their perceptions of the frequency and severity of stressors they experienced other than asthma. Results indicated children with asthma were similar to peers regarding perceptions of stressors. Perceptions of most stressors related more strongly to gender role development than to asthma. (SM)

  4. Asma ocupacional Occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cebollero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Asma ocupacional es aquella entidad que se desarrolla por causas o condiciones derivadas de un determinado medio laboral y no por estímulos que se encuentran fuera del trabajo. El asma ocupacional constituye hoy en día la enfermedad respiratoria ocupacional más frecuente en la mayoría de los países industrializados y se calcula que la proporción de nuevos casos de asma atribuibles a la exposición laboral se sitúa en torno al 10-15%. Puede desarrollarse tanto por un mecanismo inmunológico como no inmunológico. En su desarrollo influyen el tipo de agente al que se está expuesto, el nivel y modo de exposición y factores genéticos de susceptibilidad. En el proceso diagnóstico concurre la confirmación de que el paciente tiene asma bronquial y la confirmación de que ésta se produce por causa laboral. Como demuestra la historia natural de la enfermedad, un diagnóstico precoz y las consiguientes acciones posteriores redundan en un mejor pronóstico de la misma.Occupational asthma is an entity caused by conditions deriving from a certain work milieu and not from stimuli found outside the workplace. Nowadays, occupational asthma is the most frequent respiratory occupational disease in the majority of the industrialised countries and it is estimated that the proportion of new cases of asthma that can be attributed to exposure at work is around 10-15%. It can be developed due to an immunological mechanism or to a non-immunological mechanism. Influential in its development are the type of agent exposed to, the level and form of exposure and genetic factors of susceptibility. In the diagnostic process there is a concurrent confirmation that the patient has bronchial asthma and that this has been caused by occupational reasons. As shown by the natural history of the disease, an early diagnosis and the consequent posterior actions result in an improved prognosis.

  5. Physiopathology of severe asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Todo-Bom, Ana; Mota-Pinto, Anabela

    2006-01-01

    A história natural da asma e as condições determinantes de evolução para formas moderadas ou graves não estão completamente estabelecidas. Contudo, quer os fatores genéticos quer os fatores ambientais serão determinantes na fisiopatologia e no prognóstico da doença. Nesta revisão são apresentados os mecanismos envolvidos na fisiopatologia da asma grave The natural history of asthma and the determinant factors involved in its evolution from moderate to severe forms are not completely establ...

  6. The poorly explored impact of uncontrolled asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Schatz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control; however, despite the availability of effective and safe medications, for many patients asthma remains uncontrolled. One reason for this is the fear of long-term side effects from the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). Adverse...... effects of poorly controlled asthma (for example, obesity, pneumonia, and risks to the fetus) can be perceived as side effects of ICSs. Poorly controlled asthma adversely affects children's cardiovascular fitness, while children with well-controlled asthma perform at the same level as their peers...... and concentration are negatively affected in patients with untreated asthma, and patients with asthma are at greater risk for depression. Also, poorly controlled asthma increases the risks of severe asthma exacerbations following upper respiratory and pneumococcal pulmonary infections. ICSs used to improve asthma...

  7. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  8. Effects of combined octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承薇; 王春晖; 汤丽平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer. Methods Proliferation of gastric cancer cell lines treated with octreotide or aspirin was determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation. After xenografts of human gastric cancer were implanted orthotropically in the stomach of nude mice, they were administered octreotide plus aspirin for 8 weeks. The mRNA of somatostatin receptor in the tissues of gastric carcinoma was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric cancer tissues was measured by immuno~histochemistry. Results Both octreotide and aspirin significantly reduced the 3 H-thymidine incorporation of gastric cancer cells. Xenografts in situ were found in all stomachs of nude mice except for two in the combination group. Either size or weight of tumors treated by octreotide, aspirin or in combination was significantly reduced as compared with that of controls. The inhibition rate for tumor was 60.6% (octreotide), 39.3% (aspirin), and 85.6% (in combination) respectively. No severe side effects were observed in any treated groups. Somatostatin receptor-2 and -3 were expressed in the transplanted gastric adenocarcinomas. Aspirin could down-regulate the strong expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the tissue of gastric adenocarcinomas of nude mice.Conclusion A combination of octreotide and aspirin significantly inhibited proliferation of gastric cancer through mediation of somatosatin receptors and suppression of cyclooxygenase-2.

  9. Aspirin and coumadin after acute coronary syndromes (the ASPECT-2 study) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, RF; Jonker, JJC; Verheugt, FWA; Deckers, JW; Grobbee, DE

    2002-01-01

    Background Antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and oral anticoagulants reduces reocurrence of ischaemic events after myocardial infarction. We aimed to investigate which of these drugs is more effective in the long term after acute coronary events, and whether the combination of aspirin and oral ant

  10. HEMOSTATIC FUNCTION OF ASPIRIN-TREATED PLATELETS VULNERABLE TO CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS - ALTERED SHEAR-INDUCED PATHWAY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TABUCHI, N; HUET, RCGG; STURK, A; EIJSMAN, L; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1995-01-01

    The impaired hemostasis of aspirin-treated patients is an annoying problem during and after cardiopulmonary bypass, The hemostatic function of platelets comprises two mechanisms: the shear-induced and the cyclooxygenase pathways, Because the latter is inhibited in aspirin-treated patients, the hemos

