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Sample records for aspirin eye drops

  1. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  2. How to administer eye drops and eye ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mary

    2016-05-25

    Rationale and key points Eye drops and eye ointment are the mainstay of treatment of ocular conditions. Failure to prioritise administration of these medicines can prolong the condition and may present a risk to the patient's vision. ▶ Eye drops and eye ointments are used to treat acute and chronic conditions of the eye and surrounding structures. Eye drops must be instilled before applying eye ointment, since the ointment will affect the absorption of the eye drop. ▶ Nurses require knowledge of the technique, side effects and potential interactions associated with systemically or topically applied medicines to the eye to ensure patient safety and optimum outcomes. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you intend to develop your knowledge and skills regarding treatment of ocular conditions. Subscribers can update their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27224628

  3. Preparation and Stability of Voriconazole Eye Drop Solution▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Antoine; Tournier, Nicolas; Le Moal, Gwenaël; Venisse, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The combined systemic and topical administration of voriconazole has successfully been used to treat keratomycosis. Because no voriconazole eye drop product is commercially available, we prepared a sterile eye drop solution (10 mg/ml). Voriconazole remains stable over 30 days, providing an eye drop solution suitable for use for the topical treatment of fungal keratitis.

  4. Spectrophotometric estimation of total tannins in some ayurvedic eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polshettiwar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurvedic eye drops preparation contains aqueous extracts of different herbs. Ethnobotanical survey shows that plants used in Ayurvedic eye drops formulation are rich source of tannin and tannin like compounds. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of ayurvedic eye drops are attributed to the presence of tannins and tannin like compounds. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to determine the tannin content in some ayurvedic eye drops, by using Folin-Denis method. A blue colored complex is formed by using phosphotungustomolybdic acid. Estimation was done on UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The tannin content of all the three brands was found to be 420, 918 and 270.49 µg/ml. The results obtained are reproducible with coefficient of variation less than 1.0% . Hence the present approach can be used as one of the parameters for the standardization of ayurvedic eye drop preparations.

  5. Improvement in the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease with dobesilate eye drops

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis Antonio; Azanza, Carlos; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactor disease of the tear film and ocular surface that substantially affects quality of life. Case presentation Dobesilate administered as eye drops was well tolerated and effective in treating both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease in this 2-week study. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of using dobesilate in eye drops. Dobesilate may provide a novel approach to treating drying diseases of the...

  6. Clinical utility of voriconazole eye drops in ophthalmic fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoud Al-Badriyeh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Daoud Al-Badriyeh, Chin Fen Neoh, Kay Stewart, David CM KongCentre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis and is difficult to treat. The range of common antifungal agents available for fungal keratitis remains inadequate and is generally associated with poor clinical outcomes. Voriconazole is a new generation triazole antifungal agent. Only marketed in systemic formulation and, with broad-spectrum activity and high intraocular penetration, voriconazole has demonstrated effectiveness against fungal keratitis. Systemic voriconazole, however, is not without side effects and is costly. Voriconazole eye drops have been prepared extemporaneously and used for the treatment of ophthalmic fungal keratitis. The current article sought to review the literature for evidence related to the effectiveness and safety of topical voriconazole and its corneal penetration into the aqueous humor of the eye. The voriconazole eye drops used are typically of 1% concentration, well tolerated by the eye, and are stable. Despite existing evidence to suggest that the eye drops are effective in the treatment of fungal keratitis, more studies are needed, especially in relation to using the eye drops as first-line and stand-alone treatment, preparation of higher concentrations, and optimal dosing frequency.Keywords: voriconazole, fungal keratitis, eye drops, corneal penetration

  7. Clinical utility of voriconazole eye drops in ophthalmic fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Neoh, Chin Fen; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2010-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis and is difficult to treat. The range of common antifungal agents available for fungal keratitis remains inadequate and is generally associated with poor clinical outcomes. Voriconazole is a new generation triazole antifungal agent. Only marketed in systemic formulation and, with broad-spectrum activity and high intraocular penetration, voriconazole has demonstrated effectiveness against fungal keratitis. Systemic voriconazole, however, is not without side effects and is costly. Voriconazole eye drops have been prepared extemporaneously and used for the treatment of ophthalmic fungal keratitis. The current article sought to review the literature for evidence related to the effectiveness and safety of topical voriconazole and its corneal penetration into the aqueous humor of the eye. The voriconazole eye drops used are typically of 1% concentration, well tolerated by the eye, and are stable. Despite existing evidence to suggest that the eye drops are effective in the treatment of fungal keratitis, more studies are needed, especially in relation to using the eye drops as first-line and stand-alone treatment, preparation of higher concentrations, and optimal dosing frequency. PMID:20463910

  8. Ready-made allogeneic ABO-specific serum eye drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Nielsen, Connie; Ullum, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    severe ocular surface disorders. METHODS: Serum was derived from 450 ml whole-blood donations from regular male blood donors, produced and tested according to good manufacturing practice and legislation regulating blood products in Denmark. Serum was diluted to 20% (v/v) with NaCl 0.9%, filtered, bottled......PURPOSE: To overcome problems and delays of the preparation of autologous serum eye drops, a production line of ABO-specific allogeneic serum eye drops from male blood donors was set up in a blood bank. Feasibility, clinical routine, safety and efficacy were evaluated in a cohort of patients with......, registered and stored at -30°C in the blood bank. Upon request, frozen ABO-identical serum drops in lots of 14 bottles could be provided immediately. Safety and efficacy were evaluated in 34 patients with severe ocular surface disease refractory to conventional medical therapy. Patients were treated six...

  9. Human Serum Eye Drops in Eye Alterations: An Insight and a Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosaria De Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum contains a physiological plethora of bioactive elements naturally released by activated platelets which might have a significant effect on the regeneration of corneal layers by stimulating the cell growth. This mechanism supported the use of human serum eye drops in some ocular diseases associated with dystrophic changes and alterations of the tear film, such as persistent corneal epithelial defects and dry eye syndrome. We focused our effort on potential benefits and limitations of the use of human serum eye drops when conventional therapies failed. We reviewed the recent literature by reporting published studies from 2010 to 2014. Despite the limited evaluated study populations, most of the clinical studies have confirmed that serum eye drop therapy is effective in corneal healing by reducing ocular symptom, particularly during the short-term follow-up. In addition, three recent published studies have shown the efficacy of the serum eye drop therapy in comparison to traditional ones in intractable patients. Besides, reported ongoing clinical studies confirmed the open debate regarding the use of biologic tools for cornea regeneration. Results from these studies might open novel challenges and perspectives in the therapy of such refractory patients.

  10. The Effect of Eye Drop Technique Education in Patients With Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Sayner, Robyn; Blalock, Susan J; Muir, Kelly W; Hartnett, Mary Elizabeth; Lawrence, Scott D; Giangiacomo, Annette L; Goldsmith, Jason A; Tudor, Gail E; Robin, Alan L; Sleath, Betsy L

    2016-08-01

    Education about how to administer eye drops may improve a patient's ability to instill his or her eye drops correctly. Our objectives were to (a) document the methods providers use to educate glaucoma patients about eye drop technique; (b) determine whether eye drop technique education varies by provider and patient characteristics; and (c) evaluate whether education predicts improved patient technique. We conducted an 8-month longitudinal study of 279 glaucoma patients and 15 providers in which we recorded on videotape the content of glaucoma office visits at two time points (baseline and 4- to 6-week follow-up) and videotaped patient eye drop technique at three time points (baseline, 4- to 6-week follow-up, and 8-month follow-up). Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were used to determine whether education was associated with improved patient eye drop technique over time. Ninety-four patients (34%) received technique education at either visit; 31% received verbal education and 10% received a technique demonstration. Only 24 patients (47%) who were new to eye drops received technique education at the baseline visit. Patients who were new to drops at baseline (p = .008) and patients who asked a question about drops (p drop technique education occurs infrequently during glaucoma office visits. Future studies should compare the effectiveness of different educational methods, such as patient demonstration versus provider verbal instruction, to determine which method is best at improving patient eye drop technique. PMID:26751938

  11. Effect of Tropicamide and Homatropine Eye Drops on A-Scan Parameters of the Phakic Normal Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Jagdish Bhatia

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: A prospective study to evaluate the changes in A-Scan axial parameters of phakic normal eyes before and after instillation of 1�0topical Tropicamide and 2�0Homatropine eye drops.Methods: Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous chamber length, and ocular axial length were measured in 76 eyes before and after cycloplegia induced by 1�0topical Tropicamide, and in 28 eyes with 2�0Homatropine eye drops.Results: Anterior chamber depth demonstrated increase from baseline reading...

  12. Protective role of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) against gamma irradiation-induced ophthalmic and histological changes in rat's eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. This study examined the protective ability of aspirin against radiation-induced ophthalmic and histological disorders in the eye of rats exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose of gamma irradiation, Acetylsalicylic acid was given daily to rats in drinking water (2.5 g/ L) 1 week pre-irradiation, during irradiation and 9 weeks post-irradiation. Experimental investigations showed that irradiation caused cataract formation. Irradiation also caused histopathological changes in the retina of the eyes described as focal degeneration and necrosis of the inner and outer nuclear layers, vacuolation of ganglionic cell layer as well as necrosis of retinal inner and outer segments of the rods and cones. The cornea revealed vacuolation of stratified epithelial layer, edema in substantia propria with dispersion of the connective tissue as well as presence of extravasated red blood cells as a result of exposure to radiation. The lens became homogenous and oesinophilic due to radiation exposure. The eye tissues of rats .that received acetylsalicylic acid supplement showed slight improvement of radiation-induced histological damage in the eyes and it also delayed the onset of cataract formation. According to the results obtained it could be concluded that oral administration of aspirin gave only a slight, nonsignificant reduction of eye radiation injury after exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the visual system make the eye uniquely vulnerable to damage from injurious agents, physical and chemical. Although many studies were conducted on a broad range of agents, the majority of all efforts are directed at deleterious effect of radiation on the eye tissues, and

  13. Semifluorinated Alkane Eye Drops for Treatment of Dry Eye Disease—A Prospective, Multicenter Noninterventional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Dieter; Krösser, Sonja; Beckert, Michael; Cursiefen, Claus; Kaercher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Evaporation of the tear film is heavily discussed as one core reason for dry eye disease (DED). Subsequently, new artificial tear products are developed that specifically target this pathomechanism. Perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8, NovaTears®) from the family of semifluorinated alkanes is a novel substance that has been approved as a medical device, as a nonblurring wetting agent for the ocular surface. Methods: Thirty patients with hyperevaporative dry eye received F6H8 during a prospective, multicenter, observational 6-week study. Patients were advised to apply 1 drop 4 times daily in both eyes. Parameters assessed included best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, Schirmer I test, tear fluid, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), corneal staining, meibum secretion, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI©). Results: From the 30 patients recruited, 25 completed the trial per protocol. Four patients discontinued F6H8 and 1 patient did not present for follow-up. F6H8 treatment led to significant reduction of corneal staining and significant increase of Schirmer I and TFBUT. In addition, OSDI score dropped significantly from a mean of 55 (±23.0) to 34 (±22.4). Visual acuity and ocular pressure did not change. Conclusions: This prospective observational study shows significant beneficial effects in patients suffering from evaporative DED, using F6H8 in all the relevant parameters tested. The decrease of the OSDI by a mean of 21 points was particularly remarkable and clearly exceeds minimal, clinical important differences for mild or moderate and severe disease. Overall, F6H8 (NovaTears) seems to be safe and effective in treating mild to moderate hyperevaporative DED. PMID:26296040

  14. Evaluation of clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye disease using lubricant eye drops containing polyethylene glycol or carboxymethylcellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen S; Martin A; Sall K

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Cohen,1 Anna Martin,2 Kenneth Sall31Cohen Optometry, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 2Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 3Sall Research Medical Center Inc, Artesia, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in corneal staining in patients with dry eye after 6 weeks of treatment with Systane® Gel Drops or Refresh Liquigel® lubricant eye drops.Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with a sodium fluorescein corneal staining sum score of ≥3 in either eye ...

  15. Evaluation of clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye disease using lubricant eye drops containing polyethylene glycol or carboxymethylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Cohen,1 Anna Martin,2 Kenneth Sall31Cohen Optometry, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 2Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 3Sall Research Medical Center Inc, Artesia, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in corneal staining in patients with dry eye after 6 weeks of treatment with Systane® Gel Drops or Refresh Liquigel® lubricant eye drops.Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with a sodium fluorescein corneal staining sum score of ≥3 in either eye and best-corrected visual acuity of 0.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution or better in each eye who were using a lubricant eye gel or ointment for dry eye were included in this randomized, parallel-group, multicenter, double-blind trial. Patients were randomized to four times daily Systane® Gel Drops (polyethylene glycol 400 0.4% and propylene glycol 0.3% or Refresh LiquiGel® Drops (carboxymethylcellulose sodium 1% for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change from baseline to week 6 in sodium fluorescein corneal staining. Supportive efficacy outcomes included conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time, Patient Global Assessment of Improvement, Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL Treatment Satisfaction/Treatment Bother Questionnaire, Single Symptom Comfort Scale, and Ocular Symptoms Questionnaire. The safety analysis comprised recording of adverse events.Results: In total, 147 patients (Systane group, n=73; Refresh group, n=74; mean ± standard deviation age, 57±16 years were enrolled and included in the safety and efficacy analyses. Corneal staining was significantly reduced from baseline to week 6 for Systane and Refresh (−3.4±2.5 and −2.5±2.6 units, respectively; P<0.0001, t-test, with a significantly greater improvement with Systane versus Refresh (P=0.0294. Results for conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time, and patient-reported outcome questionnaires were not statistically different between groups. No safety

  16. Suspected Central Anticholinergic Syndrome Related to Cycloplegic Eye Drop in a Premature Baby

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    Berrin Işık

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic approach for the central anticholinergic syndrome after application of cycloplegic eye drops in a premature infant patient who was scheduled for laser photocoagulation under general anesthesia is reviewed in the light of the relevant literature.

  17. Suspected Central Anticholinergic Syndrome Related to Cycloplegic Eye Drop in a Premature Baby

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Işık; Ahmet Hondur; Fatma Akgün; Nurdan Bedirli

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic approach for the central anticholinergic syndrome after application of cycloplegic eye drops in a premature infant patient who was scheduled for laser photocoagulation under general anesthesia is reviewed in the light of the relevant literature.

  18. Eye drop administration in patients attending and not attending a glaucoma education center

    OpenAIRE

    Aisha Al-Busaidi; Debbie Anne Samek; Oscar Kasner

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess the technique of glaucoma eye drop instillation in patients who have and have not attended glaucoma education sessions. To compare this with their subjective perception of eye drop use and identify factors associated with improved performance. Patients and Methods: An observational study of 55 participants who instill their topical glaucoma medication for more than 1 year. Twenty-five patients attended (A) glaucoma teaching sessions >1 year before the study and were ...

  19. Application of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Ping Yin; Chun-Mei Wang

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To observe and study the comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia.METHODS:Eighty-four children with hyperopia who were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry in our hospital from February 2014 to March 2015 were selected as the research object,and they were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry by tropicamide or hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops. The diopter, pupil diameter an...

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and anti- allergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  1. Lipid-containing osmoprotective eye drops in contact lens wearers

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    Aslan Bayhan S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seray Aslan Bayhan, Hasan Ali Bayhan Ophthalmology Department, Bozok University Faculty of Medicine, Yozgat, TurkeyWe would like to congratulate Kaercher et al1 on their prospective study of Optive Plus (Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA in the treatment of patients with dry eye. In this study the authors reported that Optive Plus effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of patients with all types of dry eye and they recommended the use of this artificial tear especially in lipid-deficient dry eye. We think that some important issues need more thorough discussion.View original paper by Kaercher and colleagues.

  2. Application of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ping Yin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe and study the comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry for children with hyperopia.METHODS:Eighty-four children with hyperopia who were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry in our hospital from February 2014 to March 2015 were selected as the research object,and they were intervened with mydriasis test and optometry by tropicamide or hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops. The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration and at different time after administration of the two methods were compared,and the detected results of the two groups with different severity degree were compared too.RESULTS:The diopter, pupil diameter and residual regulation before administration of the two eye drops had no significant differences(all P>0.05,while the residual regulation after using hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops at 20, 40, 60min and 24h were all smaller than those after using tropicamide(all PP>0.05. The pupil diameter of the two groups at 48h after administration both had no significant differences to those before administration(all P>0.05.CONCLUSION:The comprehensive application effect of hydrochloric cyclopentolate eye drops in the mydriasis test and optometry of children with hyperopia is better,and its paralysis effect for ciliaris is obvious.

  3. Stability of oxytetracycline hydrochloride in eye-drops, prepared in pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izer, K; Török, I; Pintér-Magyar, G

    1994-03-01

    In the ophthalmological practice the so-called "Oxytetracycline-eye-drop" is frequently used, prepared in pharmacies ex tempore with a short self-life (3 days). In this paper a TLC-densitometric method is described for the determination of the degradation products of oxytetracycline HCl (OTC) formed in the "Oxytetracycline-eye-drop". A chloroform-methanol-water (65 + 25 + 5 v/v) solvent system is applied on silica gel TLC plate, predeveloped with saturated disodium ethylenediamine-tetraacetate aqueous solution. UV densitometry at 254 nm is used for quantitative determination. The chemical stability of OTC in different eye-drops as well as the effects of the pH and the mode of the preparation and storage conditions on the decomposition process are discussed. PMID:8017210

  4. Bronchoconstriction following instillation of phenylephrine eye drops in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: two cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jee; Choi, Jin Guk; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    2015-12-01

    Premature infants requiring an ophthalmic examination or even surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have a high prevalence of co-existing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Reactive airway is one of the clinical presentations of BPD. We report two cases of bronchoconstriction following instillation of mydriatic eye drops. One occurred during induction of anesthesia for laser photocoagulation and the other before screening of ROP. The most likely cause in each case was phenylephrine eye drops. We recommend that the minimal dosage of phenylephrine needed to attain proper mydriasis should be instilled to infant patients, and the possibility of bronchoconstriction occurrence kept in mind, especially for infants with low body weight with BPD. PMID:26634087

  5. Cyclosporine a 0.05% eye drops for the treatment of subepithelial infiltrates after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Okumus Seydi; Coskun Erol; Tatar Mehmet; Kaydu Erdal; Yayuspayi Ramazan; Comez Aysegul; Erbagci Ibrahim; Gurler Bulent

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To evaluate the treatment with topical 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients with subepithelial corneal infiltrates (SEI). Methods We reviewed 16 patients (22 eyes) before and after the treatment with 0.05% CsA eye drops. All patients had been treated previously with topical corticosteroids without any improvement and also they had to stop the medication secondary to intraocular pressure elevation. The objective data recorded included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ...

  6. Bronchoconstriction following instillation of phenylephrine eye drops in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: two cases report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Jee; Choi, Jin Guk; Kwak, Kyung-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Premature infants requiring an ophthalmic examination or even surgery for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) have a high prevalence of co-existing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Reactive airway is one of the clinical presentations of BPD. We report two cases of bronchoconstriction following instillation of mydriatic eye drops. One occurred during induction of anesthesia for laser photocoagulation and the other before screening of ROP. The most likely cause in each case was phenylephrine eye ...

  7. New therapeutic modality for corneal endothelial disease using Rho-associated kinase inhibitor eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-11-01

    Corneal endothelial dysfunction accompanied by visual disturbance is a primary indication for corneal endothelial transplantation. However, despite the value and potential of endothelial graft surgery, a strictly pharmacological approach for treating corneal endothelial dysfunction remains an attractive proposition. Previously, we reported that the selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 promotes cell adhesion and proliferation, and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. These findings have led us to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease using ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey models of partial endothelial dysfunction, we showed that corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated via the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, resulting in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density. Based on these animal studies, we are now attempting to advance the clinical application of ROCK inhibitor eye drops for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, and the effects of Y-27632 eye drops after transcorneal freezing were evaluated in 8 patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction. We observed a positive effect of ROCK inhibitor eye drops in treating patients with central edema caused by Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy. We believe that our new findings will contribute to the establishment of a new approach for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25289721

  8. Signicef® (levoflaxacin 0.5% eye drops in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Spiridonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the effect of levoflaxacin 0.5% eye drops/Signicef® (Promed Exports, India for prevention of infectious complications following ocular traumas and intraocular surgery as well as infectious disorders treatment.Methods: In retrospective analysis were included 102 cases of different ophthalmic pathologies following intraocular surgery, i.e., phacoemulsification (27 cases, extracapsular cataract extraction (40 cases, intravitreal injection/IVt of Lucentis (23 cases, abscess/phlegmon drainage (3 cases. Levofloxacin 0.5% (Signicef® Eye Drops was prescribed according to a scheme before and following ocular surgery for prevention and treatment of infectious complications.Results: No infectious complications following eye surgery or IVt were observed.Conclusion: Signicef® use as antibacterial mono-medication is reasonable and sufficient for prevention of post-op infectiouscomplications as well as ocular traumas and infectious corneal disorders treatment.

  9. Signicef® (levoflaxacin 0.5% eye drops in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Spiridonov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the effect of levoflaxacin 0.5% eye drops/Signicef® (Promed Exports, India for prevention of infectious complications following ocular traumas and intraocular surgery as well as infectious disorders treatment.Methods: In retrospective analysis were included 102 cases of different ophthalmic pathologies following intraocular surgery, i.e., phacoemulsification (27 cases, extracapsular cataract extraction (40 cases, intravitreal injection/IVt of Lucentis (23 cases, abscess/phlegmon drainage (3 cases. Levofloxacin 0.5% (Signicef® Eye Drops was prescribed according to a scheme before and following ocular surgery for prevention and treatment of infectious complications.Results: No infectious complications following eye surgery or IVt were observed.Conclusion: Signicef® use as antibacterial mono-medication is reasonable and sufficient for prevention of post-op infectiouscomplications as well as ocular traumas and infectious corneal disorders treatment.

  10. Autologous Serum Eye Drops for the Treatment of Persistent Corneal Epithelial Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of 10 patients at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, from September 2009 to August 2010 is reported. Follow-up of patients were done till February 2012. Patients with persistent corneal epithelial defects (PED) of minimum 2 weeks duration, in whom conventional therapy had failed, were included in the study. They were prescribed 100% autologous serum eye drops on hourly basis. When PED healed within 02 weeks, it was labeled as effective and when it healed within one month, it was labeled as partially effective. Six weekly follow-up was done for 18 months for all patients to document any recurrence of PED. Eight out of 10 patients had successful outcome i.e. 80% of PED healed within one month, out of which 7 patients had effective outcome. Autologous serum eye drops are safe, effective and minimally invasive modality in treating PED. (author)

  11. A comparative study of Bilvadi Yoga Ashchyotana and eye drops in Vataja Abhishyanda (Simple Allergic Conjunctivitis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jayshree; Vaghela, D B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Matalia, P D

    2012-01-01

    Simple allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy (prevalence 5 - 22 %). It is a hypersensitivity reaction to specific airborne antigens. The disease Vataja Abhishyanda, which is due to vitiation of Vata Pradhana Tridosha is comparable with this condition. The management of simple allergic conjunctivitis in modern ophthalmology is very expensive and it should be followed lifelong and Ayurveda can provide better relief in such manifestation. This is the first research study on Vataja Abhishyanda. Patients were selected from the Outpatient Department (OPD), Inpatient Department (IPD), of the Shalakya Tantra Department and were randomly divided into two groups. In Group-A Bilvadi Ashchyotana and in Group-B Bilvadi eye drops were instilled for three months. Total 32 patients were registered and 27 patients completed the course of treatment. Bilvadi Ashchyotana gave better results in Toda, Sangharsha, Parushya, Kandu and Ragata as compared with Bilvadi Eye Drops in Vataja Abhishyanda. PMID:23049192

  12. Ciprofloxacin eye drops-induced subtherapeutic serum phenytoin levels resulting in breakthrough seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malladi, Srinivasa Sastry; Liew, Emily Kai Suen; Ng, Xiao Ting; Tan, Rita Kheng Siew

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of temporal lobe epilepsy-induced psychotic episodes was initially admitted to a general hospital where she was started on a course of oral antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia, and ciprofloxacin eye drops to treat nasolacrimal duct obstruction. After one week, the patient was discharged back to a nursing home with these medications. However, she was admitted to our psychiatric ward two days later due to a relapse of psychosis. Another six days later, she developed breakthrough seizures associated with subtherapeutic serum phenytoin levels. Having explored all possible causes of reduced serum phenytoin levels, ciprofloxacin eye drops was discontinued in the patient, resulting in gradual return of phenytoin levels to the therapeutic range, with no further seizures observed in the patient. PMID:25091892

  13. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ferreiro, Anxo; González-Barcia, Miguel; Gil-Martínez, María; Santiago Varela, María; Pardo, María; Blanco-Méndez, José; Piñeiro-Ces, Antonio; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Otero-Espinar, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA)], and the Hen's Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used. PMID:27570987

  14. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist eye drops promoting high-risk corneal allografts survival in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    接英; 张文华; 潘志强; 武宇影; 王颖

    2004-01-01

    Background Immune rejection is the main reason of grafts failure after corneal transplantation. This study was to determine whether interlerkin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) eye drops could prolong corneal allografts survival in high-risk corneal orthotopic allotransplantation in rat model and to study the effect of IL-1ra on the expression of CD1-positive cells in the grafts. Methods For all experiments, the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats' corneas were transplanted into Wistar rats' eyes. High-risk transplants included those that had been sutured into Wistar recipient beds with corneal neovascularization induced by placement of three interrupted sutures in the host cornea 7 days earlier. All the animals were divided, in a masked fashion, into three treatment groups and one control group. Each treatment group received IL-1ra eye drops of different concentrations (1 mg/ml, 3 mg/ml, or 5 mg/ml, respectively) four times a day for 30 days. The control group received 0.9% normal saline (NS) eye drops in the same way as the treatment groups. All allografts were evaluated for signs of rejection from the first day after surgery. Ten days later, corneal specimens were processed to examine the expression of CD1-positive cells and histopathological changes. Results The survival time of the transplants was 5.80±0.79, 5.89±1.05, 6.78±0.83, and 9.00±2.36 days respectively in the control or three treatment groups. Compared with the control group, 1 mg/ml IL-1ra eye drop did not prolong the survival time of the allografts (t=0.210, P>0.05). However, 3 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml IL-1ra eye drop did prolong the survival time of the grafts (t≥2.627, P<0.05), with the latter showing more obvious effect. Immunohistochemical examinations showed a significant decrease in inflammatory cell and CD1-positive cell infiltration in IL-1ra treated groups compared with the control group. Conclusions IL-1ra can promote corneal allograft survival in a dose-dependant manner by reducing the infiltration of

  15. Suspected Central Anticholinergic Syndrome Related to Cycloplegic Eye Drop in a Premature Baby

    OpenAIRE

    Bedirli, Nurdan; Akgün, Fatma; Hondur, Ahmet; Işık, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic approach for the central anticholinergic syndrome after application of cycloplegic eye drops in a premature infant patient who was scheduled for laser photocoagulation under general anesthesia is reviewed in the light of the relevant literature Turkish Başlık: Prematüre Retinopatisi Olan Bebekte Sikloplejik Göz Damlasına Bağlı Santral Antikolinerjik Sendrom Şüphesi Anahtar Kelimeler: Santral antikolinerjik sendrom, siklopent...

  16. Identification of noncompliant glaucoma patients using Bayesian networks and the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Nordmann, Jean-Philippe; Baudouin, Christian; Renard, Jean-Paul; Denis, Philippe; Regnault, Antoine; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify poorly compliant glaucoma patients, using the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ). Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study with compliance data collected by an electronic monitoring device. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension completed the EDSQ, a six-dimension self-reported questionnaire addressing “treatment concern”, “disease concern”, “patient–clinician relationship”, “positive beliefs”, “treatment convenience”, a...

  17. Safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue K; Shiokawa M; Ishida K; Tomita G

    2015-01-01

    Kenji Inoue,1 Minako Shiokawa,1 Kyoko Ishida,2 Goji Tomita2 1Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (DTFC) eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (BTFC) eye drops in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: A total of 35 eyes of 35 p...

  18. Effect of Cyclosporin a Eye Drop on Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca and Its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jinghua; LIU Changming; ZHANG Yuzhao; WANG Hui

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) eye drop on keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS) and its mechanism were studied. The KCS models were established by injecting Pertussis vaccine, complete freunds adjuvant (CFA) and antigen of conjunctiva from isotype mice. Then the KCS models were treated with cyclosporin A eye drop. Changes in breaking-up time (BUT), lacrimal secretion in 30 min and diversion in 24 h were measured. The percentage of beaker cells, the lymphocytic infiltration in conjunctiva were observed. The expression levels of Aquaporin-3(AQP3) in conjunctiva epithelial cells, beaker cells and accessory lacrimal gland were immunohistochemically detected. The results showed that there were significant differences in BUT, the percentage of beaker cells, lacrimal secretion in 30 min, the lymphocytic infiltration and the expression of AQP3 between the experimental group and an control group. It was concludedthat CsA eye drop exerts marked therapeutic effect on KCS by inhibiting T lymph cells, increasing the goblet cells and AQP3 expression in conjunctiva.

  19. Aspirin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002542.htm Aspirin overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your ...

  20. Cytokine profile of autologous platelet-derived eye drops in patients with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, C G; Nuzzolo, E R; Orlando, N; Metafuni, E; Bianchi, M; Chiusolo, P; Zini, G; Teofili, L

    2016-02-01

    Ocular chronic GVHD is efficaciously treated with autologous platelet-derived eye drops. We investigated the cytokine content of eye drops produced using a non-gelified lysate obtained from autologous platelet-rich plasma in six patients with ocular GVHD. In both the responding (n = 4) and the resistant (n = 2) patients, the eye drops were significantly enriched with various growth factors, in amounts proportional with the platelet counts. In contrast, chemokine ligand and interleukin levels were similar to those of plasma. The non-responding patients showed the highest levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10. These findings provide possible explanations for beneficial or detrimental effects of eye drops. PMID:26383050

  1. Regulation of retinal proteome by topical antiglaucomatous eye drops in an inherited glaucoma rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Schallenberg

    Full Text Available Examination of the response of the retinal proteome to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP and to the pharmacological normalization of IOP is crucial, in order to develop drugs with neuroptorective potential. We used a hereditary rat model of ocular hypertension to lower IOP with travaprost and dorzolamide applied topically on the eye surface, and examine changes of the retinal proteome. Our data demonstrate that elevated IOP causes alterations in the retinal protein profile, in particular in high-mobility-group-protein B1 (HMGB1, calmodulin, heat-shock-protein (HSP 70 and carbonic anhydrase II expression. The changes of the retinal proteome by dorzolamide or travoprost are different and independent of the IOP lowering effect. This fact suggests that the eye drops exert a direct IOP-independent effect on retinal metabolism. Further investigations are required to elucidate the potential neuroprotective mechanisms signaled through changes of HMGB1, calmodulin, HSP70 and carbonic anhydrase II expression in glaucoma. The data may facilitate development of eye drops that exert neuroprotection through direct pharmacological effect.

  2. Quality standards, safety and efficacy of blood-derived serum eye drops: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Seghatchian, Jerard; Marks, Denese C

    2016-02-01

    Serum eye drops (SEDs) are being used increasingly to treat dry eye syndrome and persistent corneal epithelial defects, and are usually prescribed when conventional treatments fail. SEDs are commonly sourced from the patient's own blood via an autologous collection. Although SEDs are clearly beneficial, they are not available for those patients that cannot donate sufficient blood, and some centres are moving to allogeneic SEDs. Many studies have reported that both allogeneic and autologous SEDs are effective. However, few large randomised controlled trials have been conducted to date, and clinical evidence is therefore limited to smaller studies. Alternatives to serum are also being explored, such as platelet lysate and products made from platelet rich plasma, as they are a rich source of growth factors. This article reviews how some centres are approaching allogeneic collections for SEDs, and alternatives to serum that are currently being explored. PMID:26847866

  3. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  4. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  5. Objective and subjective assessing efficacy of a lubricating drop in eyes wearing silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Asharlous, Amir; Mirzajani, Ali; JAFARZADEHPUR, Ebrahim; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of a lubricating drop on optical quality, tear film stability, and subjective symptoms in individuals wearing silicone hydrogel contact lens. Methods In this one-day, prospective single-center clinical study, Pre-lens Tear Deformation Time (PL-TDT), Root-Mean-Square (RMS) of Low Order Aberrations (LOA) and High Order Aberrations (HOA), individual twelve Zernike coefficients, and subjective symptoms were assessed in 43 volunteers (mean age 19.58 ± 1.63, 86 eye...

  6. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  7. Levocabastine eye drops are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunello Wüthrich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label, prospective, multicentre, 4-week trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy and tolerability of twice daily levocabastine eye drops (0.5 mg/ml, with sodium cromoglycate nasal spray for the relief of concurrent nasal symptoms if required, in a total of 233 children with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. No correlation between efficacy, tolerability and age was found. Investigator assessments revealed that the total severity of ocular symptoms decreased by 84 ± 34% in patients < 12 years and 85 ± 30% in those ≥ 12 years, with corresponding reductions in the total severity of ocular findings of 84% in both patient groups over the 4-week treatment period. Global assessments of therapeutic efficacy revealed the effect of therapy on ocular symptoms to be excellent or good in 81% of patients < 12 years and 82% of those ≥ 12 years after 2 weeks of treatment, with corresponding values at the end of the trial of 88% and 82% in the two groups, respectively. Treatment tolerability was considered to be excellent or good by 94% of patients overall. Application site reactions were the most common adverse event associated with ocular levocabastine, occurring in 13% of patients < 12 years and 9% of those ≥ 12 years. Twice daily levocabastine eye drops therefore appear to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis in children.

  8. Aspirin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  9. Cyclodextrin-poloxamer aggregates as nanocarriers in eye drop formulations: dexamethasone and amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansook, Phatsawee; Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Muankaew, Chutimon; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2016-09-01

    In this present study cyclodextrin (CD)-poloxamer aggregates were characterized and developed as ophthalmic drug carriers. The combined effect of γCD/2-hydroxypropyl-γCD (HPγCD) mixtures and poloxamer on solubilization and permeability of two model drugs, dexamethasone (Dex) and amphotericin B (AmB), was investigated. The CD-poloxamer interaction and complex aggregation were examined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), their solubilizing ability by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their particle size determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Formulations containing either 1.5% w/v Dex or 0.15% w/v AmB in eye drop suspensions containing various γCD/HPγCD ratios and poloxamer 407 (P407) were prepared. The solubility of the drugs, surface tension and hemolytic effect of the eye drops and drug permeation from selected formulations were determined. The (1)H-NMR study showed that P407 formed inclusion complex with CDs by inserting its poly(propylene oxide) segment into the CD cavity. P407 and γCD interacted with each other to form nanosized aggregates, and the observed concentration of dissolved γCD and P407 progressively decreased with increasing γCD and P407 concentrations. Including a high proportion of HPγCD improved the drug solubilization and reduced the hemolytic effect. The surface tension of the formulations decreased with increasing P407 concentration. Furthermore, increasing P407 content in the formulations enhanced formation of complex aggregates with consequent slower drug release. It was concluded that the drug/γCD/HPγCD complex was stabilized by P407 through formation of multi-component aggregates. Thus, CD-poloxamer aggregates are self-assembled nanocarriers from which drug delivery characteristics can be adjusted by changing the γCD/HPγCD/P407 ratios. PMID:26765786

  10. Assessing the adherence behavior of glaucoma patients to topical eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welge-Lussen U

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Welge-Lussen,1 Stefanie Weise,2 Alice L Yu3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the adherence of glaucoma patients to their topical glaucoma medication. Furthermore, the relationships between the adherence behavior and the patients’ demographic data, clinical characteristics, and their knowledge about glaucoma were evaluated. Methods: This was a prospective study of 123 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma who were given two standardized questionnaires. The first questionnaire at time point T1 comprised a knowledge assessment and the self-reported adherence measures Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale 2 (ARMS2, visual analogue scale for adherence (VAS-AD, and missed doses in the past 14 days. Two months later at time point T2, a second questionnaire reevaluated the adherence measures ARMS2, VAS-AD, and missed doses in the past 14 days. Results: There was a good correlation among all the three adherence measures at T1 and T2. The mean values of ARMS2 were in the lower range, with 3.38 at T1 and 2.8 at T2. The VAS-AD detected that 18.5% of patients always took their eye drops correctly, and 77.9% of patients reported not to have missed a single dose in the past 14 days. There was no significant correlation between the patients’ demographic data or knowledge about glaucoma and the adherence measures ARMS2 or VAS-AD. Among the clinical characteristics, only single-eye blindness showed a significant correlation with VAS-AD. Conclusion: In this study, no general relationships were found between medication adherence and the patients’ demographic data, clinical characteristics, or knowledge about glaucoma. It may be assumed that more individualized strategies are required to optimize

  11. Validation of a chromatographic method for quantitation of 50 μg/mL Latanoprost in a Cuban eye drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latanoprost is indicated to treat high intraocular pressure in patients suffering from ocular hypertension or from open angle glaucoma. To develop and to validate a high performance liquid chromatography-based analytical method for quality control of 50 μg/mL Latanoprost eye drops

  12. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  13. Safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue,1 Minako Shiokawa,1 Kyoko Ishida,2 Goji Tomita2 1Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (DTFC eye drops to brinzolamide 1.0%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed-combination (BTFC eye drops in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: A total of 35 eyes of 35 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension using DTFC eye drops were included. Participants discontinued DTFC drops and immediately began using BTFC drops. All other eye drops currently being used were continued. Intraocular pressure (IOP 1 and 3 months after switching medications was compared with baseline IOP. One month after switching medications, participant preference and adherence were evaluated. Adverse reactions were monitored at each study visit. Results: The IOP was 17.9±2.6 mmHg at baseline and 18.3±4.1 mmHg and 17.8±3.4 mmHg 1 month and 3 months after switching medications, respectively (P=0.633. The frequency of missing a dose was not different before (6.1% and after (6.1% switching to BTFC. Significantly fewer participants reported stinging after switching to BTFC (15.2% than while using DTFC (51.5%, P<0.01. Blurred vision was reported with the same frequency before (39.4% and after (42.4% switching to BTFC. A total of 33.3% and 27.3% of patients preferred DTFC and BTFC, respectively. Several patients withdrew from the study because of discomfort (n=2, 5.7%, discharge (n=1, 2.9%, dizziness (n=1, 2.9%, or increased IOP (n=2, 5.7%. Conclusion: Switching from DTFC to BTFC was well tolerated and did not result in IOP changes or a decreased patient adherence. When glaucoma patients complain of stinging with DTFC administration, switching to BTFC is an acceptable treatment option. Keywords: brinzolamide/timolol fixed

  14. Decomposition of pilocarpine eye drops assessed by a highly efficient high pressure liquid chromatographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuks, P F; Weekers, L E; Goldhoorn, P B

    1990-10-19

    A rapid high-resolution high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed for assaying pilocarpine. Pilocarpine in ophthalmic solutions decomposes fairly rapidly to give isopilocarpine, pilocarpic acid and isopilocarpic acid. The quality of an ophthalmic solution can be assessed by assaying these decomposition products. Existing high pressure liquid chromatographic methods suffer from long analysis times and poor resolution. The new method uses as the mobile phase 6 ml/l of triethylamine in water (pH 2.3, adjusted with 85% phosphoric acid) at a flow of 1.5 ml/min and as the stationary phase a C18-silica 125 x 4.6 mm column. 2-Amino-1-phenyl-1,3-propanediol is used as an internal standard. Complete separation was obtained within 8 min. Pilocarpine eye drops were stored under different conditions and then analysed for decomposition products. During heat treatment, decomposition to isopilocarpine predominated over decomposition to pilocarpic or isopilocarpic acid. However, when stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator, formation of pilocarpic acid clearly prevailed. Thus, from assessment of decomposition products, the cause of decomposition can be established. PMID:2255589

  15. Effect of preserved and preservative-free timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ilechie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preserved versus nonpreserved formulations for ophthalmic use have been well described in the literature although not specifically in the African population where beta blockers are frequently used as the first-line therapy due to economic and availability issues. This study sought to determine the effect of preserved and preservative-free Timolol eye drops on tear film stability in healthy black Africans. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy nondry eye subjects aged 19–25 years were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 15 and differently treated with eye drops of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, preservative-free timolol (PFT, benzalkonium chloride (BAK only, and BAK-preserved timolol (BPT. Noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT was measured using the keratometer at baseline and 30, 60, and 90 min after drop application. Results: No significant decline in NITBUT was observed following treatment with PFT and PBS. However, BAK treatment showed a positive time-dependent significant decline in NITBUT (P < 0.001 while a significant decline in the BPT-treated group was only found at 90 min (−3.52 s; P < 0.001. In comparison to the PFT-treated group, treatment with BAK and BPT showed significantly lower NITBUT (P < 0.001. Conclusion: BPT is associated with a significant decline in tear film stability in black Africans. This finding has implications in the management of glaucoma in patients with high-risk of dry eyes in this population.

  16. Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops in Comparison with Azelastine Containing Nasal Spray and Eye Drops or with Cromoglycic Acid Containing Nasal Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Werkhäuser; Andreas Bilstein; Uwe Sonnemann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease with increasing prevalence and high impact on economic burden and comorbidities. As treatment with pharmacological drugs is not always satisfactory due to side effects and incomplete efficacy, alternative treatment strategies are needed. Ectoine is an osmolyte with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. Nasal spray and eye drops containing ectoine are promising new treatment regimens for allergic rhinitis sufferers. Design ...

  17. Cyclosporine a 0.05% eye drops for the treatment of subepithelial infiltrates after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumus Seydi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the treatment with topical 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA in patients with subepithelial corneal infiltrates (SEI. Methods We reviewed 16 patients (22 eyes before and after the treatment with 0.05% CsA eye drops. All patients had been treated previously with topical corticosteroids without any improvement and also they had to stop the medication secondary to intraocular pressure elevation. The objective data recorded included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, evaluation of corneal subepithelial infiltrate scores (CSIS, intraocular pressure (IOP prior to treatment and the last follow-up visit. Results Six males (37.5% and 10 females (62.5%, mean age of 35.2 ± 16.6 years, were included. The patients’ average topical CsA use duration was 5.1 ± 3.5 months (1 – 13 months. The average follow up time of the patients was 9.2 ± 4.7 months (4 – 22 months. One patient, although he didn’t have a 0 scale of SCIS, did not show up for follow up examinations after six months. The mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution before and after the treatment were 0.15 ± 0.15 and 0.07 ± 0.07 respectively, CSIS 1.68 ± 0.89 and 0.23 ± 0.53 respectively, IOP 18.50 ± 3.82 and 16.86 ± 2.76 mmHg respectively. There were statistically significant improvements in BCVA (p = 0.002, reduction of CSIS (p = 0.002 and reduction of IOP (p  Conclusions Topical 0.05% CsA is a safe and effective alternative treatment in patients with SEI who do not respond to other treatment modalities or have undesired side effects from topical steroids.

  18. [Legal regulations to produce serum eye drops : when is it necessary, and how can it be obtained?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, G; Grus, F; Seitz, B; Hartwig, D; Schirra, F

    2008-07-01

    According to European Union and German legislation, the production of medicines such as eye drops from autologous serum requires a license from an appropriate authority. However, an exemption is granted to medical doctors who produce and apply medications under their immediate responsibility. If doctors do not actually produce such medications themselves, they must select appropriate personnel to do so. These individuals have to be sufficiently qualified and reliable and must be carefully instructed on the standard quality and manufacturing procedures, although the doctors are responsible for controlling the production and quality of the final product. The treating physicians are also responsible for the appropriate application of the produced medications. To dispense medication to patients without an appropriate license is considered a criminal offense. We describe how two German hospitals have established the production of serum eye drops in full compliance with legal regulations. PMID:18587585

  19. A pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops and brimonidine 0.2% eye drops in patients of primary open-angle glaucoma/ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navreet Kaur Natt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare efficacy and cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% and brimonidine 0.2% in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG/ocular hypertension (OHT. Settings and Design: Open, randomized, cross-over, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients of POAG or OHT with intraocular pressure (IOP <30 mm Hg were included in the study after a written informed consent. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 20 patients each. Patients of group A were administered bimatoprost 0.03% eye drops once daily, and those of group B brimonidine 0.2% eye drops twice daily for a period of 4 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, the patients were crossed over that is, group A was administered brimonidine 0.2% and group B bimatoprost 0.03%. Fall in IOP at 4 weeks was recorded. The daily cost of each drug was calculated by maximum retail price and the average number of drops per bottle. The cost-effectiveness was then calculated as the cost of drug/mm Hg fall in IOP. Statistics: Independent samples t-test was used to compare the efficacy of both drugs. Results: IOP lowering with bimatoprost (8.9 ± 1.598 mm Hg was significantly (P < 0.0001 higher than brimonidine (6.55 ± 1.26 mm Hg. The number of drops/ml were 33.43 ± 0.52 and 25.49 ± 0.26, respectively, for bimatoprost and brimonidine. Treatment with bimatoprost was costlier than brimonidine with daily costs/eye Rs. 4.02 ± 0.06 and 3.14 ± 0.03, yearly costs/eye Rs. 1467.46 ± 20.74 and 1147.75 ± 11.15, respectively. Bimatoprost was more cost-effective than brimonidine with the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER respectively Rs. 13.10 ± 2.61/mm Hg and Rs. 13.96 ± 2.86/mm Hg. Incremental CER Rs. 10.43/mm Hg implies lower costs/mm Hg extra IOP lowering by bimatoprost than Rs. 13.96 for brimonidine. Conclusion: In spite of being costlier, bimatoprost is more efficacious and cost-effective than brimonidine.

  20. Development of the conceptual framework for the Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ© in glaucoma using a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudeau Elyse

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compliance is a major issue in glaucoma care. It is usually poor in glaucomatous patients, and may ultimately result in an acceleration of the disease progression and a risk of blindness. Reasons for this poor compliance are complex and multifactorial, amongst which patient satisfaction can be counted. The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to develop the questionnaire. An interview guide was developed based on a literature review. Structured interviews of fifteen French and English patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension were conducted by trained interviewers of the native language of the interviewees. General concepts and subconcepts were identified from the transcripts. The questionnaire was developed using the patient verbatim, and submitted to six patients (French and English for cognitive debriefing. Following patients' comments, items were modified and restructured, and a pilot questionnaire was designed. Results Analysis of data from the interviews with patients and clinicians resulted in the elicitation of concepts related to patient satisfaction and compliance with glaucomatous treatment. These were further refined and used to generate a test questionnaire, which consisted of 46 items grouped into 6 domains: patient characteristics, treatment characteristics, patient-clinician relationship, patient experience with the disease and the treatment, interaction between the patient and the treatment, and patient knowledge of the disease and the treatment. Conclusion The Eye-Drop Satisfaction Questionnaire (EDSQ conceptual framework and items were developed simultaneously in French and in English. This questionnaire could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction and compliance with eye-drop treatment and would facilitate the identification of patients at risk

  1. An evaluation of the pharmaceutical quality and antimicrobial effectiveness of some frequently used eye drop products available for sale in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel O Akinkunmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Eye drop products must be properly packaged and must be sterile throughout the period of use. For this reason, we evaluated eye drops offered for sale and used for the treatment of eye diseases in Nigeria for their pharmaceutical quality and antimicrobial effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Eleven different sterile eye-drop product samples containing gentamicin, chloramphenicol, timolol, tropicamide, tetrahydrozoline, pilocarpine, antazoline-tetryzoline, diclofenac, dexamethasone, and flubiprofen were opened and tested for bacterial contamination after exposure to air over 56 days. To assess the possibility of contaminations by pathogens due to repeated handling during use about 10 7 -10 8 cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans were added to other newly opened eye drops and incubated at room temperature. Samples were collected and the number of viable organisms was estimated. Eye-drop product samples were also investigated for packaging, pH, and clarity. Results: No viable microorganisms were detected in the eye drops during and at the end of the 56 days exposure to air. All the samples exhibited rapid bactericidal and fungicidal activities at a rate which depended on the species of pathogens and the content of the sample. The anti-infective samples demonstrated the highest rapidity in microbicidal activities. There were no microbial survivors in any of the samples after 4 h of inoculation by pathogens. Conclusions: The study concluded that generally multi-dose eye drop products offered for sale in Nigeria were of acceptable microbial quality and possessed good antimicrobial effectiveness.

  2. Systane® lubricant eye drops in the management of ocular dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benelli U

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Umberto BenelliDepartment of Neurosciences, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The understanding of dry eye disease has advanced recently through increasing recognition that the etiology of the condition involves both tear evaporation and insufficient tear production, and that tear film instability and inflammation play roles in the various stages of the disease. Of significance, it has been recognized that lipid layer thickness correlates with tear film stability. The management of dry eye involves various strategies and therapeutic approaches that address one or more etiopathological components of the disease. The purpose of this review is to outline the characteristics and clinical utility of the Systane® ocular lubricants that contain hydroxypropyl-guar and one or both of the demulcents, ie, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. Clinically, these products are safe and are indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye. In particular, this review describes the formulations, mechanisms of action, and clinical utility of the newest additions to this topical ocular lubricant family, Systane Ultra® and Systane Balance®. Both of these ocular products are formulated with an intelligent delivery system and both provide symptomatic relief to patients with dry eye. However, Systane Balance is a novel formulation that contains both polymer and lipid components designed to protect the ocular surface and replenish tear film lipids simultaneously, a factor that is of particular relevance to patients who have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction.Keywords: Systane Ultra, Systane Balance, dry eye, hydroxypropyl-guar, meibomian gland dysfunction, dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol 

  3. Anti-Apoptotic Gene Delivery with cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr Peptide Nanotube via Eye Drop Following Corneal Epithelial Debridement

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    Yu-Hsing Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Corneal keratocyte apoptosis triggered by cornel debridement is one mechanism of corneal disorders. In this study, the feasibility of cyclo-(d-Trp-Tyr peptide nanotubes (PNTs as carriers of caspase 3 silence shRNA delivery was assessed. A model of epithelial injury by epithelial debridement was applied to investigate the feasibility of PNTs as gene delivery carriers on corneal injury. First, the PNTs were found within 2 μm in length and 300 nm in width by an atomic force microscope and confocal laser microscope system. Plasmid DNAs were observed to be associated with PNTs by atomic force microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The plasmids were associated with tyrosine of PNTs with a binding constant of 2.7 × 108 M−1. The stability of plasmid DNA with PNTs against the DNase was found at 60 min. Using thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs on the corneal eye drop delivery, the distribution of PNTs was in the epithelial and stroma regions. After corneal debridement, the rhodamine-labeled plasmid DNA and thioflavin T pre-stained PNTs were also delivered and could be observed in the stroma of cornea. PNTs complexed with anti-apoptotic plasmid caspase 3 silencing shRNA eye drop delivery decreased 41% of caspase 3 activity after the first dose by caspase 3 activity and Western blot analysis.

  4. A study to assess the feasibility of undertaking a randomized controlled trial of adherence with eye drops in glaucoma patients

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    Richardson C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cliff Richardson,1 Lisa Brunton,1 Nicola Olleveant,1 David B Henson,1 Mark Pilling,1 Jane Mottershead,2 Cecilia H Fenerty,2 Anne Fiona Spencer,2 Heather Waterman1 1School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Manchester, 2Royal Manchester Eye Hospital, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom Background: Adherence with therapy could influence the progression of glaucoma and ultimately affect the onset of visual impairment in some individuals. This feasibility study evaluated the measures to be used for a future randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of group-based education on adherence with eye drops. Methods: People diagnosed with glaucoma within the previous 12 months attending a regional ophthalmology clinic in the North West of England were recruited. A two-session education program delivered one week apart had been devised as part of a previous project. A combined adult learning and health needs approach to education was taken. Outcomes measured were knowledge of glaucoma, self-report of adherence, illness perception, beliefs about medicines, patient enablement, and general health (Short Form-12. Adherence was also measured objectively using a Medical Events Monitoring System device. Results: Twenty-six participants consented to undertake the educational program and 19 produced analyzable data. Knowledge of glaucoma, illness perception, beliefs about medicine, and patient enablement all showed statistically significant improvements after education. Mean adherence with eye drops was maintained above 85% before and for 3 months after attendance at the educational program. Self-report exaggerated adherence by at least 10% when compared with the objective Medical Events Monitoring System data, and in fact the kappa agreement was zero. Conclusion: All questionnaires other than the Short Form-12 were considered to be valuable measures and use of a Medical Events Monitoring System device was

  5. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Turgut Coban; Muhammet Kazim Erol; Ozgur Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was c...

  6. Comparison of Two Marketed Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Based Artificial Tear Drops in Young Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome

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    Haleh Kangari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial tears have been among the first line of therapy in management of Dry Eye Syndrome (DES. This study was conducted to compare a local artificial tear with an imported one in reduction of DES. This comparison would help to evaluate the cost and benefits of each drop in the proper management of DES.Materials and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, a total 65 students meeting our inclusion criteria for DES entered the study. The OSDI questionnaire, TBUT, corneal and conjunctival staining and Schirmer test, were performed. The patients were divided into two groups by block randomization. Group 1 received first drop and group 2 received second drop. Both groups were instructed to use the drops 4 times a day for 14 days. The same tests were performed by the same examiner who was blind to the treatment type after two weeks. Repeated measured ANOVA was used to analyze the data.Results: A total of 58 patients completed the study. In both groups, after the intervention, the OSDI scores (P<0.001, TBUT score (P=0.041, corneal (P<0.001 and conjunctival staining scores (P<0.001 showed improvement in compare to those before the intervention. However, the Schirmer test score did not show significantly difference before and after intervention. In comparing two groups the OSDI scores, the TBUT score, the corneal and conjunctival staining scores and the Schirmer scores did not show statistically significant difference.Conclusion: The two artificial tears equally reduced the symptoms and signs of DES in two weeks.

  7. Cefazolin-Gentamicin versus Vancomycin-Ceftazidime Eye Drops for Bacterial Corneal Ulcers; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Reza Dehghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of topical cefazolin-gentamicin versus vancomycin-ceftazidime for treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. METHODS: This randomized double-masked clinical trial was performed on consecutive patients with bacterial corneal ulcers referred to Feiz Hospital, Isfahan, Iran from 2004 to 2005. Patients were randomly assigned to cefazolin-gentamicin or vancomycin-ceftazidime eye drops in a masked fashion. Outcome measures included time for resolution of stromal infiltration, re-epithelization of the epithelial defect, and clearance of anterior chamber inflammation as well as culture results and complications. RESULTS: The study included 89 eyes of 89 patients with bacterial corneal ulcers consisting of 57 (64% male and 32 (36% female subjects. Specimens were culture-negative in 46% of cases. Forty-one eyes received cefazolin-gentamicin and 48 eyes were treated with vancomycin-ceftazidime. Time for resolution of stromal infiltration was 17.7±4.3 days versus 13.8±3.6 days (P=0.04, time to complete re-epithelization was 13.2±3.1 days versus 9.6±2.7 days (P=0.01 and time for clearing of the anterior chamber was 11.6±2.9 days versus 8.1±2.3 days (P

  8. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features ... say if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Taking Aspirin Take your aspirin with food and water. This ...

  9. Design and Evaluation of Voriconazole Eye Drops for the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sakshi; Khare, Anubha; Grover, Kanchan; Singh, Inderbir; Pawar, Pravin

    2014-01-01

    Voriconazole is a novel antifungal agent with excellent broad spectrum activity commercially available for oral and intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to prepare ophthalmic formulation of hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) based voriconazole containing benzalkonium chloride BAK and EDTA with or without viscosity modifiers and study its permeation characteristics through freshly excised goat cornea. The results were observed that viscosity and force of bioadhesion of the voriconazole HP-β-CD solutions containing xanthan gum (XG) are more as compared to polyvinyl alcohol. The results revealed that voriconazole drop containing PVA provided least viscosity and higher corneal permeation of drug, while drop formulated with XG had maximum viscosity and least permeation. The HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%) ophthalmic formulation containing xanthan gum (1.5), preserved with BAK and EDTA, could provide shelf life of 2 years. The microbiological studies showed that voriconazole ophthalmic solution containing xanthan gum shows better antifungal activity as compared to voriconazole and xanthan gum alone. Thus, it can be concluded that HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%, pH 7.0) ophthalmic solution containing BAK and EDTA with viscosity modifier XG provided maximum precorneal residence time as compared to other viscosity modifiers and polyvinyl alcohol provided less precorneal residence time than other viscosity modifiers. PMID:26556196

  10. Design and Evaluation of Voriconazole Eye Drops for the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Malhotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Voriconazole is a novel antifungal agent with excellent broad spectrum activity commercially available for oral and intravenous administration. The purpose of this study was to prepare ophthalmic formulation of hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD based voriconazole containing benzalkonium chloride BAK and EDTA with or without viscosity modifiers and study its permeation characteristics through freshly excised goat cornea. The results were observed that viscosity and force of bioadhesion of the voriconazole HP-β-CD solutions containing xanthan gum (XG are more as compared to polyvinyl alcohol. The results revealed that voriconazole drop containing PVA provided least viscosity and higher corneal permeation of drug, while drop formulated with XG had maximum viscosity and least permeation. The HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5% ophthalmic formulation containing xanthan gum (1.5, preserved with BAK and EDTA, could provide shelf life of 2 years. The microbiological studies showed that voriconazole ophthalmic solution containing xanthan gum shows better antifungal activity as compared to voriconazole and xanthan gum alone. Thus, it can be concluded that HP-β-CD based voriconazole (1.5%, pH 7.0 ophthalmic solution containing BAK and EDTA with viscosity modifier XG provided maximum precorneal residence time as compared to other viscosity modifiers and polyvinyl alcohol provided less precorneal residence time than other viscosity modifiers.

  11. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Turgut Coban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was controlled with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cycloplegic and steroid therapy. After four months, visual acuity was 20/20 and the intraocular pressure was under control with 0.5% timolol maleate and 1% brinzolamide. Controlled reduction of the intraocular pressure should be considered, particularly in older patients under anticoagulant therapy and that had undergone prior ocular surgery.

  12. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Deniz Turgut; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Yucel, Ozgur

    2013-10-01

    Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was controlled with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cycloplegic and steroid therapy. After four months, visual acuity was 20/20 and the intraocular pressure was under control with 0.5% timolol maleate and 1% brinzolamide. Controlled reduction of the intraocular pressure should be considered, particularly in older patients under anticoagulant therapy and that had undergone prior ocular surgery. PMID:24232947

  13. Evaluation of pharmacological activities and assessment of intraocular penetration of an ayurvedic polyherbal eye drop (Itone™ in experimental models

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    Velpandian Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polyherbal eye drop (Itone™ is a mixture of aqueous distillates of nineteen traditionally used ingredients that sum up to impart potency to the formulation and make it a useful adjunct in various ocular pathologies. However, as there have been no controlled experimental studies accounting to the above claim, therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the polyherbal formulation (PHF for antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticataract, antioxidant and cytotoxicity in addition to the evaluation of intraocular penetration of PHF in rabbit eyes using LC-MS/MS. Materials and methods Antiangiogenic activity of the PHF was evaluated using in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM assay and in vivo cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats. Anticataract potential was evaluated using steroid induced cataract in developing chick embryos, sodium selenite induced cataract in rat pups and galactose induced cataract in rats. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using di-phenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro using inhibition of LTB4 formation in human WBCs and in vivo using carrageenan induced paw edema assay in rats. The cytotoxicity was evaluated against HeLa cancer cell lines using (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Furthermore evaluation of the intraocular penetration of the PHF was carried out in rabbit eyes via aqueous humor paracentesis and further analysis using LC-MS/MS. Results PHF significantly inhibited VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels in CAM assay and inhibited the cautery induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Additionally, PHF showed noticeable delay in the progression of cataract in the selenite and galactose induced cataract models whereby the PHF treated lenses were graded for stages II and III respectively. However, the PHF did not show any anticataract activity in

  14. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer’s test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  15. Solvent/Detergent Virally Inactivated Serum Eye Drops Restore Healthy Ocular Epithelium in a Rabbit Model of Dry-Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Li; Chen, Zhi-Yu; Renn, Ting-Yi; Hsiao, Shun-Hung; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Application of autologous serum eye drops (SEDs) is a recognized means to treat severe dry-eye syndrome (DES). Due to the inconvenience and difficulty of preparing SEDs from some patients, producing SEDs from allogeneic blood donations is gaining popularity. A major safety concern associated with allogeneic blood is virus transmission. We therefore herein evaluated the possibility of applying a solvent/detergent (S/D) treatment to inactivate viruses and studied the impacts of such treatment of SEDs to resolve DES in a rabbit model. Sera prepared from the blood of five rabbits were pooled and divided into two sub-pools. One was untreated (SEDs), while the other was virally-inactivated with 1% Tri-n-butyl phosphate/1% Triton X-45 at 31°C for 1 h (S/D-SEDs). DES was induced in rabbits using 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Rabbits were divided into five groups of two rabbits each. One group was untreated (control), three were treated twice daily for 3 weeks using PBS, SEDs, or S/D-SEDs, and the last received an additional 0.1% BAC (as the negative control). The DES condition was determined by measuring aqueous tear secretion (Schirmer's test), corneal fluorescein staining, a corneal histologic examination, TUNEL stain apoptosis, and corneal inflammatory marker (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-6) expressions. We first confirmed that SEDs and S/D-SEDs had similar protein profiles and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β contents. Animal experiments showed that tear secretion did not significantly differ between the SED and S/D-SED groups but was significantly higher than in the PBS group. Eye fluorescein staining revealed dramatic improvements in epithelial defects in groups treated with SEDs or S/D-SEDs, and hematoxylin/eosin staining revealed microscopic epithelial layers similar to those of the untreated controls. Inflammatory markers and TUNEL studies showed that healthy epithelium had been restored in groups treated with SEDs or S

  16. Safety and comfort evaluation of a new formulation of Visine® lubricant eye drops containing HydroBlend™ and GentlePur™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkildsen G

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gail Torkildsen,1 Sherryl Frisch,2 Mingqi Bai,2 Louis Gentner III,2 Uday Doshi,2 Jane Zhang2 1Andover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USA; 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer and Personal Products Worldwide, Division of Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Morris Plains, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the clinical safety and comfort of a new benzalkonium chloride-free Visine® lubricant eye drop formulation (Hydroblend™ and GentlePur™ in healthy and dry eye subjects.Methods: This was a single-site, open-label clinical study comprised of 22 healthy and 22 dry eye subjects. Subjects were instructed to instill 1–2 drops of the test product four times a day for 2 weeks and were examined at visit 1 (day 0, visit 2 (day 7, and visit 3 (day 14. Assessments at each visit included postdosing product usage comfort scores, predosing fluorescein corneal staining score, predosing visual acuity, and pre- and postdosing ocular structure change using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Adverse events were monitored throughout the course of the study.Results: Throughout the 14 days of the trial period, subjects from both healthy and dry eye groups rated the eye drops as “very comfortable”. For dry eye group, the mean product usage comfort scores for the first 3 minutes postdosing ranged from 8.5 to 8.8 at visit 1 and 9.2 to 9.6 at visit 3 on a 0–10 point scale, with 0 being very uncomfortable and 10 being very comfortable. The mean corneal staining scores over five corneal regions changed from 0.65 at visit 1 to 0.39 at visit 3 for dry eye group. The individual region corneal staining scores were also decreased from visits 1 to 3 for dry eye group. All subjects maintained pretreatment means visual acuity at visits 2 and 3. Biomicroscopic examination indicated no structural changes at all visits. There were no significant adverse events reported during the course of the study.Conclusion: The study confirms that GentlePur™ is an appropriate choice as a preservative

  17. Comparison of the replication and transmissibility of an infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine delivered via eye-drop or drinking-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to control infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Most vaccines are registered/recommended for use via eye-drop although vaccination via drinking-water is commonly used in the field. Drinking-water vaccination has been associated with non-uniform protection. Bird-to-bird passage of chick-embryo-origin (CEO) ILT vaccines has been shown to result in reversion to virulence. The purpose of the present study was to examine the replication and transmission of a commercial CEO infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccine strain following drinking-water or eye-drop inoculation. Two groups of 10 specific-pathogen-free chickens were each vaccinated with Serva ILTV vaccine strain either via eye-drop or drinking-water. Groups of four or five unvaccinated birds were placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days from vaccinated and in-contact birds to assess viral replication and transmission using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with eye-drop-vaccinated birds, drinking-water-vaccinated birds showed delayed viral replication but had detectable viral DNA for a longer period of time. Transmission to chickens exposed by contact on day 0 of the experiments was similar in both groups. Birds exposed to ILTV by contact with eye-drop vaccinated birds on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment had detectable ILTV for up to 8 days post exposure. ILTV was not detected in chickens that were exposed by contact with drinking-water vaccinated birds on day 12 of the experiment or later. Results from this study provide valuable practical information for the use of ILT vaccine. PMID:22845327

  18. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  19. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures. PMID:27153217

  20. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Help the Cause Glaucoma affects ...

  1. Benefits of switching from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops: a meta-analysis of two Phase IIIb clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uusitalo H

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hannu Uusitalo,1 Evgeniy Egorov,2 Kai Kaarniranta,3 Yuri Astakhov,4 Auli Ropo5 On behalf of the Switch Study Tafluprost Study Groups 1Department of Ophthalmology, SILK, University of Tampere, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland, 4Department of Ophthalmology, First Pavlov State Medical University of St Petersburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 5Global Medical Affairs, Santen Oy, Tampere, Finland Introduction: Glaucoma patients frequently exhibit ocular surface side effects during treatment with prostaglandin eye drops. The present work investigated whether glaucoma patients suffering from signs and symptoms of ocular surface disease while using preserved latanoprost eye drops benefited from switching to preservative-free tafluprost eye drops. Patients and methods: The analysis was based on 339 glaucoma patients enrolled in two Phase IIIb trials. The patients were required to have two symptoms, or one sign and one symptom of ocular surface disease at baseline, and at least 6 months preceding treatment with latanoprost eye drops preserved with benzalkonium chloride. All eligible patients were switched from latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost for a total of 12 weeks. Ocular symptoms and ocular signs were evaluated at baseline and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after commencing treatment with tafluprost. Intraocular pressure (IOP, drop discomfort, and treatment preference were evaluated to investigate the clinical efficacy and patient-related outcomes. Results: After 12 weeks of treatment with preservative-free tafluprost, the incidences of irritation/burning/stinging, foreign body sensation, tearing, itching, and dry eye sensation had diminished to one-third of those reported for preserved latanoprost at baseline. The incidences

  2. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  3. Aspirin and NSAIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digestive Health Topic / Aspirin and NSAIDS Aspirin and NSAIDS Basics Resources Overview What should I know about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)? The second major cause for ulcers is irritation ...

  4. Aspirin in Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Aburto-Murrieta; Dulce Bonifacio-Delgadillo; Juan Marquez

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is widely used for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) of arterial origin, because it is effective and inexpensive. Clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole are more effective than aspirin, but are also much more expensive. No other antithrombotic regimens provide significant advantages over aspirin, although cilostazol and the novel platelet protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist, SCH 530348, are c...

  5. Content Determination of Taurine in Taurine Drop Eye%牛磺酸滴眼液中牛磺酸含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕梨; 刘莉

    2012-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the content of taurine eye drops.Methods:Determination of the content of taurine in taurine eye drops.Results:The samples in the concentration range of 10~60mg good linearity,good stability,recovery was 99.3%(n=6).Conclusion:The use of eye drops Determination of taurine in the content of taurine,about 0.034mg/ml,meet the pharmaceutical requirements of the method is simple.%目的:测定牛磺酸滴眼液中牛磺酸的含量。方法:采用分光光度法测定牛磺酸滴眼液中牛磺酸的含量。结果:牛磺酸在10~60mg/ml浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,回收率为99.3%(n=6)。结论:牛磺酸滴眼液中牛磺酸的平均为0.034mg/ml,方法稳定性良好,操作简单易行,符合药品定量分析要求。

  6. Comparison of the safety and protective efficacy of vaccination with glycoprotein-G-deficient infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye-drop, drinking water or aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J M; Browning, G F; Gilkerson, J R; Fenton, S P; Hartley, C A

    2008-02-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), an alphaherpesvirus, causes respiratory disease in chickens and is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. These vaccines have limitations due to residual pathogenicity and reversion to virulence. To avoid these problems and to better control disease, attention has recently turned towards developing a novel vaccine strain that lacks virulence gene(s). Glycoprotein G (gG) is a virulence factor in ILTV. A gG-deficient strain of ILTV has been shown to be less pathogenic than currently available vaccine strains following intratracheal inoculation of specific pathogen free chickens. Intratracheal inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV has also been shown to induce protection against disease following challenge with virulent virus. Intratracheal inoculation, however, is not suitable for large-scale vaccination of commercial poultry flocks. In this study, inoculation of gG-deficient ILTV via eye-drop, drinking water and aerosol were investigated. Aerosol inoculation resulted in undesirably low levels of safety and protective efficacy. Inoculation via eye-drop and drinking water was safe, and the levels of protective efficacy were comparable with intratracheal inoculation. Thus, gG-deficient ILTV appears to have potential for use in large-scale poultry vaccination programmes when administered via eye-drop or in drinking water. PMID:18202954

  7. Local anaesthetic eye drops for prevention of pain in preterm infants undergoing screening for retinopathy of prematurity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Screening examinations for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are performed routinely in the neonatal intensive care unit and are a recognised cause of pain in the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of instillation of topical anaesthetic eye drops compared with placebo or no treatment on pain in infants undergoing ROP screening. SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2010). We identified relevant studies by searching the following: (1) computerised bibliographic databases: MEDLINE (1966 to October 2010), EMBASE (1988 to October 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to March 2010; (2) the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We searched electronically abstracts from PAS from 2000 to 2010 and handsearched abstracts from ESPR from 2000 to 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised, or quasi-randomised controlled trials, or randomised cross-over trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. MAIN RESULTS: We identified two studies for inclusion. Both studies were randomised cross-over trials performed in single centres. Both studies used the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score as a measure of pain response. Different methods of evaluating PIPP scores are presented including the absolute PIPP score, a PIPP score > 10 or > 12 and an increase in PIPP >\\/= 4 from the baseline value. There is a nonsignificant reduction in pain scores at one minute and a nonsignificant increase at five minutes post insertion of the speculum. PIPP score > 12 at one minute resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of patients who experienced pain (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.89; typical risk difference (RD) -0.23, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.86; number needed to treat to

  8. Paradoxical Effect of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Doutremepuich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin is an important therapeutic option in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke, basedon its unique cost-effectiveness and widespread availability. In addition, based on the results of a number of large studies, aspirin is also widely used in the primary prevention of MI. This paper provides an update of the available data to offer greater clarity regarding the risks of aspirin with respect to hemorrhagic stroke. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ischemic events, the evidence supports that the benefits of aspirin treatment significantly outweigh the risk of a major hemorrhage. When considering whether aspirin is appropriate, the absolute therapeutic cardiovascular benefits of aspirin must be balanced with the possible risks associated with its use, being hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding these clinical facts, normal, COX 1 −/−, and COX 2 −/− mice were treated with a wide range of doses of aspirin and studied by induced hemorrhagic time. The results outlined three major conclusions: high doses of aspirin induce hemorrhage, while low doses of aspirin do not. In the absence of COX 1, ultra low doses of aspirin produce an antihemorrhagic effect not observed with intermediate doses. The absence of COX 2 induced a hemorrhagic effect that needs further research, probably originated in compensatory phenomena.

  9. Multiple endpoint analysis of BAC-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on a 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, A; Brasnu, E.; Riancho, L.; Brignole-Baudouin, F.; Baudouin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved and unpreserved antiallergic eye drops on the human 3D-reconstituted corneal epithelial model (3D-HCE). Methods 3D-HCE were treated for 24 h followed or not by a 24 h post-incubation recovery period (24 h+24 h) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 0.01% BAC, unpreserved formulations of ketotifen, N Acetyl-Aspartyl Glutamic Acid (NAAGA), cromoglycate, or BAC-preserved commercial formulations of ketotifen, olopatadine, epi...

  10. Bioactivation antioxidant and transglycating properties of N-acetylcarnosine autoinduction prodrug of a dipeptide L-carnosine in mucoadhesive drug delivery eye-drop formulation: powerful eye health application technique and therapeutic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    A considerable interest in N-acetylcarnosine ocular drug design for eye health is based on clinical strategies to improve ocular drug delivery through metabolic enzymatic activation. Human biology aspects of ocular N-acetylcarnosine deacetylation during its pass through the cornea to the aqueous humor and dipeptide hydrolyzing enzymes are characterized. Novel approaches to ocular drug delivery increasing intraocular bioavailability of N-acetylcarnosine biologically activated metabolite carnosine become an integral development ensuring prolonged retention of the medication in the mucoadhesive precorneal area and facilitating transcorneal penetration of the natural dipeptide with the corneal promoters. A comprehensive list of techniques for peptide drug design, synthesis, purification, and biological analyses was considered: liquid chromatography (LC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity of therapeutics-targeted molecules was studied in aqueous solution and in a lipid membrane environment. A deglycation therapeutic system was developed involving removal, by transglycation of sugar or aldehyde moieties from Schiff bases by histidyl-hydrazide compounds or aldehyde scavenger L-carnosine. Clinical studies included ophthalmoscopy, visual acuity (VA), halometer disability glare tests, slit-image, and retro-illumination photography. N-acetylcarnosine 1% lubricant eye drops are considered as an auto-induction prodrug and natural ocular redox state balance therapies with implications in prevention and treatment of serious eye diseases that involve pathways of continuous oxidative damage to ocular tissues(cataracts, primary open-angle glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration) and sight-threatening glycosylation processes (diabetic retinopathy and consequent visual impairment) important for public health. The results of

  11. The effects of lubricant eye drops on visual function as measured by the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Torkildsen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Gail TorkildsenAndover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USAObjective: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of two marketed ocular lubricants on the visual decay in dry eye patients using the Inter-blink interval Visual Acuity Decay (IVAD test.Methods: This controlled, randomized, double-masked crossover study compared the effects of a polyethylene glycol/propylene glycol-based (PEG/PG tear and a carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC/glycerin tear on the visual acuity decay between blinks of dry eye patients. At visit 1 (Day 0, baseline IVAD measurements were recorded prior to instillation of a single drop of randomized study medication. IVAD testing was repeated at 15-, 45-, and 90-minutes post-instillation. Reading rate and functional blink rate were also evaluated. At the second visit (Day 7 ± 3, study procedures were repeated using crossover treatment.Results: Forty-eight (48 subjects with dry eye (61.1 ± 14.8 years old, 79.2% female, 95.8% white completed the study. Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significantly longer time to one-line loss of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA as determined by the IVAD test at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear (P = 0.0365. Measurements of median time at BCVA, reading rate, and functional blink rate were similar for both treatments. Both formulations were well tolerated in the population studied.Conclusions: Treatment with the PEG/PG-based tear demonstrated statistically significant improved maintenance of visual acuity between blinks at 90 minutes post-instillation compared to the CMC/glycerin tear. This is the first study to demonstrate the ability of an artificial tear to extend visual acuity maintenance between blinks, as measured by the IVAD test.Keywords: dry eye, visual function, artificial tears, ocular lubricant

  12. A Single-Center Pilot Prospective Study of Topical Application of Platelet-Derived Eye Drops for Patients with Ocular Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallio, Francesco; Mazzucco, Laura; Monaco, Federico; Astori, Maria Rosa; Passera, Roberto; Drago, Giovanna; Tamiazzo, Stefania; Rapetti, Manuela; Dolcino, Daniela; Guaschino, Roberto; Pini, Massimo; Ladetto, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Ocular involvement of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a complication that occurs in up to 60% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conventional therapeutic options include medical and surgical procedures that are administered depending on the severity of the condition, but most of them have provided unsatisfactory results and, to date, there is no consensus about treatment. We considered that topical application of a platelet lysate, administered as eye drops, might be considered an alternative worthwhile of investigation to treat ocular surface disorders in patients suffering from cGVHD. Therefore, we conducted a single-center prospective pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of using eye drops made from reconstituted lysed platelet concentrate. Twenty-six patients with ocular cGVHD were eligible for the study; all but 2 completed their scheduled 1-year treatment and complied with the hematologic and ophthalmic regimen. At their first assessment interviews, after 30 days of treatment, 91% of patients reported an improvement in their symptoms and for 32%, substantive objective differences were measured. Remission of corneal damage was seen for 86% of our cohort, and improved National Institutes of Health scores for 73%, of whom 8% achieved the best score of 0 (ie, non-dry eye). Similar results were seen at later time points. Comparing outcomes for our patient cohort to those determined retrospectively for patients in our institutional database revealed a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 65%. This OS is comparable to patients with limited cGVHD (75%) and is superior to that of patients with nonocular extensive cGVHD or without cGVHD (30% and 59%, respectively) (P = .013). Our results suggest that platelet-derived eye drops are a safe, practical, and well-tolerated therapeutic option that offers substantial benefits for most patients affected by ocular cGVHD at onset. The favorable OS of our patient cohort

  13. Aspirin and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Paola; Patrono, Carlo

    2016-08-30

    The place of aspirin in primary prevention remains controversial, with North American and European organizations issuing contradictory treatment guidelines. More recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended "initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years." This recommendation reflects increasing evidence for a chemopreventive effect of low-dose aspirin against colorectal (and other) cancer. The intent of this paper is to review the evidence supporting a chemopreventive effect of aspirin, discuss its potential mechanism(s) of action, and provide a conceptual framework for assessing current guidelines in the light of ongoing studies. PMID:27561771

  14. A validated stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine eye drops and its application in pH dependent degradation kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant B Dave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: A fixed dose combination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine is used in ratio of 1:1 as eye drops for the treatment of the reduction of post operative inflammatory conditions of the eye. A simple, precise, and accurate High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine in eye drops. Materials and Methods: Isocratic HPLC separation was achieved on a ACE C 18 column (C 18 (5 μm, 150 mm×4.6 mm, i.d. using the mobile phase 10 mM potassium di-hydrogen phosphate buffer pH 4.6-Acetonitrile (75:25 v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection was performed at 307 nm. Drugs were subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation and photo degradation. Moreover, the proposed HPLC method was utilized to investigate the pH dependent degradation kinetics of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine in buffer solutions at different pH values like 2.0, 6.8 and 9.0. Results and Conclusion: The retention time (t R of moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine were 3.81±0.01 and 8.82±0.02 min, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 2-20 μ/mL each for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and ketorolac tromethamine with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 and 0.9999, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The drugs could be effectively separated from different degradation products and hence the method can be used for stability analysis. Different kinetics parameters like apparent first-order rate constant, half-life and t 90 (time for 90% potency left were calculated.

  15. The Effect of Autologous Serum Eye Drop Application on Epithelization in the Treatment of Various Ocular Surface Disorders and its Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Selin Kaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effect of autologous serum application on epithelization in the treatment of ocular surface disorders in hard cases and its safety. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Patients with serious ocular surface disorders, unresponsive to conventional treatment were recruited. Clinical features of retrospective cohort of patients who were prescribed serum drops are presented. From July 2007 to January 2010, 31 eyes of 21 patients, who were given autologous serum eye drops, were included into the study. Clinical examination included epithelial changes, rose bengal/lissamine green staining, fluorescein staining, and tear film break-up time. A history of systemic disease was recorded together with systemic medications used. A complete ocular history was also obtained. Re sults: Autologous serum was used in 7 patients with delayed epithelization after penetrating keratoplasty, in 4 patients with epithelial disturbances secondary to keratitis, in 2 patients with alkali burns, in 3 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, in 1 patient with ligneous conjunctivitis, in 1 patient with epidermolysis bullosa, in 1 patient with corneal burn with hot water, and in 2 patients with Sjogren syndrome. The female:male ratio was 13:8. The mean age was 36.23±24.80 standard deviation (range: 7 months-87 years. No significant sight-threatening complication has been observed with the use of serum drops. Dis cus si on: Autologous serum application is safe and efficient additional therapy in the treatment of serious ocular surface problems in difficult cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 336-41

  16. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbis-Estrada C

    2013-06-01

    as dryness, burning, photophobia, eye heaviness, and blurred vision, as well as positive changes in eyelashes, hair, nails and skin, were significantly improved in DEDG +S and POAGG +S patients relative to unsupplemented patients.Conclusion: Inflammation biomarkers were differentially expressed in glaucomatous tears, but the differences changed upon antioxidant/essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops must be considered for integrating protocols to glaucoma standards of care.Keywords: glaucoma, dry eye disorders, tears, cytokines, antioxidants, essential fatty acids

  17. Comparison of 1% cyclosporine eye drops in olive oil and in linseed oil to treat experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rodrigues Parrilha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 1% cyclosporine eye drops diluted in either of the two vehicles-olive and linseed oil-and that of the oils themselves in treating experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS in rabbits.Methods:KCS was induced in 25 New Zealand rabbits using 1% atropine sulfate eye drops for 7 days before treatment and throughout the treatment period (12 weeks. The rabbits were divided into five groups: one control (C group without KCS induction and four treatment groups in which KCS was induced and treated topically with olive oil (O, linseed oil (L, cyclosporine in olive oil (CO, and cyclosporine in linseed oil (CL. The animals were evaluated using Schirmer tear test 1 (STT, the fluorescein test (FT, tear-film break-up time (TBUT, the rose bengal test (RBT, and histopathological analysis.Results:Values of STT and TBUT significantly decreased 1 week post-induction (p<0.05 and were similar to initial values after the 4th week of treatment, in all groups. After KCS induction, there was significantly less corneal damage in group L than in group CL, as assessed FT and RBT. Histopathology demonstrated that Groups L and CL presented less edema and corneal congestion. There was no significant difference in the goblet cell density (cells/mm2 between the groups (p=0.147.Conclusion:Cyclosporine diluted in olive oil or linseed oil was effective in the treatment of KCS, although it had better efficacy when diluted in linseed oil. Linseed oil presented better effectiveness, whether associated or not, than olive oil. These results may contribute to the creation of novel topical ophthalmic formulations for KCS treatment in future.

  18. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  19. 维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶联合玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗眼表面损伤%Clinical evaluation of Vitamin A palmitate eye ophthalmic gel combined Ellie eye drops for treatment of eye surface trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋道源; 万春泓

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察并评价维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶和玻璃酸钠滴眼液联合应用治疗各种眼表面损伤的临床效果.方法:观察眼表损伤患者167例,随机分成玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗组45 例,维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶治疗组55例,联合应用组67 例.分别应用玻璃酸钠滴眼液滴眼白天每2h 1次(6 次/d),维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶治疗组白天每2h 1次(6 次/d),晚上睡前滴眼1 次,联合应用组同时按上述方法两药间隔5min点眼治疗.结果:维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶治疗组痊愈率和总有效率分别为56.4%和83.6%,玻璃酸钠滴眼液组的痊愈率和总有效率分别为66.7%和88.9%,联合治疗组的痊愈率和总有效率分别为83.6%和97.0%.单独应用玻璃酸钠滴眼液在各种眼表面损伤的有效率优于维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶,而联合应用组治疗各种眼表面损伤的有效率明显高于单独应用组(P<0.05).观察过程中未见局部刺激和全身不良反应.结论:玻璃酸钠滴眼液较维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶治疗各种眼表损伤更有效,但两药联合应用治疗各种眼表面损伤疗效更确切,应用安全.%AIM: To observe and evaluate clinical effect of the combined use of vitamin A palmitate eye ophthalmic gel and Ellie eye drops for the treatment of various eye surface damage.METHODS: Totally 167 cases of corneal disease were randomly divided into Ellie eye drops treatment group (n = 45), vitamin A palmitate eye ophthalmic gel (n = 55) in treatment group, the combined use group (n = 67). Ellie eye drops were used to drop eye every 2 hours a day (daily 6 times). Vitamin A palmitate eye ophthalmic gel treatment group was used every 2 hours a day (daily 6 times), eye drops 1 time before sleeping in the evening. The combined use group was treated according to the above method of two medicines with 5 minutes interval.RESULTS: Cure rate and the total effective rate of vitamin A palmitate eye ophthalmic gel

  20. N-Acetylcarnosine sustained drug delivery eye drops to control the signs of ageless vision: Glare sensitivity, cataract amelioration and quality of vision currently available treatment for the challenging 50,000-patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Babizhayev

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mark A Babizhayev1, Leslie Burke2, Philip Micans3, Stuart P Richer4,51Innovative Vision Products, Inc., County of New Castle, Delaware, USA; 2Wise Choice Products LLC, London, England, United Kingdom; 3IAS Group, Sark, United Kingdom; 4Eye Clinic DVA Medical Center, North Chicago, Illinois, USA; 5Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USABackground: Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP’s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C™ designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C™ eye drops.Objective and study design: In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance, and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.Setting: Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients’ glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9

  1. Preparation and Related Research of Recombinant Human Angiostatin Kringle 1-3 Eye Drops%重组人Kringle1-3血管抑素滴眼剂制备及相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 刘海俊; 李燕; 丰玲玲; 余惠芳; 翁永德

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prepare recombinant human angiostatin Kringle 1-3 eye drops and investigate their basic property in terms of stability and eye irritation.Methods The recombinant human angiostatin Kringle 1-3 eye drops were prepared by selecting proper formulations.The appearance and physicochemical properties were inspected.The UV spectroscope and Draize method were used to test the stability and eye irritation of the eye drops respectively.Results The eye drops were clear colourless liquid and met national standards.The preparation could be stably stored at low temperature.The Draize method showed no irritation to rabbit eyes.Conclusion The recombinant human angiostatin Kringle 1-3 eye drops have appropriate formulations,which have stable properties and cause no irritation.%目的 制备重组人Kringle 1-3血管抑素滴眼剂,并对制剂稳定性及刺激性进行考察.方法 选择玻璃酸钠为赋形剂,苯扎氯铵为抑菌剂,EDTA-2Na为稳定剂组成适宜的重组人Kringle 1-3血管抑素滴眼剂处方,按滴眼剂配制要求配制,以外观、理化性质、含量等为考察指标,采用紫外光谱法及Draize法分别对其稳定性与刺激性进行评价.结果 重组人Kringle 1-3血管抑素滴眼剂为无色透明液体,制剂在低温条件下可稳定保存至少3个月,Draize评分<3分,其余各项指标符合国家标准.结论 重组人Kringle 1-3血管抑素滴眼剂处方合理,性质较稳定,无刺激性.

  2. Comparative in vivo safety and efficacy of a glycoprotein G-deficient candidate vaccine strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus delivered via eye drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppo, Mauricio J C; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Hartley, Carol A; Gilkerson, James R; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2011-08-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease in poultry that is commonly controlled by vaccination with conventionally attenuated virus strains. Despite the use of these vaccines, ILT remains a threat to the intensive poultry industry. Our laboratory has developed a novel candidate vaccine strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) lacking glycoprotein G (ΔgG-ILTV). The aim of the present study was to directly compare this candidate vaccine with three currently available commercial vaccines in vivo. Five groups of specific-pathogen-free chickens were eye-drop inoculated with one of the three commercial vaccine strains (SA2-ILTV, A20-ILTV or Serva-ILTV), or ΔgG-ILTV, or sterile medium. Vaccine safety was assessed by examining clinical signs, weight gain and persistence of virus in the trachea. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by scoring clinical signs and conducting post-mortem analyses following challenge with virulent virus. Following vaccination, birds that received ΔgG-ILTV had the highest weight gain among the vaccinated groups and had clinical scores that were significantly lower than birds vaccinated with SA2-ILTV or A20-ILTV, but not significantly different from those of birds vaccinated with Serva-ILTV. Analysis of clinical scores, weight gain, tracheal pathology and virus replication after challenge revealed a comparable level of efficacy for all vaccines. Findings from this study further demonstrate the suitability of ΔgG-ILTV as a vaccine to control ILT. PMID:21812721

  3. Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of Tropicamide Eye Drops Treatment of Juvenile Pseudomyopia%托吡卡胺滴眼液治疗青少年假性近视的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贞

    2014-01-01

    目的:针对青少年假性近视患者使用托吡卡胺滴眼液后观察视力恢复情况,评估该滴眼液对于防治假性近视的疗效。方法对我院2010年7月~2012年9月诊治的患者进行抽样,选取80例患者(160眼),对比患者使用前后其视力状况。结果采用托吡卡胺滴眼液治疗后,患者的裸眼远视力大部分得到明显提高,总有效率达92.5%。结论托吡卡胺滴眼液对于青少年假性近视的治疗效果较为明显,值得临床推广使用。%Objective To observe the recovery of visual acuity youngsters pseudomyopia patients using Tropicamide Eye Drops, evaluated the ef icacy of the eye drops for preventing pseudomyopia. Methods In our hospital from 2010 July to 2012 September were selected and sampling, 80 patients (160 eyes), and compared before and after the patients using the visual acuity. Results The Tropicamide Eye Drops after treatment, patients with naked visual acuity of most is obviously improved, the total ef ective rate was 92.5%.Conclusion Tropicamide Eye Drops for juvenile pseudomyopia treatment ef ect is obvious, it is worthy of clinical use.

  4. 几种胶原酶抑制剂滴眼液的效果比较%Comparative study on the effects of collagenase inhibitor in different eye drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈远萍; 张泺; 胡正

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate, compare and filtrate the collagenase inhibitor effects among six kinds of eye drops for clinical use.Methods The collagenase inhibitor’s effects were detected by rat's collagen and collagenase with comassie brilliant blue colorimetric method.Results The inhibitting collagenase effects among six kinds of eye drops were different: the effect of cartopril was the strongest;the acetylcysteine and sodium edetate were more strong and the sodium citrate, sodium hyposulfite and tetracycline were less strong.Conclusion  0.5g*L-1cartopril eye drops has stronger efficacy to inhibit collagenase, with less side effect or stimulation,more convenient resource and preparation than other eye drops.%目的观察比较6种眼科外用药物,为临床筛选较强的抑制胶原酶的眼液。方法用鼠胶原、胶原酶及考马斯亮蓝比色法来检测药物抑制胶原酶的能力。结果 6种药物有不同程度抑制胶原酶作用,其中卡托普利极强、乙酰半胱氨酸和依地酸钠较强,而枸橼酸钠、硫代硫酸钠和四环素较差。结论 0.5g*L-1卡托普利眼液抑制胶原酶能力极强、副作用小、刺激性极微、药物来源及配制方便。

  5. 人工泪液凝胶联合双氯芬酸钠滴眼液治疗干眼症观察%Clinical observation of artificial tear gel combined with diclofenac sodium eye drops in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冬梅; 王强; 李国良; 王秀生; 张兰

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究探讨人工泪液凝胶联合双氯芬酸钠滴眼液治疗干眼症的临床效果.方法 选择2011年1月至2012年10月门诊诊断为干眼症的患者218例(436只眼).随机分成试验组和对照组两组.试验组:卡波姆滴眼液及双氯芬酸钠滴眼液联合应用.对照组:卡波姆滴眼液单独应用.各种药物的用法均为每日4次点眼.分别在治疗前及治疗后的5天、10天、20天对患者的症状、泪膜破裂时间(BUT)、泪液分泌试验(Schirmer I test)、角膜荧光素染色进行观察评估,比较两组结果.结果 人工泪液凝胶联合双氯芬酸钠滴眼液治疗干眼症患者的疗效明显优于单纯使用人工泪液凝胶治疗组,两组结果差异有统计学意义.结论 人工泪液凝胶联合双氯芬酸钠滴眼液治疗干眼症具有较好的疗效,值得临床使用及推广.%Objective To study the clinical effect of artificial tears gel joint diclofenac sodium eye drops in the treatment of dry eyes.Methods Selected 218 patients (436 eyes) of dry eyes,divided into treatment group and control group,the treatment group received combined application of carbomer eye drops and diclofenac sodium eye drops; while control group received carbomer eye drops used alone at four times daily.Observation time was for before and 5,10,20 days after treatment.The patient's symptoms,BUT,Schirmer I test,and FL were observed.Results Combined treatment group is better than the simple drug group.The two groups was statistically difference.Conclusions Artificial tears gel joint diclofenac sodium eye drop has good curative effect in the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  6. Clinical observation on travoprost eye drops in the treatment of refractory glaucoma%曲伏前列素滴眼液治疗难治性青光眼的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠慧; 郭建新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect and side effect of travoprost eye drops in the treatment of re-fractory glaucoma. Method 35 patients (35 eyes) with refractory glacuma were included in this sduty. All the eyes in this study received at least one prior surgery with failed intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Among the total of 35 eyes, 15 eyes received assistant treatment of timolol eye drops or brinzolamide eye drops with failed IOP control and progressive visual field loss. All the patients were treated with travoprost eye drops at the dose of one drop in the affected eye once daily at night without other medication for glaucoma . IOP was measured during the same time period at 1, 3 and 6 months after the treatment, and was also measured at 8:00, 10:00, 12:00, 14:00, 16:00 on the same day after 6 months of treatment. Results The IOP was (27.62±3.12) mmHg (1 mmHg =0.133 kPa) before travoprost treatment. 1 month after travoprost treameat, the IOP was (18.62±2.34) mmHg. 3 months after travoprost treameat, the IOP was (18.34 ±2.45) mmHg. 6 months after travoprost treameat, the IOP was (18.21 ±2.35) mmHg. The IOP levels after travoprost treatment were significantly dropped than before treatment (P0.05). No patients interrupted their treatment because of side effect . Conclusion Conclusion It is demonstrated that travoprost is effective and safe in reducing IOP in refractory glaucoma.%目的 探讨曲伏前列素滴眼液治疗难治性青光眼的疗效及安全性.方法 难治性青光眼35例(35只眼),所有患眼均经1次以上手术未能有效控制眼压.其中15例辅助应用噻吗洛尔滴眼液或布林佐胺滴眼液,眼压不能控制,视野进行性缩小.对上述患者单独应用曲伏前列素滴眼液,每晚1次.用药后1个月、3个月及6个月在同一时段复查眼压1次,用药6个月后在同1天的8:00、10:00、12:00、14:00、16:00分别检查眼压.观察用药前后的眼压变化.结果 用药前眼压(27.62±3.12) mmHg(1

  7. Aspirin Often Wrongly Prescribed for Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159459.html Aspirin Often Wrongly Prescribed for Atrial Fibrillation Blood thinners -- not aspirin -- dramatically cut the risk of stroke, researchers say ...

  8. 2010年托吡卡胺滴眼液抽验结果及质量评价%Sampling Results and Quality Assessment of Tropicamide Eye Drops in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛萍; 刘晓瑜; 梅雪艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality status and existing problems of tropicamide eye drops. Method: The quality of tropicamide eye drops was evaluated by statistical analysis using statutory testing methods combined with the exploratory research. Result: Among 119 batches of tropicamide eye drops ,79 batches met the requirements of current specifications, while 40 batches showed visible particles. The exploratory studies showed that the osmotic pressure of the samples from partial companies was lower than the requirements of China pharmacopeia ( 2010 ). The content of antibacterial agents in tropicamide eye drops in some products were lack of strict control and couldn' t completely meet the requirements of China pharmacopeia ( 2010 ). Conclusion: Most of the product quality of domestic tropicamide eye drops meets the current specifications, while there are still some problems existing in some enterprises. And exploratory research suggests that production enterprises should enhance the preparation process, especially further control the osmotic pressure and the antibacterial agents to improve the product quality.%目的:评价托吡卡胺滴眼液的质量现状及存在的问题.方法:按照法定方法结合探索性研究进行样品检验,统计分析检验结果并对托吡卡胺滴眼液的质量现状进行评价.结果:法定方法检验显示119批样品79批合格,不合格样品40批,均为可见异物不合格;探索性研究显示,部分生产企业的渗透压测定结果明显低于2010年版规定的限度范围,对抑菌剂的控制不够严格,不能完全符合2010年版中对滴眼液中抑菌剂含量所规定的限度范围.结论:托吡卡胺滴眼液按法定方法检验,总体合格率较好,但还存在一些问题.通过探索性研究建议生产企业改进生产工艺,提高质量标准,进一步控制渗透压及抑菌剂,提高产品质量.

  9. Effect of eye drops of hyaluronic acid sodium combined with recombinant human epidermal growth factor on dry eyes after laser in situ keratomileusis surgery%玻璃酸钠联合重组人表皮生长因子滴眼液治疗准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术后干眼症的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蒂; 李洁; 兰雅维

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨玻璃酸钠滴眼液联合重组人表皮生长因子(rhEGF)滴眼液治疗准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(laser in situ keratomileusis,LASIK)术后干眼症的临床疗效.方法 自2010-3至2012-6选择LASIK术后1年内并确诊为干眼症的患者57例114眼,随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组29例58眼采用玻璃酸钠滴眼液联合rhEGF滴眼液滴眼,对照组28例56眼单独使用玻璃酸钠滴眼液.记录患者用药前和用药后2周、4周的干眼自觉症状评分,裂隙灯下观察泪膜破裂时间(BUT)、泪液分泌试验( SIt)、荧光素染色(FL)情况.结果 治疗前两组年龄、性别、干眼症状评分、BUT、SIt、FL差异无统计学意义,用药后各观察时间点治疗组干眼症状评分、BUT,SIt,FL与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 玻璃酸钠滴眼液联合rhEGF滴眼液治疗LASIK术后干眼症疗效显著优于单独使用玻璃酸钠滴眼液.%Objective To evaluate the effects of hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops combined with recombined human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) eye drops on dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. Methods All 57 cases (114 eyes) with dry eye symptom after laser in situ keratomileusis within 1 year were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the trial group and thecon-trol group. In the trial group, the patients were treated with hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops and rhEGF eye drops. In the control group, the patients were treated with only hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops. The subjective dry eye symptoms, fluorescein staining ( FL) , Schirmer I test ( SIt) and tear breakup time ( BUT) were observed under the slit lamp before treatment, the second week, and the fourth week after treatment. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups before treatment (P > 0. 05 ) . After treatment, the subjective dry eye symptoms, FL, SIt and BUT were significantly different ( P < 0. 01) . Conclusions

  10. The Efficacy of Artificial Tear Gel and Diclofenac Sodium Eye Drops on Dry Eye Syndrome%人工泪液凝胶联合双氯芬酸钠滴眼液治疗干眼症的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to investigate the clinical effcacy of artiifcial tear gel and diclofenac sodium eye drops on dry eye syndrome.Methods From 2013 to 2015 in our hospital, 120 cases of dry eye syndrome were selected, it is divided into two groups depending on treatment method, the control group was treatment with purely artificial tears gel, observation group used combination therapy with artificial tear gel and diclofenac sodium eye drops. The therapeutic effects were compared.Results The total effective rate in observation group was 91.7%, significantly higher than control group (P<0.05).ConclusionArtiifcial tear gel and diclofenac sodium eye drops can effectively relieve dry eye symptoms, improve treatment effect.%目的:探讨并分析人工泪液凝胶与双氯芬酸钠联合治疗干眼症的疗效。方法选取我院眼科于2013~2015年收治的120例干眼症患者,根据治疗方法的不同,将其分为对照组采用单纯人工泪液凝胶治疗,观察组采用人工泪液凝胶与双氯芬酸钠滴眼液的联合用药治疗。比较两组的治疗效果。结果观察组总有效率为91.7%,高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论采用人工泪液凝胶与双氯芬酸钠滴眼液联合治疗干眼症可以有效缓解临床症状,提高治疗效果。

  11. 玻璃酸钠滴眼液对翼状胬肉转位术后泪膜恢复的作用%Effects of hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops on tear film after pterygium transposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李游; 刘丹; 庞东渤

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨玻璃酸钠滴眼液促进翼状胬肉手术后泪膜恢复的作用.方法:选择翼状胬肉手术患者68例76眼,随机分为玻璃酸钠组和对照组2个组,每组38眼,玻璃酸钠组术后给予玻璃酸钠滴眼液滴眼;对照组术后不给予玻璃酸钠滴眼液滴眼.记录患者术前1d,术后1,7,14,30d进行泪膜破裂时间(tear break-up tmie,BUT)、基础泪液分泌试验(Sehirmer Ⅰ test,SⅠt)、角膜荧光素染色积分(CFS)检测.结果:术前和术后1d两组BUT,SⅠt,CFS 无显著性差异(P>0.05),术后7,14d玻璃酸钠组BUT,SⅠt,FS 与对照组比较,均有显著性差异 (P<0.05).结论:玻璃酸钠滴眼液具有促进翼状胬肉手术后泪膜恢复的作用.%AIM: To evaluate the effects of hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops on tear film after pterygium transposition METHODS: All 68 cases (76 eyes) after pterygium transposition were chosen and randomly divided into two groups: the hyaluronic acid sodium group and control group. In the hyaluronic acid sodium group, the patients were treated by hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops after pterygium transposition. In the control group, the patients were not treated by hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops. The tear film break-up time (BUT), the time of tear secretion ( Schirmer I test, S I t) and corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) were observed by the slit -lamp before operation, 1 day, 7, 14, 30 days after operation.RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between groups before operation and 1 day after operation ( P> 0.05). After treatment, the BUT, S I t and CFS were significantly different(P<0.05).CONCLUSION:Hyaluronic acid sodium eye drops can be effective on functional restoration of tear film after pterygium transposition.

  12. Foot Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  13. Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.

  14. Effect of compound tropicamide eye drop on measurement of central corneal thickness%复方托吡卡胺对中央角膜厚度测量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾原; 李懿

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价复方托吡卡胺眼液对中央角膜厚度测量的影响及影响持续的时间。方法选择拟行激光角膜屈光手术的近视眼患者120例240眼,分别于点眼前和点眼后1,4 h 用 OrbscanⅡ眼前节检查系统和非接触反射显微镜SP-2000P测量角膜厚度。结果以OrbscanⅡ测量复方托吡卡胺点眼前、点眼后1 h、点眼后4 h中央角膜厚度(CCT)分别为(545±27),(559±31),(544±26)μm;以SP-2000P测量分别为(508±26),(521±29),(506±24)μm。复方托吡卡胺点眼后1 h与点眼前与相比,2种仪器测量CCT均增加( P<0.01);复方托吡卡胺点眼后4 h 与点眼后1 h 相比,2种仪器测量 CCT 均下降( P <0.01);复方托吡卡胺点眼后4 h与点眼前相比,CCT均无变化。结论复方托吡卡胺点眼1 h后使CCT增加;复方托吡卡胺对CCT影响在点眼4 h后消除。准分子激光屈光手术术前检查中,CCT的测量应在复方托吡卡胺点眼前或者点眼后4h进行。%Objective To evaluate the effect of compound tropicamide eye drops on the measurement of central corneal thickness and to investi-gate the duration of the effect.Methods In this trial, 240 eyes of 120 myopic patients undergoing corneal laser refractive surgery were selected, and central corneal thicknesses were measured before treatment and 1 , 4 h after administration of compound tropicamide eye drops using OrbscanⅡ anterior segment analysis system and SP -2000P non -contact specular microscope, respectively.Results The central corneal thick-ness was (545 ±27),(559 ±31) and (544 ±26) μm before and 1 and 4 h after administration, measured with Orbscan Ⅱ anterior segment analysis system, whereas being ( 508 ± 26 ) , ( 521 ±29 ) and (506 ±24) μm measured with SP -2000P non -contact specular microscope.The central corneal thickness measured with both OrbscanⅡsystem and SP-2000 P microscope increased 1 h after

  15. Aspirin for the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Nick; Smith, Tom

    2013-01-01

    First used as an analgesic and antipyretic, investigations into aspirin’s anti-inflammatory effects led to its establishment in 1974 as a drug that altered the activity of platelets to influence the course and incidence of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease. It became the standard in treatment and prevention of vascular disorders. The 25th International Scientific Meeting on aspirin held at the Royal College of Physicians in London on 24th October 2012 took aspirin into fresh f...

  16. 维生素A联合眼氨肽超声雾化治疗干眼症的疗效观察%Clinical Research of Vitamin A and Ocular Extractives eye drops ultrasonic spray inhalation in treatment of dry eye disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芝; 尹卫伟; 陈梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effects of Vitamin A and Ocular Extractives eye drops coupled with ultrasonic spray inhalation on dry eye disease. Methods Sixty dry eye patients were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group: 30 patients, ultrasonic spray inhalation treatment using Vitamin A and Ocular Extractives eye drops once a day. Results The efficacy rates in treatment and control group were 83. 33% and 53. 33% , repectively, between the two groups,the therapeutic effects of the treatment group was better than that of the control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Vitamin A and Ocular Extractives eye drops coupled with ultrasonic spray inhalation had remarkable effect on dry eye disease, simple operation, can be regarded as a kind of good method to treat dry eye disease.%目的 观察维生素A和眼氨肽联合超声雾化治疗干眼症的临床疗效。方法 干眼症患者60例,随机分成两组。治疗组30例,采用维生素A和眼氨肽联合超声雾化治疗,每日1次;对照组30例,采用人工泪液,每日5次滴眼。结果 治疗组治疗干眼症总有效率为83.33%,对照组为53.33%,P<0.05,两组疗效比较,治疗组疗效明显高于对照组。结论 维生素A和眼氨肽联合超声雾化治疗干眼症疗效显著,操作简单,不失为一种治疗干眼症的好方法。

  17. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  18. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  19. Timolol eye drops's influence on posterior corneal surface height of high myopia after LASIK%噻吗洛尔滴眼液对高度近视LASIK术后角膜后表面影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘育霞; 王平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To infer influencing factors of cornea lordosis through observing timolol eye drop influence on posterior corneal surface height of high myopia after LASIK.Methods Thirty high myopia (60 eyes) in line with LASIK indications were received standard LASIK,0.5% timolol maleate eye drops (2 times per day) started to use from the first day after operation,the changes of intraocular pressure and posterior corneal surface height on pre-operation,and post-operation 1 day,1 week,2 weeks,and 1 month were observed.Results The cornea of high myopia after LASIK had lordosised on the first day after operation,and the data of posterior corneal surface height increased comparing with pre-operation,the difference was statistically significant.The data of posterior corneal surface height after using timolol eye drops 1 week,2 weeks,1 month continuously increased comparing with pre-operation and 1 day after operation,the differences were all statistically significant.Conclusions Timolol eye drops can reduce intraocular pressure of high myopia after LASIK,but it can't prevent the data of posterior corneal surface height from increasing,cornea still continue lordosising.Therefore,intraocular pressure isn't the influencing factor of posterior corneal surface height of high myopia after LASIK,at least not the main factor.%目的 应用降眼压药物噻吗洛尔滴眼,观察降低眼压对高度近视LASIK术后角膜后表面高度的影响,推断LASIK术后角膜前凸的影响因素.方法 对2011年7~12月在潍坊医学院附属医院眼科符合LASIK手术适应证的高度近视患者30例(60只眼)行标准LASIK术,术后第1天开始滴用0.5%马来酸噻吗洛尔眼液2次/d,共1个月,观察术前及术后1d、1周、2周、1个月时眼压及角膜后表面高度的变化.结果 高度近视患者LASIK术后第1天角膜已前凸,角膜后表面高度值较术前增大,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).应用噻吗洛尔降眼压后1周、2周、1个月角膜

  20. The role of aspirin in women's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to discuss the role of aspirin for various conditions in women. METHODS: A nonsystematic review of articles published on PubMed((R)) that examines the role of aspirin in women. RESULTS: Aspirin is associated with a significant reduction of stroke risk in women,

  1. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  2. Improvements in packages comprising eye baths and eye lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new packaged assembly comprising an eye bath and eye lotion is described. The eye bath is shaped for application to the eye; it has a rim portion formed so as to provide a smooth skin-contacting surface and is sealed to a lid at a position removed from the skin-contacting area. The eye bath is formed in a sterile condition and aseptically filled to an appropriate level with eye lotion by a blow moulding process. The eye bath and its contents are sterilised after sealing by radioactive sterilsation. This packaged assembly is an improvement over previous eye bath assemblies in that it allows the eye bath to be used in a sterile form. It is also more comfortable and convenient to use than other sterile forms of eye treatment such as eye drops or jets of eye wash. Furthermore, bathing the eye provides a more prolonged treatment. (U.K.)

  3. Compound list: aspirin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aspirin ASA 00014 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aspirin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/aspirin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aspirin....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/aspirin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  4. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops treatment for superficial corneal abrasion caused by mechanical damage: a randomized clinical trial in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tong Lin, Lan Gong Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (HA compared to recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rb-bFGF for the treatment of corneal epithelial abrasion caused by mechanical damage in Chinese patients.Methods: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the HA or rb-bFGF treatment group. The HA group was treated with 0.3% HA and 0.5% levofloxacin, and the rb-bFGF group was treated with topical rb-bFGF and 0.5% levofloxacin. The primary endpoint was the clinical effectiveness rates at day 3. Secondary endpoints were the dimensions of the wound area and the percentage of wound closure.Results: After 3 days of treatment, the clinical effectiveness rates of the HA group and the rb-bFGF group were 86.67% (13/15 and 93.33% (14/15, respectively. The dimensions of the wound area were reduced from 9.83±8.50 to 0.02±0.06 mm2 for the HA group at day 7, and from 10.58±9.94 to 0.02±0.07 mm2 for the rb-bFGF group. At day 3, the wound closure was almost complete in both groups; 94.73% in the HA group compared to 95.77% in the rb-bFGF group (P>0.05.Conclusion: Topical 0.3% HA provided a promising treatment for superficial corneal abrasion caused by mechanical damage in a manner similar to rb-bFGF. Keywords: sodium hyaluronate, superficial corneal abrasion, bovine basic fibroblast growth factor

  5. Pressure Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  6. Antithrombotic properties of aspirin and resistance to aspirin: beyond strictly antiplatelet actions

    OpenAIRE

    Undas, Anetta; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The primary established effect of aspirin on hemostasis is to impair platelet aggregation via inhibition of platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis, thus reducing thrombus formation on the surface of the damaged arterial wall. Growing evidence also indicates that aspirin exerts additional antithrombotic effects, which appear to some extent unrelated to platelet thromboxane A2 production. Aspirin can reduce thromb...

  7. Gastrointestinal symptoms in low-dose aspirin users: a comparison between plain and buffered aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspers Focks, J.; Tielemans, M.M.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Eikendal, T.; Brouwer, M.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verheugt, F W A; van Oijen, M.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspirin is associated with gastrointestinal side effects such as gastric ulcers, gastric bleeding and dyspepsia. High-dose effervescent calcium carbasalate (ECC), a buffered formulation of aspirin, is associated with reduced gastric toxicity compared with plain aspirin in healthy volunteers, but at lower cardiovascular doses no beneficial effects were observed. Aim To compare the prevalence of self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms between low-dose plain aspirin and ECC. Methods A...

  8. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The Basics Overview Benefits ... and Risks What are the benefits of taking aspirin daily? Aspirin can reduce your risk of heart ...

  9. A regimen for low-dose aspirin?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, S. P.; Bevan, J.; Cockbill, S. R.; Heptinstall, S

    1982-01-01

    The effects of different regimens of 40 mg aspirin on platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis and vascular prostacyclin synthesis were determined in patients who were undergoing elective surgery for removal of varicose veins. Aspirin 40 mg taken at intervals of 48 hours consistently reduced platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis to a level at which it failed to support platelet aggregation and the associated release reaction. This effect lasted for at least 36 hours. In contrast, aspirin 40 mg every 72 ...

  10. Aspirin and tension-type headache

    OpenAIRE

    Farinelli, I.; Martelletti, P.

    2007-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin) is among the most used drugs worldwide. At present, Aspirin represents a quite versatile drug employed in the control of pain symptomatologies and in situations such as prevention of both ischaemic stroke and cardiovascular events. Aspirin causes inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis by inactivation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. ASA constitutes the focus of new researches explaining more widely Aspirin’s control of inflammation. The induction of ...

  11. An evaluation of different doses of soluble aspirin and aspirin tablets in postoperative dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, I S; Seymour, R A; Ward-Booth, R P; Ord, R A; Lim, K L; Hoare, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. The efficacy of three different single doses (600, 900 and 1200 mg of soluble aspirin and aspirin tablets) was determined in a randomized placebo-controlled parallel study in 140 patients (70 females) with postoperative pain after removal of impacted third molars. 2. Patients treated with soluble aspirin 600 mg, 900 mg, 1200 mg and aspirin tablet 1200 mg reported significantly less pain (P less than 0.01) throughout the investigation period than those treated with placebo. 3. Overall pain scores after treatment with aspirin tablets 600 and 900 mg did not differ significantly from those after treatment with placebo (P greater than 0.05). 4. On a comparative dose basis, soluble aspirin was significantly more potent (P less than 0.05) than aspirin tablets. PMID:3190996

  12. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10,010...

  13. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  14. Effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Moir, A A; Stevens, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow was investigated by rhinomanometry in 25 healthy subjects before and after ingestion of aspirin or vitamin C in a double blind crossover trial. Aspirin caused a significant increase in nasal resistance compared with vitamin C. The effect of aspirin may be due to its inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.

  15. Ocular pharmacokinetics of Ray cartilage glycosaminoglycans eye drops in rabbits%魟鱼软骨多糖滴眼液在家兔眼内的药代动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明月; 郭斌; 曹见敏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study ocular pharmacokinetic of Ray cartilage glycosaminoglycans eye drops (RCG) and determine the RCG concentration by UV-visible spectroscopy in rabbit eyes cornea, iris, vitreous and aqueous humor.Methods Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into 10 groups. The cornea, iris, vitreous and aqueous humor was collected at 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 180 min, 240 min, 300 min, 360 min for quantification analysis of drugs after application of RCG eye drops in the rabbit eyes. The concentration of RCG was detected using UV-visible spectrophotometry and the parameters were calculated. Results The linear regression equation of Glucuronide in cornea, iris, vitreous and aqueous humor were Y= 0.029 1 x + 0.349 3,r2 = 0.999 5; Y = 0.036x + 0.223 71, r2 = 0.999 2; Y = 0.033 x + 0.284 4, r2 = 0.999 1; Y = 0.039 9 x+ 0.255 1, r2 =0.999 1 (x: glucuronide concentrations, Y: light absorption value), respectively. The glucuronide had good linearity with the 1.5-30μg/ml, 0.5-20μg/ml, 1.0-5.0μg/ml, 0.5- 1.5μg/ml concentration range in cornea, iris, vitreous and aqueous humor, respectively. Peak concentration of the cornea, iris, vitreous and aqueous humor were 29.03±0.38μg/L, 16.83±0.12μg/L, 9.62±0.41μg/L, 1.51±0.43μg/L, respectively with the peak time of 9.81±0.51 min, 58.53±0.54 min, 60.37±0.19 min, 61.78±0.52 min, respectively.Conclusion RCG has the maximum drug concentration at about 10 min after administration in the rabbit cornea, and it reaches the maximum concentration at about 60 min after administration in the aqueous humor.%目的:通过紫外-可见分光光度法测定魟鱼软骨多糖滴眼液在家兔眼内角膜、虹膜、玻璃体及房水的药物浓度并进行药代动力学的研究。方法将20只家兔随机分成10组,每组2只,对兔眼给药处理后在10 min、20 min、30 min、60 min、90 min、120 min、180 min、240 min、300 min、360 min 10个不同时间点迅速地剥离出角膜与虹膜

  16. Dropped Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, Rayyane

    2012-01-01

    On December 2nd 1950 the first drop of Saudi oil arrived to Lebanon via the newly constructed Trans-Arabian Pipeline, the world's longest pipeline and the largest American private investment in a foreign land. The 30inch wide structure which spanned 1213 kilometers passing through Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to end in Lebanon had required 3 years of planning and surveying, 2 years of installation, the fabrication of 256,000 tons of steel tubes, the employment of 30,000 workers, the ratifi...

  17. Aspirin and cancer: has aspirin been overlooked as an adjuvant therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, R E; Burdett, S.; Tierney, J F; Cafferty, F; Parmar, M K B; Venning, G

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase (Cox), and there is a significant body of epidemiological evidence demonstrating that regular aspirin use is associated with a decreased incidence of developing cancer. Interest focussed on selective Cox-2 inhibitors both as cancer prevention agents and as therapeutic agents in patients with proven malignancy until concerns were raised about their toxicity profile. Aspirin has several additional mechanisms of action that may contribute to its anti-ca...

  18. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have or have ever had asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose, or nasal polyps (growths on the linings of the nose). If you have these conditions, there is a risk that you will have ... ulcers, anemia, bleeding problems such as hemophilia, or kidney or liver ...

  19. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LIBRARY Hello, Guest! My alerts Sign In Join Facebook Twitter Home About this Journal Editorial Board General Statistics Circulation Cover Doodle → Blip the Doodle Go Red For Women's Issue Information for Advertisers Author Reprints Commercial Reprints Customer Service and Ordering ...

  20. Tolerabilidad de Aspirina Aspirin tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Moreno-Brea

    2005-09-01

    ácter atero-trombótico. El síndrome de Reye es un cuadro de rara presentación, pero de graves consecuencias, que contraindica el uso de Aspirina en niños o adolescentes con fiebre o ciertas infecciones virales. Dada la extensa utilización de Aspirina, puede ser considerado un fármaco bien tolerado en general, cuyas reacciones adversas más graves deben ser objeto de una especial farmacovigilancia, prestando especial atención a la población de mayor riesgo. Esta situación aconseja, asimismo, la puesta en marcha de programas de educación sanitaria sobre el uso de los analgésicos. En todo caso, Aspirina sigue siendo un fármaco de referencia con una importante potencialidad terapéutica derivada de los beneficios inherentes a su uso.The acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is a widely used drug worldwide, both as prescription and over-the-counter products, and both as the only active drug or associated to other drugs in fixed doses. It is used either occasionally for the management of acute symptomatic conditions, or continuously in prophylactic anti-thrombotic regimes. Its profile of adverse reactions and potential interactions with other drugs makes it very important to have a well-tolerated and safe substance. Both things are particularly relevant when the population exposed to this drug has reached a certain age, since its specific features may increase its susceptibility to side effects and complications. Aspirin shares the general profile of adverse reactions of the NSAIs and it is considered as its prototype. When acutely administered, the incidence of side effects, most of them light, are the same as with other analgesics. Gastrointestinal effects are the most frequent of all and several risk factors have been identify for the development of severe gastrointestinal complications. These risk factors must be considered along with the need to take prophylactic measures in order to reduce the morbi-mortality. In recent years, special attention has been devoted to

  1. Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings K

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78. Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.

  2. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  3. Eye pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  4. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  5. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  6. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  7. Reduction in drop size of ophthalmic topical drop preparations and the impact of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we devised a method to create smaller eye drops of the glaucoma medication timolol maleate by altering the dropper tip design and changing the physical properties of the formulation. Most ocular diseases are treated with topical application of eye drops. After instillation of an eye drop, typically, less than 5% of the applied drug penetrates the cornea and reaches the intraocular tissues; the major fraction of the instilled drug is absorbed and enters the systemic circulation. Ophthalmic solutions are available in multidose or single-dose glass/plastic dropper bottles that deliver drops with a volume that ranges from 25 μL to 70 μL (average 40 μL. Because of the low capacity of the precorneal area, the optimal drop volume is about 20 μL; with larger volumes there is the risk of adverse systemic effects due to absorption of the drug via the nasal mucosa. Thus, both from the biopharmaceutical and economic point of view, drops of only 5-15 mL volume should be instilled into the eye. In this present work we devised a method to reduce the size of the drop by inserting a glass capillary tube into the dropper tip and by changing the physical properties of the formulation (by altering the concentration of Tween 80™, i.e., 0.05% and 0.1% of Tween 80™. We measured the drop sizes of the different timolol eye drop formulations available in the market and estimated the yearly cost of the medications. Our timolol maleate formulation with 0.1% concentration of Tween 80™ delivered through the dropper tip with the inserted glass capillary was shown to be better than the other formulations available in the market in terms of ability to deliver smaller drops, meaning that each bottle would last longer and that the yearly cost of treatment would be lower.

  8. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  9. Aspirin, cyclooxygenase inhibition and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; Sostres; Carla; Jerusalen; Gargallo; Angel; Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC)is the third most common type of cancer worldwide.Screening measures are far from adequate and not widely available in resourcepoor settings.Primary prevention strategies therefore remain necessary to reduce the risk of developing CRC.Increasing evidence from epidemiological studies,randomized clinical trials and basic science supports the effectiveness of aspirin,as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,for chemoprevention of several types of cancer,including CRC.This includes the prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality.The detectable benefit of daily low-dose aspirin(at least 75 mg),as used to prevent cardiovascular disease events,strongly suggests that its antiplatelet action is central to explaining its antitumor efficacy.Daily low-dose aspirin achieves complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase(COX)-1 in platelets(in pre-systemic circulation)while causing alimited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells.Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation(about 20 minutes);nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize acetylated COX isozymes within a few hours,while platelets do not.COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin have been suggested to explain its chemopreventive effects but this concept remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses.

  10. Molecular targets of aspirin and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L; Ai, G; Spitale, R C; Bhat, G J

    2014-07-01

    Salicylates from plant sources have been used for centuries by different cultures to treat a variety of ailments such as inflammation, fever and pain. A chemical derivative of salicylic acid, aspirin, was synthesised and mass produced by the end of the 19th century and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Its cardioprotective properties are well established; however, recent evidence shows that it can also act as a chemopreventive agent. Its antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions occur through the inhibition of cyclooxygenases. The precise mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are not clearly established, although multiple mechanisms affecting enzyme activity, transcription factors, cellular signalling and mitochondrial functions have been proposed. This review presents a brief account of the major COX-dependent and independent pathways described in connection with aspirin's anticancer effects. Aspirin's unique ability to acetylate biomolecules besides COX has not been thoroughly investigated nor have all the targets of its primary metabolite, salicylic acid been identified. Recent reports on the ability of aspirin to acetylate multiple cellular proteins warrant a comprehensive study to investigate the role of this posttranslational modification in its anticancer effects. In this review, we also raise the intriguing possibility that aspirin may interact and acetylate cellular molecules such as RNA, and metabolites such as CoA, leading to a change in their function. Research in this area will provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms of action of this drug. PMID:24874482

  11. Videographic Assessment of Glaucoma Drop Instillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejos, Armando; Kahook, Malik; Jimenez-Roman, Jesus; Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the effect of patient education on videotaped topical instillation of artificial tear drops on subsequent topical instillation. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients, who had been using glaucoma drops for at least 6 months and with a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/100 or better, were studied. The patients were asked to instill an artificial tear drop using their accustomed technique while being video recorded. The patients viewed the recordings, and the errors in their drop instillation method were pointed out. This was followed by an educational session on proper drop instillation technique. After 30 minutes, patients were videotaped instilling drops to ascertain the effect of the educational session. The variables compared were: number of drops instilled, number of drops reaching the ocular surface, and the number of times the tip of the medication bottle touched the eye or ocular adnexa. Results: Before the instruction session, patients squeezed an average of 1.5 ± 0.9 drops from the bottle, and the average number of drops reaching the conjunctival fornix was 0.9 ± 0.7. The tip of the bottle touched the ocular adnexa in 29/45 (64.4%) patients. After the education session, the patients squeezed an average of 1.2 ± 0.5 drops and an average of 1.2 ± 0.4 drops reached the conjunctival fornix. The tip of the bottle touched the ocular adnexa in 13/45 (28.9%) patients. With proper instructions, the percentage of patients that instilled just one drop on the eye increased from 66 to 82%. Conclusion: A single educational session on the proper use of topical drops improves the successful instillation of eye drops. However, it was not determined whether the patients will retain the improved instillation technique for long-term or if the intervention results in only a short-term improvement. How to cite this article: Lazcano-Gomez G, Castillejos A, Kahook M, Jimenez-Roman J, Gonzalez-Salinas R. Video-graphic Assessment of Glaucoma

  12. Aspirin and colorectal cancer: Back to the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tougeron, David; Sha, Dan; Manthravadi, Sashidhar; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2013-01-01

    Abundant epidemiological evidence indicates that regular and long term use of aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). The long duration of aspirin needed to prevent CRC is believed to be due to inhibition of precursor lesions known as adenomas, whose recurrence is inhibited by aspirin in randomized trials. Aspirin intake has also been associated with a statistically significant improvement in patient survival after curative resection of ...

  13. Does aspirin-induced oxidative stress cause asthma exacerbation?

    OpenAIRE

    Kacprzak, Dorota; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by severe asthma exacerbations after ingestion of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The exact pathomechanism of AIA remains unknown, though ongoing research has shed some light. Recently, more and more attention has been focused on the role of aspirin in the induction of oxidative stress, especially in cancer cell systems. However, it has not excluded the similar action of aspirin in other inflamm...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  15. 色甘酸钠滴眼液中对羟基苯甲酸乙酯的含量测定%Determination of ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate in Sodium Cromoglicate Eye Drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷; 高敏

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a high performance iquid content chromatography method for the determi-nation of ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate in Sodium Cromoglicate Eye Drops.METHODS With eighteen silane bonded sil-ica chromatographic column filler;With 0.005 mol· L-1 ammonium cetate (1000 mL containing three 10 mL with gla-cial acetic acid triethylamine,pH=5.0 ±0.5)-acetonitrile (50∶50) as the mobile phase,The detection wavelength was 256nm, The flow rate was 1.0mL · min-1 , The injection volume was 10μL, external standard method was used.RESULTS It was good linearity in the concentration range of 0.31 ~0.310μg · mL-1 ( r=0.9999 ) , The limit of quantification was 0.12μg · mL-1 ( S/N =10 ) , The average recovery rate was 99.4%( n =9 , RSD =0.73%).CONCLUSION After verification methodology ,the method is specific ,simple ,accurate ,reproducible.%目的:建立测定色甘酸钠滴眼液中对羟基苯甲酸乙酯含量的高效液相色谱法。方法采用以十八硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂的色谱柱,以0.005mol· L -1醋酸铵(1000mL中含三乙胺10mL,用冰醋酸调 pH =5.0±0.5)-乙腈(50∶50)为流动相,检测波长为256nm,流速为1.0mL· min -1,进样量为10μL,采用外标法。结果在0.31~0.310μg· mL -1浓度范围之间线性良好(r=0.9999),定量限浓度为0.12μg· mL -1(S/N=10.0),平均回收率为99.4%(n=9,RSD=0.73%)。结论经方法学验证,此法专属性强,操作简便,结果准确,重现性好。

  16. Eye drop vaccination against sheep brucellosis and tests for distinguishing between vaccinated and nature infected sheep%布鲁氏菌弱毒疫苗粘膜免疫及检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兵; 曾凡明; 任明; 何倩倪; 彭传真; 张志新; 赵天博; 陈荣贵; 王海军; 马文勇; 努尔·赛力克; 伊恒博

    2012-01-01

    To differential detection of brucellosis in vaccinated and nature infected sheep, three groups of ewes aged 12 months to 14 months (20 for each group) were divided including two groups vaccinated via eye drop with live attenuated vaccine Brucella S2 (Brucella swine) and A19 (B. abortus) respectively with half dose of vaccination, and one group infected with a pathogenicity strain M16 (B. melitensis) to determine the sensitivity of serum agglutination test (SAT), the cysteine agglutination test (CAT) and the complement fixation test (CFT)) for distinguishing vaccinated and infected sheep. The results showed that specific antibodies against the vaccines were lasted at detectable levels for 6 months post vaccination. But the virulent strain of M16 was 100% detectable after 12 months of infection, the bacterial isolates were existed at high titres in breast cells, breast lymph nodes and iliac lymph. We conclude that the conventional serological and bacteria isolation methods could be used for distinguishing between vaccinated and infected sheep after 6 months of vaccination and infection.%为研究布鲁氏菌弱毒疫苗粘膜免疫及其检测方法,本实验采用粘膜点眼途径对健康母羊接种布鲁氏杆菌猪2号疫苗(S2)、牛19号疫苗(A19)和羊强毒株(M16),筛选布鲁氏杆菌病鉴别检测方法.将12月龄~14月龄母羊60只随机分为3组,以常规疫苗推荐剂量进行半量粘膜点眼接种.采集血液、淋巴、脏器进行布鲁氏菌病血清学检测和细菌学分离以及PCR检测.结果表明:布鲁氏菌弱毒疫苗抗体水平持续6个月,其中血清学的试管凝集试验、半胱氨酸凝集试验与补体结合试验的阳性符合率达到100%.细菌分离期为6个月,乳腺、乳腺淋巴、髂淋巴分离率较高;而强毒株M16的抗体水平和细菌分离持续12个月以上.结果显示以常规血清学和细菌学检测方法在点眼免疫布鲁氏菌S2、A19苗6个月后可以进行野毒感染和疫苗免疫畜的鉴别诊断.

  17. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  18. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  19. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  20. [Milestones of cardivascular pharmacotherapy: salicylates and aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, P

    2006-01-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic effect of the bark of willow has been known in Egypt and Greece for canturies. The modem era of salicylates starts with a letter sent 1758 by Reverend Edward Stone to The Royal Society in London. He described "an account of the success of the bark of willow in the cure of agues". His report. erroneously attributed to Edmond Stone. was published five years later. The active ingredient of willow bark. "salicine". was first isolated 1828 by Joseph Buchner, then by Henri Leroux, and also prepared from the oil of wintergreen (Gaultheria) and meadowsweet (Spirea ulmaria) by J. W. Lowig 1833. and called "Spirsäure", which was already pure acetylsalicylic acid. It was also synthetised 1853 by Ch. Gerhardt and finally 1897 in Bayer's laboratoires by Felix Hoffman, who also demonstrated its antiinflammatory efficacy. After two years of clinical trials with low doses, Bayer's management decided to start the productions and launched Aspirin as an analgetic worldwide in summer 1899. The first ASPIRIN ERA bagun. A completely new epoch started when J. N. Vane and Priscilla Piner demonstrated 1971 that the main mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In later studies the potency to inhibit platelet aggregation with small doses of aspirin (30-125 mg) was demonstrated. The Physicians'Health Study 1988 confirmed this effect: aspirin significantly reduced the risk of both, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. and is now used in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. However the idea was not new: The use of salicylates and aspirin was throughly discussed more than 50 years ago: Paul C. Gibson published 1949 a well-documented case report on efficacy of aspirin in patients with angina, and Kl. Weber and P. Klein in Prague used Gibson's mixture successfully for patients with acute myocardial infarction (1951). Recently, the efficacy and security, the interactions and side-effects of low

  1. Aspirin and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: bedside to bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Cheng Rui; Zhang Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on clinical results of aspirin's chemopreventive effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and evidences for mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in experimental research.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as aspirin and esophageal cancer.Study selection Articles associated with aspirin and esophageal cancer are analyzed.Results This review focuses on the current evidence for use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent in ESCC.Aspirin is the most widely used among all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),which is cheap and acceptable to patients.Several observational results provide the further investigation of prevention and therapy of aspirin or similar drugs in esophageal cancer.Data from case control studies,cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) also give some support of a beneficial role of aspirin on ESCC.Experimental data suggest that aspirin may prevent carcinogenesis of ESCC by favorably affecting proliferation,apoptosis,or other as yet unidentified growth-regulating processes.But the mechanism by which aspirin influence on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.Conclusion A wealth of evidences ranging from clinical data to experimental results are building to suggest that aspirin has significant effects in reducing both the incidence and mortality of ESCC.

  2. Aspirin metabolism and efficacy in postoperative dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R A; Williams, F M; Ward, A; Rawlins, M D

    1984-01-01

    Aspirin 1200 mg was compared with placebo in a randomised, double-blind, crossover study in 15 patients with postoperative pain after removal of impacted lower third molars. Over a 5 h investigation period, patients reported significantly less pain (P less than 0.01) after treatment with aspirin, than after treatment with placebo. Peak concentrations of aspirin occurred at 15 min after dosage. Significant negative correlations were observed between plasma aspirin esterase activity and both AUC aspirin (r = -0.904, P less than 0.001) and AUC analgesia (r = -0.91, P less than 0.001). Similarly, a significant correlation was observed between AUC aspirin and AUC analgesia (r = 0.96, P less than 0.001). Evidence from this study would suggest that an individual's pain relief in postoperative dental pain is determined by the rate of aspirin hydrolysis to salicylate. PMID:6378231

  3. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  4. Biomarkers and special features of oxidative stress in the anterior segment of the eye linked to lens cataract and the trabecular meshwork injury in primary open-angle glaucoma: challenges of dual combination therapy with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and oral formulation of nonhydrolyzed carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    analogs, beta-blockers, or local carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, these effects were markedly reduced. Oxidative stress can induce characteristic glaucomatous TM changes, and these oxidative stress-induced TM changes can be minimized by the use of antioxidants and IOP-lowering substances. It is tempting to speculate that the prevention of oxidative stress exposure to the TM may help to reduce the progression of POAG. The author's laboratory has developed and patented the dual combination therapy with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and oral formulation of nonhydrolyzed carnosine in ripe cataracts and POAG. The specific regimen for the treatment in each stage of age-related ophthalmic disease has been taken up. In the treatment of POAG, this dual therapy can be combined with conventional antiglaucoma therapy with beta-blocking and/or adrenergic agonist medicines providing the significant IOP-lowering effect and significant increase in outflow facility. The developed therapy is a prominent management care of the glaucomatous neurodegeneration. PMID:21883446

  5. The effect of esmolol on children's heart rate who accept squint correction and adrenaline eye drop%艾司洛尔对斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素对患儿心率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑珍; 顾恩华

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察艾司洛尔对斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素对患儿的心率影响.方法 选择6~10岁斜视矫正术的患儿90例,随机分为3组,各30例.A组(对照组,术眼滴0.9%生理盐水),B组(术眼滴肾上腺素),C组(术眼滴肾上腺素,并静脉注入艾司洛尔拮抗).监测并记录入手术室前的心率,视基础值为T0,麻醉前T1,麻醉后5 min T2,眼滴肾上腺素,或同时静脉给予艾司洛尔后2min为T3,5min为T4,10 min为T5,60 min为T6.结果 3组(T0-T2)心率的变化比较,差异无统计学意义;B、C 两组心率(T3-T5)各时间点与A组比较,差异有统计学意义,但C组(T3-T5)心率上升明显低于B组,差异有统计学意义.结论 斜视矫正术眼滴肾上腺素可使心率瞬间显著上升,静脉助注艾司洛尔可显著抑制其上升,维持患儿围术期心率平稳.%Objective To observe the effect of esmolol on children's heart rate who accept squint correction and adrenaline eye drop.Methods Selected six to ten years old children with squint correction of 90 cases were randomly divided into three groups,each group had 30 cases.Group A was control group and accepted 0.9% physiological saline to sick eye.Group B dropped the adrenaline to sick eye.Group C dropped the adrenaline to sick eye and accepted intravenous injection esmolol antagonist.Monitored and recorded the heart rate before children came into the operating room.The basic value was T0.Before anesthesia was T1,5 minutes after anesthesia was T2,sick eye accepted adrenaline,or at the same time to intravenous injection esmolol then 2 minutes was T3,5 minutes was T4,10 minutes was T5 and 60 minutes was T6.Results The difference of heart rate change (T0-T2) in three groups was not statistically significant.Compared heart rate (T3-T5) of each time point in group B and C with group A,the difference was statistically significant.But heart rate rise (T3-T5) in group C was significantly lower than in group B,the difference was statistically

  6. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  7. Dropped nucleus following phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajunisah, I; Reddy, S C

    2007-12-01

    Twenty two cases of dropped nucleus following 1,196 phacoemulsification procedures in cataract surgery were examined retrospectively to determine the incidence, predisposing factors and visual outcomes of this dreaded complication. All the cases underwent pars plana vitrectomy and the lens fragments were removed with phacofragmotome, vitrectomy cutter or delivered through limbus. The incidence of dropped nucleus was 1.84%. The predisposing factors were hard cataracts (13.6%), polar cataracts (9.1%), previously vitrectomized eyes (4.5%) and high myopia (4.5%). The final visual outcome was > or = 6/12 in 10 eyes (45.5%); complications were seen in 5 eyes (22.7%). The interval between initial surgery and vitrectomy, the method of fragment removal and the type of lens implanted, did not influence the final visual outcome. PMID:18705466

  8. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanWormer JJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention in some European populations, but the degree to which aspirin is overutilized in the US remains unknown. This study examined the association between regular aspirin use and demographic/clinical factors in a population-based sample of adults without a clinical indication for aspirin for primary prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using 2010–2012 data from individuals aged 30–79 years in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (WI, USA. Regular aspirin users included those who took aspirin at least every other day.Results: There were 16,922 individuals who were not clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary CVD prevention. Of these, 19% were regular aspirin users. In the final adjusted model, participants who were older, male, lived in northern Wisconsin, had more frequent medical visits, and had greater body mass index had significantly higher odds of regular aspirin use (P<0.001 for all. Race/ethnicity, health insurance, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels had negligible influence on aspirin use. A sensitivity analysis found a significant interaction between age and number of medical visits, indicating progressively more aspirin use in older age groups who visited their provider frequently.Conclusion: There was evidence of aspirin overutilization in this US population without CVD. Older age and more frequent provider visits were the strongest predictors of inappropriate aspirin use. Obesity was the only significant

  9. Formulation and evaluation of novel aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Sankar V.; Dhachinamoorthi D.; Chandra Shekar K.B.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is to design aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories which will reduce the side effects caused by aspirin suppositories.Aspirin nanoparticles were prepared initially based on ionic-gelation mechanism and lyophilized.The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated,and the results confirmed that Fa9 formulation was the best with greater drug entrapment efficiency.Aspirin suppositories were prepared in order to investigate the best base composition.The prepared suppositories were evaluated and FS1,FS3,FS4,FS8,FS11,and FS12 were proved to be the best base compositions based on dissolution performed.The lyophilized aspirin nanoparticles of Fa9 were used to prepare aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories.The in vitro results revealed that Fas 11 was the best formulation.

  10. 重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子滴眼液与小牛血去蛋白提取物眼凝胶治疗角膜上皮缺损的疗效比较%Recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor-containing eye drops versus deprotienized calf blood extract-based eye gel in the treatment of corneal epithelial defect contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢滨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of deproteinized calf blood extract-base eye gel and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor ( bFGF )-containing eye drops in the treatment of corneal epithelial defect .Methods Sixty-two patients ( 62 eyes ) with corneal epithelial defect presenting to the Department, Zhengzhou First People′s Hospital between March , 2012 and March, 2014 were randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups:deproteinized calf blood extract-based eye gel ( n =31 ) andrecombinant bovine bFGF-containing eye drops (n=31).After treatment for two weeks (one cycle),the effect size and adverse reactions were assessed .Results The deproteinized calf blood extract-based eye gel was significantly effective in 12 ( 38.71%) cases, moderately effective in 17 ( 54.84%) cases, and ineffective in 2 (6.45%) cases.The bFGF-containing eye drops were significantly effective in 8 (25.81%) cases,moderately effective in 16 ( 51.61%) cases and ineffective in 7 ( 22.58%) cases.The total effectiveness rate was 93.55%for the eye gel and 77.42%for the eye drops (Hc=6.5 237,P0.05).Conclusion Deprotienized calf blood extract-based therapy appears more effective and safe than bFGF-containing eye drops in treating corneal epithelial defect .%目的:探讨应用小牛血去蛋白提取物眼凝胶与重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子滴眼液治疗角膜上皮缺损的临床效果。方法收集2012年3月至2014年3月郑州市第一人民医院眼科收治的62例(62只眼)角膜上皮缺损患者的临床资料。采用数字表法随机将患者分为A组和B组,每组各31例(31只眼)。 A组患者采用小牛血去蛋白提取物眼凝胶进行治疗,B组患者采用重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子滴眼液进行治疗。两组患者的临床疗效按照显效、有效和无效分为3个等级,以例数和百分比的形式表示,并采用Kruskal-Wallis H秩和检验的方法进行比较。治疗前及治疗后3 d两

  11. Talk With Your Health Care Provider About Taking Aspirin to Prevent Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... q What are my chances of having a heart attack? q Would I benefit from taking aspirin? q ... Health Care Provider About Taking Aspirin to Prevent Heart Attacks Did you know that aspirin can be an ...

  12. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  13. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  14. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, if the eyelids are opened too widely. Frequently ... disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry ...

  15. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  16. Aspirin as Primary Prevention of Acute Coronary Heart Disease Events

    OpenAIRE

    Glasser, Stephen P.; Hovater, Martha; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective Aspirin for primary prophylaxis is controversial. This study evaluated associations between prophylactic aspirin use and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods and Results The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study was accessed for aspirin use examining black and white hazards for incident CHD, for men and women, each adjusting incrementally for sampling, sociodemographics, and CHD risk factors. Stratified models exami...

  17. Interactions of m-xylene and aspirin metabolism in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, L; Wilson, H.K.; Samuel, A. M.; Gompertz, D

    1988-01-01

    In a series of experiments to investigate interactions between industrial solvents and common medications the interaction between m-xylene and aspirin was studied. As both these substances are metabolised and excreted as glycine conjugates there would possibly be competition for this conjugation pathway. Five male volunteers were exposed on separate occasions to m-xylene by inhalation (100 ppm), aspirin (1500 mg) by mouth, and m-xylene and aspirin together under controlled conditions in an ex...

  18. Phospho-Aspirin (MDC-22) Prevents Pancreatic Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheolabakis, George; Papayannis, Ioannis; Yang, Jennifer; Vaeth, Brandon M; Wang, Ruixue; Bandovic, Jela; Ouyang, Nengtai; Rigas, Basil; Mackenzie, Gerardo G

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease with a dismal 5-year survival rate of <6%. The currently limited treatment options for pancreatic cancer underscore the need for novel chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Accumulating evidence indicates that aspirin use is associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, the anticancer properties of aspirin are restricted by its gastrointestinal toxicity and its limited efficacy. Therefore, we developed phospho-aspirin (MDC-22), a novel derivative of aspirin, and evaluated its chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Phospho-aspirin inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cell lines 8- to 12-fold more potently than aspirin; based on the 24-hour IC50 values. In a Panc-1 xenograft model, phospho-aspirin, at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d 5 times per week for 30 days, reduced tumor growth by 78% (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle control). Furthermore, phospho-aspirin prevented pancreatitis-accelerated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in mice with activated Kras. In p48-Cre;Kras(G12D) mice, cerulein treatment (6 hourly injections two times per week for 3 weeks) led to a significant increase in ductal metaplasia, replacing the majority of the exocrine compartment. Administration of phospho-aspirin 100 mg/kg/day five times per week for 21 days (starting on the first day of cerulein injection) inhibited the acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, reducing it by 87% (P < 0.01, vs. cerulein-treated control). Phospho-aspirin appeared to be safe, with the animals showing no signs of toxicity during treatment. Mechanistically, phospho-aspirin inhibited EGFR activation in pancreatic cancer, an effect consistently observed in pancreatic cancer cells, primary acinar explants and in vivo In conclusion, our findings indicate that phospho-aspirin has strong anticancer efficacy in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, warranting its further evaluation. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 624-34. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27138793

  19. Two cases of oral aspirin overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideaki; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    A 30-year-old woman and a 27-year-old man were found in a parked car after the man had telephoned his father to tell him of their suicide attempt. In spite of emergent hospitalization and intensive care, the woman died. Due to the possibility of his assisting her suicide, medicolegal autopsy and toxicological analysis were performed. On forensic autopsy, no external injuries or pathological findings were detected. The man recovered after 5 days of hospitalization. In spite of a negative toxicological screening test, the police investigation revealed that they may have taken 120 tablets (330 mg/tablet; 39,600 mg total dose) of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) orally; therefore, we analyzed the concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and two kinds of metabolite in specimens obtained at autopsy and on emergent hospitalization using high performance liquid chromatography. Acetylsalicylic acid and/or the two metabolites were found in the woman's specimens. These substances were also present in the man's specimens. It is still unclear why the man survived in spite of what appeared to be a fatal aspirin overdose. It was very straightforward to diagnose aspirin poisoning in these cases; however, we have to be aware of poisoning by drugs which are not included in simple drug screening examinations. PMID:20569957

  20. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, ...

  1. Aspirin Promotes Oligodendroglial Differentiation Through Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nanxin; Chen, Dong; Wu, Xiyan; Chen, Xianjun; Zhang, Xuesi; Niu, Jianqin; Shen, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin, one of the most commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs, has been recently reported to display multiple effects in the central nervous system (CNS), including neuroprotection and upregulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression in astrocytes. Although it was most recently reported that aspirin could promote the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) after white matter lesion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To dissect the effects of aspirin on oligodendroglial development and explore possible mechanisms, we here demonstrated the following: (i) in vitro treatment of aspirin on OPC cultures significantly increased the number of differentiated oligodendrocytes (OLs) but had no effect on the number of proliferative OPCs, indicating that aspirin can promote OPC differentiation but not proliferation; (ii) in vivo treatment of aspirin on neonatal (P3) rats for 4 days led to a nearly twofold increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), devoid of change in OPC proliferaion, in the corpus callosum (CC); (iii) finally, aspirin treatment increased the phosphorylation level of β-catenin and counteracted Wnt signaling pathway synergist QS11-induced suppression on OPC differentiation. Together, our data show that aspirin can directly target oligodendroglial lineage cells and promote their differentiation through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings suggest that aspirin may be a novel candidate for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. PMID:26059811

  2. Eye floaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes are not on the surface of your eyes, but inside them. These floaters are bits of cell debris that drift around ... is the layer in the back of the eye.) If you notice a sudden increase in floaters or if you see floaters along with flashes ...

  3. Efeito do colírio de 5-fluorouracil sobre o epitélio corneano íntegro de coelhos Effects of 5-fluorouracil eye drops on intact rabbit corneal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni Cristina Barbarini Ferraz

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Observar os efeitos da aplicação tópica de 5-fluorouracil (5-FU sobre o epitélio corneano íntegro. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 coelhos albinos (14 olhos, divididos em: grupo controle (GC, 4 olhos nos quais não se administraram drogas, grupo 1 (G1, 5 olhos que receberam 5-fluorouracil na concentração 1,25% e grupo 2 (G2, 5 olhos que receberam 5-fluorouracil na concentração de 2,5%. A droga foi instilada 4 vezes por dia, durante 7 dias, quando os animais foram sacrificados, os olhos removidos, separando-se a córnea que foi preparada de modo convencional para estudo em microscópico eletrônico de varredura. RESULTADOS: GC: observaram-se células de formato hexagonal, claras, escuras e intermediárias, compondo o epitélio corneano de coelhos. Presença de numerosas microplicas, principalmente nas células claras. Cada célula possui cerca de 1 a 3 criptas. Nos animais do G1, observou-se maior número de células escuras, regiões com diminuição no número de criptas; alterações da superfície celular, protusão na região do núcleo e descamação de células epiteliais. Os do G2 tiveram aumento de microprojeções na superfície celular, modificações nas junções intercelulares até separação de células adjacentes; diminuição do número e variabilidade no tamanho das criptas. As alterações mais freqüentes ocorreram nas células da periferia da córnea. CONCLUSÃO: O 5-fluorouracil teve efeitos deletérios no epitélio íntegro corneano de coelhos. As alterações observadas foram mais importantes nos animais que receberam a droga mais concentrada (G2 e mais freqüentes na periferia da córnea.PURPOSE: To assess the influence of the antiproliferative agent (5-FU on the intact rabbit corneal epithelium. METHODS: 10 rabbits (14 eyes,were divided into: control group (CG, 4 eyes without drug administration; G1, 5 eyes underwent treatment with topical 12.5 mg/ml 5-fluorouracil and G2, 5 eyes received 5-fluorouracil

  4. Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduc...

  5. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  6. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. PMID:26201059

  7. EFFECT OF EDTA ON GASTRIC MUCOSAL LESION INDUCED BY ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A FESHARAKI M.A

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric ulcer is a multifactorial disease, which its pathophysioligy has not been clear yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the prophylactic effects of EDTA on Aspirin induced gastric mucosal lesions. Methods. In fasted male rats the effect of a single oral dose of the EDTA was evaluated in the following test systems: combination of 1 ml EDTA 1.5% + 300 mg/kg aspirin and 1 ml EDTA 1.5%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% 30 minutes before 300 mg/kg aspirin. Then the gastric mucosal lesions were assessed microscopically and marcroscopically. Results. EDTA at different doses reduced macroscopic and microscpic gastric mucosal lesion induced by aspirin. Discussion. Combination therapy of EDTA and aspirin has distinct advantages regard to both low gastrointestinal toxicity and restored therapeutic activity.

  8. Prevention of dipyrone (metamizole) induced inhibition of aspirin antiplatelet effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Amin; Richter, Stefan; Schrör, Karsten; Rassaf, Tienush; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zeus, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that dipyrone (metamizole), a non-opioid analgesic, can nullify aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) antiplatelet effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we analysed the aspirin and dipyrone drug-drug interaction in order to identify strategies to prevent the dipyrone induced inhibition of asprin antiplatelet effects. Platelet function was measured by arachidonic acid-induced light-transmission aggregometry, thromboxane (TX) B2- formation by immunoassay. Dipyrone metabolite plasma levels were determined by high-performance-liquid-chromatography (HPLC). In seven healthy individuals, in vitro ASA (30 µM/ 100 µM/ 300 µM/ 1,000 µM) and dipyrone (10 µM) coincubation revealed, that the aspirin and dipyrone interaction can be overcome by increasing doses of aspirin. In 36 aspirin and dipyrone comedicated CAD patients, addition of ASA (30 µM/ 100 µM) in vitro inhibited, but did not completely overcome the dipyrone induced reduction of aspirin antiplatelet effects. Notably, the inhibition of thromboxane formation in aspirin and dipyrone comedicated CAD patients coincided with dipyrone plasma levels. In a cross-over designed study in four healthy individuals, we were able to prove that inhibition of aspirin (100 mg/ day) effects by dipyrone (750 mg/ day) was reversible. Furthermore, aspirin (100 mg/ day) medication prior to dipyrone (750 mg/ day) intake prevented the inhibition of antiplatelet effects by dipyrone in 12 healthy individuals. In conclusion, aspirin medication prior to dipyrone intake preserves antiplatelet effects, circumventing the pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction at the level of cyclooxygenase-1. PMID:25789542

  9. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  10. Comparative study measuring the dilatory effect of a mydriatic device (Mydriasert(®)) versus topical drops

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Layana, A. (Alfredo); Salinas-Alaman, A. (Ángel); Sadaba-Echarri, L.M. (Luis M.); Caire, J. (J.); Zarranz-Ventura, J. (Javier); Sabater, A.L. (Alfonso L.); Bonet-Farriol, M.E. (María Elvira); Nova-Fernandez-Yañez, E. (Elisa) de; Fernandez-Robredo, P. (Patricia); Saenz-de-Viteri, M. (Manuel)

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare the mydriatic efficacy of an ophthalmic insert (Mydriasert, MY) versus phenylephrine and tropicamide (PT) eye drops. METHODS: Two controlled, prospective, randomized, single-blind studies were performed. In the first study, a total of 80 eyes from 40 outpatient-clinic patients were analyzed. PT drops were applied to the right eye, and a MY device was inserted in the left eye for 30min. Time until maximal pupil dilation for each eye was then assessed. In the second study, 80...

  11. Aspirin Plays Dual Role in Helping Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玲梅

    2002-01-01

    贵刊多次介绍“百年老药”aspirin(阿斯匹林,解热镇痛药,又称“乙酰水杨酸”)的神奇作用,我读了贵刊的介绍后,也开始服用aspirin,收到了意想不到的效果。现在,我上网时,对aspirin的报道特别留心。今日又在网上读到此文,特地加注后,发你们。文中有两个单词:interleukin-1(IL-1)/endothelialfunction,查阅了许多词典,仍不得其解。好在紧接其后的同谓语对这两个词作了解释。前者的以意思是:a blood of chemical associated with inflammation(一种炎 症有关的血液化学物质);后者是:the ability of the blood vessels to expand(血管扩张的能力)这两个词与新发现的aspirin两个功能有关,一是,能增加抗炎症作用,二是令血管得以扩张。】

  12. Drag on Sessile Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Nobes, David; Sen, Debjyoti; Amirfazli, Alidad; University of Alberta Mechanical Engineering Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present the first ever direct measurements of the coefficient of drag on sessile drops at Reynolds numbers from the creeping flow regime up to the point of incipient motion, made using a newly developed floating element differential drag sensor. Surfaces of different wettabilities (PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic surface (SHS)), wet by water, hexadecane, and various silicone oils, are used to study the effects of drop shape, and fluid properties on drag. The relation between drag coefficient and Reynolds number (scaled by drop height) varies slightly with liquid-solid system and drop volume with results suggesting the drop experiences increased drag compared to similar shaped solid bodies due to drop oscillation influencing the otherwise laminar flow. Drops adopting more spherical shapes are seen to experience the greatest force at any given airspeed. This indicates that the relative exposed areas of drops is an important consideration in terms of force, with implications for the shedding of drops in applications such as airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. The measurement technique used in this work can be adapted to measure drag force on other deformable, lightly adhered objects such as dust, sand, snow, vesicles, foams, and biofilms. The authours acknowledge NSERC, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, and the Killam Trusts.

  13. Bubble and drop interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miller

    2011-01-01

    The book aims at describing the most important experimental methods for characterizing liquid interfaces, such as drop profile analysis, bubble pressure and drop volume tensiometry, capillary pressure technique, and oscillating drops and bubbles. Besides the details of experimental set ups, also the underlying theoretical basis is presented in detail. In addition, a number of applications based on drops and bubbles is discussed, such as rising bubbles and the very complex process of flotation. Also wetting, characterized by the dynamics of advancing contact angles is discussed critically. Spec

  14. Sex hormones alter the effect of aspirin on bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Aftab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interaction of aspirin and sex hormones was investigated through bleeding time. Methods: Bleeding time in 32 males and 105 unmarried females with previous 6 normal menstrual cycles and all aged between 18 to 21 years was found by Duke’s method before and after 2 hours of aspirin administration. Phase of menstrual cycle of each female was determined by present menstrual history. Results: Bleeding time in 32 male was 69.33± 4.94 seconds and in 105 female was 73.03±1.89 seconds which were not statistically different (P>0.05.This time was increased to 107.66±4.76 seconds in males and 113.65±3.73 seconds in females after aspirin administration which were statistically different (P0.05 difference after aspirin administration with a greater effect in Follicular phase probably due to estradiol. Conclusion: Males respond to aspirin more as compared to females which is likely the effect of the drug and testosterone interaction. Similarly females in the follicular phase respond to aspirin more as compared to females in the luteal phase which may be a result of interaction of estrogen and aspirin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 537-540

  15. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Senile cataract is a clouding of the lens in the aging eye leading to a decrease in vision. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cells plasma membrane damage which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. The inner eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure or IOP) rises because the correct amount of fluid can't drain out of the eye. With primary open-angle glaucoma, the entrances to the drainage canals are clear and should be working correctly. The clogging problem occurs further inside the drainage canals, similar to a clogged pipe below the drain in a sink. The excessive oxidative damage is a major factor of the ocular diseases because the mitochondrial respiratory chain in mitochondria of the vital cells is a significant source of the damaging reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. However, despite the clinical importance of mitochondrial oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. This may be because the antioxidants are not selectively taken up by mitochondria, but instead are dispersed throughout the body, ocular tissues and fluids' moieties. This work is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are altered in the aging eye, along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria

  16. Purine Pathway Implicated in Mechanism of Resistance to Aspirin Therapy: Pharmacometabolomics-Informed-Pharmacogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Ellero-Simatos, Sandrine; Georgiades, Anastasia; Zhu, Hongjie; Lewis, Joshua; Horenstein, Richard B; Beitelshees, Amber L; Dane, Adrie; Reijmers, Theo; Hankemeier, Thomas; Fiehn, Oliver; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; ,

    2013-01-01

    Though aspirin is a well-established antiplatelet agent, the mechanisms of aspirin resistance remain poorly understood. Metabolomics allows for measurement of hundreds of small molecules in biological samples enabling detailed mapping of pathways involved in drug response. We defined the metabolic signature of aspirin exposure in subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study. Many metabolites, including known aspirin catabolites, changed upon exposure to aspirin and...

  17. Paramagnetic Leidenfrost Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2010-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing the behavior of drops of liquid oxygen, at room temperature. Due to their low boiling point, these drops levitate on a cushion of their own vapour. This property gives them a high mobility, as known more generally in such Leidenfrost situations. But liquid oxygen is also paramagnetic, and thus likely to be manipulated using a magnet. It is first shown that the shape of the drop can be modified by changing the drop/magnet distance; approaching the magnet acts as reinforcing gravity, so that the drops get flattened by this action. The transformation is of course reversible: as the magnet is withdrawn, the liquid recovers its quasi-spherical shape. Magnets can also be used to trap the oxygen drops. As they pass above a magnet, they slow down significantly, a consequence of their deformation: despite a very low friction, the vibrations induced by the drop deformations represent an important source of dissipation: below a well-defined velocity, drops can even be stopped in...

  18. Update on the Management of Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Kathleen M; Laidlaw, Tanya M

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset upper and lower airway disease consisting of eosinophilic nasal polyps, asthma, and respiratory reactions to cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibitors. Management includes guideline-based treatment of asthma and sinus disease, avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors, and for some patients aspirin desensitization followed by high-dose aspirin therapy. Despite this, many patients have inadequately controlled symptoms and require multiple sinus surgeries. In this review, we discuss the current standard approaches to the management of AERD, and we introduce several therapeutics under development that may hold promise for the treatment of AERD. PMID:27126722

  19. A critical appraisal of the phenomenon of aspirin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Atar, Dan;

    2005-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of 'aspirin...... resistance' (AR). This phenomenon, although lacking a precise definition, covers the fact that some patients do not exhibit the expected platelet inhibition by use of various techniques for measuring platelet function. In this critical review, we evaluate the methods used for measuring AR. We will discuss...

  20. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, John W; Wilson, Jeff M

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. PMID:27022293

  1. EFFECT OF EDTA ON GASTRIC MUCOSAL LESION INDUCED BY ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    M.A FESHARAKI M.A; A SHARAITI KAMALABADI; R MOKHTARI

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric ulcer is a multifactorial disease, which its pathophysioligy has not been clear yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the prophylactic effects of EDTA on Aspirin induced gastric mucosal lesions. Methods. In fasted male rats the effect of a single oral dose of the EDTA was evaluated in the following test systems: combination of 1 ml EDTA 1.5% + 300 mg/kg aspirin and 1 ml EDTA 1.5%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% 30 minutes before 300 mg/kg aspirin. Then the gastric mucosal les...

  2. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feel a thing, the shape of your lenses changed. When you look at things up close, the ... and Contact Lenses Why Do Eyes Water? Pinkeye Blindness Corneal Abrasions I Was Born Blind: Julia's Story ...

  3. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinke JW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available John W Steinke, Jeff M Wilson Asthma and Allergic Disease Center, Carter Immunology Center, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD, which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. Keywords: leukotriene, cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, arachidonic acid

  4. Using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 for monitoring aspirin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Mickley, Hans; Korsholm, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the test characteristics of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) in patients treated with aspirin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of two sub-studies. In study 1, 10 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 controls had...... platelet function assessed by optical platelet aggregation and the PFA-100 method in two 5-week periods. Patients with IHD were treated with aspirin 150 mg/day (first 5-week period), and 300 mg/day (second 5-week period), whereas the controls only received aspirin (150 mg/day) during the second 5-week...... period. From the results of study 1, we found that a cut-off value for the PFA-100 collagen/epinephrine cartridge <165 s identified patients not taking aspirin (sensitivity 0.91, specificity 1.00). A good agreement between the PFA-100 method and optical platelet aggregation was found. Within...

  5. Aspirin as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. It is widely accepted that neoplasms such as colonic polyps are precursors to CRC formation; with the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequences well described in medical literature [1, 2]. It has been shown that Aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have a negative effect on polyp and cancer formation. This review aims to describe some of the mechanism behind the chemoprotective properties of aspirin; COX 2 inhibition, regulation of proliferation and apoptosis and effects on the immune system and also the current evidence that supports its use as a chemoprevention agent against CRC. We will also aim to explore the side effects with the use of aspirin and the pitfalls of using aspirin routinely for primary prophylaxis against CRC.

  6. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The ... sections Take Action! Take Action: Talk with Your Doctor Take these steps to protect your health if ...

  7. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  8. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most common ... depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves inflammation ...

  9. An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Synthesis of Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Sangeeta; Goyal, Samta

    1998-06-01

    The synthesis of aspirin is a part of many undergraduate organic synthesis labs and is frequently used in qualitative organic analysis laboratory for the identification of salicylic acid. We have found that aspirin can be synthesized on microscale by a simple and efficient procedure that eliminates the heating step employed in literature procedures and gives a pure, ferric-negative product (no purple color with alcoholic ferric chloride solution).

  10. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe; Seung-Hyun Kim; Hyun Jung Jin; Eui-Kyung Hwang; Young Hee Nam; Hae-Sim Park

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the resp...

  11. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    VanWormer JJ; Miller AW; Rezkalla SH

    2014-01-01

    Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention i...

  12. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  13. Pharmacometabolomics Reveals That Serotonin Is Implicated in Aspirin Response Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Ellero-Simatos, S; Lewis, JP; Georgiades, A; Yerges-Armstrong, LM; Beitelshees, AL; Horenstein, RB; Dane, A.; Harms, AC; Ramaker, R; Vreeken, RJ; Perry, CG; Zhu, H.; Sanchez, CL; Kühn, C.; ORTEL, TL

    2014-01-01

    While aspirin is generally effective for prevention of cardiovascular disease, considerable variation in drug response exists, resulting in some individuals displaying high on-treatment platelet reactivity. We used pharmacometabolomics to define pathways implicated in variation of response to treatment. We profiled serum samples from healthy subjects pre- and postaspirin (14 days, 81 mg/day) using mass spectrometry. We established a strong signature of aspirin exposure independent ...

  14. Small bowel injury in low-dose aspirin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroki; Sakai, Eiji; Kato, Takayuki; Umezawa, Shotaro; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    The use of low-dose aspirin (LDA) is well known to be associated with an increased risk of serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as peptic ulceration and bleeding. Until recently, attention was mainly focused on aspirin-induced damage of the stomach and duodenum. However, recently, there has been growing interest among gastroenterologists on the adverse effects of aspirin on the small bowel, especially as new endoscopic techniques, such as capsule endoscopy (CE) and balloon-assisted endoscopy, have become available for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Preliminary CE studies conducted in healthy subjects have shown that short-term administration of LDA can induce mild mucosal inflammation of the small bowel. Furthermore, chronic use of LDA results in a variety of lesions in the small bowel, including multiple petechiae, loss of villi, erosions, and round, irregular, or punched-out ulcers. Some patients develop circumferential ulcers with stricture. In addition, to reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal lesions in LDA users, it is important for clinicians to confirm the differences in the gastrointestinal toxicity between different types of aspirin formulations in clinical use. Some studies suggest that enteric-coated aspirin may be more injurious to the small bowel mucosa than buffered aspirin. The ideal treatment for small bowel injury in patients taking LDA would be withdrawal of aspirin, however, LDA is used as an antiplatelet agent in the majority of patients, and its withdrawal could increase the risk of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel means for the treatment of aspirin-induced enteropathy are urgently needed. PMID:25501289

  15. 'Aspirin resistance' or treatment non-compliance: Which is to blame for cardiovascular complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantsila Eduard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aspirin is one of the 'cornerstone' drugs in our current management of cardiovascular disorders. However, despite the prescription of aspirin recurrent vascular events still occur in 10–20% of patients. These, data together with the observations of diminished antiaggregatory response to aspirin in some subjects have provided the basis of the current debate on the existence of so-called "aspirin resistance". Unfortunately, many of the tests employed to define 'aspirin resistance' lack sufficient sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. The prevalence of 'aspirin resistance' as defined by each test varies widely, and furthermore, the value of a single point estimate measure of aspirin resistance is questionable. The rate of 'aspirin resistance' is law if patients observed to ingest aspirin, with large proportion of patients to be pseudo-'aspirin resistant', due to non-compliance. What are the implications for clinical practice? Possible non-adherence to aspirin prescription should also be carefully considered before changing to higher aspirin doses, other antiplatelet drugs (e.g. clopidogrel or even combination antiplatelet drug therapy. Given the multifactorial nature of atherothrombotic disease, it is not surprising that only about 25% of all cardiovascular complications can usually be prevented by any single medication. We would advocate against routine testing of platelet sensitivity to aspirin (as an attempt to look for 'aspirin resistance' but rather, to highlight the importance of clinicians and public attention to the problem of treatment non-compliance.

  16. Prevalence of and risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Liu; Jian Cao; Li Fan; Lin Liu; Jian Li; Guo-Liang Hu; Yi-Xin Hu; Xiao-Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of and related risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Two hundred and forty-six elderly patients (75.9 ± 7.4 years) with CAD who received daily aspirin therapy (≥ 75 mg) over one month were recruited. The effect of aspirin was assessed using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and thrombelastography platelet mapping assay (TEG). Aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 20% arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation and ≥ 70% adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation in the LTA assay. An aspirin semi-responder was defined as meeting one (but not both) of the criteria described above. Based on the results of TEG, aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 50% aggregation induced by AA. Results As determined by LTA, 23 (9.3%) of the elderly CAD patients were resistant to aspirin therapy; 91 (37.0%) were semi-responders. As determined by TEG, 61 patients (24.8%) were aspirin resistant. Of the 61 patients who were aspirin resistant by TEG, 19 were aspirin resistant according to LTA results. Twenty-four of 91 semi-responders by LTA were aspirin resistant by TEG. Multivariate logistic risk factor for aspirin resistance as determined by TEG. Conclusions A significant number of elderly patients with CAD are resistant to aspirin therapy. Fasting blood glucose level is closely associated with aspirin resistance in elderly CAD patients.

  17. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  18. Mechanistic and Pharmacological Issues of Aspirin as an Anticancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patrignani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that aspirin, taken for several years, reduces the long-term risk of some cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. The result that aspirin benefit is detectable at daily low-doses (at least 75mg, the same used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, positions the antiplatelet action of aspirin at the center of its antitumor efficacy. At low-doses given every 24 h, aspirin is acting by a complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 in platelets (in the pre-systemic circulation while causing a limited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2 and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells. Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation (approximately 20 min; nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize the acetylated COX-isozymes within a few hours, while platelets do not. COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin, such as the inhibition of Wnt/ b-catenin and NF-kB signaling and the acetylation of extra-COX proteins, have been suggested to play a role in its chemo-preventive effects, but their relevance remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses. In conclusion, the results of clinical pharmacology and the analysis of randomized and epidemiological studies suggest that colorectal cancer and atherothrombosis share a common mechanism of disease, i.e. enhanced platelet activation in response to injury at distinct sites.

  19. Lambda-dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all the...... parameters that any of their callees might possibly need. Both lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping thus require one to compute a transitive closure over the call graph:• for lambda-lifting: to establish the Def/Use path of each free variable (these free variables are then added as parameters to each of...... the functions in the call path);• for lambda-dropping: to establish the Def/Use path of each parameter (parameters whose use occurs in the same scope as their definition do not need to be passed along in the call path).Without free variables, a program is scope-insensitive. Its blocks are then...

  20. Glaucoma and dry eye disease: the role of preservatives in glaucoma medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sitompul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a common cause of irreversible blindness with increasing prevalence. Some of glaucoma patients will also experience dry eye. Dry eye is the most frequent side effect related to benzalkonium chloride (BAC-containing eye drop  used for glaucoma patients. In addition, glaucoma and dry eyes have shared risk factors that are old age and female. Dry eye among glaucoma patients need to be treated promptly as it produces discomfort, reduces patients’ compliance and   decreases success rate of glaucoma therapy. Dry eye symptoms can be treated by applying preservative-free eye drop, giving combination of preservative containing and preservative-free eye drop to reduce BAC exposure, prescribing artificial tear and conducting surgery to minimize or eliminate the need of topical medication. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:302-5Keywords: benzalkonium chloride, dry eye, glaucoma

  1. Drop Tower Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  2. Comparison of Two Therapeutic Protocols : Heparin with Aspirin VS Prednisolone with Aspirin, in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rabiee, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: The most common complication of pregnancy is abortion. The etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss is not completely known. There are few therapeutics and diagnostic strategies in recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to compare the use of heparin with aspirin vs prednisolone with aspirin in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL.Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study comprised of 50 patients with RPL referred to Fatemieh Hospital, Hamadan. These patients were selected when β-HCG test was positive and were divided into two groups (n=25 for each group. Patients in the first group received subcutaneous heparin (5000 U twice a day and oral microcoated aspirin (80 mg once a day up to 20th week of pregnancy. Ultrasonography was repeated 3 times for these patients. Ca tablet was administrated in order to prevent osteoporosis. Antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies were checked for all patients. Neonates were visited by a neonatologist and followed up for one month. Finally, the data were analyzed by t-test and Fisher’s exact test.Results: The mean age of prednisolone with aspirin group were 31.83.3 years while, it was 30.73.2 years in heparin with aspirin group and, this difference was not significant (P>0.05. The mean pregnancy loss number was 2.81.1 while 2.41 in prednisolone with aspirin and heparin with aspirin groups respectively, which was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Anticardiolipin antibody was positive in 4 (8% patients, and antiphospholipid antibody was also positive in 4(8% patients. Pregnancy loss with heparin+aspirin was significantly higher than prednisolone+aspirin (P<0.05. There was not any case of complications in two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that prednisolone with aspirin are more effective than heparin with aspirin in the management of recurrent pregnancy loss and are preferred to use in these patients.

  3. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  4. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, A. B.; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A. T.; Hawkey, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin...

  5. 15-epi-lipoxin A4-mediated induction of nitric oxide explains how aspirin inhibits acute inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul-Clark, M. J.; Cao, T; Moradi-Bidhendi, N.; Cooper, D; Gilroy, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The established model for the mechanism of action of aspirin is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. However, this has never fully explained aspirin\\'s repertoire of antiinflammatory properties. We found in acute pleuritis that aspirin, but not salicylate, indomethacin, or piroxicam, increased plasma nitric oxide (NO), which correlated with a reduction in inflammation. Inhibiting aspirin-elicited NO pharmacologically in this model nullified the antiinflammatory effects of aspirin. Moreo...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes of Dry ... Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Devin A ...

  7. Comparison of aspirin and indobufen in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Young; Sung, Ki-Chul; Choi, Hyo-In

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the extent and recovery of platelet inhibition after administration of indobufen and aspirin in healthy volunteers. Indobufen inhibits platelet aggregation by reversibly inhibiting the platelet cyclooxygenase enzyme, thereby suppressing thromboxane synthesis. Twenty healthy volunteers completed the study and received aspirin (200 mg/day for 2 weeks) followed by a 4-week washout period and then indobufen (200 mg twice a day for 2 weeks). The percent (%) inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed using arachidonic acid (0.5 mg/ml) and adenosine diphosphate (5 µM) at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after last dose of each drug. IPA assessed using arachidonic acid as the agonist was similar at 4 hours after the last dose of indobufen (81.07 ± 9.36%) and aspirin (96.99 ± 0.29%, p = 0.10), but significantly lower at 12 hours (74.04 ± 9.55% vs. 97.94 ± 0.28%, p = 0.02), 24 hours (33.39 ± 11.13% vs. 97.48 ± 0.32%, p aspirin. IPA assessed using adenosine diphosphate as the agonist was similar in the two groups at 4, 12 and 24 hours after the last dose, but significantly lower 48 hours after the last dose of indobufen, compared to the relative value for aspirin (1.98 ± 3.57% vs. 12.61 ± 2.71%, p = 0.002). Indobufen (200 mg twice a day) caused equivalent initial inhibition of platelet aggregation to aspirin (200 mg daily), and the anti-aggregation effect diminished faster than after aspirin. PMID:26083594

  8. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P.N.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon canc...

  9. Reduction in mydriatic drop size in premature infants.

    OpenAIRE

    WHEATCROFT, S.; A Sharma; McAllister, J

    1993-01-01

    In a prospective study of 26 premature infants, 5 microliters microdrops were compared with standard 26 microliters eye drops of cyclopentolate 0.5% and phenylephrine 2.5%. There was no statistical difference in pupil dilatation. The 5 microliters microdrops have potentially fewer adverse effects in premature infants.

  10. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  11. Evaluation of treatment for dry eye with 2-hydroxyestradiol using a dry eye rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonishi, Erina; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: 2-hydroxy estradiol (2-OHE2) is a catechol derivative of 17β -Estradiol (E2) and it is synthesized from E2 catalyzed by cytochrome P4501A1. Previous studies reported that 2-OHE2 is a physiologic antioxidant in lipoproteins, liver microsomes, and the brain. Catechol derivatives show an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGS) activity. Corneal erosion caused by dry eye is related to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation in ocular surface cells. We investigated the therapeutic effects of 2-OHE2 on corneal damage caused by dry eye. Methods: Steroidal radical scavenging activity was confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. PGS activity was measured using the COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit. To evaluate the effect of 2-OHE2 on the treatment for dry eye, 2-OHE2 was applied as an eye drop experiment using dry eye model rats. Results: 2-OHE2 scavenged tyrosyl radical and possibly suppressed oxidative stress in corneal epithelial cells. In addition, 2-OHE2 inhibited PGS activity, and 2-OHE2 is probably a competitive inhibitor of PGS. Corneal PGS activity was upregulated in the dry eye group. Therefore, 2-OHE2 eye drops improved corneal erosion in dry eye model rats. Conclusions: 2-OHE2 is a candidate for the treatment of dry eye through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea. PMID:27186071

  12. Regular use of aspirin and prostate cancer risk (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ravi J; Swede, Helen; Niles, Robert; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2006-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can decrease the risk of developing prostate and other cancers, although observational studies have not been very conclusive. The current study examined the effects of regular aspirin use on prostate cancer risk in 1,029 patients with primary, incident cancer of the prostate and 1,029 hospital controls frequency-matched to cases by 5-year age group and period of questionnaire completion. Patients who reported use of aspirin for at least once a week for at least 6 months were classified as regular users, with others classified as non-users. Results indicate that regular aspirin use may not be associated with decreased prostate cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.25], frequency of use (OR for at least seven/week 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.13), duration of use (OR for at least 10 years of use 1.17 95% CI 0.93-1.46) or tablet years (defined as tablets per day x years of use). A similar lack of association was observed when analyses were performed examining stage of the cancer. These data suggest that aspirin use may not be associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. PMID:16489532

  13. Design of aspirin formulation for rapid pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman P. Mohanan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aspirin has always had excellent pain relief benefits. To reduce the gastric problems in the present study we had made an attempt to make aspirin fast dissolving tablets. Methods: Aspirin fast dissolving tablets were developed by direct compression method using Indion 254, Indion 214 and croscarmellose as superdisintegrants. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as diluent, and mannitol, as sweetening agent. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, mechanical strength, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time and drug release characteristics. Results: Hardness and friability data indicated good mechanical strength of tablets. The results of in vitro disintegration time indicated that formulation FD3 (containing 5 mg Indion 254 as superdisintegrant was found to be suitable tablets as it showed rapid disintegration within 8 to 32 seconds. Dissolution study revealed the release rate of aspirin fast dissolving tablet and these was compared with that of marketed tablet formulation of aspirin. Conclusion: It was concluded that superdisintegrants addition technique is a useful method for preparing fast dissolving tablets by direct compression method and present study revealed that Indion 254 could produce good superdisintegrating property. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(2.000: 131-134

  14. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA. Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  15. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, Kunal; Gatoulis, Sergio C; Voelker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer's clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA). Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:26247959

  16. Investigating the Effect of Aspirin on Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Polat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aspirin on the toxicology of mercury was investigated by using fish. The variations between blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed directly to mercury solutions prepared at certain concentrations (500 μg/L, 250 μg/L, 125 μg/L, 62.5 μg/L, and 31.25 μg/L, and blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed to mercury at the same concentrations after they had been interacting with aspirin, were investigated. At the end of the study, increases in blood parameters were observed depending on the increases in mercury concentration. Statistically significant variations were observed in blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed to mercury at the same concentrations after they had been interacting with aspirin, compared to blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed directly to mercury (. It was found that aspirin has caused significant increases in especially the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotranspherase and significant decreases in cortisol and glucose levels among to blood parameters. It was concluded that aspirin alters the toxic effect of mercury.

  17. Clinical utility of voriconazole eye drops in ophthalmic fungal keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Daoud Al-Badriyeh; Chin Fen Neoh; Kay Stewart; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Daoud Al-Badriyeh, Chin Fen Neoh, Kay Stewart, David CM KongCentre for Medicine Use and Safety, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Fungal keratitis is one of the major causes of ophthalmic mycosis and is difficult to treat. The range of common antifungal agents available for fungal keratitis remains inadequate and is generally associated with poor clinical outcomes. Voriconazole is a new generation triazole antifungal agent. Only m...

  18. Overexpression of leukotriene C4 synthase in bronchial biopsies from patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowburn, A. S.; Sladek, K; Soja, J; L. Adamek; Nizankowska, E; Szczeklik, A.; Lam, B K; Penrose, J F; Austen, F K; Holgate, S T; Sampson, A P

    1998-01-01

    Aspirin causes bronchoconstriction in aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) patients by triggering cysteinyl-leukotriene (cys-LT) production, probably by removing PGE2-dependent inhibition. To investigate why aspirin does not cause bronchoconstriction in all individuals, we immunostained enzymes of the leukotriene and prostanoid pathways in bronchial biopsies from AIA patients, aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) patients, and normal (N) subjects. Counts of cells expressing the terminal enzyme for cys-LT...

  19. Safety of 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients on aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Pawan Vasudeva; Niraj Kumar; Anup Kumar; Harbinder Singh; Gaurav Kumar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To prospectively assess safety outcome of TRUS guided prostate biopsy in patients taking low dose aspirin. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients, who were planned for 12 core TRUS guided prostate biopsy and satisfied eligibility criteria, were included in the study and divided into two Groups: Group A: patients on aspirin during biopsy, Group B: patients not on aspirin during biopsy, including patients in whom aspirin was stopped prior to the biopsy. Parameters inclu...

  20. Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongzhi; HASEGAWA, JUNICHI; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not ...

  1. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  2. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Listen Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma information ...

  3. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  4. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  5. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  6. Coalescence of sessile drops

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Pomeau, Yves; Andrieu, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical description of the kinetics of coalescence of two water drops on a plane solid surface. The case of partial wetting is considered. The drops are in an atmosphere of nitrogen saturated with water where they grow by condensation and eventually touch each other and coalesce. A new convex composite drop is rapidly formed that then exponentially and slowly relaxes to an equilibrium hemispherical cap. The characteristic relaxation time is proportional to the drop radius R * at final equilibrium. This relaxation time appears to be nearly 10 7 times larger than the bulk capillary relaxation time t b = R * $\\eta$/$\\sigma$, where $\\sigma$ is the gas--liquid surface tension and $\\eta$ is the liquid shear viscosity. In order to explain this extremely large relaxation time, we consider a model that involves an Arrhenius kinetic factor resulting from a liquid--vapour phase change in the vicinity of the contact line. The model results in a large relaxation time of order t b exp(L/R...

  7. Rod drop measurement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some cases control rod worth efficiencies evaluated by inverse point kinetics from out-core detector currents remarkable differ from direct calculations. Explanation of this effects is given and is supported by the analysis of some WWER-440 rod drop experiments. (Authors)

  8. 联合毛果芸香碱滴眼液治疗眼外伤房角后退继发性青光眼%The role of pilocarpine eye drops in traditional ocular hypotensive therapies for traumatic angle recession glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春蕾; 王婷; 廉超; 史伟云; 刘军彩; 王姝婷

    2013-01-01

    , brinzolamide, and brimonidine tartrate eye drops for 3 - 5 days. This regimen decreased the IOP to an average of 35.00 ±3.55 mm Hg,which was still not optimal. Pilocarpine (0.5% ) eye drops at 4 times a day was then added to the regimen and detailed records of IOP outcomes were recorded. Results Twenty-four hours after pilocarpine was initiated,the mean IOP fell to 21.90 ± 3. 87 mm Hg, an additional 13.10 ± 1.10 mm Hg drop from the original regimen. The pupil diameter decreased to 2. 10 ± 0. 31mm. Four patients eventually achieved normal IOP; eight patients received trabeculectomy when IOP was successfully controlled at a safe level. Conclusion Pilocarpine can effectively reduce IOP in traumatic angle recession glaucoma. This IOP lowering effect is independent to existing anti-glaucoma and anti-inflammation treatments.

  9. Antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally, and atherothrombosis is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular events. Several studies have shown that antiplatelet therapy, including aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), reduces the risk of cardiovascular events and death. However, it is well-known that many patients experience cardiovascular events despite treatment with aspirin, often termed "aspirin low-responsiveness". This fact has caused considerable debate: does biochemical aspirin low-responsiveness have prognostic value? Can low-responders be reliably identified? And if so, should antithrombotic treatment be changed? Is the whole discussion of antiplatelet drug response merely a result of low compliance? Compliance should be carefully optimised, before evaluating the pharmacological effect of a drug. It is well-known that cardiovascular disease is multifactorial, and, therefore, total risk reduction is not feasible. Aetiological factors to the variable platelet inhibition by aspirin seem to include genetic factors, pharmacological interactions, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and increased platelet turnover. It is a captivating thought that antiplatelet therapy may be improved by individually tailored therapy based on platelet function testing. Ongoing studies are challenging the current one-size-fits-all dosing strategy, but the preceding evaluation of platelet function assays has not been adequate. The overall objective of this thesis was to evaluate the reproducibility of and aggreement between a number of widely used platelet function tests and to explore the importance of platelet turnover for the antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease. In the intervention studies (studies 1, 3, and 4), optimal compliance was confirmed by measurements of serum thromboxane, which is the most sensitive assay to confirm compliance with aspirin. In study 1, platelet function tests widely used to measure the antiplatelet effect

  10. Use and Safety of Non-Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs and Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E. Valkhoff (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin, dates back to the Egyptians in 1534 BC. Aspirin-like compounds are naturally derived from willow tree bark and myr-tle. At the end of the 19th century aspirin was patented by Bayer as the world’s first syn-thetic drug. The recomme

  11. Genetic Determinants of On-Aspirin Platelet Reactivity: Focus on the Influence of PEAR1

    OpenAIRE

    Würtz, Morten; Nissen, Peter H; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet aggregation during aspirin treatment displays considerable inter-individual variability. A genetic etiology likely exists, but it remains unclear to what extent genetic polymorphisms determine platelet aggregation in aspirin-treated individuals. Aim To identify platelet-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing platelet aggregation during aspirin treatment. Furthermore, we explored to what extent changes in cyclooxygenase-1 activity and platelet activation...

  12. Comparison of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetics on low dose aspirin and not on low dose aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the frequency of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetes patients who are taking low dose aspirin with those patients who are not taking low dose aspirin. Study design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital Rawalpindi for a period of two years (June 2006-May 2008). Patients and Methods: Sixty diabetic patients were selected who were taking low dose aspirin comparing group A and sixty diabetic patients who were not taking aspirin were placed in group B. These patients were selected from the OPD through non probability convenience sampling. All these patients were being followed up in medical outpatient quite regularly on fort-nightly basis. Data had been collected through a carefully designed questionnaire. Results: In group A, 90% of the patients had uric acid less than 445 micro mol/l and 10% of the patients had uric acid more than 445micro mol/l. Whereas in group B 100% of the patients had uric acid less than 445umol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Aspirin in low doses cause hyperuricemia and regular monitoring of uric acid is mandatory to prevent its adverse effects. (author)

  13. Use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; García-Rodríguez, L A; Sørensen, H T;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Few studies have examined the association between use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of glioma and the results have been equivocal. We therefore investigated the influence of NSAID use on glioma risk in a nationwide setting.Methods:We used...... exposure to low-dose aspirin or non-aspirin (NA) NSAIDs into ever use or long-term use, defined as continuous use for 5 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for glioma associated with NSAID use, adjusted for potential...... confounders.Results:A total of 2688 glioma cases and 18 848 population controls were included in the study. Ever use of low-dose aspirin (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.04) or NA-NSAIDs (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.96-1.14) was not associated with glioma risk. Compared with never use, long-term use of low-dose aspirin or of...

  14. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  15. Aspirin use for primary prevention in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrosu, Pierfranco

    2016-01-01

    The net clinical benefit of aspirin in primary prevention is uncertain as the reduction in occlusive events needs to be balanced against the increase in gastro-intestinal and cerebral bleedings. The meta-analysis of ATT (Anti Thrombotic Trialists) Collaboration in 2009 showed that aspirin therapy in primary prevention was associated with 12% reduction in cardio-vascular events, due mainly to a reduction in non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.18% vs 0.23% per year, pheart attack and stroke. As a consequence, it is important consider both likelihoods of benefits as well as harm within the lifespan and functioning of the person. The older people who most likely benefit from aspirin in primary prevention are those at higher cardio-vascular risk, with preserved functional abilities, low comorbidity, low risk of bleeding and a prolonged life expectancy. PMID:27374042

  16. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, John A

    2006-01-01

    There is significant evidence that low-dose aspirin is effective in preventing the first myocardial infarction in men and ischemic stroke in women. There is also an increased risk for major gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage and a suggestive, but nonsignificant, increase in the risk for hemorrhagic stroke. If there is a history of ulcer disease or upper-gastrointestinal tract bleeding, Helicobacter pylori should be eradicated (if present) and a proton pump inhibitor used with aspirin therapy. In conclusion, the benefits of low-dose aspirin (75-162 mg/day) in the prevention of myocardial infarction in men and thrombotic stroke in women generally outweigh the risks of serious bleeding in adults with a coronary heart disease risk >1% per year or >1% in 10 years. PMID:17066145

  17. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  18. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  19. Novel Pro-resolving Aspirin-Triggered DHA Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Serhan, Charles N.; Fredman, Gabrielle; Yang, Rong; Karamnov, Sergey; Belayev, Ludmila S.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Zhu, Min; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Petasis, Nicos A.

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous mechanisms in the resolution of acute inflammation are of interest since excessive inflammation underlies many pathologies. We report a new aspirin-triggered DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes a potent product in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1)]. The complete stereochemistry of AT-(NPD1/PD1) proved to be 10R,17R-dihydroxydocosa- 4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid. The chirality of hydroxyl groups a...

  20. Investigating the Effect of Aspirin on Mercury Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Polat; Tarık Dal

    2013-01-01

    The effect of aspirin on the toxicology of mercury was investigated by using fish. The variations between blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed directly to mercury solutions prepared at certain concentrations (500 μg/L, 250 μg/L, 125 μg/L, 62.5 μg/L, and 31.25 μg/L), and blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed to mercury at the same concentrations after they had been interacting with aspirin, were investigated. At the end of the study, increases in blood paramet...

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of ophthalmic drops according to the pharmacopeial tests criteria

    OpenAIRE

    N Samadi; Tarighi, P.; M.R Fazeli; H Mehrgan

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In this study antimicrobial effectiveness test was performed on eye-drops which had high microbial contaminations in hospital practice to find out whether their antimicrobial efficacies affect the magnitude of microbial contamination during their uses. Materials and Methods: Artificial tear, atropine sulfate, betamethasone, homatropine hydrobromide, phenylephrine hydrochloride, phenylephrine zinc, pilocarpine hydrochloride, tetracaine hydrochloride and tropicamide eye-dro...

  2. Coalescence of Liquid Drops

    CERN Document Server

    Eggers, J; Stone, H A; Eggers, Jens; Lister, John R.; Stone, Howard A.

    1999-01-01

    When two drops of radius $R$ touch, surface tension drives an initially singular motion which joins them into a bigger drop with smaller surface area. This motion is always viscously dominated at early times. We focus on the early-time behavior of the radius $\\rmn$ of the small bridge between the two drops. The flow is driven by a highly curved meniscus of length $2\\pi \\rmn$ and width $\\Delta\\ll\\rmn$ around the bridge, from which we conclude that the leading-order problem is asymptotically equivalent to its two-dimensional counterpart. An exact two-dimensional solution for the case of inviscid surroundings [Hopper, J. Fluid Mech. ${\\bf 213}$, 349 (1990)] shows that R)]$; and thus the same is true in three dimensions. The case of coalescence with an external viscous fluid is also studied in detail both analytically and numerically. A significantly different structure is found in which the outer fluid forms a toroidal bubble of radius $\\Delta \\propto \\rmn^{3/2}$ at the meniscus and $\\rmn \\sim (t\\gamma/4\\pi\\eta)...

  3. Impairment of aspirin antiplatelet effects by non-opioid analgesic medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin; Polzin; Thomas; Hohlfeld; Malte; Kelm; Tobias; Zeus

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with enhanced incidence of cardiovascular events. Comedication with non-opioid analgesic drugs has been described to interfere with aspirin,resulting in impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects. Additionally,nonopioid analgesic medication has been shown to enhance the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Pain is very frequent and many patients rely on analgesic drugs to control pain. Therefore effective analgesic options without increased risk of cardiovascular events are desirable. This review focuses on commonly used nonopioid analgesics,interactions with aspirin medication and impact on cardiovascular risk.

  4. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy[3,4,5,6-2H4]benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenously with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans

  5. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  6. Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pathi

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin is highly effective for treating colon cancer patients postdiagnosis; however, the mechanisms of action of aspirin in colon cancer are not well defined. Aspirin and its major metabolite sodium salicylate induced apoptosis and decreased colon cancer cell growth and the sodium salt of aspirin also inhibited tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. Colon cancer cell growth inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and decreased expression of Sp-regulated gene products including bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, VEGFR1, cyclin D1, c-MET and p65 (NFκB. Moreover, we also showed by RNA interference that β-catenin, an important target of aspirin in some studies, is an Sp-regulated gene. Aspirin induced nuclear caspase-dependent cleavage of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and this response was related to sequestration of zinc ions since addition of zinc sulfate blocked aspirin-mediated apoptosis and repression of Sp proteins. The results demonstrate an important underlying mechanism of action of aspirin as an anticancer agent and, based on the rapid metabolism of aspirin to salicylate in humans and the high salicylate/aspirin ratios in serum, it is likely that the anticancer activity of aspirin is also due to the salicylate metabolite.

  7. In vivo prostacyclin biosynthesis and effects of different aspirin regimens in patients with essential thrombocythaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, V; Rocca, B; Squellerio, I; Dragani, A; Veglia, F; Pagliaccia, F; Porro, B; Barbieri, S S; Tremoli, E; Patrono, C

    2014-07-01

    Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) is characterised by enhanced platelet generation and thrombosis. Once daily (od) aspirin incompletely inhibits platelet thromboxane (TX)A2 production in ET. A twice daily (bid) dosing is necessary to fully inhibit TXA2. Whether this dosing regimen affects in vivo prostacyclin (PGI2) biosynthesis is unknown. PGI2 biosynthesis was characterised in 50 ET patients on enteric-coated (EC) aspirin 100 mg od, by measuring its urinary metabolite, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α (PGI-M). Moreover, in a crossover study 22 patients poorly responsive to standard aspirin based on serum TXB2 levels (≥4 ng/ml) were randomised to different seven-day aspirin regimens: EC aspirin 100 mg od, 100 mg bid, 200 mg od, or plain aspirin 100 mg od. PGI-M measured 24 hours after the last aspirin intake (EC, 100 mg od) was similar in patients and healthy subjects both on (n=10) and off (n=30) aspirin. PGI-M was unrelated to in vivo TXA2 biosynthesis, and not affected by EC aspirin 100 mg bid or 200 mg od as compared to EC 100 mg od. PGI2 biosynthesis in aspirin-treated ET patients appears unrelated to TXA2 biosynthesis, and not affected by an improved aspirin regimen, demonstrating its vascular safety for future trials. PMID:24671522

  8. Endothelial dysfunction in young healthy men is associated with aspirin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Janus, Agnieszka; Jakubowski, Maciej; Turek, Aleksandra; Ilnicka, Paulina; Szuba, Andrzej; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial dysfunction and aspirin response in a young healthy population (102 men aged 18-40). Initial concentrations of the NO pathway metabolites (ADMA, l-arginine, SDMA), cardiovascular risk markers, oxidative stress markers (MDA, thiol index), sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, VEGF, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation (to separate aspirin resistant from sensitive group) were measured. Flow-mediated-vasodilation (FMD) was measured before and after intravenous infusion of 16.0 g of l-arginine. Measurements were repeated following aspirin administration (75 mg/24 h) for 4 days. Both groups were homogenous regarding demographic and biochemical characteristics reflecting cardiovascular risk. Aspirin resistant subjects were characterized by lower baseline FMD and higher FMD following aspirin and l-arginine treatment, as compared to aspirin sensitive control. MDA and nitrotyrosine were greater, whereas thiol index was lower in aspirin resistant men. The sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin and VEGF levels were similar in the analyzed groups. Thromboxane in aspirin resistant subjects was greater both at baseline and following aspirin therapy. However, a significant decrease following aspirin treatment was present in both groups. Aspirin resistance in young men is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which could be due to oxidative stress resulting from lipid peroxidation. PMID:25697550

  9. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Isabella; Ciuffetta, Ambra; Temperilli, Flavia; Ferrandino, Francesca; Zicari, Alessandra; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Felli, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin. PMID:26491233

  10. Monitoring the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets with a fiber-optic dissolution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Ping-Ping Xu; Xin-Xia Li; Kun Nie; Ming-Fu Tuo; Bin Kong; Jian Chen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the process of dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets. Hydrolysis product of salicylic acid can result in adverse effects and affect the determination of dissolution rate assaying. In this study, the technique of differential spectra was employed, which made it possible to monitor the dissolution testing in situ. The results showed that the hydrolyzation of aspirin made the percentage of salicylic acid exceed the limit of free salicylic acid (4.0), and the hydrolyzation may affect the quality detection of aspirin delayed-release tablets.

  11. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin. PMID:26596838

  12. Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney; Buchheit, Kathleen; Cahill, Katherine N

    2015-12-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated diseases are important examples of drug hypersensitivities and include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticaria/angioedema, and aspirin- or NSAID-induced anaphylaxis. While each disease subtype may be distinguished by unique clinical features, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenotypes are not fully understood. However, the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme is thought to play a significant role. Additionally, eosinophils, mast cells, and their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been identified in the pathogenesis of AERD. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for aspirin-exacerbated diseases remain limited, and continued research focusing on each of the unique hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin is essential. This will not only advance the understanding of these disease processes, but also lead to the subsequent development of novel therapeutics that patients who suffer from aspirin-induced reactions desperately need. PMID:26475526

  13. Why we should not skip aspirin in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, K

    2016-01-01

    Since more than 20 years, aspirin is an approved and established first-line antiplatelet medication in cardiovascular prevention. This is partially due to ist unique mode of action which is not shared with any other antiplatelet agent as well by the reliability of its pharmacological efficacy: inhibition of platelet COX-1 and subsequent thromboxane formation in almost every patient. Aspirin acts synergistic with ADP-antagonists in dual antiplatelet therapy of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and is also approved for long-term secondary prevention. Patients with atrial fibrillation are an exception and benefit more from anticoagulants. After the introduction of the new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), i.e. direct inhibitors of factor Xa or thrombin formation, there is a renewed discussion about the role of antiplatelet agents, specifically if additional dual antiplatelet treatment is still necessary for an optimum clinical effect or whether one component, such as aspirin might be skipped in favor of other classes of oral antiplatelet agents, such as ADP-antagonists. The available data are insufficient to recommend this because of a low number of studies and a still uncertain benefit/risk (bleeding) ratio. More research on aspirin as a chemopreventive appears also to be necessary and is going on, in particular in individuals at high-risk for vascular thrombotic diseases (diabetics, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism). PMID:25891122

  14. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain and ...

  15. Aspirin for Prevention of Preeclampsia in Lupus Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, the onset of hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy, is a common medical disorder with high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The underlying pathology remains poorly understood and includes inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and an unbalanced thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio. For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, particularly those with preexisting renal disease or with active lupus, the risk of developing preeclampsia is up to 14% higher than it is among healthy individuals. The mechanism is still unknown and the data for preventing preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies are rare. Modulating the impaired thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio by administration of low-dose aspirin appears to be the current best option for the prevention of preeclampsia. After providing an overview of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies, and previous trials for prevention of preeclampsia with aspirin treatment, we recommend low-dose aspirin administration for all lupus patients starting prior to 16 weeks of gestation. Patients with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome should receive treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin during pregnancy.

  16. Aspirin induced fixed drug eruptions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruptions are common cutaneous adverse drug reactions, commonly caused by anticonvulsants, antibiotics and analgesics. Here, we report a case of a 27-year-old male of fixed drug eruptions due to Aspirin which was used in treatment of headache. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 220-221

  17. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  18. The neuroprotection of Aspirin on Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-ying; YuJuan; ChenChong-hong; ZhouYu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Aspirin (aeetylsalicylic acid, ASA as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug not only has well-established efficacy in anti-thromboxane, but also has direct neuroprotective effect. In this study, we design to investigate its neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI rats, and its effect on ATP level from occluded brain tis-

  19. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger L. Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Two interrelated questions were raised for investigation in this study: (1 why may government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer? (2 Does government intervention make a difference in what these transacting parties would otherwise have decided or chosen in its absence? Approach: An internet literature search was performed, using query term combinations, to identify aspirin-related studies. The search yielded 51 juried publications that met our predetermined criteria for inclusion and thematic analysis. Results: Some variance exists within the surveyed literature concerning government intervention in aspirin prophylaxis for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, particularly heart attacks, strokes and cardiovascular death. This study identified 4 instances of market failure that offer some of the strongest theoretical and practical considerations for public policy intervention in aspirin’s pharmacological information. However, there is also indication that the sense of increased protection arising from safety regulations could stimulate risky behavior that nullifies their net protective effects or benefits. Conclusion: It is not clear either from the surveyed literature or existing economic theory if, ceteris paribus, mandatory safety information is necessary to alter or modify the marginal propensity of a physician to recommend and a patient to purchase, aspirin. The study suggested the need for policy reinforcements to any safety information regulation, if market failures are to be effectively addressed and risk compensating behavior reduced.

  20. The role of aspirin in colorectal cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ranger, Gurpreet

    2016-08-01

    Considerable interest has emerged over the last decade regarding the role of aspirin in prevention of colorectal cancer. This disease is one of the commonest cancers in the Western World, therefore, the existence of a simple "everyday" agent, which could have the ability to prevent the disease, represents an invaluable opportunity clinicians may be able to exploit. Evidence from case-control and cohort studies, and recent updates of randomised controlled trials have been very encouraging-indicating benefit from long term use of aspirin at low dose. Possible mechanisms of chemoprevention include inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, or COX-independent mechanisms, for example, the PIK3CA pathway, or therapy-induced senescence of cancer cells. The most serious side effect of prolonged aspirin treatment is haemorrhage, especially from the GI tract. This is likely to be less of a problem with chemoprevention at lower doses. One also needs to consider the impact if aspirin resistance, an increasingly recognised clinical entity. PMID:27289249

  1. The utilization status of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xian-jun; YU Yong-fei; GUO Zhen-li; XU Kang; HAl Hong; ZHANG Ai-he; JIANG Hong; PENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to investigate the usage of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, evaluate the correlated factors, and analyze the reasons for not taking and irregularly taking aspirin. Methods The patients in this group were all stroke survivors who have formerly been diagnosed with a cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in our hospital. We investigated their use of aspirin over a three-year periodfollowing their hospitalization. According to the patients' aspirin usage, they were divided into treatment and non-treatment groups. In addition, the reasons for not taking or irregularly taking aspirin were analyzed in the two groups. Results A total of 1240 patients were studied, including 367 (29.60%) in the treatment group and 873 (70.40%) cases in the non-treatment group. In addition, 201 (16.20%) cases in the treatment group had been regularly taking aspirin (50-325 mg of aspirin daily) for 1 to 3 years or longer. The results demonstrated that the main reasons for not taking aspirin in this study were related to patients' concems regarding the side effects of taking aspirin (46.45%), as well as the doctors' inadequacy in informing their patients to take aspirin (38.71%). The major reasons for patients to irregularly take aspirin were that the doctors did not notify the length of aspirin usage to their patients (41.57%), and that doctors did not prescribe aspirin upon the patients' follow-up visit (26.51%). Conclusion The most effective way to increase patient's compliance for aspirin consumption is to promote the guidelines for stroke treatment and to relay these advances in stroke therapy to the patient.

  2. Liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xu; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-06-25

    The dynamics of liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings is studied by high-speed video microscopy. Superamphiphobic coatings repel water and oils. The coating consists of a fractal-like hydrophobized silica network. Mixtures of ethanol-water and glycerin-water are chosen to investigate the influence of interfacial tension and viscosity on spreading and retraction dynamics. Drop spreading is dominated by inertia. At low impact velocity, the drops completely rebound. However, the contact time increases with impact velocity, whereas the restitution coefficient decreases. We suggest that the drop temporarily impales the superamphiphobic coating, although the drop completely rebounds. From an estimate of the pressure, it can be concluded that impalement is dominated by depinning rather than sagging. With increasing velocity, the drops partially pin, and an increasing amount of liquid remains on the coating. A time-resolved study of the retraction dynamics reveals two well-separated phases: a fast inertia-dominated phase followed by a slow decrease of the contact diameter of the drop. The crossover occurs when the diameter of the retracting drop matches the diameter of the drop before impact. We suggest that the depth of impalement increases with impact velocity, where impalement is confined to the initial impact zone of the drop. If the drop partially pins on the coating, the depth of impalement exceeds a depth, preventing the whole drop from being removed during the retraction phase. PMID:23697383

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes ...

  5. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... catch problems early if you get regular eye exams. ... diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam every 1 to 2 years by an eye ... problems with your vision. Many can do screening exams for damage from diabetes. Once you have eye ...

  6. Poor awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury with combined protective medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ling Zhu; Ling-Cheng Xu; Yan Chen; Quan Zhou; Su Zeng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate prescribing pattern in low-dose aspirin users and physician awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal (GI) injury with combined protective medications.METHODS:A retrospective drug utilization study was conducted in the 2nd Affiliated Hospital,School of Medicine,Zhejiang University.The hospital has 2300 beds and 2.5 million outpatient visits annually.Data mining was performed on all aspirin prescriptions for outpatients and emergency patients admitted in 2011.Concomitant use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs),histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) and mucoprotective drugs (MPs) were analyzed.A defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was applied to each MP.A further investigation was performed in aspirin users on combination use of GI injurious medicines [non-steoid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),corticosteroids and clopidogrel and warfarin] or intestinal protective drugs (misoprostol,rebamipide,teprenone and gefarnate).Data of major bleeding episodes were derived from medical records and adverse drug reaction monitoring records.The annual incidence of major GI bleeding due to low-dose aspirin was estimated for outpatients.RESULTS:Prescriptions for aspirin users receiving PPIs,H2RA and MPs (n =1039) accounted for only 3.46%of total aspirin prescriptions (n =30 015).The ratios of coadministration of aspirin/PPI,aspirin/H2RA,aspirin/MP and aspirin/PPI/MP to the total aspirin prescriptions were 2.82%,0.12%,0.40% and 0.12%,respectively.No statistically significant difference was observed in age between patients not receiving any GI protective medications and patients receiving PPIs,H2RA or MPs.The combined medication of aspirin and PPI was used more frequently than that of aspirin and MPs (2.82% vs 0.40%,P < 0.05) and aspirin/H2RA (2.82% vs 0.12%,P < 0.05).The values of DDDs of MPs in descending order were as follows:gefarnate,hydrotalcite > teprenone > sucralfate oral suspension > L-glutamine and sodium

  7. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

  8. Get Your Eyes Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Your Eyes Tested Browse Sections The Basics Overview Eye Exams Vision ... The Basics The Basics: Overview Have your eyes tested (examined) regularly to help find problems early, when ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the eyelids, cleanses the eye and washes away foreign particles or irritants. The inner layer consists of ... response to eye irritation or emotion. When a foreign body or dryness irritates the eye, or when ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Cortisone Shot and Dry Eye Aug 30, 2015 ... Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2016 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  13. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we see Common vision problems Age-Related Eye Diseases Eye Health Tips Podcasts Text Messages Vision-Related Terms, ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Diabetic Eye Disease Listen View this module and educate yourself, family, ...

  14. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology ... Eye Risk Dry Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment What Is ...

  16. National Eye Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cryo-Electron Microscopy Learn more Video: Next-Generation Eye Imaging Tools Learn about how the NEI Audacious ... science. Audacious Goals Translational Research eyeGENE® International Research Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

  17. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000323.htm Diabetes eye exams To use the sharing features on this ... you get regular eye exams. You Need Regular Eye Exams Even if the doctor who takes care ...

  18. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Diabetic retinopathy - care Diabetes and your eyes Diabetes can harm your eyes. It can damage ...

  19. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education ...

  2. First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

  3. Prophylactic Properties Of Licorice Roots (GLYCYRRHIZA Gabbler) And / Or Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid) Against GAMMA Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress And Metabolic Disorders In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress with subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been postulated as one of the mechanism of cardiac and renal toxicity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effects of licorice and/or aspirin on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac and renal damage in rats. Licorice and/or aspirin was supplemented daily to rats (100 mg licorice/kg body wt and 50 mg aspirin/kg body wt) orally, 15 days before and after whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy (applied as a shot dose). Gamma irradiation caused significant drop in haemoglobin, erythrocytes, haematocrit values, platelets count, prothrombin time (PT) and leukocytes with their differential counts with elevation in C-reactive protein (CRP) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).The results obtained showed that whole body gamma irradiation of rats induced biochemical alteration in the levels of serum lipid profile (total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), creatinine and urea. Furthermore, some markers of cardiac injury enzymes such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities showed significant increase associated with decrease in the glutathione content (GSH) of cardiac and renal tissues. Significant increase of lipid peroxidation end products malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiac and renal tissues was observed.Licorice and/or aspirin treatment prior and post gamma irradiation of rats has attenuated the renal and cardiac toxic effects of radiation manifested by reduction in the levels of MDA and NO, rescued the depletion of endogenous GSH, haematologial parameters and diminished the increase of cardiac and renal injury markers .

  4. Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J R; Lawrence, J R

    2001-08-01

    Aspirin was introduced into clinical practice more than 100 years ago. This unique drug belongs to a family of compounds called the salicylates, the simplest of which is salicylic acid, the principal metabolite of aspirin. Salicylic acid is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin, and may cause the reduced risk of colorectal cancer observed in those who take aspirin. Yet salicylic acid and other salicylates occur naturally in fruits and plants, while diets rich in these are believed to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Serum salicylic acid concentrations are greater in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and there is overlap between concentrations in vegetarians and those taking low-dose aspirin. We propose that the cancer-preventive action of aspirin is due to its principal metabolite, salicylic acid, and that dietary salicylates can have the same effect. It is also possible that natural salicylates contribute to the other recognized benefits of a healthy diet. PMID:11493722

  5. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Once-daily aspirin is standard treatment, but recent studies point towards increased platelet function at the end of the dosing interval. Stent thrombosis (ST) has been linked with reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin, so we investigated if platelet inhibition by aspirin declines...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity......, platelet activation, immature platelets, and thrombopoietin were measured. RESULTS: Platelet aggregation increased by 109±150 (arachidonic acid) and 47±155 (collagen) aggregation units per minute from 1 to 24 h after aspirin intake (p-values <0.0001) with corresponding increases in thromboxane B2 (5...

  6. Risk analysis for aspirin and postoperative intracranial hemorrhage - report of 3 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-qing; WANG Ji-sheng; JI Nan; LIU Wei; QIAN Ke

    2009-01-01

    @@ Aspirin has been widely used clinically since 1899.For patients with cerebral ischemia and implanted intravascular stents, aspirin has been used routinely for prevention of intracranial hemorrhage and for anticoagulation treatment. However, many multi-center,large sample, controlled studies have shown that aspirin may actually increase the risk of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, and that aspirin was an independent predictor of death shortly after cerebral hemorrhage. Here we report a case series, between July 1 2006 and January 1 2008, of 3 patients who experienced postoperative intracranial hemorrhage after receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the Center of Neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University.Two of them died. There were 86 patients in all receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the same period. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in this group is 3.49%.

  7. Aspirin vs Heparin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Kanellopoulou, Theoni; Makris, Thomas; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Nomikou, Efrosyni; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preeclampsia can be resolved by delivery, and most of the proposed preventive treatment approaches are based on processes involved in placental development in early pregnancy. Yet, none of these has been established in clinical practice. Low-dose aspirin is the most promising candidate, nevertheless; while some individual randomized controlled trials showed minimal or no statistically significant benefit, recent metanalyses showed that early initiation before 16 weeks of gestation is associated with prevention of early-onset preeclampsia and reduction in prevalence of perinatal death or morbidity of pregnant women. Heparin could be an alternative antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory median to prevent preeclampsia either alone or in combination with aspirin; however, results are conflicting concerning efficacy. PMID:27251704

  8. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marson; Pasero, G

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba) were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Itali...

  9. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Against the backdrop of the 2009 scientific studies qualifying the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits of aspirin, two interrelated questions are raised for investigation in this study. First, why may the government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer, when it involves contentious pharmacological information? Second, does government intervention make a difference in what these transactin...

  10. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Against the backdrop of the 2009 scientific studies qualifying the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits of aspirin, two interrelated questions are raised for investigation in this study. First, why may the government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer, when it involves contentious pharmacological information? Second, does government intervention make a difference in what these transacting parties would otherwise have chosen to do in its absence? Approach: An Internet literature search was performed, using query term combinations, to identify relevant aspirin studies. The search yielded 61 juried publications that met our predetermined criteria for inclusion and thematic analysis. Results: Variance exists within the mix of economic and non-economic literature on aspirin information regulation. The study identified 4 instances of market failure that offer some of the most compelling theoretical and practical considerations for public policy intervention in the context of the 2009 findings. However, there is also indication that the sense of increased protection arising from safety regulations could stimulate risky behavior that nullifies their net protective effects or benefits. Conclusion: It is not clear either from the surveyed literature or existing economic theory if, ceteris paribus, regulated information alters or modifies the marginal propensity of a physician to recommend, and a patient to consume, aspirin to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, particularly heart attacks, strokes and vascular death. The study suggests the need for policy reinforcements to safety information, if market failures are to be efficiently addressed and risk compensating behavior reduced.

  11. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route. PMID:26826555

  12. Excited Sessile Drops Dance Harmonically

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul H.

    2013-01-01

    In our fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate our method of visualizing and identifying various mode shapes of mechanically oscillated sessile drops. By placing metal mesh under an oscillating drop and projecting light from below, the drop's shape is visualized by the visually deformed mesh pattern seen in the top view. The observed modes are subsequently identified by their number of layers and sectors. An alternative identification associates them with spherical harmonics, as demonstrated in ...

  13. Anti-thrombotic effects of a nitric oxide-releasing, gastric-sparing aspirin derivative.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, J. L.; McKnight, W; del Soldato, P; Baydoun, A. R.; Cirino, G

    1995-01-01

    Effects of a nitroxybutylester derivative of aspirin (NCX 4215) on platelet aggregation and prostanoid synthesis were compared to the effects of aspirin. NCX 4215 was approximately seven times more potent than aspirin as an inhibitor of thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro, but did not inhibit platelet thromboxane synthesis or gastric prostaglandin synthesis. NCX 4215 released nitric oxide when incubated in the presence of platelets and increased platelet levels of cGMP within...

  14. Selective Cumulative Inhibition of Platelet Thromboxane Production by Low-dose Aspirin in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Patrignani, Paola; Filabozzi, Paola; Patrono, Carlo

    1982-01-01

    Acetylation of platelet cyclooxygenase by oral aspirin is dose dependent and cumulative with repeated administration. However, no single dose of aspirin has been found to be completely selective of platelet thromboxane (TX) synthesis inhibition in man. We determined the dose dependence, cumulative nature and selectivity of aspirin effects on platelet TXB2 and renal prostaglandin (PG) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production. We measured, by radioimmunoassay, serum TXB2 levels after whole blood clot...

  15. New Perspectives on Aspirin and the Endogenous Control of Acute Inflammatory Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Morris; Melanie Stables; Gilroy, Derek W.

    2006-01-01

    Aspirin is unique among the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in that it has both anti-inflammatory as well as cardio-protective properties. The cardio-protective properties arise form its judicious inhibition of platelet-derived thromboxane A2 over prostacyclin, while its anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin stem from its well-established inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis within inflamed tissues. Thus aspirin and the other NSAIDs have popularised the notion of inhibiting PG biosy...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of aspirin and salicylate in relation to inhibition of arachidonate cyclooxygenase and antiinflammatory activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, G. A.; Salmon, J. A.; Henderson, B; Vane, J R

    1987-01-01

    Among the nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs there is generally a close correlation between the potency of their inhibition of arachidonate cyclooxygenase, and thus prostaglandin production, and their antiinflammatory activity. One anomaly in this generalization is that whereas aspirin and salicylate are equipotent as antiinflammatory agents, salicylate is less active than aspirin in inhibiting prostaglandin production in vitro. Using rats, we have now measured the concentrations of aspirin an...

  17. Aspirin induces nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium: a novel mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, D.; Berkels, R; Grosser, N.; Schröder, H; Gründemann, D; Schömig, E

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to test the hypothesis that aspirin may stimulate nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium, a pivotal factor for maintenance of vascular homeostasis.Clinical evidence suggests that low-dose aspirin may improve vascular endothelial function. Since other cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors showed no beneficial vascular effects, aspirin may exhibit a vasculoprotective, COX-independent mechanism.Luminal NO release was monitored in real time on dissected porcine coron...

  18. Low-Dose Aspirin for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ae Jin; Lim, Hye Jin; Ro, Han; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Han, Song Yi; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Ji Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD...

  19. Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzick, J; Thorat, M. A.; Bosetti, C; Brown, P H; Burn, J.; Cook, N. R.; Ford, L. G.; Jacobs, E. J.; Jankowski, J.A.; La Vecchia, C.; Law, M.; Meyskens, F.; Rothwell, P.M.; Senn, H. J.; Umar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence supports an effect of aspirin in reducing overall cancer incidence and mortality in the general population. We reviewed current data and assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population. Methods: The effect of aspirin for site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, cardiovascular events was collated from the most recent systematic reviews. Studies identified through systematic Medline search provided data regarding ha...

  20. Profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoping Liu; Yang Yu; Yuanjie Mao; Xinhua Wang; Jianzhong Wang; Yong Huo

    2008-01-01

    Objective Aspirin has been used extensively in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease,particularly for subjects at high risk such as metabolic syndrome.However,the responsiveness to aspirin treatment may vary among individuals.The present study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods In 221 consecutive patients,platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ml) was assessed after 10 days of aspirin treatment (200mg/d).Aspirin resistance was defined as mean optical platelet aggregation =20%.Results Aspirin resistance occurred in 39 patients (17.6%).Serum fibrinogen level was higher in patients with than in those without aspirin resistance (2.6_+0.4g/l vs 2.4±0.4g/L,P=0.017).The 2 groups,aspirin resistance group and no aspirin resistance group,did not differ significantly,with regard to gender,age,body mass index,waist-hip ratio,blood pressure level,serum cholesterol level and history of myocardial or cerebral infarction.Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only serum fibrinogen level entered the model (odds ratio 2.973,p=0.023).Subgroup analysis further showed that aspirin resistance occurred more in male patients with myocardial infarction (50% vs14.5%,P=0.02) and in female patients with diastolic blood pressure=85mmHg (34% vs 15.5%,P=0.043).But after multifactor logistic regression,in women blood pressure=85mmHg was not a predictor any more.Conclusions In patients with metabolic syndrome,aspirin resistance is not uncommon,especially for men with history of myocardial infarction.Patients with aspirin resistance have an increased serum fibrinogen level.(J Geriatr Cardio12008;5:7-10)

  1. Aspirin versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation: decision analysis may help patients' choice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2012-03-01

    the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke in chronic non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) typically involves consideration of aspirin or warfarin. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc estimates annual stroke rates for untreated AF patients, which are reduced by 60% with warfarin and by 20% with aspirin. HAS-BLED estimates annual rates of major bleeding on warfarin. The latter risk with aspirin is 0.5-1.2% per year.

  2. Aspirin Resistance: A Clinical Review Focused on the Most Common Cause, Noncompliance

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is an inexpensive, readily available medication that reduces the risk of subsequent vascular disease by about 25% in patients with known occlusive vascular disease. Aspirin’s beneficial effect is mediated via inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) activation of platelets and is detected by demonstrating a decrease in platelet function and/or a decrease in prostaglandin metabolites. Patients who are assumed to be taking their aspirin, but who do not demonstrate an aspirin effect are label...

  3. Effect of allopurinol, sulphasalazine, and vitamin C on aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    McAlindon, M E; Muller, A F; Filipowicz, B; Hawkey, C J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The mechanisms of aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury are not fully understood. Aspirin induces the release of reactive oxygen metabolites in animal models, which may contribute to mucosal injury. AIMS--To investigate the effects of aspirin administered with placebo or antioxidants on gastric mucosal reactive oxygen metabolite release and gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers. SUBJECTS--Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the study (seven male; mean age 27 years, ran...

  4. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin...

  5. Critical appraisal of a fixed combination of esomeprazole and low dose aspirin in risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Vachhani, Ravi; Bouhaidar, Doumit; Zfass, Alvin; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Nawras, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Low dose aspirin (≤325 mg) is routinely used for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The use of low dose aspirin is associated with two- to four-fold greater risk of symptomatic or complicated peptic ulcers. Risk factors associated with low dose aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity includes prior history of ulcer or upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, concomitant use of other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid or warfarin, d...

  6. Interactions of aspirin and other potential etiologic factors in an animal model of Reye syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, D.R.; Maassab, H. F.; Mason, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of Reye syndrome (RS) patients have suggested aspirin treatment as a possible factor in the etiology of this often fatal childhood disorder. the relationship of aspirin treatment to other factors that have been strongly implicated (influenza, ammonia toxicity) cannot be examined directly in patients because aspirin treatment is usually initiated by family members in the prodromal period before RS is diagnosed. In this report we describe the use of an animal model for RS in exam...

  7. Cancers prevented in Australia in 2010 through the consumption of aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Louise F.; Green, Adele C.; Kendall, Bradley J; Jordan, Susan J.; Nagle, Christina M; Bain, Christopher J; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers in Australia in 2010 that may have been prevented from occurring due to daily use of aspirin in the population. Methods We calculated the Prevented Fraction (PF) of colorectal and oesophageal cancers using standard formulae. The PF is the proportion of the hypothetical total load of cancer in the population that was prevented by exposure to aspirin. The formula incorporates estimates of the prevalence of aspirin use in Australian adu...

  8. Association of regular aspirin use and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swede, Helen; Mirand, Amy L; Menezes, Ravi J; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2005-01-01

    Of the limited number of epidemiological investigations on aspirin (and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and breast cancer, the majority observe a protective role, yet only a few report dose-response effects for frequency or duration of use. We studied aspirin use among 1,478 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1982 to 1998, and 3,383 cancer-free hospital controls at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared to never use,both regular (> or =1 tablet per week for > or =1 year) and occasional use were inversely associated with breast cancer (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.64-0.97; adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.96, respectively). Among regular users, an inverse trend was found for number of tablets consumed per week (1, 2-6, or > or =7) with corresponding ORs of 0.95, 0.80, and 0.74 (P(trend) = 0.01). Daily use spanning 10 or more years was associated with a more pronounced reduction in risk (P(trend) = 0.005). Our findings corroborate the growing body of observational evidence that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:15802928

  9. Phytoremediation of aspirin and tetracycline by Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Sonal; Gauba, Pammi

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing release of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, research is in progress for investigating alternative methods for their remediation. Various studies have shown the phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea for metals. The current study was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation potential of B. juncea for two different pharmaceutical drugs i.e. aspirin and tetracycline in in-vitro conditions. The seeds of B. juncea were germinated and grown for a period of 28 and 24 days for aspirin and tetracycline, respectively. The study analyzed the remediation rate of B. juncea for the selected drugs in three different sets of varying concentration along with any phytotoxic effects exerted by the drugs on the seeds. Preliminary results showed that the average remediation rate of aspirin and tetracycline at the end of experiment was approximately 90% and 71%, respectively. As initial drug concentrations were increased in the media, the remediation rate also improved. However, at higher concentrations, the plants showed phytotoxicity as depicted by the decrease in shoot length of the germinated seeds. These preliminary results indicated that B. juncea could tolerate and remediate pharmaceutical drugs such as analgesics and antibiotics. PMID:26696522

  10. Eye muscle repair - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ... The extraocular muscles of the eye (external to the eyeball) control the positioning of the eyes. They coordinate of the eye ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Help Itchy Eyes Aug 18, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  13. [Epidemiology of digestive complications associated with use of low-dose aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernichow, Pierre; Merle, Véronique

    2004-04-01

    Low-dose aspirin (myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Six to 12% of the general population is exposed to low-dose aspirin. The most frequently studied digestive complications are bleeding peptic ulcers, whose risk is increased twofold by low-dose aspirin treatment, and non-complicated peptic ulcers. History of bleeding or non-complicated peptic ulcer, alcohol intake, concomitant treatment with NSAID or calcic inhibitors are demonstrated risk factors of bleeding ulcer associated with low-dose aspirin. The role of enteric coating, of low-dose aspirin dose, of delay since low-dose aspirin treatment onset, and of Helicobacter pylori infection, remains controversial. Antisecretory drugs (H2 inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors), and nitroglycerin are associated with a decreased risk of bleeding ulcer. The protective effect of COX-2 inhibitors on the risk of bleeding ulcer is suppressed by concomitant treatment with low-dose aspirin. The risk of no- complicated peptic ulcer was increased by low-dose aspirin intake by a factor 2.9 in one study. Low-dose aspirin dose, infection by Helicobacter pylori, NSAID intake, and absence of enteric coating, are possible risk factors for non-complicated peptic ulcer. No association was retrieved with alcohol intake and peptic ulcer history. PMID:15366673

  14. Effect of aspirin on DNA damage induced by MMC in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, Miki; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2007-06-01

    In our previous paper, we found that aspirin suppressed the genotoxicity of mitomycin C (MMC) in a somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. In order to reveal the mechanism of antigenotoxicity of aspirin, we evaluated the protective effects of aspirin against the genotoxicity of MMC with the DNA repair test in Drosophila melanogaster. Three types of treatment of aspirin were performed as co-, post- and pre-treatment. Aspirin co-treatment suppressed effectively the genotoxicity of MMC in a dose-dependent manner and the sex ratio at a dose of aspirin 10mg/bottle elevated from 0.01 (without aspirin) to 0.65 at sc z(1) w(+(TE)) mei-9(a) mei-41(D5)/-C(1)DX, y f [mei-9 mei-41, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female] consists of DNA repair-deficient (Rec(-)) males and -proficient (Rec(+)) females. The antigenotoxic effect of aspirin on [mei-41, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female] was similar to that on [mei-9, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female]. But post- and pre-treatment by aspirin did not affect the genotoxicity of MMC on [mei-9 mei-41, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female]. PMID:17336029

  15. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  16. Cigarette smoking inhibits the anti-platelet activity of aspirin in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHANG Hong-yin; MIAO Cheng-long; TANG Ri-bo; DU Xin; SHI Ji-hui; MA Chang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which suggests that low-dose aspirin used in common clinical practice may not effectively inhibit platelet activity in smokers with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review was performed to assess the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in patients with CHD.Data sources We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE (starting from the beginning to March 15, 2009)using the term "smoking" or "tobacco" paired with the following: "platelet", "aspirin" or "coronary heart disease".Study selection We looked for review articles regarding the effect of tobacco smoking on platelet activity and on the anti-platelet efficacy of aspirin in healthy people and patients with CHD. The search was limited in "core clinical journal".In total, 1321 relevant articles were retrieved, and 36 articles were ultimately cited.Results Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which can be inhibited by low-dose aspirin in the healthy population. However, in patients with CHD, the increased platelet aggregability can not be effectively inhibited by the same low-dose of aspirin. A recent study indicated that clopidogrel or an increased dose of aspirin can effectively inhibit the increased platelet aggregability induced by tobacco smoking in patients with CHD.Conclusions It is important for patients with CHD to quit smoking. For the current smoker, it may be necessary to take larger doses of aspirin than normal or take an adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor along with aspirin to effectively inhibit the increased platelet activity.

  17. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis

  18. Aspirin as a risk factor for hemorrhage in patients with head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, M A; Marbet, G; Radü, E W; Gratzl, O

    1992-01-01

    The role of aspirin as a risk factor in the occurrence of intracranial bleeding following head injury was investigated. Chronic subdural hematoma appears to be a suitable model for the evaluation of risk factors in the development of hemorrhage. The most common risk factors found in our study were, apart from age, chronic alcohol abuse (28%), consumption of cumarin-derivates (21%), aspirin (13%), and heparin (5%). A patient undergoing aspirin treatment must be considered at risk of development of chronic subdural hematoma. Aspirin should not be prescribed to patients with post-traumatic headaches. PMID:1584433

  19. Drug/drug interaction of common NSAIDs with antiplatelet effect of aspirin in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aaruni; Balaramnavar, Vishal M; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Saxena, Anil K

    2013-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may interfere with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin at the level of the platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme. In order to examine the interference of common NSAIDs with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin the human platelet rich plasma from voluntary donors was used for arachidonic acid-induced aggregation and determination of thromboxane synthesis. Further, docking studies were used to explain the molecular basis of the NSAID/aspirin interaction. The experimental results showed that celecoxib, dipyrone (active metabolite), ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, naproxen, nimesulide, oxaprozin, and piroxicam significantly interfere with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin, while diclofenac, ketorolac and acetaminophen do not. Docking studies suggested that NSAIDs forming hydrogen bonds with Ser530, Arg120, Tyr385 and other amino acids of the COX-1 hydrophobic channel interfere with antiplatelet activity of aspirin while non interfering NSAIDs do not form relevant hydrogen bond interactions within the aspirin binding site. In conclusion, docking analysis of NSAID interactions at the COX-1 active site appears useful to predict their interference with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin. The results, demonstrate that some NSAIDs do not interfere with the antiplatelet action of aspirin while many others do and provide a basis for understanding the observed differences among individual non-aspirin NSAIDs. PMID:24075938

  20. The effects of aspirin plus cisplatin on SGC7901/CDDP cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hanzhang; Liu, Gaogao; Jiang, Biao; Guo, Jiubing; Tao, Guoquan; Yiu, Wei; Zhou, Jingsong; Li, Guoxin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin plus cisplatin (CDDP) in the chemotherapy of gastric cancer. We cultured SGC7901/CDDP cells by long-term exposure of SGC7901 cells to small doses of CDDP in vitro. The cells were treated with aspirin, CDDP or aspirin plus CDDP for 24 h and cell growth was assessed by the MTT assay, the apoptotic rate by flow cytometry, the survivin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and the survivin protein expression by western blotting. The results revealed that the cell growth in the aspirin plus CDDP group was significantly inhibited. The apoptotic rate in the aspirin plus CDDP was significantly higher compared to that in the other groups. The survivin mRNA and protein expression were also significantly reduced in the aspirin plus CDDP group. Our data suggest that the combination of aspirin and CDDP exhibited a higher degree of toxicity against SGC7901/CDDP cells compared to that of aspirin or CDDP alone. Thus, the combination of aspirin plus CDDP may reduce the expression of survivin and induce the apoptosis of SGC7901/CDDP cells. PMID:24748972

  1. Low dose aspirin therapy and renal function in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Rotimi Oluyombo,2 Paul Sunday Ogunro,3 Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,4 Oluyomi Olusola Okunola,5 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele21Department of Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Chemical Pathology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine whether low dose aspirin has any deleterious effects on renal function in elderly patients.Methods: We conducted a prospective pilot study of 30 Nigerians older than 60 years with various chronic ailments necessitating the use of low dose aspirin. Patients gave their consent, and institutional ethical clearance was obtained. Each patient's baseline samples at enrolment (before commencing aspirin use served as a control, and subsequent weekly samples were compared. The weekly mean of each parameter was calculated, and the differences of means from baseline were determined, and values were compared for statistical differences with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16.Results: We found that a majority of patients (86.67% had basal renal functions at chronic kidney disease stages 1 and 2. When compared with the corresponding baseline parameters, the mean weekly serum and urinary electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and uric acid parameters did not change, and the P-value did not show any statistical significance. However, there was positive statistical significance for the creatinine clearance (P = 0.025. Also, unlike in previous studies, anemia and hypoalbuminemia did not affect the renal function parameters.Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effects with short-term, low dose (75 mg daily aspirin use on kidney functions in

  2. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior heart attack: ticagrelor plus aspirin versus aspirin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Frank; Schlesinger, Alex; Mazzoni, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-1800. This Practice Pearl reviews the recent study Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared With Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54 (PEGASUS-TIMI 54). It challenges the current standard of care of 12 months of dual antiplatelet followed by aspirin indefinitely. The study demonstrated that patients who received ticagrelor, either the 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily plus aspirin, showed a decreased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial also proved that the benefit of ticagrelor was seen early and continued to accrue over time, with a median of 33 months of follow-up, meaning that the benefit persists over time. It is important to note that both doses of the ticagrelor were associated with higher incidence of bleeding, but the rates of fatal bleeding did not show any difference between the ticagrelor or placebo. PMID:26689345

  3. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  4. Breakup of molten aluminum drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the entrapment of water and the breakup mechanism in molten Al drops, a series of experiments was carried out by pouring molten Al of 10 to 20 g (up to 1,000degC) into a highly subcooled-water pool (room temperature) through the air. A single large-scale water jet, which is capable of penetrating a molten Al drop, was found to appear above the molten Al drop immediately after an air column which the molten drop is dragging from the water surface, is detached. It was observed with a high frequency that a molten Al drop begins swelling first, and is then broken up during falling through the water pool or after hitting the basement. It was also found that the breakup always occurs in the course of solid crust formation, and the molten drop solidified without breakup forms a large cavity inside. Based on the experimental observations, it is concluded that the swelling and the breakup of a molten Al drop should be caused by the water entrapped inside and the hydrogen remaining super-saturated. It is reasonable to consider that an intensive breakup should be caused when some quantity of water is injected into a molten Al drop with a capability that a high-pressure vapor is generated due to a rapid release of latent heat just after brittle cracks occur during swelling. (author)

  5. Laser impact on a drop

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Alexander L; Bouwhuis, Wilco; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2016-01-01

    The impact of a laser pulse on a highly absorbing liquid drop can lead to a violent response: the drop is accelerated, strongly deforms, and eventually fragments. Shock waves, the ejection of matter, and even plasma formation can accompany this process ...

  6. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find the...... pressure drop in a contraction are given....

  7. Differential Sex Response to Aspirin in Decreasing Aneurysm Rupture in Humans and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Correa, Tatiana; Jabbour, Pascal M; Zanaty, Mario; Brown, Robert D; Torner, James C; Hasan, David M

    2016-08-01

    We previously found that aspirin decreases the risk of cerebral aneurysm rupture in humans. We aim to assess whether a sex differential exists in the response of human cerebral aneurysms to aspirin and confirm these observations in a mouse model of cerebral aneurysm. A nested case-control analysis from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms was performed to assess whether a sex differential exists in the response of human cerebral aneurysms to aspirin. A series of experiments were subsequently performed in a mouse model of cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysms were induced with hypertension and elastase injection into mice basal cisterns. We found that aspirin decreased the risk of aneurysm rupture more significantly in men than in women in the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. In mice, aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor did not affect cerebral aneurysm formation but significantly decreased the incidence of rupture. The incidence of rupture was significantly lower in male versus female mice on aspirin. Gene expression analysis from cerebral arteries showed higher 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase levels in male mice. The rate of cerebral aneurysm rupture was similar in male mice receiving aspirin and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor compared with females receiving aspirin and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase agonist, signaling a reversal of the sex-differential response to aspirin. Aspirin decreases aneurysm rupture in human and mice, in part through cyclooxygenase-2 pathways. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests a consistent differential effect by sex. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activation in females reduces the incidence of rupture and eliminates the sex-differential response to aspirin. PMID:27296993

  8. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  9. MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF PRESERVED OPHTHALMIC DROPS IN OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENTS: POSSIBILITY OF AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA FAZELI

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular infections may arise from topical ophthalmic medications. A standard imposed by the British Pharmaceutical Codex implies that eye drops should be discarded after 1-day use when these remedies are used in outpatient departments. In this study the bioburden rates arising from 2, 4 and 7 days’ use were evaluated and compared with those of 1 day’s use to determine whether it is possible to extend the period of use of preserved eye drops in outpatient departments. A total of 200 eye drops were taken from outpatient departments of Farabi Eye Hospital after 1, 2, 4 and 7 days’ use and the contamination rates of the residual contents, caps and droppers were determined using conventional techniques. High biobudren rates were obtained in all the samples tested. Although the overall recorded incidences of microbial contamination in the 2 and 4-day drops were not considerably different from those of first day (P>0.01 but those of 7 days’ use were significant (P<0.01. However, when contamination rate of drop contents was taken into account there was a significant difference between 4 and 7 days’ use compared to 1-day drops. Most of the isolated organisms were either of human flora types of Gram-positive bacteria or air-borne fungi. It is concluded that the use of eye drops for outpatient practice may be extended up to 2 days; yet, care should be taken to reduce the overall contamination rates of these preparations for prevention of ocular nosocomial infections.

  10. COX-2: Where are we in 2003? - Specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of analgesic anti-inflammatory agents in patients with asthma is clinically challenging because of the prevalence (10–20%) of aspirin hypersensitivity. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), or aspirin-induced asthma, is characterized by asthma and rhinitis triggered by the ingestion of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AERD is associated with upper and lower respiratory-tract mucosal inflammation, progressive sinusitis, nasal polyposis, and asthma regardless...

  11. Aspirin induces apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a nude mouse xenograft model

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSAIN, MOHAMMAD AKBAR; Kim, Dong Hwan; JANG, JUNG YOON; KANG, YONG JUNG; YOON, JEONG-HYUN; Moon, Jeon-OK; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Copple, Bryan L.; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells, including colon, prostate, breast and leukemia. Among them, aspirin, a classical NSAID, shows promise in cancer therapy in certain types of cancers. We hypothesized that aspirin might affect the growth of liver cancer cells since liver is the principal site for aspirin metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the effects of aspirin on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line in vi...

  12. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  13. Electrokinetics of isolated electrified drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rohit; Berry, Joseph D; Harvie, Dalton J E; Davidson, Malcolm R

    2016-04-14

    Using a recently developed multiphase electrokinetic model, we simulate the transient electrohydrodynamic response of a liquid drop containing ions, to both small and large values of electric field. The temporal evolution is found to be governed primarily by two dimensionless groups: (i) Ohnesorge number (Oh), a ratio of viscous to inertio-capillary effects, and (ii) inverse dimensionless Debye length (κ), a measure of the diffuse regions of charge that develop in the drop. The effects of dielectric polarization dominate at low Oh, while effects of separated charge gain importance with increase in Oh. For small values of electric field, the deformation behaviour of a drop is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytical expression. At large electric fields, the drops are unstable and eject progeny drops. Depending on Oh and κ this occurs via dripping or jetting; the regime transitions are shown by a Oh-κ phase map. In contrast to previous studies, we find universal scaling relations to predict size and charge of progeny drops. Our simulations suggest charge transport plays a significant role in drop dynamics for 0.1 ≤ Oh ≤ 10, a parameter range of interest in microscale flows. PMID:26954299

  14. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  15. Aspirin and atenolol enhance metformin activity against breast cancer by targeting both neoplastic and microenvironment cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Giovanna; Orecchioni, Stefania; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Reggiani, Francesca; Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Labanca, Valentina; Rossi, Teresa; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana; Bertolini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Metformin can induce breast cancer (BC) cell apoptosis and reduce BC local and metastatic growth in preclinical models. Since Metformin is frequently used along with Aspirin or beta-blockers, we investigated the effect of Metformin, Aspirin and the beta-blocker Atenolol in several BC models. In vitro, Aspirin synergized with Metformin in inducing apoptosis of triple negative and endocrine-sensitive BC cells, and in activating AMPK in BC and in white adipose tissue (WAT) progenitors known to cooperate to BC progression. Both Aspirin and Atenolol added to the inhibitory effect of Metformin against complex I of the respiratory chain. In both immune-deficient and immune-competent preclinical models, Atenolol increased Metformin activity against angiogenesis, local and metastatic growth of HER2+ and triple negative BC. Aspirin increased the activity of Metformin only in immune-competent HER2+ BC models. Both Aspirin and Atenolol, when added to Metformin, significantly reduced the endothelial cell component of tumor vessels, whereas pericytes were reduced by the addition of Atenolol but not by the addition of Aspirin. Our data indicate that the addition of Aspirin or of Atenolol to Metformin might be beneficial for BC control, and that this activity is likely due to effects on both BC and microenvironment cells. PMID:26728433

  16. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  17. Variability in the Responsiveness to Low-Dose Aspirin: Pharmacological and Disease-Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main pharmacological aspects of pharmacodynamics (PD and pharmacokinetics (PK of aspirin as antiplatelet agent were unravelled between the late sixties and the eighties, and low-dose aspirin given once daily has been shown to be a mainstay in the current treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, several PD and PK aspects of aspirin in selected clinical conditions have recently emerged and deserve future clinical attention. In 1994, the term “aspirin resistance” was used for the first time, but, until now, no consensus exists on definition, standardized assay, underlying mechanisms, clinical impact, and possible efficacy of alternative therapeutic interventions. At variance with an undefined aspirin-resistant status, in the last 5 years, the concept of variability in response to aspirin due to specific pathophysiological mechanisms and based on PK and/or PD of the drug has emerged. This growing evidence highlights the existence and possible clinical relevance of an interindividual variability of pharmacological aspirin response and calls for new, large studies to test new low-dose aspirin-based regimens which may ameliorate platelet acetylation, reduce variability in drug responsiveness, and improve clinical efficacy on selected populations.

  18. The ADAPTABLE Trial and Aspirin Dosing in Secondary Prevention for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Abigail; Jones, W Schuyler; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the underlying cause of death in one out of seven deaths in the USA. Aspirin therapy has been proven to decrease mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Despite a plethora of studies showing the benefit of aspirin in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, debate remains regarding the optimal dose due to relatively small studies that had disparate results when comparing patients taking different aspirin dosages. More recently, aspirin dosing has been thoroughly studied in the CAD population with concomitant therapy (such as P2Y12 inhibitors); however, patients in these studies were not randomized to aspirin dose. No randomized controlled trial has directly measured aspirin dosages in a population of patients with established coronary artery disease. In 2015, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) developed a network, called PCORnet, that includes patient-powered research networks (PPRN) and clinical data research networks (CDRN). The main objective of PCORnet is to conduct widely generalizable observational studies and clinical trials (including large, pragmatic clinical trials) at a low cost. The first clinical trial, called Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE), will randomly assign 20,000 subjects with established coronary heart disease to either low dose (81 mg) or high dose (325 mg) and should be able to finally answer which dosage of aspirin is best for patients with established cardiovascular disease. PMID:27423939

  19. Evaluation of nootropic and neuroprotective effects of low dose aspirin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nootropic and neuroprotective effects of aspirin in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR and central 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches were assessed using repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: control (pretreated with distilled water, scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg i.p., ECS (150 V, 50 Hz sinusoidal with intensity of 210 mA for 0.5 s pretreated, aspirin (6.75 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined scopolamine and aspirin pretreated, ondansetron (0.36 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined ECS and ondansetron pretreated and combined ECS and aspirin pretreated groups. Data was analyzed by the chi-square test and ANOVA. Results: Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 8 days results in enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches and in disruption of the retention of CAR. Aspirin and ondansetron administration significantly increased the retention of conditioned avoidance response compared to control. Ondansetron and aspirin significantly prevented ECS-induced attenuation of the retention of conditioned avoidance response also. On the other hand, ondansetron and aspirin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior. Conclusion: Inhibition of the serotonergic transmission by aspirin is responsible for its nootropic and neuroprotective actions.

  20. Study of effects of donepezil and aspirin on working memory in rats using electroconvulsive shock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Manjare

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorder like AD. Combination of aspirin with donepezil increased the nootropic and neuroprotective effect of aspirin and thus may hold great clinical significance in such disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1012-1015

  1. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  2. Aspirin and coumadin after acute coronary syndromes (the ASPECT-2 study) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, RF; Jonker, JJC; Verheugt, FWA; Deckers, JW; Grobbee, DE

    2002-01-01

    Background Antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and oral anticoagulants reduces reocurrence of ischaemic events after myocardial infarction. We aimed to investigate which of these drugs is more effective in the long term after acute coronary events, and whether the combination of aspirin and oral ant

  3. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was le

  4. Affordability Calculations on a Health Education Campaign to Promote the Use of Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Aspirin has far-reaching public health potential in reducing the risk of heart attacks, ischemic strokes and possibly cancer. Balanced against this potential are undesirable effects of the drug. It seems reasonable to allow every individual over the age of 50 years to make an informed choice about whether or not to take aspirin. A health education…

  5. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  6. Effects of combined octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承薇; 王春晖; 汤丽平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer. Methods Proliferation of gastric cancer cell lines treated with octreotide or aspirin was determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation. After xenografts of human gastric cancer were implanted orthotropically in the stomach of nude mice, they were administered octreotide plus aspirin for 8 weeks. The mRNA of somatostatin receptor in the tissues of gastric carcinoma was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric cancer tissues was measured by immuno~histochemistry. Results Both octreotide and aspirin significantly reduced the 3 H-thymidine incorporation of gastric cancer cells. Xenografts in situ were found in all stomachs of nude mice except for two in the combination group. Either size or weight of tumors treated by octreotide, aspirin or in combination was significantly reduced as compared with that of controls. The inhibition rate for tumor was 60.6% (octreotide), 39.3% (aspirin), and 85.6% (in combination) respectively. No severe side effects were observed in any treated groups. Somatostatin receptor-2 and -3 were expressed in the transplanted gastric adenocarcinomas. Aspirin could down-regulate the strong expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the tissue of gastric adenocarcinomas of nude mice.Conclusion A combination of octreotide and aspirin significantly inhibited proliferation of gastric cancer through mediation of somatosatin receptors and suppression of cyclooxygenase-2.

  7. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of aspirin with warfarin in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenlin; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tingting; Pappoe, Faustina; Huang, Jihan; Tang, Haiqin

    2016-01-01

    1. Warfarin and aspirin are widely used in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic and atherothrombotic diseases. Despite the potential efficacy of warfarin-aspirin therapy, the safety and side effect of combined therapy remains unclear. 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and aspirin in beagles after single and multiple doses. 3. Coadministration of aspirin had no significant effects on the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of R- and S-warfarin after a single dose of warfarin, but significantly increase the AUC(0-t) and Cmax and dramatically decrease the clearance (CL) of R- and S-warfarin after multiple dose of warfarin. Accordingly, there was a slight increase in the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) after multiple dose of warfarin. 4. Coadministration of warfarin had no markedly effects on the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid after single or multiple dose of aspirin. Meanwhile, the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were not significantly affected by warfarin. 5. Our animal study indicated that coadministration of aspirin with warfarin can cause significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions in beagles. However, more studies are urgently needed to assess related information of warfarin-aspirin drug interactions in healthy volunteers or patients. PMID:26548565

  8. Excited Sessile Drops Perform Harmonically

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Steen, Paul H

    2013-01-01

    In our fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate our method of visualizing and identifying various mode shapes of mechanically oscillated sessile drops. By placing metal mesh under an oscillating drop and projecting light from below, the drop's shape is visualized by the visually deformed mesh pattern seen in the top view. The observed modes are subsequently identified by their number of layers and sectors. An alternative identification associates them with spherical harmonics, as demonstrated in the tutorial. Clips of various observed modes are presented, followed by a 10-second quiz of mode identification.

  9. Evaluation of Low-Intensity Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Combination with Aspirin for Reduction of Controlled Thermal Sensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kajander, Keith C.

    1988-01-01

    Reductions in cutaneous thermal sensation produced by placebo, aspirin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin were compared in 60 normal volunteers. The combination of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin produced a statistically significant reduction as compared with placebo. The results suggest this treatment combination may provide levels of analgesia useful for completion of minor dental procedures.

  10. Fourteen-Year Follow-Up From CABADAS : Vitamin K Antagonists or Dipyridamole Not Superior to Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Zijlstra, Felix; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background. Secondary prophylaxis using aspirin is standard of care after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Limited data are available for long-term results. We evaluated the effect of aspirin, aspirin with dipyridamole, and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) on 14-year clinical outcome of patients inc

  11. Anti-apoptotic effects of aspirin following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Qiu; Bin Du; Ying Li; Hongbin Fan; Zhiyong Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pharmacological effects of aspirin on apoptosis are complex. The underlying mechanisms have not been properly defined. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different doses of aspirin on brain cell apoptosis following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. DESING, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment, performed at the School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University between June and October 2006. MATERIALS: Twenty-six male, adult, Sprague Dawley rats (grade II), weighing 240-290 g, were obtained from Shanghai Experimental Animal Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Aspirin was provided by Sigma (USA). METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operation (SO), CIRI+ vehicle, CIRI+ aspirin (6 mg/kg), and CIRI + aspirin (60 mg/kg). Rats in the lesion groups were intragastrically administrated saline, aspirin (6 mg/kg), or aspirin (60 mg/kg), respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of pyramidal neurons with normal appearance in the cerebral cortex at 2-4 mm from the midline; apoptotic cell death as measured by TUNEL; Bcl-2 and Bax protein localization was determined by immunohistochemistry; maiondiaidehyde (MDA) and super oxidation (SOD) content were determined by biochemistry method; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content measured by capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: Following CIRI, the following parameters were altered compared with sham-operated animals: the number of neurons with normal appearance was significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex; the number of apoptotic cells increased; Bax protein expression was enhanced; and the ratio between Bcl-2 and Bax decreased. In addition, MDA content increased significantly, whereas ATP content decreased (P < 0.01 ). Aspirin ameliorated the loss of healthy pyramidal neurons. Both 6 and 60 mg/kg aspirin increased the ratio between Bcl-2 and Bax, with no significant difference between the treatment groups. In addition, 60 mg

  12. Low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia (GISP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this pilot study, aimed at exploring the feasibility of a large-scale trial of low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera (PV), 112 PV patients (42 females, 70 males. aged 17-80 years) were selected for not having a clear indication for, or contraindication to, aspirin treatment and randomized to receive oral aspirin (40 mg/d) or placebo. Follow-up duration was 16 +/- 6 months. Measurements of thromboxane A2 production during whole blood clotting demonstrated complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity in patients receiving aspirin. Aspirin administration was not associated with any bleeding complication. Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study indicates that a biochemically effective regimen of antiplatelet therapy is well tolerated in patients with polycythaemia vera and that a large-scale placebo-controlled trial is feasible. PMID:9163613

  13. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch...... carcinoma developed in 141 participants. Of 693 participants randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo, neoplasia developed in 66 participants receiving aspirin (18.9%), as compared with 65 receiving placebo (19.0%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.4). There were no...

  14. Low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Charlotte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Borre, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that aspirin use may protect against prostate cancer. In a nationwide case-control study, using Danish high-quality registry data, we evaluated the association between the use of low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the...... risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We identified 35,600 patients (cases) with histologically verified prostate cancer during 2000-2012. Cases were matched to 177,992 population controls on age and residence by risk-set sampling. Aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID exposure was defined by type, estimated dose......, duration, and consistency of use. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs), with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for prostate cancer associated with low-dose aspirin (75-150 mg) or nonaspirin NSAID use, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Use of low-dose aspirin was...

  15. 288 IL1B but not IL8 Polymorphisms Are Increased in Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease Patients Versus Aspirin Tolerant Asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavon Romero, Fernando Gandhi; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Camarena, Angel; Garcia Cruz, Ma de la Luz; Terán-Juarez, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a syndrome characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms by which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, the current research involve alterations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibition and its deviation from substrate to the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT...

  16. Perceptions of eye health in schools in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research exploring children's and their teachers' perceptions of eye health is lacking. This paper reports for the first time on perceptions of primary schoolchildren and their teachers of healthy and diseased eyes, things that keep eyes healthy and damage them, and what actions to be taken in case of an eye injury. Methods Using draw and write technique, 160 boys and girls (9–12 years old attending four primary schools in Abbottabad district, northern Pakistan, were invited to draw pictures in response to a set of semi-structured questions and then label them. Sixteen teachers who were currently teaching the selected students were interviewed one-on-one. Results Analysis of text accompanying 800 drawings and of the interview scripts revealed that most children and teachers perceived healthy eyes to be those which could see well, and diseased eyes to be those which have redness, watering, dirty discharge, pain, and itching; or those which have "weak eyesight" and blindness. Among things that students and teachers thought damage the eyes included sun, television, and sharp pointed objects, particularly pencils. Teachers noted that children with eye problems "have difficulty seeing the blackboard well", "screw up their eyes", and "hold their books too close". Conclusion We conclude that schoolchildren and their teachers had a good knowledge of eye health, but many of them had serious misconceptions e.g., use of kohl, medicines and eye drops keeps eyes healthy. Kohl is an important source of lead and can reduce children's intelligence even at low blood levels. Health education in schools must take into account children's existing knowledge of and misconceptions about various aspects of eye health. Such steps if taken could improve the relevance of eye health education to schoolchildren.

  17. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated v...

  18. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information ...

  20. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD Mar. 01, 2014 When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye, making the ... the eye smooth and clear. Without this tear film, good vision would not be possible. Sometimes people ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ... more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to the brain. Retina ( ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  5. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dilated eye exam. This is called digital retinal photography. Your eye doctor may ask you to come ... doctor if: You cannot see well in dim light. You have blind spots. You have double vision ( ...

  6. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  7. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself in tears. By producing tears at a slow and steady rate, the eye stays moist and ... produce tears. It can make tears at a slow, steady rate to maintain normal eye lubrication. It ...

  9. Serum cholesterol concentration associated with aspirin esterase activity in older people: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Ricardo Hermo, Toshiyuki Yamada, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, Alejandro Gugliucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolism of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, commonly used in older people for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, is important to the effectiveness of this drug. Whereas part of aspirin hydrolysis occurs in blood, there is a paucity of information in regards to circulating aspirin esterase activity in various physiological and pathological conditions. High aspirin esterase activity, corresponding to faster aspirin hydrolysis (thus aspirin non-responsiveness, may occur in cardiovascular disease-prone states. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cardio-metabolic variables such as cholesterol on serum aspirin esterase activity in older people who participated in an intervention study on physical activity. METHODS: A total of 18 non-medicated subjects (7 men/11 women, mean age 67.8 years, body mass index = 23.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2, who completed a 3-month interventional program for a mild-to-moderate increase in physical activity, were analyzed. The body mass index, plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and aspirin esterase activity were measured in the pre- and post-interventional phases of the study. RESULTS: During the interventional period, the changes in aspirin esterase activity correlated significantly and positively with those of total cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.542, P = 0.020; β = 0.609, P = 0.035 in a multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting for all the measured variables. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cholesterol metabolism alterations may be associated with aspirin metabolism in older people.

  10. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Rodríguez Luis A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. Methods To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Results Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. Conclusion In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the

  11. A Randomized trial comparing ticlopidine with aspirin fof the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yizhao; Li Danian; Wang Lei

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect and cafety of t iclopidine in the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke and to compare theeffect of low-dose aspirin with t iclopidine. BACKGROUND The effect and safety of ticlopidine irn the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke in China has not been reported. METHODS 329 patients with TIA or mild ischemic cevebral stroke wasrandonmly assigned to ticlopidine group(165 case) or aspirin group (164 case) in this study.These patrents were randomly allocated to receive either 250mg trclopidine or 50mg aspirin daily and didnd take any other platelet antiaggregating drugs. Time of eacn follow up visit was one to two months. Follow up lasted for 6 to 18 months. RESULTS The event rate for stroke or death from any cause was 8.3% in ticlopidine group arid 14.9% in aspirin group. This repesented a risk reduction of 44.3%(95% cofidence interval, 0.29-0.94) for ticiopidine group as compared with aspirin group. The event raite for ischemic cerebral stroke or myocarction of ticlopidine group(7.0%)was lower than that cf aspirin group(14.8%)(P<0.05).A riskreduction of 52.7%(95% confidence interval,0.24-0.92) for ticlopidine group compared with aspirin group. The rate of adverse effects of ticlopidine group and aspirin group were 6.9% and 11.0% during the trial ,but this was not statistically significant(P<0.05).DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION Therapeutic efficacy for the prevention oi ischemic stroke of ticlopidine was better than that of aspirin, the rate of side effects in ticlopidine group and aspirin group are not statistically significant. So ticiopidine could serve as a first-line drug for the prevention of ischemic stroke.

  12. School eye health appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Desai Sanjiv; Desai Rajiv; Desai N; Lohiya Shobha; Bhargava G; Kumar K

    1989-01-01

    School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priori...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Cause Nighttime Glare? Sep 12, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  14. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetic Eye Disease How can diabetes affect my eyes? Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes ... diabetes can also affect the nerves to the eye. Having high blood glucose from diabetes causes decreased blood supply to the ...

  15. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  16. Prevention and treatment of transient dry eye following excimer laser surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pogorelovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare dry eye symptoms after LASIK with mechanical keratome-created flaps and femtosecond laser keratome-created flaps as well as to analyze the efficacy of Systane® Ultra Monodose used to prevent and to treat transient dry eye after excimer laser surgery. Methods: 98 patients (194 eyes with myopia and compound myopic astigmatism who underwent excimer laser surgery were included in the study. In group 1 patients with pre-op dry eye, femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK was performed, Systane® Ultra Monodose was prescribed postoperatively. In group 2 patients with pre-op dry eye, LASIK was performed using mechanical microkeratome, Systane® Ultra Monodose was prescribed postoperatively. In group 3 patients without pre-op dry eye, LASIK was performed using mechanical microkeratome, standard anti-inflammatory therapy without any lubricant eye drops was prescribed. Patients were followed up for 60 days. Results: It was demonstrated that excimer laser surgery provokes transient dry eye in all patients, therefore, artificial tears are required for 2 months and more after the surgery. Post-operative lubricant eye drops use improves tear film stability, tear production, tear osmolarity, and objective signs of dry eye. Femtosecond laser decreases clinical and functional symptoms of transient dry eye as compared with mechanical microkeratome and provides more rapid visual recovery. Conclusion: Systane® Ultra Monodose has both high efficiency and good tolerability. It can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of dry eye following excimer laser surgery.

  17. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  18. Electrostatic Liquid-Drop-Levitation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Won Kyu; Chung, San Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic levitator has levitated drops of liquid up to 4 mm in diameter while maintaining spherical drop shapes. Stable levitation of spherical drops valuable in experiments involving super-cooling, solidification, and crystal growth.

  19. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the response to medication. Potential genetic biomarkers contributing to the AERD phenotype include HLA-DPB1, LTC4S, ALOX5, CYSLT, PGE2, TBXA2R, TBX21, MS4A2, IL10, ACE, IL13, KIF3A, SLC22A2, CEP68, PTGER, and CRTH2 and a four-locus SNP set composed of B2ADR, CCR3, CysLTR1, and FCER1B. Future areas of investigation need to focus on comprehensive approaches to identifying biomarkers for early diagnosis.

  1. Evaluation of aspirin hypersensitivity in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Chul; Kim, Su Il; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion The recurrence rates of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were higher in the aspirin nasal provocation test (ANPT)-positive group, regardless of the presence of nasal polyps. Thus, a careful endoscopic examination is required during follow-up in ANPT-positive patients with CRS. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and prognosis after surgical treatment in patients with CRS and aspirin hypersensitivity. Methods In a prospective study, 100 patients were analyzed with CRS who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery at the hospital from October 2012 to March 2013. This study measured changes in nasal volume and symptoms before and after the ANPT and examined patient's asthma history, allergy, Lund-Mackay score (LMS), total immunoglobulin E, percentage of peripheral eosinophils, and objectively measured relapse at 6 months. Results Patients wwith CRS and nasal polyps (CRSwNP) were more likely to have a positive ANPT test result compared to those without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) (21.4% vs 5.5%). The ANPT-positive group had a higher LMS and required more revision endoscopic sinus surgery than those in the ANPT-negative group. The results were that similar results were observed in CRSwNP and CRSsNP. PMID:26924187

  2. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  3. Use of Health Care System-Supplied Aspirin by Veterans With Postoperative Heart Attack or Unstable Angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Cathleen M; Copeland, Laurel A; McNeal, Catherine J; Mortensen, Eric M; Pugh, Mary J; MacCarthy, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the use of aspirin in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events are well established. Despite this, the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention is suboptimal. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events when it is dispensed as a prescription, as is performed in the Veterans Affairs (VA) managed care system. VA patients who had undergone major surgery and experienced a postoperative myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina between the years 2005 and 2009 were identified from administrative databases. VA pharmacy records were used to determine whether a prescription for aspirin was filled after the postoperative MI or unstable angina. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated odd ratios of filling aspirin prescriptions for the predictors of interest. Of the 321,131 men and women veterans who underwent major surgery, 7,700 experienced a postoperative MI or unstable angina. Among those 7,700, 47% filled an aspirin prescription. Only 59% of veterans with no co-pay filled an aspirin prescription. Aspirin fills were more common in younger veterans, Blacks, Hispanics, males, hypertensive veterans, mentally ill patients, those with no co-pay and those prescribed antiplatelets/anticoagulants in addition to aspirin postoperatively. These findings suggest that the impact of dispensing aspirin as a prescription may not be significant in increasing the appropriate use of aspirin for secondary prevention. PMID:26351774

  4. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  5. Effects of copper-aspirin complex on platelet-neutrophil interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang SHEN; Peng CHEN; Ling LI; Peng CHEN; Wei-ping LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat thrombosis and the interaction between platelets and neutrophils. METHODS: The model of electrically stimulated carotid artery thrombosis in Sprague Dawley rats was used; the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat platelet-neutrophil adhesion and platelet aggregation stimulated by activated neutrophils were observed by rosette assay and Born's method, respectively. RESULTS:Intragastric copper-aspirin complex (5, 7, and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently prolonged the occlusion time; it significantly decreased the rosette number formed between thrombin-activated platelets and neutrophils; the 50 % of inhibitory concentration (IC50) was (54.6±4.3) μmol/L. Copper-aspirin complex markedly inhibited rat platelet aggregation induced by either cell free supernatant of activated neutrophils or by activated neutrophil suspension.The values of IC50 were (224.5±16.2) μmol/L and (820.5±21.4) μmol/L, whereas aspirin had no influence.CONCLUSION: Copper-aspirin complex inhibited platelet-neutrophil interactions through a different property from aspirin and resulted in a more potent antithrombotic activity.

  6. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, O.T. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hallo99@doctors.org.uk; Yadegafar, G. [Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications.

  7. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone. PMID:25342594

  8. Pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid following administration of aspirin tablets and three different forms of soluble aspirin in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Attardo Parrinello, G; Vitiello, B; Perucca, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of an innovative formulation of soluble aspirin (l-ornithine acetylsalicylate, ldB 1003) was compared with that of conventional tablets and two other soluble dosage forms (d, l-lysine acetylsalicylate and a buffered effervescent formulation of acetylsalicylic acid) after administration of single oral doses in six normal volunteers. All soluble forms showed a rapid absorption profile, peak plasma salicylic acid levels being attained after about 30 min on average and without statistically significant differences among the solutions tested. As compared to the soluble formulations, acetylsalicylic acid given as tablets resulted in slower absorption, with peak plasma salicylic acid levels being reached more than 1 h after dosing. Despite these differences in time course of plasma level profiles, the extent of absorption was similar for all formulations. Apart from the potential advantages in terms of improved gastric tolerability, the increased rate of absorption of aspirin solutions is therapeutically useful whenever a rapid onset of action is required. In this respect, the kinetic pattern of the innovative formulation compares favourably with that of other available soluble dosage forms. PMID:2517497

  9. European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP): a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Marchioli, R

    1997-01-01

    Thrombotic complications characterize the clinical course of polycythemia vera (PV) and represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality. However, uncertainty still exists as to the benefit/risk ratio of aspirin prophylaxis in this setting. In vivo platelet biosynthesis of thromboxane A2 is enhanced and can be suppressed by low-dose aspirin in PV, thus providing a rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of a low-dose aspirin regimen in these patients. The Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera has recently performed a pilot study on 112 patients randomized to receive aspirin, 40 mg daily, or placebo and followed for 16 +/- 6 months (mean +/- SD). This study showed that low-dose aspirin is well tolerated in PV patients, and that a large-scale efficacy trial is feasible in this setting. In this article we report the protocol of the European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP) study, which is a randomized trial designed to assess the risk/benefit ratio of low-dose aspirin in PV. To estimate the size and the follow-up duration required for the ECLAP trial, a retrospective analysis of the clinical epidemiology of a large PV population has recently been completed by the Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera. On this basis, approximately 3500 patients will be enrolled in the ECLAP study with a follow-up of 3 to 4 years. The uncertainty principle will be used as the main eligibility criterion: Polycythemic patients of any age, having no clear indication for or contraindication to aspirin treatment, will be randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive oral aspirin (100 mg daily) or placebo. According to current therapeutic recommendations, the basic treatment of randomized patients should be aimed at maintaining the hematocrit value 50. Randomization will be stratified by participating center. The study is funded by the European Union BIOMED 2 program. PMID:9387206

  10. Aspirin in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: current facts and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Patrono, C

    1996-09-01

    The role of aspirin in the antithrombotic strategy of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) is highly controversial. Long considered unsafe on the basis of a single clinical trial testing very high doses in PV patients, aspirin is being increasingly used at lower dosage. The rationale for the use of aspirin in patients with PV and ET is provided by the efficacy of this agent in the treatment of microcirculatory disturbances of thrombocythemic states associated with myeloproliferative disorders and by recent evidence that asymptomatic PV and ET patients have persistently increased thromboxane (TX) A2-biosynthesis. This increase, which most likely reflects enhanced platelet activation in vivo, is independent of the platelet mass and blood viscosity and largely supressed by a short term low-dose aspirin regimen (50 mg/day for 7 days). Since enhanced TXA2 biosynthesis may play a role in transducing the increased thrombotic risk associated with PV and ET, long-term low-dose aspirin administration has been proposed as a possible antithombotic strategy in these subjects. The safety of this treatment in PV patients has been recently reassessed by the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Policitemia Vera (GISP) which has followed for over one year 112 patients randomized to receive 40 mg/day aspirin or placebo. In the same study, serum TXB2 measurements provided evidence that the low-dose aspirin regimen tested was fully effective in inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase activity. On this basis, a large scale trial aimed at assessing the antithrombotic efficacy of this approach is currently being organized. In patients with ET both the minimal aspirin dose required for complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the safety of long-term aspirin administration need to be established prior to extensive clinical evaluation of this strategy. PMID:8951777

  11. Aspirin use and lung cancer risk: a possible relationship? Evidence from an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has emerged and controversial results reported on possible relationship between aspirin use and lung cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this updated and comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate this issue, with focus on dose-risk and duration-risk relationships.We searched electronic databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Relative risk (RR and its 95% confidence interval (CI were used for cohort studies, while odds ratio (OR were employed for case-control studies. The random effects and fixed effects models were used for analyses.18 studies were identified including 19835 lung cancer cases, which were eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Pooled data from case-control studies showed a significant inverse association between regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk. But for cohort studies, insignificant association was detected with little evidence of heterogeneity (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.95 - 1.16; I2: 10.3%, p value: 0.351. In case-control studies, standard aspirin use (>325mg was related to lower lung cancer incidence, compared with low-dose aspirin use (75-100mg. A similar trend was observed in cohort studies. Besides, when analysis was restricted to long time regular aspirin use (>5 years, insignificant results were reported in both cohort and case-control studies. Finally, regular aspirin use might result in higher reduction of non-small cell lung cancer incidence among men.Our findings do not support the protective effect of regular aspirin use on lung cancer risk. Long time aspirin use, sex, dose and type of lung cancer might alter the effect of aspirin use on lung cancer risk. More well-designed studies are needed to further clarify these associations.

  12. Safety of low-dose aspirin in endovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel versus high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel in prevention of vascular risk within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, this prospective and observational study enrolled 370 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of ≥70% with poor collateral undergoing intracranial endovascular treatment. Antiplatelet therapy consists of aspirin, at a low-dose of 100 mg or high-dose of 300 mg daily; clopidogrel, at a dose of 75 mg daily for 5 days before endovascular treatment. The dual antiplatelet therapy continued for 90 days after intervention. The study endpoints include acute thrombosis, subacute thrombosis, stroke or death within 90 days after intervention. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy three patients received low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel and 97 patients received high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel before intracranial endovascular treatment. Within 90 days after intervention, there were 4 patients (1.5% with acute thrombosis, 5 patients (1.8% with subacute thrombosis, 17 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (0.7% in low-dose aspirin group, compared with no patient (0% with acute thrombosis, 2 patient (2.1% with subacute thrombosis, 6 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (2.1% in high-dose aspirin group, and there were no significant difference in all study endpoints between two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel is comparative in safety with high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.

  13. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Zhang; Wei-Hong Wang; Yu Tian; Wen Gao; Jiang Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression.

  14. Differential effect of aspirin on thromboxane and prostaglandin biosynthesis in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, J M; Cockcroft, J R; Doktor, H S; Beacham, J; Barrow, S E

    1989-01-01

    1. Effects of a single intravenous dose of aspirin (600 mg) on bradykinin-stimulated prostaglandin (PG) and on thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis were determined in nine healthy male volunteers. Plasma concentrations of 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-PGF2 alpha were measured in samples obtained during repeated 10 min intravenous infusions of bradykinin before and up to 6 h after the dose of aspirin. TXB2 was measured in serum from blood allowed to clot at 37 degrees C. 2. Aspirin inhibi...

  15. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  16. Formulasi dan Evaluasi Pemakaian Cangkang Kapsul Alginat untuk Pembuatan Sediaan Floating dari Dispersi Padat Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Anggono, Jeriko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aspirin is the group of non steroid anti-inflamatory drug besides that is used as antiplatelet drug. Aspirin is poorly soluble in water and can cause the irritation in the stomach in oral route. Therefore, it is necessary to modify solid dispersion dosage form that can remain in the stomach, as the example is floating dosage form by using alginate as capsule shell. Purpose: The aim of this study was to prepare floating dosage form of aspirin solid dispersion that can remain in ...

  17. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  18. The effects of aspirin plus cisplatin on SGC7901/CDDP cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, HANZHANG; LIU, GAOGAO; Jiang, Biao; GUO, JIUBING; TAO, GUOQUAN; YIU, WEI; Zhou, Jingsong; Li, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin plus cisplatin (CDDP) in the chemotherapy of gastric cancer. We cultured SGC7901/CDDP cells by long-term exposure of SGC7901 cells to small doses of CDDP in vitro. The cells were treated with aspirin, CDDP or aspirin plus CDDP for 24 h and cell growth was assessed by the MTT assay, the apoptotic rate by flow cytometry, the survivin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and the survivin protein expression by western blotting. The results rev...

  19. Stress modification of the toxicity of antimotion sickness drugs and Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Marra, C.; Goodwin, A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on the toxicity of cyclizine, trimethobenzamide, and Aspirin were studied in mice. LD-50s were compared at 30 C, 22 C, and 15 C. At 30 C the toxicity of all three drugs increased, with that to Aspirin being affected most. Cooling decreased the toxicity of cyclizine and had no significant effect on that of trimethobenzamide or aspirin. These findings indicate that alterations in environmental temperature markedly affect drug toxicity. They emphasize that such alterations, and particularly increases in temperature, do not have to be particularly drastic, but that 'mild' variations in the environment are effective in altering an animal's sensitivity to a drug.

  20. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  1. Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Intravitreal Phacoemulsification for Dropped Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and intravitreal phacoemulsification in patients with dropped nuclei/nuclear fragments following complicated cataract surgery. Methods: In this retrospective case series, charts of patients who had undergone PPV and intravitreal phacoemulsification for removal of dislocated nuclei/lens fragments were reviewed. After standard PPV, a conventional phacoemulsification probe with an amputated sleeve was used for grasping and emulsifying the nucleus/nuclear fragments in mid/anterior vitreous cavity. Pre- and postoperative visual acuity, and intra- and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: A total of 22 patients with mean age of 71.1΁8.2 years were studied. Mean interval between complicated cataract surgery and PPV was 26.6΁36.5 (range: 0-120 days. Patients were followed for a mean of 105.5΁57.5 days. Preoperatively, best corrected visual acuity was 2.4΁0.6 logMAR which was improved to 1.4΁0.6 logMAR at final follow-up (P<0.001. Intraoperative complications included iatrogenic peripheral retinal breaks in three eyes. Postoperative complications consisted of epiretinal membrane formation in one eye, hypotony in one eye, and medically-controlled glaucoma in 2 eyes. Conclusion: In this series, PPV and intravitreal phacoemulsification using a conventional phacoemulsification probe in patients with dropped nuclei/nuclear fragments following complicated cataract surgery resulted in visual improvement without any complications directly attributable to the probe.

  2. Paroxysmal vascular events in Sturge– Weber syndrome: Role of aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sanghvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS is a rare, sporadically occurring neurocutaneous disorder with a frequency of approximately 1 per 50,000. The hallmark is an intracranial leptomeningeal vascular angioma in association with a port wine nevus, usually involving ophthalmic or maxillary distribution of trigeminal nerve. Other clinical findings associated with SWS are seizures, glaucoma, hemiparesis and mental retardation. The radiological hallmark is "Tram-line" or "Gyri-form" calcification. 25 to 56% of patients experience recurrent episodes of paroxysmal focal neurological deficits in form of transient hemiparesis, which may be due to vascular ischemia or postictal in origin. EEG helps to differentiate the exact etiology, as it is normal in former. Aspirin prophylaxis in those, due to ischemia decreases their recurrences and improves overall neurological prognosis. We report a 25-month-old child of SWS with recurrent episodes of transient hemiparesis and atypical midline location of facial vascular nevus.

  3. Aspirin Could Save 40,000 Lives a Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Reaney; 励蓓蓓

    2002-01-01

    鄙人是服用Aspirin的受益者,所以当我在网上读到此文时,非常兴奋,很想把此短文推荐给我最喜爱的《科技英语学习》的读者们。Aspirin能够稀释人体血液的浓度,因而能有效减少心脏病和中风的危险。服用Aspirin后,体内血液更加流畅,因此,我感到服用Aspirin后,头脑清晰如洗,精神也清朗如浴。 当然,本文的最后一句哲理之言,不能不细读: Aspirin is not an appropriate treatment for everyon but it is important that allthase who might benefit are actually offered it。】

  4. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for aspirin recognition and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Xianwen; Geng Zhirong; Zhao Yao; Wang Zhilin; Zhu Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, MOE Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: wangzl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn

    2009-04-22

    Core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs) with combined properties of molecular recognition and controlled release were prepared and characterized. Magnetic MIPs were synthesized by the co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) around aspirin (ASP) at the surface of double-bond-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in chloroform. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 500 nm had obvious superparamagnetism and could be separated quickly by an external magnetic field. Binding experiments were carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity and selectivity to ASP. Moreover, release profiles and release rate of ASP from the ASP-loaded magnetic MIPs indicated that the magnetic MIPs also had potential applications in drug controlled release.

  5. Evaporating Drops of Alkane Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu'ena, G; Poulard, C; Cazabat, Anne-Marie; Gu\\'{e}na, Geoffroy; Poulard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Alkane mixtures are model systems where the influence of surface tension gradients during the spreading and the evaporation of wetting drops can be easily studied. The surface tension gradients are mainly induced by concentration gradients, mass diffusion being a stabilising process. Depending on the relative concentration of the mixture, a rich pattern of behaviours is obtained.

  6. Size distribution of detached drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, V. V.; Stepanov, V. M.

    1989-10-01

    The law governing the size distribution of detached gas-liquid streams of drops has been determined analytically, and a comparison is carried out against experimental data existing in the literature. The derived theoretical relationships offer an excellent description of existing experimental results.

  7. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  8. Teamwork for eye care

    OpenAIRE

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  11. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease; the...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation Subspecialties & More Academy Publications ...

  15. Cost of dry eye treatment in an Asian clinic setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanthila Waduthantri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost and patterns of expenditure of dry eye treatment. METHODOLOGY: We retrieved data on the type and cost of dry eye treatment in Singapore National Eye Centre from pharmacy and clinic inventory databases over a 2 year period (2008-2009 retrospectively. According to the type of treatment, data were sorted into 7 groups; meibomien gland disease (MGD treatment, preservative free lubricant eye drops, preserved lubricant eye drops, lubricant ointments and gels, cyclosporine eye drops, oral supplements and non-pharmacological treatments/procedures. Each recorded entry was considered as one patient episode (PE. Comparisons in each group between two years were carried out using Pearson Chi-Square test. Significance level was set at alpha  =  0.05. RESULTS: Cost data from 54,052 patients were available for analysis. Total number of recorded PEs was 132,758. Total annual expenditure on dry eye treatment for year 2008 and 2009 were US$1,509,372.20 and US$1,520,797.80 respectively. Total expenditure per PE in year 2008 and 2009 were US$22.11 and US$23.59 respectively. From 2008 to 2009, there was a 0.8% increase in total annual expenditure and 6.69% increase in expenditure per PE. Pharmacological treatment attributes to 99.2% of the total expenditure with lubricants accounting for 79.3% of the total pharmacological treatment expenditure. Total number of units purchased in preservative free lubricants, cyclosporine eye drops and MGD therapy have increased significantly (p<0.001 whereas number of units purchased in preserved lubricants and ointments/gels have reduced significantly (p<0.001 from 2008 to 2009. CONCLUSION: Dry eye imposes a significant direct burden to health care expenditure even without considering indirect costs. Health care planners should be aware that these direct costs appear to increase over the time and more so for particular types of medications. Given the limitations of socio-economic data, true

  16. Effects of prednisone, aspirin, and acetaminophen on an in vivo biologic response to interferon in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, F R; Woods, A S; Griffin, M D; Smith, C R; Nadler, P; Lietman, P S

    1988-08-01

    In healthy volunteers receiving a single intramuscular dose of 18 X 10(6) U interferon alone or after 24 hours of an 8-day course of prednisone (40 mg/day), aspirin (650 mg every 4 hours), or acetaminophen (650 mg every 4 hours), the magnitude of the biologic response to interferon was quantified by measuring the time course of the induction of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Prednisone decreased the AUC of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity (p less than 0.05), whereas administration of aspirin or acetaminophen did not affect this biologic response. No measurable effect was seen during administration of prednisone, aspirin, or acetaminophen on the duration or intensity of vesicular stomatitis virus yield reduction. The side effects seen with interferon administration at the dose tested were not altered in a clinically meaningful manner by prednisone, aspirin, or acetaminophen. PMID:2456175

  17. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  18. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela-Corina Rosu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 °C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  19. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela-Corina Rosun; Ioan Bratu

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 1C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber) with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin) it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  20. Expert Panel Reaffirms Daily Aspirin's Use Against Heart Disease, Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Panel Reaffirms Daily Aspirin's Use Against Heart Disease, Colon Cancer Guideline applies to people in their 50s, many ... reduce their risk of both heart disease and colon cancer, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends. ...

  1. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested the...... hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin, but...

  2. Role of Dispersion Interactions in the Polymorphism and Entropic Stabilization of the Aspirin Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin has been used and studied for over a century but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  3. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  4. Aspirin and clopidogrel resistance: possible mechanisms and clinical relevance. Part II: Potential causes and laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadász, Dávid; Sztriha, László K; Sas, Katalin; Vécsei, László

    2013-01-30

    Recent meta-analyses have indicated that patients with vascular disease demonstrated by laboratory tests to be aspirin or clopidogrel-resistant are at an increased risk of major vascular events. The suggested mechanisms of aspirin resistance include genetic polymorphism, alternative pathways of platelet activation, aspirin-insensitive thromboxane biosynthesis, drug interactions, or a low aspirin dose. Clopidogrel resistance is likely to develop as a result of a decreased bioavailability of the active metabolite, due to genetic variation or concomitant drug treatment. Additional work is required to improve and validate laboratory tests of platelet function, so that they may become useful tools for selection of the most appropriate antiplatelet therapy for an individual patient. Improvements in antiplatelet treatment strategies in the future should lead to a reduction in premature vascular events. PMID:23607225

  5. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  6. Update on Recent Advances in the Management of Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Palikhe, Nami Shrestha; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, Hae-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Aspirin intolerant asthma (AIA) is frequently characterized as an aspirin (ASA)-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). It is a clinical syndrome associated with chronic severe inflammation in the upper and lower airways resulting in chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, recurrent polyposis, and asthma. AERD generally develops secondary to abnormalities in inflammatory mediators and arachidonic acid biosynthesis expression. Upper and lower airway eosinophil infiltration is a key feature of AERD; howev...

  7. Study of effects of donepezil and aspirin on working memory in rats using electroconvulsive shock model

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul M. Manjare; Abhijit V. Tilak; Bhalchandra T. Rane; Sanjay A. Dabhade; Rahul R. Bhalsinge; Harshal P. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Memory is the most common cognitive ability lost with dementia commonly seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Donepezil was the first cholinesterase inhibitor to be licensed in UK for AD. There is preliminary evidence that aspirin decreases the risk and delays the onset of AD. Low dose aspirin users had numerically lower prevalence of Alzheimer's dementia and had better cognitive function than non-users. Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) was assessed by usi...

  8. Mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in the human gall bladder: inhibition by aspirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, M; A. Allen; Lennard, T W

    1992-01-01

    Aspirin, which inhibits mucin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract prevents gall stone formation in animals and may reduce gall stone recurrence in man. This study examines the effect of aspirin on mucin synthesis in human gall bladder explants. Two hundred explants were cultured with 3H-glucosamine (74 kBq/ml) for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Mucin and other glycoproteins were isolated by papain digestion (72 hours) and exhaustive dialysis (144 hours) to remove non-incorporated radioactivity...

  9. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 gene transcription by aspirin and sodium salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Chen, Xian-Ming; Matijevic-Aleksic, Nevenka; Du, Min; Kenneth K. Wu

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacological action of salicylate cannot be explained by its inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this report, the effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate on COX-2 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and foreskin fibroblasts were evaluated. Aspirin and sodium salicylate at therapeutic concentrations equipotently blocked COX-2 mRNA and protein levels induced by interleukin-1β and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The suppressing effect was more pronounced in...

  10. Aspirin and Serum Estrogens in Postmenopausal Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Catherine; Wang, Ching-Yun; Xiao, Liren; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of breast cancer among women who use aspirin. A plausible mechanism is through aspirin’s effect on estrogens, possibly mediated through interference with estrogen synthesis via reduction in inflammation, which is increased in adipose tissues including breast. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of 6-months administration of 325 mg/day aspirin on serum estrogens (estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, bioavailable estradi...

  11. Effect of sucralfate on aspirin induced mucosal injury and impaired haemostasis in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, N; Murray, F. E.; Cole, A. T.; Filipowicz, B; Hawkey, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sucralfate does not have potent anti-ulcerogenic actions in users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, sucralfate may influence intragastric haemostasis favourably. AIM: To investigate separately the effects of sucralfate on acute gastric and duodenal injury and on changes in intragastric bleeding induced by aspirin. METHOD: On three occasions, 24 healthy volunteers received three days' treatment with aspirin 900 mg twice daily together with placebo, sucralf...

  12. Leukocyte lipid body formation and eicosanoid generation: cyclooxygenase-independent inhibition by aspirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bozza, P T; Payne, J L; Morham, S G; Langenbach, R; Smithies, O; Weller, P F

    1996-01-01

    Lipid bodies, cytoplasmic inclusions that develop in cells associated with inflammation, are inducible structures that might participate in generating inflammatory eicosanoids. Cis-unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic and oleic acids) rapidly induced lipid body formation in leukocytes, and this lipid body induction was inhibited by aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Several findings indicates that the inhibitory effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on lipid body formation was i...

  13. Impact of aspirin and clopidogrel interruption on platelet function in patients undergoing major vascular surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manach, Yannick; Kahn, David; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Le Sache, Frederic; Smadja, David M.; Remones, Veronique; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Coriat, Pierre; Gaussem, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. Methods/Results We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group). The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline) and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was e...

  14. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  15. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  16. Genç Bireylerde Aspirin Ve Vitamin C Emiliminin Etkileşimi

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDENER, H.; AMANVERMEZ, R.; ÇELİK, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Interaction of Aspirin and Ascorbic Acid Absorption in Healthy Young Individuals Aspirin (acetylsalicyclic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are commonly used two drugs. Metabolic importance of vitamin C has been risen due to understanding the function of vitamin C on metabolic pathway in human. To known how maintain serum and tissue levels in normal ranges is very crucial to avoid vitamin C deficiency. Therefore vitamin C and drug interaction, particulary for long term use, is ve...

  17. Prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Jørgensen, Bo; Korsholm, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    was twice the prevalence in patients without AMI. METHODS: We included 298 consecutive patients with known cardiovascular disease who were admitted to hospital with symptoms suggestive of an AMI. All had been taking aspirin 150 mg/day for at least 7 days prior to hospital admission. Platelet function...... with symptoms suggestive of an AMI, and aspirin resistance is significantly associated with the diagnosis of a definite AMI....

  18. Low-dose aspirin for prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD.From a total of 25340 patients with CKD, 1884 recipients of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day were paired 1∶1 with non-recipients for analysis using propensity score matching. The primary endpoint was the development of atherosclerotic CVD, including coronary arterial disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Secondary endpoints included death from any cause, bleeding events, doubling of serum creatinine, and renal death.The incidence of a primary endpoint of any atherosclerotic CVD was significantly higher in the aspirin users than in the non-users (P<0.001. Secondary endpoints, including all-cause mortality and composite bleeding events, were not significantly different between the aspirin users and the non-users. However, the doubling of serum creatinine levels (P = 0.001 and renal death (P = 0.042 were significantly associated with the use of aspirin.These results suggest that the use of low-dose aspirin in patients with CKD may have harmful consequences related to the development of CVD and renal progression.

  19. Gender differences in the activities of aspirin-esterases in rat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The activities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid-esterases were measured in several tissues (liver, kidney, adrenal glands, brain and serum from adult male and female Wistar rats. In males, both aspirin-esterase I (assayed at pH 5.5 and II (assayed at pH 7.4 activities were higher in liver homogenates when compared to females (aspirin-esterase I: males 48.9 ± 4.8 (N = 8 and females 29.3 ± 4.2 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 41.4 ± 4.1 (N = 8 and females 26.1 ± 4.5 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In serum, enzyme activity was higher in females than in males (aspirin-esterase I: males 0.85 ± 0.06 (N = 6 and females 1.18 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 1.03 ± 0.13 (N = 6 and females 1.34 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In the other tissues assayed, no statistically significant difference between males and females was found. There were no statistically significant differences when the enzymes were assayed in different phases of the estrous cycle in liver and serum. These results show that the differences in aspirin-esterase activity observed between males and females are not due to the estrous cycle. The gender difference obtained in our study may indicate an involvement of gonadal hormones in the control of the hydrolysis of aspirin. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  20. Distribution of Copper in Rats Submitted to Treatment With Copper Aspirinate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiping; Yang, Yikun; Xiong, Huizhou; Lu, Ying; Yang, Rong

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of copper in Sprague – Dawley rats following a three month oral administration of 0,10 or 50mg/kg copper aspirinate has been investigated. Metal content was determined by ICP – AES in blood, brain, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and dejection. The results show that treatment with copper aspirinate did not cause accumulation of copper in rats and excess ingested copper was excreted through feces.

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of drug residues in water by the example of tetracycline, gentamicine and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichgrebe, D; Danilova, E; Rosenwinkel, K H; Vedenjapin, A A; Baturova, M

    2004-01-01

    Electro-chemical oxidation as a method to destroy drug residues like aspirin, tetracycline or gentamicine in water was investigated with C-anodes (modified by manganese oxides) and Pt anodes. The mechanism of aspirin and tetracycline oxidation and the influence of the biocide effect was observed using GC-MS and three different microbiological tests. In general, the biological availability increases with progressive oxidation of the antibiotics. PMID:15077972

  2. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  3. Aspirin inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated fractalkine expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG De-qian; LIU Hong; ZHANG She-bing; ZHANG Xiao-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Fractalkine is an important chemokine mediating local monocyte accumulation and inflammatory reactions in the vascular wall. Aspirin inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression closely related to atherosclerosis through the way independent of platelet and cyclooxygenase (COX). There has been no report about the effect of aspirin on fractalkine expression. We aimed to determine the fractalkine expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the effect of aspirin intervention.Methods Six of 8 HUVEC groups received either different concentrations of aspirin (0.02, 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mmol/L) or 40 μmol/L pyrrolidinecarbodithioc acid (PDTC) or 0.5 μmol/L NS-398. The other two groups were negative control and positive control (TNF-α-stimulated). After being incubated for 24 hours, cells of the 8 groups except the negative control one were stimulated with TNF-a (4 ng/ml) for another 24 hours. After that, the cells were collected for RNA isolation and protein extraction.Results Both mRNA and protein expressions of fractalkine in HUVEC were upregulated by 4 ng/ml TNF-α stimulation,Aspirin inhibited fractalkine expression in a dose-dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels. Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor, PDTC, effectively decreased the fractalkine expression. Fractalkine expression was not influenced by COX-2 selective inhibitor NS-398. COX-1 protein expression was not changed by either TNF-α stimulation or aspirin, PDTC,NS-398 intervention. Both mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 in HUVEC were upregulated by 4 ng/ml TNF-α stimulation. Aspirin decreased COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels.Conclusions TNF-α-stimulated fractalkine expression is suppressed by aspirin in a dose-dependent manner through the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 pathway.

  4. Aspirin-intolerant asthma in the population : prevalence and important determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Jonas; Ekerljung, Linda; Bossios, Apostolos; Bjerg, Anders; Wennergren, Göran; Rönmark, Eva; Torén, Kjell; Lötvall, Jan; Lundbäck, Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on aspirin-intolerant asthma are very few and no previous population study has investigated risk factors for the condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of aspirin-intolerant asthma in the general population. METHODS: A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed to 30 000 randomly selected subjects aged 16-75 years in West Sweden, 29 218 could be traced and 18 087 (62%) responded. The questionnaire included questions on ast...

  5. Use of Aspirin Associates with Longer Primary Patency of Hemodialysis Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Bradley S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Dember, Laura M; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Greenberg,Arthur; Delmez, James A.; Allon, Michael; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Hu, Bo; Greene, Tom; Radeva, Milena K.; Davidson, Ingemar J.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Braden, Gregory L.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release dipyridamole plus low-dose aspirin (ERDP/ASA) prolongs primary unassisted graft patency of newly created hemodialysis arteriovenous grafts, but the individual contributions of each component are unknown. Here, we analyzed whether use of aspirin at baseline associated with primary unassisted graft patency among participants in a randomized trial that compared ERDP/ASA and placebo in newly created grafts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for prespecified b...

  6. Effect of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Henk; Rotmans, Nel; Brommer, E.J.Ph.; Wallenburg, Henk

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of a daily oral dose of 60 to 80 mg of aspirin from 12 weeks gestation until delivery on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective controlled study labor was electively induced in 24 patients, eight receiving low-dose aspirin and 16 controls. Levels were determined in maternal and cord plasma of tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, plasminogen ...

  7. Aspirin has little additional anti-platelet effect in healthy volunteers receiving prasugrel

    OpenAIRE

    LEADBEATER, P D M; Kirkby, N S; Thomas, S.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); DHANJI, A-R; Tucker, A T; MILNE, G L; Mitchell, J. A.; Warner, T D

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: Strong P2Y12 blockade, as can be achieved with novel anti-platelet agents such as prasugrel, has been shown in vitro to inhibit both ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways of platelet aggregation, calling into question the need for the concomitant use of aspirin. Objective: The present study investigated the hypothesis that aspirin provides little additional anti-aggregatory effect in a group of healthy volunteers taking prasugrel. Study participants/methods: In all, 9 m...

  8. Assessment of aspirin resistance varies on a temporal basis in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, A. R.; McMullin, Mary; Patterson, Christopher; McKeown, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Laboratory tests including optical platelet aggregometry (OPA), platelet function analyser (PFA-100), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) metabolite levels have been used to define aspirin resistance. This study characterised the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and investigated the concordance and repeatability of these tests. Design, setting and patients: Consecutive outpatients with stable IHD were enrolled. They were commenced on 150 mg aspi...

  9. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO...

  10. Altered mental status and complete heart block: an unusual presentation of aspirin toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Kupfer, Yizhak; Chawla, Kabu; Tessler, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used medications. We report a patient who presented with severe weakness, altered mental status and complete heart block requiring temporary pacing. Despite the patient's family denying that the patient used aspirin, an arterial blood gas that revealed a respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis suggested the diagnosis of salicylate toxicity. The salicylate level was extremely elevated and the patient was successfully treated with haemodialysis. Our case...

  11. Clinical evidence for the use of aspirin in the treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Although the anti-cancer effects of aspirin were first identified in pre-clinical models four decades ago, a clear role for the drug in either the prevention or treatment of cancer has not been established. Concerns about toxicity, particularly major haemorrhage, and a lack of randomised evidence demonstrating efficacy have limited its use in primary prevention; there was also doubt that a simple aspirin could have a significant therapeutic effect against established malignancy. Three new pie...

  12. The gastrointestinal toxicity of aspirin: an overview of randomised controlled trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Roderick, P. J.; Wilkes, H C; Meade, T W

    1993-01-01

    The proven benefit of aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and its possible value in primary prevention must be weighted against its potential hazards. This paper is an overview of the gastrointestinal toxicity of aspirin, its most serious complication after intracerebral haemorrhage. Information on toxicity has been drawn only from randomised trials, thus avoiding the potential biases of observational studies. All randomised placebo controlled trials listed in the An...

  13. Psychotropic effects of aspirin, acetylsalicylate cobalt and acetylsalicylate zinc at various doses

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Yakovchyuk; Oksana V. Katiushyna; Ivan I. Koreniuk; Denis R. Khusainov; Tatyana V. Gamma

    2012-01-01

    For the first time it is shown that psychotropic action of acetylsalicylates at various doses is manifested as a nonmonotonic dependence having its peaks at therapeutic and ultra-low dose zones. It is discovered that development of effects of aspirin resembles that of acetylsalicylate zinc. Acetylsalicylate cobalt at extremely low doses zone showed the highest antidepressant activity, demonstrating toxicity at high doses. Generally, it is revealed that the use of aspirin and its salts at high...

  14. The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Don D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI. Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether gender mix might play a role in explaining the large variation of aspirin efficacy across primary and secondary MI prevention trials. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the efficacy of aspirin therapy on MI were identified by using the PUBMED database (1966 to October 2006. Weighted linear regression technique was used to determine the relationship between log-transformed relative risk (RR of MI and the percentage of male participants in each trial. The reciprocal of the standard error of the RR in each trial (1/SE was used as the weight. Results A total of 23 trials (n = 113 494 participants were identified. Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.64–0.81, p Conclusion Gender accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in the efficacy of aspirin in reducing MI rates across these trials, and supports the notion that women might be less responsive to aspirin than men.

  15. Impact of aspirin and clopidogrel interruption on platelet function in patients undergoing major vascular surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Le Manach

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. METHODS/RESULTS: We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group. The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by optical aggregation in the presence of collagen, arachidonic acid (aspirin and ADP (clopidogrel and by VASP assay (clopidogrel. Platelet-leukocyte complex (PLC level was quantified at each time-point. At baseline, platelet function was efficiently inhibited by aspirin and had recovered fully in most patients 5 days after drug withdrawal. PLC levels five days after aspirin reintroduction were similar to baseline (+4±10%; p = 0.16, in line with an effective platelet inhibition. Chronic clopidogrel treatment was associated with variable platelet inhibition and its withdrawal led to variable functional recovery. PLC levels were significantly increased five days after clopidogrel reintroduction (+10±15%; p = 0.02, compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin withdrawal 5 days before high-bleeding-risk procedures was associated with functional platelet recovery, and its reintroduction two days after surgery restored antiplaletet efficacy five days later. This was not the case of clopidogrel, and further work is therefore needed to define its optimal perioperative management.

  16. Which people should take aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Lozano,1 Maria-Esther Franco21Pharmacy Department, 2Haematology Department, Hospital Real de Nuestra Señora de Gracia, Zaragoza, SpainDear editorA single trial, ISIS-2,1 in 1988, demonstrated the utility of daily aspirin in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, reducing the risk of vascular death by 23%. In addition, aspirin has also proven effective in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.2 Thus, for a subset of the general population, aspirin may help to prevent heart attacks and strokes. In fact, at low doses, in the range of 75 to 100 mg per day, aspirin prevents the progression of existing cardiovascular disease (CVD, including coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, and reduces the frequency of cardiovascular events in patients with history of CVD,3,4 referred to as secondary prevention.Although the benefits of aspirin for secondary prevention of CVD are well known, its use in primary prevention of CVD, defined as prevention of the first occurrence of CVD for all patients without clinical CVD, including those with diabetes mellitus and those without clinical evidence of atherosclerotic disease who are at higher CVD risk, is less clear and controversial results have been obtained. In fact, the results of several studies using aspirin for primary prevention of CVD have generally shown more modest reductions of major vascular events compared with secondary prevention (12% vs 23%.3,5

  17. Adverse respiratory reactions to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ronald A

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset condition that manifests as asthma, rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps, and sensitivity to aspirin and other cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There is no cross-sensitivity to highly selective COX-2 inhibitors. AERD is chronic and does not improve with avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors. The diagnosis of AERD is made through provocative challenge testing. Following a positive aspirin challenge, patients can be desensitized to aspirin and NSAIDs. The desensitized state can be maintained indefinitely with continued daily administration. After desensitization, there is an approximately 48-hour refractory period to adverse effects from aspirin. The pathogenesis of AERD remains unknown, but these patients have been shown to have multiple abnormalities in arachidonic acid metabolism and in cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptors. AERD patients can take up to 650 mg of acetaminophen for analgesic or antipyretic relief. Patients can also use weak COX-1 inhibitors, such as sodium salicylate or choline magnesium trisalicylate. Treatment of AERD patients with antileukotriene medications has been helpful but not preferential when compared with non-AERD patients. An alternative treatment for many AERD patients is aspirin desensitization. This is particularly effective in reducing upper-airway mucosal congestion, nasal polyp formation, and systemic steroids. PMID:14680616

  18. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of aspirin and prasugrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital M Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspirin and prasugrel, using a Kromasil 100 C 18 (150×4.6 mm, 5 μ column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:methanol:water (30:10:60, v/v, pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid. The retention times of aspirin and prasugrel were found to be 3.28 min and 6.61 min, respectively. Linearity was established for aspirin and prasugrel in the range of 15-150 and 2-20 μg/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of aspirin and prasugrel were found to be in the range of 99.34-100.32% and 98.92-102.09%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, and UV degradation. The degradation studies indicated aspirin to be more susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis, while prasugrel to be more susceptible to neutral hydrolysis. The degradation products were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of aspirin and prasugrel in bulk drugs and formulations.

  19. Effects of aspirin on metastasis-associated gene expression detected by cDNA microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-qin GAO; Jin-xiang HAN; Hai-yan HUANG; Shi YAN; Chang-zheng SONG; Hai-nan HUANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of aspirin on the metastasis-associated gene expression in 3AO ovarian cancer cells.METHODS: 3AO cells were treated with aspirin at the concentration of 1.2 mmol/L for 16 and 48 h, respectively.The total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagents and reverse transcribed with Superscript II and hybridized with cDNA microarray (containing oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, signal transduction pathway molecules, adhesive molecules, growth factors and ESTs) fabricated in our lab. After normalization, the ratio of gene expression of aspirin treated to untreated 3AO cells being either 2 fold up higher or 0.5 fold down (lower) were defined as differential expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray results. RESULTS: Among the 447 metastasis-associated genes, 4 genes were up-regulated and 14 genes were down-regulated in 3AO cells treated with aspirin for 16 h compared with untreated cells. While 24 genes were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated in cells treated with aspirin for 48 h. Several up or down-regulated gene expression changes continued from 16 h to 48 h. CONCLUSION: Aspirin might exert its anti-metastasis effects on ovarian cancer by affecting metastasis-associated gene expression.

  20. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on aspirin : An experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, R.; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Parameswari, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on aspirin molecule adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were synthesized by the solution-combustion method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. The averaged particle size of synthesized AgNPs was calculated as ˜55 nm. The normal Raman spectrum (nRs) and SERS spectrum of the aspirin were recorded. The molecular structure of the aspirin and aspirin adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/ B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The calculated nRs and SERS frequencies were correlated well with the observed frequencies. The flat-on orientation was predicted from the nRs and SERS spectra, when the aspirin adsorbed on the AgNPs. Hence, the present studies lead to the understanding of adsorption process of aspirin on the AgNPs, which paves the way for biomedical applications.

  1. SOX7 is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhou; Shu-Yan Huang; Jing-Xin Feng; Yan-Yan Gao; Li Zhao; Jun Lu; Bai-Qu Huang; Yu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To confirm the role of sex-determining region Y-box 7 (Sox7) in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of COX-independent human colorectal cancer cells.METHODS: The cell survival percentage was examined by MTT (Moto-nuclear cell direc cytotoxicity) assay.SOX7 expression was assessed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SB203580 was used to inhibit the p38MAPK signal pathway. SOX7 promoter activity was detected by Luciferase reporter assay.RESULTS: SOX7 was upregulated by aspirin and was involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. The p38MAPK pathway played a role in aspirin-induced SOX7 expression, during which the AP1 transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos upregulated SOX7 promoter activities.RESULTS: SOX7 is upregulated by aspirin and is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer SW480 cells.

  2. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  3. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in hamster lung microsomes is not completely inhibited by aspirin and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uotila, P.; Paajanen, H.; Schalin, M.; Simberg, N.

    1983-10-01

    Aspirin (100 microM or 1 mM) or indomethacin (10 microM or 100 microM) was incubated with a microsomal preparation of hamster lungs in the presence of NADPH for 10 min. Then 14C-arachidonic acid (20 microM) was added and the incubation was continued for an additional 20 min. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate first at pH 7.4 and then at pH 3.5 and analysed by thin layer chromatography. Both aspirin and indomethacin inhibited dose dependently the formation of all identified prostaglandins, including PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGE2 and PGD2. The rate of formation of some unidentified metabolites extracted at pH 7.4 and 3.5 was, however, not changed by aspirin or indomethacin. We have earlier reported that in isolated perfused hamster lungs the formation of all arachidonate metabolites is inhibited by both aspirin and indomethacin. As the present study indicates that in the microsomes of hamster lungs all metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid are not inhibited by aspirin or indomethacin, it is possible that in isolated tissues and in vivo aspirin-like drugs have some other inhibitory effects on arachidonate metabolism than the inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme.

  4. Critical appraisal of a fixed combination of esomeprazole and low dose aspirin in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Vachhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ravi Vachhani1, Doumit Bouhaidar1, Alvin Zfass1, Bimaljit Sandhu1, Ali Nawras21Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298–0341, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390, USAAbstract: Low dose aspirin (≤325 mg is routinely used for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The use of low dose aspirin is associated with two-to four-fold greater risk of symptomatic or complicated peptic ulcers. Risk factors associated with low dose aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity includes prior history of ulcer or upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding, concomitant use of other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid or warfarin, dual antiplatelet therapy, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, and advanced age. Esomeprazole, like other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs is very effective in decreasing the risk of aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Although evidence to support esomeprazole or other PPIs for primary prophylaxis in aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity is limited, its role in secondary prophylaxis is well established.Keywords: esomeprazole, proton pump inhibitors, low dose aspirin, gastrointestinal toxicity, gastrointestinal bleeding

  5. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  6. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it is, look on the product's container for an emergency number to call for instructions. ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety Tips Sep 25, ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... large volume of tears, overwhelming the tear drainage system. These excess tears then overflow from your eye. Next   Causes of Dry ... Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  9. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special contact lens will be placed on your eye. The lens contains mirrors that help the doctor aim the laser. You will be instructed to look straight ahead or at a target light with your other eye. A laser will be focused on the bleeding ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  13. PlantEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University.......Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University....

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Supported by the NEI Research at NEI All Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education ... (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center ... Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center ...

  16. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or chemical burns Previous eye surgery A rare autoimmune disorder in which the glands that produce tears are destroyed ( Sjögren's syndrome )

  17. Drop impact on a fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Gil; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drop impact on a thin fiber. Using high-speed videography, we analyze the dynamics of droplet collision with a fiber. Based on the systematic experiments, we identify three outcomes of collision: capturing, single drop falling, and splitting. The outcomes are presented in a regime map, where the regime boundaries are explained through a scale analysis of forces. We also measure the liquid retention on the fiber after the droplet impact. By considering a liquid film on the fiber, we develop a mechanical model that predicts the residual water mass. Our model reveals that the residual mass depends critically on the fiber thickness and less on the impact speed. Our study can be extended to predicting the remaining droplet, critical problems in air filtration, water collection, and fiber coating.

  18. Aspirin resistance may be identified by miR-92a in plasma combined with platelet distribution width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov;

    2016-01-01

    operating characteristic curves for miR-92a levels and PDW were used to set cut-off values for discrimination between aspirin responding and aspirin resistant patients. RESULTS: When defining aspirin resistance as an ASPItest ≥30U, the optimal cut-off values for discrimination of aspirin responders and...... aspirin resistant patients were found to be PDW>11.8fL and a relative expression level of miR-92a>4.5. Using these cut-off values we could define a PDW/miR-92a-score with a specificity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 80.0% in relation to detect aspirin resistance. The corresponding positive and negative...

  19. Dropped head syndrome in mitochondriopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, J

    2004-01-01

    In a 63-year-old, 165-cm-tall woman with a history of repeated tick bites, dilative cardiomyopathy, osteoporosis, progressive head ptosis with neck stiffness and cervical pain developed. The family history was positive for thyroid dysfunction and neuromuscular disorders. Neurological examination revealed prominent forward head drop, weak anteflexion and retroflexion, nuchal rigidity, weakness of the shoulder girdle, cogwheel rigidity, and tetraspasticity. The lactate stress test was abnormal....

  20. Oral single high-dose aspirin results in a long-lived inhibition of anodal current-induced vasodilatation

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, S; Fromy, B; Koïtka, A; Tartas, M; Saumet, J L; Abraham, P

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl salicyclic acid (aspirin) irreversibly blocks cyclo-oxygenase (COX). This effect is short-lived in endothelial or smooth muscle cells due to resynthesis but long-lived in platelets devoid of synthesis ability. Aspirin blocks the anodal current-induced vasodilatation, suggesting participation by prostaglandin (PG). We analysed the time course of the effect of aspirin as an indirect indicator of the origin of the PG possibly involved in anodal current-induced vasodilatation.In healthy vo...