  11. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Burn (John); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); J.-P. Mecklin (Jukka-Pekka); F.A. Macrae (Finlay); G. Möslein (Gabriela); S. Olschwang (Sylviane); M.-L. Bisgaard (Marie-Luise); R.S. Ramesar (Rajkumar); D. Eccles (Diana); E.R. Maher (Eamonn); L. Bertario (Lucio); H.J. Jarvinen (Heikki); A. Lindblom (Annika); D.G. Evans (Gareth); J. Lubinski (Jan); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); J.W.C. Ho (Judy); H. Vasen (Hans); L. Side (Lucy); H.J.W. Thomas (Huw ); R.J. Scott (Rodney); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); G. Barker (Gail); F. Elliott (Faye); J.R. Jass (Jeremy ); R. Fodde (Riccardo); H. Lynch (Henry); J.C. Mathers (John )

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplas

  12. Effect of zinc acexamate on gastric lesions induced by aspirin: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, L; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Fontarnau, R; Bulbena, O

    1990-11-06

    The morphology of gastric lesions induced by aspirin in the rat and their modification by pretreatment with zinc acexamate (100 mg/kg) were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of mucosal levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the development of these lesions was also investigated. High (200 mg/kg) or low (50 mg/kg) doses of aspirin inhibited PGE2 production similarly, but the morphology of these lesions differed considerably. While gross exfoliation of extensive areas of gastric mucosa was observed after 200 mg/kg aspirin, only ultrastructural lesions of surface epithelial cells were present after 50 mg/kg aspirin. Regardless of the dose of aspirin administered, pretreatment with zinc acexamate raised PGE2 levels and increased the presence of mucus. Our results showed that after zinc acexamate, the development of deep erosions appearing with high doses of aspirin was prevented and the ultrastructural lesions induced by low doses of aspirin were not observed. The fact that zinc acexamate did not modify the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin in the carrageenin-induced oedema model suggests that the protective effect of zinc acexamate is exerted locally on the gastric mucosa.

  13. Evaluation of nootropic and neuroprotective effects of low dose aspirin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nootropic and neuroprotective effects of aspirin in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR and central 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches were assessed using repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: control (pretreated with distilled water, scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg i.p., ECS (150 V, 50 Hz sinusoidal with intensity of 210 mA for 0.5 s pretreated, aspirin (6.75 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined scopolamine and aspirin pretreated, ondansetron (0.36 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined ECS and ondansetron pretreated and combined ECS and aspirin pretreated groups. Data was analyzed by the chi-square test and ANOVA. Results: Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 8 days results in enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches and in disruption of the retention of CAR. Aspirin and ondansetron administration significantly increased the retention of conditioned avoidance response compared to control. Ondansetron and aspirin significantly prevented ECS-induced attenuation of the retention of conditioned avoidance response also. On the other hand, ondansetron and aspirin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior. Conclusion: Inhibition of the serotonergic transmission by aspirin is responsible for its nootropic and neuroprotective actions.

  14. Study of effects of donepezil and aspirin on working memory in rats using electroconvulsive shock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Manjare

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorder like AD. Combination of aspirin with donepezil increased the nootropic and neuroprotective effect of aspirin and thus may hold great clinical significance in such disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1012-1015

  15. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was le

  16. Affordability Calculations on a Health Education Campaign to Promote the Use of Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Aspirin has far-reaching public health potential in reducing the risk of heart attacks, ischemic strokes and possibly cancer. Balanced against this potential are undesirable effects of the drug. It seems reasonable to allow every individual over the age of 50 years to make an informed choice about whether or not to take aspirin. A health education…

  17. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  18. A study into the genetic basis of aspirin resistance in Pakistani patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarram, Osama; Akhtar, Naveed; Junaid, Ayesha; Mohyuddin, Aisha

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a key player in the management and prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction in patients with atherothrombosis. About 12% of Pakistanis suffering from coronary artery disease are resistant to aspirin's effects. Clinical, biochemical and genetic factors are known to be responsible for this phenomenon. We conducted this study to investigate whether previously studied polymorphisms in COX-1, GPIIIa, GPIa and P2RYI genes could be the cause of aspirin resistance in our population. Blood samples were collected from 29 aspirin non-responders and 60 ethnically matched responders. Aspirin response assay was performed on IMPACT-R and DNA prepared from blood using the phenol: chloroform method. Genotyping was carried out for four SNPS including COX-1 C50T (rs3842787), GPIIIA PIA1/A2 polymorphism (rs5918), GPIA C807T (rs1126643) and p2RY1 C893T (rs1065776). No statistically significant differences were observed in the allele or genotype frequencies between the aspirin non responders and responders indicating the possible involvement of different genetic determinants of aspirin resistance in our population. This study paves the way for further research into the field of aspirin resistance in Pakistan.

  19. UP-REGULATION OF ANTITHROMBOTIC ECTONUCLEOTIDASES BY ASPIRIN IN HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS IN-VITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEUNG, PK; VISSER, J; BAKKER, WW

    1994-01-01

    Ecto ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) activity of human endothelial cells following aspirin treatment has been studied in-vitro. It was shown by HPLC analysis of supernatant samples that pre-incubation of the cultures with aspirin resulted in a significantly increased turnover of supplemented ATP in

  20. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. A benefit and harm analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Yu, Tsung; Boyd, Cynthia; Puhan, Milo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspirin is widely used for prevention of cardiovascular disease. In recent years randomized trials also suggested a preventive effect for various types of cancer. We aimed to assess, in a quantitative way, benefits and harms of aspirin for primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease