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Sample records for aspirin exacerbated respiratory

  1. Update on the Management of Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Kathleen M; Laidlaw, Tanya M

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset upper and lower airway disease consisting of eosinophilic nasal polyps, asthma, and respiratory reactions to cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibitors. Management includes guideline-based treatment of asthma and sinus disease, avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors, and for some patients aspirin desensitization followed by high-dose aspirin therapy. Despite this, many patients have inadequately controlled symptoms and require multiple sinus surgeries. In this review, we discuss the current standard approaches to the management of AERD, and we introduce several therapeutics under development that may hold promise for the treatment of AERD. PMID:27126722

  2. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinke JW

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available John W Steinke, Jeff M Wilson Asthma and Allergic Disease Center, Carter Immunology Center, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA Abstract: Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD, which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. Keywords: leukotriene, cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, arachidonic acid

  3. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe; Seung-Hyun Kim; Hyun Jung Jin; Eui-Kyung Hwang; Young Hee Nam; Hae-Sim Park

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the resp...

  4. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: pathophysiological insights and clinical advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, John W; Wilson, Jeff M

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis are heterogeneous airway diseases of the lower and upper airways, respectively. Molecular and cellular studies indicate that these diseases can be categorized into unique endotypes, which have therapeutic implications. One such endotype is aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which encompasses the triad of asthma, aspirin (or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) hypersensitivity, and nasal polyposis. AERD has unique pathophysiological features that distinguish it from aspirin-tolerant asthma and other forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. This review details molecular and cellular features of AERD and highlights current and future therapies that are based on these insights. PMID:27022293

  5. Genetic Mechanisms in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Shrestha Palikhe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the exposure to aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The key pathogenic mechanisms associated with AERD are the overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs and increased CysLTR1 expression in the airway mucosa and decreased lipoxin and PGE2 synthesis. Genetic studies have suggested a role for variability of genes in disease susceptibility and the response to medication. Potential genetic biomarkers contributing to the AERD phenotype include HLA-DPB1, LTC4S, ALOX5, CYSLT, PGE2, TBXA2R, TBX21, MS4A2, IL10, ACE, IL13, KIF3A, SLC22A2, CEP68, PTGER, and CRTH2 and a four-locus SNP set composed of B2ADR, CCR3, CysLTR1, and FCER1B. Future areas of investigation need to focus on comprehensive approaches to identifying biomarkers for early diagnosis.

  6. Update on Recent Advances in the Management of Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Palikhe, Nami Shrestha; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, Hae-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Aspirin intolerant asthma (AIA) is frequently characterized as an aspirin (ASA)-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). It is a clinical syndrome associated with chronic severe inflammation in the upper and lower airways resulting in chronic rhinitis, sinusitis, recurrent polyposis, and asthma. AERD generally develops secondary to abnormalities in inflammatory mediators and arachidonic acid biosynthesis expression. Upper and lower airway eosinophil infiltration is a key feature of AERD; howev...

  7. COX-2: Where are we in 2003? - Specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crofford, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of analgesic anti-inflammatory agents in patients with asthma is clinically challenging because of the prevalence (10–20%) of aspirin hypersensitivity. Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), or aspirin-induced asthma, is characterized by asthma and rhinitis triggered by the ingestion of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. AERD is associated with upper and lower respiratory-tract mucosal inflammation, progressive sinusitis, nasal polyposis, and asthma regardless...

  8. Fatty acid binding protein 1 is related with development of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

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    Tae-Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD refers to the development of bronchoconstriction in asthmatics following the ingestion of aspirin. Although alterations in eicosanoid metabolites play a role in AERD, other immune or inflammatory mechanisms may be involved. We aimed to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in nasal polyps between patients with AERD and aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresis was adopted for differential display proteomics. Proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were performed to compare the amount of fatty acid-binding protein 1 (FABP1 in the nasal polyps of patients with AERD and ATA. Fifteen proteins were significantly up- (seven spots or down-regulated in the nasal polyps of patients with AERD (n = 5 compared to those with ATA (n = 8. LC-MS revealed an increase in seven proteins expression and a decrease in eight proteins expression in patients with AERD compared to those with ATA (P = 0.003-0.045. FABP1-expression based on immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis was significantly higher in the nasal polyps of patients with AERD compared to that in patients with ATA. FABP1 was observed in epithelial, eosinophils, macrophages, and the smooth-muscle cells of blood vessels in the polyps. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that alterations in 15 proteins, including FABP1, may be related to the development of AERD.

  9. 288 IL1B but not IL8 Polymorphisms Are Increased in Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease Patients Versus Aspirin Tolerant Asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavon Romero, Fernando Gandhi; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Camarena, Angel; Garcia Cruz, Ma de la Luz; Terán-Juarez, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a syndrome characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms by which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, the current research involve alterations in the metabolism of arachidonic acid, cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibition and its deviation from substrate to the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT...

  10. The IL1B-511 Polymorphism (rs16944 AA Genotype) Is Increased in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease in Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Galicia-Negrete; María de la Luz García; Angel Camarena; Gandhi F. Pavón-Romero; Ramcés Falfán-Valencia; María Cristina Negrete-García; Luis Manuel Teran

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma, and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, current research focuses on cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) inhibition, metabolism of arachidonic acid, and the COX pathway to the lipoxygenase (LO) route, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT). The biological plausibility of this model has led to th...

  11. The IL1B-511 Polymorphism (rs16944 AA Genotype Is Increased in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease in Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramcés Falfán-Valencia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD is characterized by chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyposis, asthma, and aspirin sensitivity. The mechanisms which produce these manifestations of intolerance are not fully defined, current research focuses on cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1 inhibition, metabolism of arachidonic acid, and the COX pathway to the lipoxygenase (LO route, inducing increased synthesis of leukotrienes (LT. The biological plausibility of this model has led to the search for polymorphisms in genes responsible for proinflammatory cytokines synthesis, such as IL1B and IL8. We performed a genetic association study between IL8-251 (rs4073 and IL1B-511 (rs16944 polymorphisms in AERD, aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, and healthy control subjects. Using allelic discrimination by real-time PCR, we found statistically nonsignificant associations between AERD, ATA, and healthy control subjects for the GG and GA genotypes of IL1B (rs16944. Interestingly, the AA genotype showed an increased frequency in the AERD patients versus the ATA group (GF = 0.19 versus 0.07, =0.018, OR 2.98, and 95% CI 1.17–7.82. This is the first observation that IL1B polymorphisms are involved in AERD. Thus, future studies must investigate whether interleukin-1 is released in the airways of AERD patients and whether it relates to genetic polymorphisms in the IL1B gene.

  12. Aspirin-Exacerbated Diseases: Advances in Asthma with Nasal Polyposis, Urticaria, Angioedema, and Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney; Buchheit, Kathleen; Cahill, Katherine N

    2015-12-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated diseases are important examples of drug hypersensitivities and include aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), aspirin- or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced urticaria/angioedema, and aspirin- or NSAID-induced anaphylaxis. While each disease subtype may be distinguished by unique clinical features, the underlying mechanisms that contribute to these phenotypes are not fully understood. However, the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 enzyme is thought to play a significant role. Additionally, eosinophils, mast cells, and their products, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been identified in the pathogenesis of AERD. Current diagnostic and treatment strategies for aspirin-exacerbated diseases remain limited, and continued research focusing on each of the unique hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin is essential. This will not only advance the understanding of these disease processes, but also lead to the subsequent development of novel therapeutics that patients who suffer from aspirin-induced reactions desperately need. PMID:26475526

  13. Does aspirin-induced oxidative stress cause asthma exacerbation?

    OpenAIRE

    Kacprzak, Dorota; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) is a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by severe asthma exacerbations after ingestion of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The exact pathomechanism of AIA remains unknown, though ongoing research has shed some light. Recently, more and more attention has been focused on the role of aspirin in the induction of oxidative stress, especially in cancer cell systems. However, it has not excluded the similar action of aspirin in other inflamm...

  14. Adverse respiratory reactions to aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ronald A

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is an adult-onset condition that manifests as asthma, rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps, and sensitivity to aspirin and other cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There is no cross-sensitivity to highly selective COX-2 inhibitors. AERD is chronic and does not improve with avoidance of COX-1 inhibitors. The diagnosis of AERD is made through provocative challenge testing. Following a positive aspirin challenge, patients can be desensitized to aspirin and NSAIDs. The desensitized state can be maintained indefinitely with continued daily administration. After desensitization, there is an approximately 48-hour refractory period to adverse effects from aspirin. The pathogenesis of AERD remains unknown, but these patients have been shown to have multiple abnormalities in arachidonic acid metabolism and in cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptors. AERD patients can take up to 650 mg of acetaminophen for analgesic or antipyretic relief. Patients can also use weak COX-1 inhibitors, such as sodium salicylate or choline magnesium trisalicylate. Treatment of AERD patients with antileukotriene medications has been helpful but not preferential when compared with non-AERD patients. An alternative treatment for many AERD patients is aspirin desensitization. This is particularly effective in reducing upper-airway mucosal congestion, nasal polyp formation, and systemic steroids. PMID:14680616

  15. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route. PMID:26826555

  16. Aspirin or Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-Exacerbated Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Dennis K; Lockey, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (ASA)-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by upper airway congestion due to eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal and sinus membranes and nasal polyposis, associated with increased leukotriene production that is further accentuated by ASA or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ingestion. It occurs in 5% to 10% of subjects with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and in 15% to 40% of those with nasal polyposis. Although AERD with CRS is usually associated with asthma, this is not always the case. The eosinophilic airway inflammation and symptoms precede clinical reactions to ASA or other NSAIDs, but ultimately affected subjects experience worsening of symptoms with ingestion of ASA/NSAIDs. The endotypic mechanism for this worsening is related to a chronic increase in leukotriene and a decrease in prostaglandin production, particularly prostaglandin E2, that is further aggravated by the inhibition of cycloxgenase I. IgE does not likely play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease although nasal and sinus staphylococcal infection increases local IgE level and may increase total IgE and specific IgE levels. Genetic studies suggest that multiple genes may be involved, but the genetic abnormalities may differ in affected subjects from different ethnicities and candidate genes have not been confirmed in multiple studies. Genome-wide association studies have not been revealing. The phenotype is recognized by the mucosal inflammation and worsening of symptoms acutely with ASA/NSAID. There is clinical improvement with ASA desensitization followed by regular ingestion of ASA or other NSAIDs. Further understanding of this unique phenotype and endotype of CRS will likely improve the understanding of other eosinophilic airway diseases. PMID:27393773

  17. The Impact of Respiratory Viral Infection on Wheezing Illnesses and Asthma Exacerbations

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Kecia N.; Hartert, Tina V

    2008-01-01

    The etiology and morbidity associated with asthma are thought to stem from both genetic factors and potentially modifiable environmental factors, such as viral infections.[1-7] Although it is unclear whether respiratory viral infections cause asthma, observational studies have demonstrated a high rate of asthma in children with a history of severe viral lower respiratory tract infections during infancy, and viruses are the associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations among both childr...

  18. Bronchiectasis exacerbations: The role of atypical bacteria and respiratory syncytial virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Eugenios I; Balis, Evangelos; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Spanakis, Nicholas E; Tatsis, Georgios; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aside from the known role of common bacteria, there is a paucity of data regarding the possible role of atypical bacteria and viruses in exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible role of atypical bacteria (namely, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as causative agents of bronchiectasis exacerbations. METHODS: A cohort of 33 patients was studied over a two-year period (one year follow-up for each patient). Polymerase chain reaction for the detection of M pneumoniae, C pneumoniae and RSV in bronchoalveolar lavage samples were performed during all visits. Antibody titres (immunoglobulin [Ig]M and IgG) against the aforementioned pathogens were also measured. In addition, cultures for common bacteria and mycobacteria were performed from the bronchoalveolar lavage samples. RESULTS: Fifteen patients experienced a total of 19 exacerbations during the study period. Although RSV was detected by polymerase chain reaction during stable visits in four patients, it was never detected during an exacerbation. M pneumoniae and C pneumoniae were never detected at stable visits or during exacerbations. IgM antibody titres for these three pathogens were negative in all patient visits. CONCLUSIONS: Atypical pathogens and RSV did not appear to be causative agents of bronchiectasis exacerbations. PMID:25874735

  19. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD

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    Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients’ quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD. The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b a telehealth framework; (c CARS and (d machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA and a support vector machine (SVM classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  20. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Leon-Jimenez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients' quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD). The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS) techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a) a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b) a telehealth framework; (c) CARS and (d) machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems. PMID:26512667

  1. Respiratory microbiota resistance and resilience to pulmonary exacerbation and subsequent antimicrobial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Leah; Rogers, Geraint B; Walker, Alan W; Oliver, Anna; Green, Laura E; Daniels, Thomas W V; Carroll, Mary P; Parkhill, Julian; Bruce, Kenneth D; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary symptoms in cystic fibrosis (CF) begin in early life with chronic lung infections and concomitant airway inflammation leading to progressive loss of lung function. Gradual pulmonary function decline is interspersed with periods of acute worsening of respiratory symptoms known as CF pulmonary exacerbations (CFPEs). Cumulatively, CFPEs are associated with more rapid disease progression. In this study multiple sputum samples were collected from adult CF patients over the course of CFPEs to better understand how changes in microbiota are associated with CFPE onset and management. Data were divided into five clinical periods: pre-CFPE baseline, CFPE, antibiotic treatment, recovery, and post-CFPE baseline. Samples were treated with propidium monoazide prior to DNA extraction, to remove the impact of bacterial cell death artefacts following antibiotic treatment, and then characterised by 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. Partitioning CF microbiota into core and rare groups revealed compositional resistance to CFPE and resilience to antibiotics interventions. Mixed effects modelling of core microbiota members revealed no significant negative impact on the relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa across the exacerbation cycle. Our findings have implications for current CFPE management strategies, supporting reassessment of existing antimicrobial treatment regimens, as antimicrobial resistance by pathogens and other members of the microbiota may be significant contributing factors. PMID:26555248

  2. Prothrombotic state in senile patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, YA-JUN; ZHOU, ZHE-HUI; LIU, YAO-KANG; RAO, SHI-MING; HUANG, YING-JUN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the clinical value of prethrombotic state and treatment with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in senile patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) combined with respiratory failure. Hemorheological markers (hematocrit, blood viscosity and plasma viscosity), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer and gas analysis were evaluated in 30 senile patients with AECOPD combined with respiratory failure and compared with those in 30 case...

  3. Community-acquired pneumonia and survival of critically ill acute exacerbation of COPD patients in respiratory intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yusheng; Lu, Zhiwei; Tu,Xiongwen; Chen, Liang; Chen, Hu; Yang, Jian; Wang, Jinyan; Zhang, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    Zhiwei Lu,* Yusheng Cheng,* Xiongwen Tu, Liang Chen, Hu Chen, Jian Yang, Jinyan Wang, Liqin Zhang Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the effect of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) on inhospital mortality in critically ill acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) patients admitted to a respiratory intens...

  4. Respiratory infectious phenotypes in acute exacerbation of COPD: an aid to length of stay and COPD Assessment Test

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    Dai MY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Yuan Dai,1 Jin-Ping Qiao,2 Yuan-Hong Xu,2 Guang-He Fei1 1Pulmonary Department, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Patients and methods: We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results: Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion: Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. Keywords: COPD, acute exacerbation, respiratory infectious, phenotypes, LOS, CAT

  5. T-2 toxin impairs murine immune response to respiratory reovirus and exacerbates viral bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to immunosuppressive environmental contaminants is a possible contributing factor to increased occurrence of viral respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin (T-2), a frequent food contaminant, alters host resistance to lung infection by reovirus, a model respiratory virus. Balb/c mice (4 week old) were treated intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin (1.75 mg/kg bw) or saline vehicle and then intranasally instilled 2 h later with 107 plaque forming unit (PFU) of reovirus, strain Lang (T1/L) or saline vehicle. At 10 days post-instillation (PI), both virus plaque-forming responses and reovirus L2 gene expression were 10-fold higher in lungs of T-2-treated mice compared to controls. No-effect and lowest-effect levels for T-2-induced suppression of reovirus clearance were 20 and 200 μg/kg bw, respectively. Respiratory reovirus infection resulted in a mild bronchiolitis with minimal alveolitis, which was markedly exacerbated by T-2 pretreatment. Reovirus exposure induced marked increases in total cells, neutrophils and lymphocytes at 3 and 7 days PI in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) whereas macrophages were increased only at 7 days PI. Although prior T-2 exposure attenuated total cell and macrophage counts in BALF of control and infected mice at 3 days PI, the toxin potentiated total cell, macrophage, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in infected mice at 7 days PI. At 3 days PI, T-2 suppressed reovirus-induced IFN-γ elevation in BALF, but enhanced production of IL-6 and MCP-1. T-2 pretreatment also suppressed reovirus-specific mucosal IgA responses in lung and enteric tract, but potentiated serum IgA and IgG responses. Taken together, T-2 increased lung viral burden, bronchopneumonia and pulmonary cellular infiltration in reovirus-infected mice. These effects might be attributable to reduced alveolar macrophage levels as well as modulated cytokine and mucosal Ig responses

  6. Low-intensity noninvasive ventilation: Lower pressure, more exacerbations of chronic respiratory failure

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    Toru Kadowaki

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Attention should be paid to CRF patients who are initially administered LI-NPPV; they should be carefully observed because they can develop more exacerbations of CRF than patients undergoing C-NPPV. If possible, higher initial PS should be administered to prevent CRF exacerbations.

  7. Bronchiectasis Exacerbations: The Role of Atypical Bacteria and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenios I Metaxas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aside from the known role of common bacteria, there is a paucity of data regarding the possible role of atypical bacteria and viruses in exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

  8. Aspirin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002542.htm Aspirin overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An overdose of aspirin means you have too much aspirin in your ...

  9. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Chang SC; Shi JD; Fu CP; Wu X; Li SQ

    2016-01-01

    Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive car...

  10. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Su Chi

    2016-01-01

    Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Inten...

  11. Prostaglandin E2 deficiency causes a phenotype of aspirin sensitivity that depends on platelets and cysteinyl leukotrienes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; Laidlaw, Tanya M.; Katz, Howard R.; Boyce, Joshua A.

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a common, severe variant of asthma, which is associated with overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) and respiratory reactions to drugs that block cyclooxygenase 1. We demonstrate that mice selectively lacking the capacity to up-regulate the generation of prostaglandin E2 with inflammation develop an AERD-like phenotype that depends critically on platelets and thromboxane receptors, which drive transcellular synthesis of cysLTs, whic...

  12. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice. PMID:27310311

  13. Respiratory virus transmission dynamics determine timing of asthma exacerbation peaks: Evidence from a population-level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Scott, James G; Galvani, Alison P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2016-02-23

    Asthma exacerbations exhibit a consistent annual pattern, closely mirroring the school calendar. Although respiratory viruses--the "common cold" viruses--are implicated as a principal cause, there is little evidence to link viral prevalence to seasonal differences in risk. We jointly fit a common cold transmission model and a model of biological and environmental exacerbation triggers to estimate effects on hospitalization risk. Asthma hospitalization rate, influenza prevalence, and air quality measures are available, but common cold circulation is not; therefore, we generate estimates of viral prevalence using a transmission model. Our deterministic multivirus transmission model includes transmission rates that vary when school is closed. We jointly fit the two models to 7 y of daily asthma hospitalizations in adults and children (66,000 events) in eight metropolitan areas. For children, we find that daily viral prevalence is the strongest predictor of asthma hospitalizations, with transmission reduced by 45% (95% credible interval =41-49%) during school closures. We detect a transient period of nonspecific immunity between infections lasting 19 (17-21) d. For adults, hospitalizations are more variable, with influenza driving wintertime peaks. Neither particulate matter nor ozone was an important predictor, perhaps because of the large geographic area of the populations. The school calendar clearly and predictably drives seasonal variation in common cold prevalence, which results in the "back-to-school" asthma exacerbation pattern seen in children and indirectly contributes to exacerbation risk in adults. This study provides a framework for anticipating the seasonal dynamics of common colds and the associated risks for asthmatics. PMID:26858436

  14. Aspirin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  15. [Eosinophil cationic protein in children with allergic diseases of the respiratory tract in exacerbation and remission of symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, D; Tomaszewicz-Fryca, J; Płusa, T; Chciałowski, A

    1998-02-01

    The role of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in allergic inflammatory reaction has been documented in experimental and clinical studies, but a clinical usefulness is still discussed. In the study serum level of ECP has been evaluated in children with allergic diseases of the respiratory system in exacerbation and remission of symptoms for purpose of monitoring of disease course. In 111 children aged 12.0 +/- 3.3 yrs with atopic bronchial asthma and/ or allergic rhinits ECP serum concentrations have been determined in following groups: children with grass pollen hypersensitivity (group P, 17 female and 41 male), children with hypersensitivity to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae (group D, 16 female and 37 male) and controls without allergic hypersensitivity with negative prick skin tests (19 children, 11 female and 5 male). All children have been qualified to immunotherapy with pollen or mite allergens (Allergovit or Novo-Helisen, Nexter, Allergopharma) and ECP evaluation was performed before, during and after therapy. Serum ECP and IgE levels have been determined with CAP-system (Pharmacia) and obtained results related to clinical symptoms. In all analyzed children serum total IgE has been significantly increased in relation to controls. Serum ECP levels have been increased during clinical exacerbation of symptoms in observed children and parallel with clinical score of symptoms, especially during pollen season. Authors conclude that a degree of increase of serum ECP level is parallel with clinical score of symptoms, especially during highest exposition to pollen allergens. Observed changes of serum ECP levels during immunotherapy suggest the close relationship with allergic inflammatory reaction and indicate clinical usefulness for monitoring of this process. PMID:9591438

  16. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective: We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods: Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results: Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both; after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05. Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05. The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48

  17. Streptococcal Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Exacerbations of Tic and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman, James F.; King, Robert A.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Singer, Harvey S.; Dure, Leon S., IV; Grantz, Heidi; Katsovich, Liliya; Lin, Haiqun; Lombroso, Paul J.; Kawikova, Ivana; Johnson, Dwight R.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Kaplan, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this blinded, prospective, longitudinal study was to determine whether new group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections are temporally associated with exacerbations of tic or obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms in children who met published criteria for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders…

  18. Efficacy of a respiratory rehabilitation exercise training package in hospitalized elderly patients with acute exacerbation of COPD: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao LY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Yu Liao,1,2 Kuei-Min Chen,2 Wei-Sheng Chung,3 Jung-Yien Chien4 1Department of Nursing, Chest Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Rende District, Tainan, 2College of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Sanmin District, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung, 4Department of Medicine, Chest Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Rende District, Tainan, Taiwan Clinical trials identifier: NCT02329873 Background: Acute exacerbation (AE of COPD is characterized by a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms. Previous studies have explored the effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation for patients with COPD; however, no training program specific to acute exacerbation in elderly patients or unstable periods during hospitalization has been developed.Objective: To evaluate the effects of a respiratory rehabilitation exercise training package on dyspnea, cough, exercise tolerance, and sputum expectoration among hospitalized elderly patients with AECOPD.Methods: A randomized control trial was conducted. Pretest and posttest evaluations of 61 elderly inpatients with AECOPD (experimental group n=30; control group n=31 were performed. The experimental group received respiratory rehabilitation exercise training twice a day, 10–30 minutes per session for 4 days. The clinical parameters (dyspnea, cough, exercise tolerance, and sputum expectoration were assessed at the baseline and at the end of the fourth day.Results: All participants (median age =70 years, male =60.70%, and peak expiratory flow 140 L completed the study. In the patients of the experimental group, dyspnea and cough decreased and exercise tolerance and sputum expectoration increased significantly compared with those of the patients in the control group (all P<0.05. Within-group comparisons revealed that the dyspnea, cough, and exercise tolerance significantly improved in the experimental group by the end of the fourth

  19. Differences in care between general medicine and respiratory specialists in the management of patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurugamage Wijayaratne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD may be managed by either respiratory specialists (RS or general medicine physicians (GMP. While previous studies have audited the hospital AECOPD management of RS, only a small number of studies have evaluated the management of GMP. Aims: The aims of this study were to firstly examine the differences in AECOPD management of GMP and RS and secondly compare their care to national COPD guidelines. Methods: A retrospective review was undertaken of consecutive AECOPD patients admitted to two hospitals (one hospital where all AECOPD patients were managed by RS and another where all AECOPD patients were managed by GMP over a 3-month period. Electronic medical records, medical case notes, pathology and radiology data for the admission were reviewed. Results: There were 201 COPD exacerbations in 169 patients (49.7% male, mean age 72.3. GMP managed 84 (41.7% exacerbations. In comparison to RS, GMP performed fewer spirometry tests, blood gas analysis and less frequently treated patients with guideline-recommended medications. Referral to pulmonary rehabilitation was poor for both groups of clinicians. Median length of stay was shorter in GMP patients versus RS patients (3 days vs. 5 days, P = 0.001. There were no differences in the 12-month re-admission (41.7% vs. 38.5%, P = 0.664 and mortality rates (10.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.292 between both groups of patients. Conclusion: Our study found differences in the hospital AECOPD management of GMP and RS, but these did not translate into different clinical outcomes between their patients. We also found suboptimal adherence to national COPD guidelines, suggesting that there is scope for improvement in the AECOPD management of both groups of clinicians.

  20. Aspirin and heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000092.htm Aspirin and heart disease To use the sharing features ... say if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Taking Aspirin Take your aspirin with food and water. This ...

  1. TWO CASES OF TYPE II RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN COPD TREATED IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR AND AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT OF ACUTE EXACERBATION AND RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna; Kalyankumar; Venu; Nageswara Rao

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Type II Respiratory Failure in a COPD patient is a difficult task for the ICU and Pulmonary physician. Multi factorial and multi - disciplinary approach is required . Our experience of two cases treated recently in Katuri medical College Hospita l have common features. One is a male of 54 years age and the other is a female of similar age. Both of them were obese and were nonsmokers. Both were poor and could not afford any ICU treatment on ...

  2. TWO CASES OF TYPE II RESPIRATORY FAILURE IN COPD TREATED IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR AND AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT OF ACUTE EXACERBATION AND RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Type II Respiratory Failure in a COPD patient is a difficult task for the ICU and Pulmonary physician. Multi factorial and multi - disciplinary approach is required . Our experience of two cases treated recently in Katuri medical College Hospita l have common features. One is a male of 54 years age and the other is a female of similar age. Both of them were obese and were nonsmokers. Both were poor and could not afford any ICU treatment on their own. Both were rescued by State sponsored Arogyasree programme. Both of them had the advantage of support from their families. Aided by Arogyasree programme, dedicated staff of ICU, Pulmonology, ENT departments , timely interventions with electrolyte balance, balanced antibiotic therapy, Noninvasive and inva sive ventilator strategies, Nutritional support, Blood transfusions, Timely Tracheostomy and excellent nursing care and drug administration in ICU both patients recovered back to normalcy . Initially both required home oxygen therapy and both were subsequen tly seen maintaining normal oxygenation status even without oxygen causing happiness to family members and the treating physicians

  3. Does a 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine prevent respiratory exacerbations in children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and may be associated with disease progression, we will determine if the novel 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduces exacerbations in these children. Methods A multi-centre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in tertiary paediatric centres from three Australian cities is planned. Two hundred six children aged 18 months to 14 years with recurrent PBB, CSLD or bronchiectasis will be randomised to receive either two doses of PHiD-CV or control meningococcal (ACYW135) conjugate vaccine 2 months apart and followed for 12 months after the second vaccine dose. Randomisation will be stratified by site, age (, nasopharyngeal and saliva swabs, and serum will be collected at baseline and at 2, 3, 8 and 14 months post-enrolment. Local and systemic reactions will be recorded on daily diaries for 7 and 30 days, respectively, following each vaccine dose and serious adverse events monitored throughout the trial. Fortnightly, parental contact will help record respiratory exacerbations. The primary outcome is the incidence of respiratory exacerbations in the 12 months following the second vaccine dose. Secondary outcomes include: nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine- related serotypes; systemic and mucosal immune responses to H. influenzae proteins and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine-related serotypes; impact upon lung function in children aged ≥6 years; and vaccine safety. Discussion As H. influenzae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with these chronic respiratory diseases in

  4. Aspirin, Butalbital, and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine comes as a capsule and tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken every 4 ... explain any part you do not understand. Take aspirin, butalbital, and caffeine exactly as directed. Do not ...

  5. Aspirin and NSAIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digestive Health Topic / Aspirin and NSAIDS Aspirin and NSAIDS Basics Resources Overview What should I know about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)? The second major cause for ulcers is irritation ...

  6. Aspirin in Neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Aburto-Murrieta; Dulce Bonifacio-Delgadillo; Juan Marquez

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is widely used for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) of arterial origin, because it is effective and inexpensive. Clopidogrel and the combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole are more effective than aspirin, but are also much more expensive. No other antithrombotic regimens provide significant advantages over aspirin, although cilostazol and the novel platelet protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist, SCH 530348, are c...

  7. Paradoxical Effect of Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Doutremepuich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-dose aspirin is an important therapeutic option in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic stroke, basedon its unique cost-effectiveness and widespread availability. In addition, based on the results of a number of large studies, aspirin is also widely used in the primary prevention of MI. This paper provides an update of the available data to offer greater clarity regarding the risks of aspirin with respect to hemorrhagic stroke. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and ischemic events, the evidence supports that the benefits of aspirin treatment significantly outweigh the risk of a major hemorrhage. When considering whether aspirin is appropriate, the absolute therapeutic cardiovascular benefits of aspirin must be balanced with the possible risks associated with its use, being hemorrhagic stroke. Regarding these clinical facts, normal, COX 1 −/−, and COX 2 −/− mice were treated with a wide range of doses of aspirin and studied by induced hemorrhagic time. The results outlined three major conclusions: high doses of aspirin induce hemorrhage, while low doses of aspirin do not. In the absence of COX 1, ultra low doses of aspirin produce an antihemorrhagic effect not observed with intermediate doses. The absence of COX 2 induced a hemorrhagic effect that needs further research, probably originated in compensatory phenomena.

  8. Aspirin and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Paola; Patrono, Carlo

    2016-08-30

    The place of aspirin in primary prevention remains controversial, with North American and European organizations issuing contradictory treatment guidelines. More recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended "initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colorectal cancer in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years." This recommendation reflects increasing evidence for a chemopreventive effect of low-dose aspirin against colorectal (and other) cancer. The intent of this paper is to review the evidence supporting a chemopreventive effect of aspirin, discuss its potential mechanism(s) of action, and provide a conceptual framework for assessing current guidelines in the light of ongoing studies. PMID:27561771

  9. Exacerbations in cystic fibrosis: 2 · Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Scott C; Robinson, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    The life span of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased dramatically over the past 50 years. Many factors have contributed to this improvement. Respiratory exacerbations of CF lung disease are associated with the need for hospitalisation and antibiotic treatment, reduction in the quality of life, fragmented sleep and mortality. A number of preventive treatment strategies have been developed to reduce the frequency and severity of respiratory exacerbations in CF including mucolytic age...

  10. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice: strain differences in early host responses and exacerbation by nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies reported here used genetic differences in susceptibility of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice and exacerbation of the disease by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as tools in assessing the role of early host responses in the pathogenesis of MRM. The two strains did not differ in susceptibility to infection, but C3H/HeN mice were more susceptible to and had increased severity of lung lesions 14 days after intranasal inoculation as determined by 50% biological endpoints and morphometric analysis of tissues. Exposure to NO2 for 4 hours prior to exposure to infectious aerosols exacerbated murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) by 7 days after exposure in both mouse strains. NO2 appeared to affect host lung defense mechanisms responsible for limiting mycoplasmal growth in the lungs. The NO2 exposure concentration required for this effect varied with the genetic background of the host, the dose of mycoplasmas administered, and the endpoint measured. Pulmonary clearance of radiolabeled M. pulmonis was determined in both mouse strains, and in C57BL/6N mice exposed to NO2

  11. Immunization with DNA vaccines containing porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus open reading frames 5, 6, and 7 may be related to the exacerbation of clinical disease after an experimental challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ivan; Ganges, Llilianne; Galindo-Cardiel, Iván; Tarradas, Joan; Alvarez, Belén; Lorca-Oró, Cristina; Pujols, Joan; Gimeno, Mariona; Darwich, Laila; Domingo, Mariano; Domínguez, Javier; Mateu, Enric

    2013-02-01

    Pigs were immunized with DNA plasmids containing different open reading frames (ORFs) of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genotype I strain. One group was injected with three inoculations of ORF7, a second group was immunized with three inoculations of plasmids containing ORF5 and ORF6, and a third group was kept as controls. Later, +21 days after the last inoculation, animals were challenged with the homologous strain. After the challenge, PRRSV-specific interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting cells and anti-PRRSV IgG antibodies developed faster in DNA vaccinated pigs (p<0.05). However, DNA-immunized pigs showed an exacerbation of the disease compared to the unvaccinated challenged pigs. The data suggest that previous immunization with DNA vaccines against glycoprotein 5 and/or matrix protein of PRRSV, as well as nucleoprotein but to a lesser degree, could result in an exacerbation of the clinical course in terms of fever upon challenge. PMID:23409932

  12. Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    updated 3/10/08 Medications Containing Aspirin (Acetylsalicylate) and Aspirin-Like Products © National Reye's Syndrome Foundation Inc. 2008 Epidemiologic research has shown an association between the development of Reye's ...

  13. Temporary CD8(+) T-cell depletion in pigs does not exacerbate infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Eriksen, Lis

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a consistent increase in the CD8(+) T-cell subset of pigs following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV). Consequently, it has been suggested that CD8(+) T-cells may play an important role in protection against this infection. In order...... to test this hypothesis, we examined five 5-week-old pigs, which had been depleted for CD8(+) T-cells by treatment with anti-CD8 mAb injections, starting 2 days before inoculation with PRRSV. Virus-inoculated and sham-inoculated age-matched pigs served as controls. Blood samples were collected...... continuously, together with organ material at necropsy, to study kinetics of leukocyte subpopulations, antibody production and virus persistence in individual pigs. Significant lower CD8(+) T-cell counts on day 0, that is, before virus challenge, in the anti-CD8 mAb treated pigs compared to the control pigs...

  14. Burkholderia pseudomallei Capsule Exacerbates Respiratory Melioidosis but Does Not Afford Protection against Antimicrobial Signaling or Bacterial Killing in Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Samantha J; Ipe, Deepak S; Batzloff, Michael; Sullivan, Matthew J; Crossman, David K; Crowley, Michael; Strong, Emily; Kyan, Stephanie; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Ekberg, Jenny A K; St John, James; Beacham, Ifor R; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-07-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an often severe infection that regularly involves respiratory disease following inhalation exposure. Intranasal (i.n.) inoculation of mice represents an experimental approach used to study the contributions of bacterial capsular polysaccharide I (CPS I) to virulence during acute disease. We used aerosol delivery of B. pseudomallei to establish respiratory infection in mice and studied CPS I in the context of innate immune responses. CPS I improved B. pseudomallei survival in vivo and triggered multiple cytokine responses, neutrophil infiltration, and acute inflammatory histopathology in the spleen, liver, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, and olfactory mucosa (OM). To further explore the role of the OM response to B. pseudomallei infection, we infected human olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) in vitro and measured bacterial invasion and the cytokine responses induced following infection. Human OECs killed >90% of the B. pseudomallei in a CPS I-independent manner and exhibited an antibacterial cytokine response comprising granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and several regulatory cytokines. In-depth genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of the OEC response by RNA-Seq revealed a network of signaling pathways activated in OECs following infection involving a novel group of 378 genes that encode biological pathways controlling cellular movement, inflammation, immunological disease, and molecular transport. This represents the first antimicrobial program to be described in human OECs and establishes the extensive transcriptional defense network accessible in these cells. Collectively, these findings show a role for CPS I in B. pseudomallei survival in vivo following inhalation infection and the antibacterial signaling network that exists in human OM and OECs. PMID:27091931

  15. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)-to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-yearU.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review. PMID:26784651

  16. Aspirin Often Wrongly Prescribed for Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159459.html Aspirin Often Wrongly Prescribed for Atrial Fibrillation Blood thinners -- not aspirin -- dramatically cut the risk of stroke, researchers say ...

  17. The Christmas Season as a Risk Factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections.

  18. Predicting asthma exacerbations employing remotely monitored adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killane, Isabelle; Sulaiman, Imran; MacHale, Elaine; Breathnach, Aoife; Taylor, Terence E; Holmes, Martin S; Reilly, Richard B; Costello, Richard W

    2016-03-01

    This Letter investigated the efficacy of a decision-support system, designed for respiratory medicine, at predicting asthma exacerbations in a multi-site longitudinal randomised control trial. Adherence to inhaler medication was acquired over 3 months from patients with asthma employing a dose counter and a remote monitoring adherence device which recorded participant's inhaler use: n = 184 (23,656 audio files), 61% women, age (mean ± sd) 49.3 ± 16.4. Data on occurrence of exacerbations was collected at three clinical visits, 1 month apart. The relative risk of an asthma exacerbation for those with good and poor adherence was examined employing a univariate and multivariate modified Poisson regression approach; adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. For all months dose counter adherence was significantly (p research should focus on refining adherence and exacerbation measures. Decision-support systems based on remote monitoring may enhance patient-physician communication, possibly reducing preventable adverse events. PMID:27222733

  19. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  20. Relevance of human metapneumovirus in exacerbations of COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer TT; Rausse R; Kronsbein J; Arinir U; Borg I; Rohde G; Bufe A; Schultze-Werninghaus G

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background and methods Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory virus associated with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup and exacerbations of asthma. Since respiratory viruses are frequently detected in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD (AE-COPD) it was our aim to investigate the frequency of hMPV detection in a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients with AE-COPD compared to patients with stable COPD and to smokers without by means of quantitative r...

  1. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: aspirin increases the incidence of minor bleeding complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliwell, O.T. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hallo99@doctors.org.uk; Yadegafar, G. [Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics Division, School of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton University, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lane, C.; Dewbury, K.C. [Department of Radiology, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Aim: To assess whether patients taking aspirin were more likely to experience bleeding complications after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. Materials and methods: Three hundred and eighty-seven patients taking aspirin who underwent prostate biopsy over a 3.5 year period and 731 patients not taking aspirin over a 2 year period returned a questionnaire assessing the incidence and severity of bleeding complications. Results: Patients taking aspirin had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of haematuria and rectal bleeding, but not of haemospermia. They also had a longer mean duration of bleeding, but no increase in bleeding severity. Severe bleeding was very uncommon in both groups and no patients required intervention for bleeding complications. Conclusion: Aspirin exacerbates minor bleeding complications in patients undergoing TRUS guided biopsy of the prostate, but in this large group of aspirin-taking patients no dangerous bleeding complications were encountered. It may be that the risks associated with aspirin cessation outweigh the risks of haemorrhagic complications.

  2. Aspirin-intolerant asthma in the population : prevalence and important determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Jonas; Ekerljung, Linda; Bossios, Apostolos; Bjerg, Anders; Wennergren, Göran; Rönmark, Eva; Torén, Kjell; Lötvall, Jan; Lundbäck, Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on aspirin-intolerant asthma are very few and no previous population study has investigated risk factors for the condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of aspirin-intolerant asthma in the general population. METHODS: A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed to 30 000 randomly selected subjects aged 16-75 years in West Sweden, 29 218 could be traced and 18 087 (62%) responded. The questionnaire included questions on ast...

  3. Altered mental status and complete heart block: an unusual presentation of aspirin toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Kupfer, Yizhak; Chawla, Kabu; Tessler, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used medications. We report a patient who presented with severe weakness, altered mental status and complete heart block requiring temporary pacing. Despite the patient's family denying that the patient used aspirin, an arterial blood gas that revealed a respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis suggested the diagnosis of salicylate toxicity. The salicylate level was extremely elevated and the patient was successfully treated with haemodialysis. Our case...

  4. Aspirin and atenolol enhance metformin activity against breast cancer by targeting both neoplastic and microenvironment cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Giovanna; Orecchioni, Stefania; Dallaglio, Katiuscia; Reggiani, Francesca; Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Labanca, Valentina; Rossi, Teresa; Noonan, Douglas M; Albini, Adriana; Bertolini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Metformin can induce breast cancer (BC) cell apoptosis and reduce BC local and metastatic growth in preclinical models. Since Metformin is frequently used along with Aspirin or beta-blockers, we investigated the effect of Metformin, Aspirin and the beta-blocker Atenolol in several BC models. In vitro, Aspirin synergized with Metformin in inducing apoptosis of triple negative and endocrine-sensitive BC cells, and in activating AMPK in BC and in white adipose tissue (WAT) progenitors known to cooperate to BC progression. Both Aspirin and Atenolol added to the inhibitory effect of Metformin against complex I of the respiratory chain. In both immune-deficient and immune-competent preclinical models, Atenolol increased Metformin activity against angiogenesis, local and metastatic growth of HER2+ and triple negative BC. Aspirin increased the activity of Metformin only in immune-competent HER2+ BC models. Both Aspirin and Atenolol, when added to Metformin, significantly reduced the endothelial cell component of tumor vessels, whereas pericytes were reduced by the addition of Atenolol but not by the addition of Aspirin. Our data indicate that the addition of Aspirin or of Atenolol to Metformin might be beneficial for BC control, and that this activity is likely due to effects on both BC and microenvironment cells. PMID:26728433

  5. Work-related exacerbation of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Paul K; Hoffman, Christopher D; Magid, David J; Lyons, Ella E

    2002-01-01

    Adults with asthma who had been enrolled in an HMO for at least a year were requested to complete a questionnaire about their health status. Approximately 25% of the 1,461 participants responded positively to "Does your current work environment make your asthma worse?" and were classified as having workplace exacerbation of asthma. Those with workplace exacerbation were more likely to have never attended college, be current or former smokers, have a history of other respiratory diseases, have missed work or usual activities at least one day in the past for weeks, and report their asthma was moderate, severe, or very severe. Percentages with workplace exacerbation of asthma were highest for mining and construction (36%), wholesale and retail trade (33%), and public administration (33%), and lowest for educational services (22%), finance, insurance, and real estate (22%), and non-medical and non-educational services (18%). Future studies are needed for objective validation of self-reported workplace exacerbation, and to follow subjects prospectively to clarify the temporal sequence of workplace exacerbation and asthma severity, and how other respiratory conditions and smoking might contribute to work-related worsening of asthma. PMID:12412844

  6. Aspirin for the next generation

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Nick; Smith, Tom

    2013-01-01

    First used as an analgesic and antipyretic, investigations into aspirin’s anti-inflammatory effects led to its establishment in 1974 as a drug that altered the activity of platelets to influence the course and incidence of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease. It became the standard in treatment and prevention of vascular disorders. The 25th International Scientific Meeting on aspirin held at the Royal College of Physicians in London on 24th October 2012 took aspirin into fresh f...

  7. Vasorelaxant effects of a nitric oxide-releasing aspirin derivative in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muscará, Marcelo N; Lovren, Fina; McKnight, Webb; Dicay, Michael; Soldato, Piero Del; Triggle, Christopher R; Wallace, John L

    2001-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported to exacerbate hypertension and to interfere with the effectiveness of some anti-hypertensive therapies. In this study, we tested the effects of a gastric-sparing, nitric oxide-releasing derivative of aspirin (NCX-4016) on hypertension in rats.Hypertension was induced by administering L-NAME in the drinking water (400 mg l−1). Groups of rats were treated daily with aspirin, NCX-4016 or vehicle.NCX-4016 significantly reduced blood pressure...

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation frequency and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafyla E

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eirini Stafyla, Theodora Kerenidi, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, GreeceWe read with great interest the original work by Motegi et al1 comparing three multidimensional assessment systems – BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index, DOSE (dyspnea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbations index and ADO (age, dyspnea, obstruction index – for predicting COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. In this study, exacerbation rates for the first and second year were 0.57 and 0.48 per patient-year respectively, while previous exacerbations, DOSE index, FEV1% (% forced expiratory volume in 1 second predicted and long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT use were shown to be predictors of COPD exacerbations. However, this study seems to have quite different results from our own study that focused on exacerbation frequency and severity.View original paper by Motegi and colleagues.

  9. Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandoth, P W; Joshi, M K; Joshi, V R; Satoskar, R S

    1984-01-01

    The antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin was compared in sixteen children with pyrexia due to upper respiratory tract infection and in twelve with fever due to other causes. All 28 children received ibuprofen (7 mg/kg of body-weight) and aspirin (15 mg/kg of body-weight) in a single dose on 2 consecutive days in a crossover manner. Rectal temperature was recorded prior to and at regular intervals up to 8 hours after drug administration. Analysis of the results indicate that ibuprofen and aspirin effectively lower temperature and the two drugs are comparable in their antipyretic activity. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerance profile and availability in syrup form make ibuprofen a useful substitute for aspirin in children with fever. PMID:6500169

  10. Infective Exacerbation of Pasteurella multocida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mayumi; Elshimy, Noha; Abusriwil, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    An 89-year-old lady presented with a one-day history of shortness of breath as well as a cough productive of brown sputum. Her medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was in severe type one respiratory failure and blood tests revealed markedly raised inflammatory markers; however her chest X-ray was clear. On examination there was bronchial breathing with widespread crepitations and wheeze. She was treated as per an infective exacerbation of COPD. Subsequent blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a common commensal in the oropharynx of domesticated animals. The patient was then asked about any contact with animals, after which she revealed she had a dog and was bitten on her left hand the day before admission. We should not forget to enquire about recent history of injuries or animal bites when patients present acutely unwell. She made a complete recovery after treatment with penicillin. PMID:26942025

  11. Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work By Emily Carlson ... biology of how cancer cells grow. Antihistamines, Antidepressants, Aspirin Adrenergic receptor with carazolol, a beta-blocker. View ...

  12. The role of aspirin in women's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this review is to discuss the role of aspirin for various conditions in women. METHODS: A nonsystematic review of articles published on PubMed((R)) that examines the role of aspirin in women. RESULTS: Aspirin is associated with a significant reduction of stroke risk in women,

  13. Viral disruption of olfactory progenitors is exacerbated in allergic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ueha, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Ueha, S.; de Almeida Nagata, D.E.; Sakamoto, T.; K. Kondo; Yamasoba, T.; Lukacs, N W; Kunkel, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Upper airway viral infection in patients with airway allergy often exacerbates olfactory dysfunction, but the mechanism for this exacerbation remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, in the presence or absence of airway allergy, on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their progenitors in mice. Immunohistological analyses revealed that cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced airway allergy alone did not affect the number of OMP+ mature ORNs and ...

  14. Bacterial etiology in acute hospitalized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

    OpenAIRE

    Asli Gorek Dilektasli; Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu; Nilufer Aylin Acet Ozturk; Funda Coskun; Guven Ozkaya; Ahmet Ursavas; Cuneyt Ozakin; Mehmet Karadag; Esra Uzaslan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The most common cause of acute COPD exacerbation (AECOPD) is the respiratory tract infections. We sought to determine the bacteriological etiology of hospitalized acute exacerbations of COPD requiring hospitalization in consecutive two years. Methods. We aimed to determine the bacteriological etiology underlying in patients whom admitted to Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Medicine and hospitalized with AECOPD in the last two years. Medical records ...

  15. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author)

  16. Compound list: aspirin [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aspirin ASA 00014 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aspirin....Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/aspirin....Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aspirin....Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/aspirin.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  17. Do females behave differently in COPD exacerbation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilic H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hatice Kilic,1 Nurdan Kokturk,2 Gulcin Sari,3 Mustafa Cakir41Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, School of Medicine, Gazi University School of Medicine, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Dr. Nafiz Körez Sincan Devlet Hastanesi, 4Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, TurkeyIntroduction: Little is known about whether there is any sex effect on chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD exacerbations. This study is intended to describe the possible sex-associated differences in exacerbation profile in COPD patients.Methods: A total of 384 COPD patients who were hospitalized due to exacerbation were evaluated retrospectively for their demographics and previous and current exacerbation characteristics.Results: The study was conducted on 109 (28% female patients and 275 (72% male patients. The mean age was 68.30±10.46 years. Although females had better forced expiratory volume in 1 second and near-normal forced vital capacity, they had much impaired arterial blood gas levels (partial oxygen pressure [PO2] was 36.28 mmHg vs 57.93 mmHg; partial carbon dioxide pressure [PCO2] was 45.97 mmHg vs 42.49 mmHg; P=0.001, indicating severe exacerbation with respiratory failure. More females had two exacerbations and two hospitalizations, while more men had one exacerbation and one hospitalization. Low adherence to treatment and pulmonary embolism were more frequent in females. Females had longer time from the onset of symptoms till the admission and longer hospitalization duration than males. Comorbidities were less in number and different in women (P<0.05. Women were undertreated and using more oral corticosteroids.Conclusion: Current data showed that female COPD patients might be more prone to have severe exacerbations, a higher number of hospitalizations, and prolonged length of stay for hospitalization. They have a different comorbidity

  18. Virus Infection-Induced Bronchial Asthma Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuo Yamaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory viruses, including rhinoviruses, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus, exacerbates asthma, which is associated with processes such as airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion. In patients with viral infections and with infection-induced asthma exacerbation, inflammatory mediators and substances, including interleukins (ILs, leukotrienes and histamine, have been identified in the airway secretions, serum, plasma, and urine. Viral infections induce an accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airway mucosa and submucosa, including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Viral infections also enhance the production of inflammatory mediators and substances in airway epithelial cells, mast cells, and other inflammatory cells, such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, RANTES, histamine, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Viral infections affect the barrier function of the airway epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Recent reports have demonstrated augmented viral production mediated by an impaired interferon response in the airway epithelial cells of asthma patients. Several drugs used for the treatment of bronchial asthma reduce viral and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from airway epithelial cells infected with viruses. Here, I review the literature on the pathogenesis of the viral infection-induced exacerbation of asthma and on the modulation of viral infection-induced airway inflammation.

  19. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. PMID:26711092

  20. COPD exacerbations · 3: Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, D. E.; Parker, C M

    2006-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The effective management of COPD exacerbations awaits a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms that shape its clinical expression. The clinical presentation of exacerbations of COPD is highly variable and ranges from episodic symptomatic deterioration that is poorly responsive to usual treatment, to devastating life threatening events. This undersc...

  1. Antithrombotic properties of aspirin and resistance to aspirin: beyond strictly antiplatelet actions

    OpenAIRE

    Undas, Anetta; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The primary established effect of aspirin on hemostasis is to impair platelet aggregation via inhibition of platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis, thus reducing thrombus formation on the surface of the damaged arterial wall. Growing evidence also indicates that aspirin exerts additional antithrombotic effects, which appear to some extent unrelated to platelet thromboxane A2 production. Aspirin can reduce thromb...

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms in low-dose aspirin users: a comparison between plain and buffered aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspers Focks, J.; Tielemans, M.M.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Eikendal, T.; Brouwer, M.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Verheugt, F W A; van Oijen, M.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspirin is associated with gastrointestinal side effects such as gastric ulcers, gastric bleeding and dyspepsia. High-dose effervescent calcium carbasalate (ECC), a buffered formulation of aspirin, is associated with reduced gastric toxicity compared with plain aspirin in healthy volunteers, but at lower cardiovascular doses no beneficial effects were observed. Aim To compare the prevalence of self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms between low-dose plain aspirin and ECC. Methods A...

  3. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The Basics Overview Benefits ... and Risks What are the benefits of taking aspirin daily? Aspirin can reduce your risk of heart ...

  4. A regimen for low-dose aspirin?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanley, S. P.; Bevan, J.; Cockbill, S. R.; Heptinstall, S

    1982-01-01

    The effects of different regimens of 40 mg aspirin on platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis and vascular prostacyclin synthesis were determined in patients who were undergoing elective surgery for removal of varicose veins. Aspirin 40 mg taken at intervals of 48 hours consistently reduced platelet thromboxane A2 synthesis to a level at which it failed to support platelet aggregation and the associated release reaction. This effect lasted for at least 36 hours. In contrast, aspirin 40 mg every 72 ...

  5. Aspirin and tension-type headache

    OpenAIRE

    Farinelli, I.; Martelletti, P.

    2007-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, Aspirin) is among the most used drugs worldwide. At present, Aspirin represents a quite versatile drug employed in the control of pain symptomatologies and in situations such as prevention of both ischaemic stroke and cardiovascular events. Aspirin causes inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis by inactivation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. ASA constitutes the focus of new researches explaining more widely Aspirin’s control of inflammation. The induction of ...

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation frequency and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Stafyla, Eirini

    2013-01-01

    Eirini Stafyla, Theodora Kerenidi, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, GreeceWe read with great interest the original work by Motegi et al1 comparing three multidimensional assessment systems – BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index, DOSE (dyspnea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbations) index and ADO (age, dyspnea, obstruction) index – ...

  7. An evaluation of different doses of soluble aspirin and aspirin tablets in postoperative dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, I S; Seymour, R A; Ward-Booth, R P; Ord, R A; Lim, K L; Hoare, R C

    1988-01-01

    1. The efficacy of three different single doses (600, 900 and 1200 mg of soluble aspirin and aspirin tablets) was determined in a randomized placebo-controlled parallel study in 140 patients (70 females) with postoperative pain after removal of impacted third molars. 2. Patients treated with soluble aspirin 600 mg, 900 mg, 1200 mg and aspirin tablet 1200 mg reported significantly less pain (P less than 0.01) throughout the investigation period than those treated with placebo. 3. Overall pain scores after treatment with aspirin tablets 600 and 900 mg did not differ significantly from those after treatment with placebo (P greater than 0.05). 4. On a comparative dose basis, soluble aspirin was significantly more potent (P less than 0.05) than aspirin tablets. PMID:3190996

  8. The importance of bacterial and viral infections associated with adult asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyasu Iikura

    Full Text Available Viral infection is one of the risk factors for asthma exacerbation. However, which pathogens are related to asthma exacerbation in adults remains unclear.The relation between various infections and adult asthma exacerbations was investigated in clinical practice.The study subjects included 50 adult inpatients due to asthma exacerbations and 20 stable outpatients for comparison. The pathogens from a nasopharyngeal swab were measured by multiplex PCR analysis.Asthma exacerbations occurred after a common cold in 48 inpatients. The numbers of patients with viral, bacterial, or both infections were 16, 9, and 9, respectively. The dominant viruses were rhinoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and metapneumovirus. The major bacteria were S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Compared to pathogen-free patients, the patients with pathogens were older and non-atopic and had later onset of disease, lower FeNO levels, lower IgE titers, and a higher incidence of comorbid sinusitis, COPD, or pneumonia. Compared to stable outpatients, asthma exacerbation inpatients had a higher incidence of smoking and comorbid sinusitis, COPD, or pneumonia. Viruses were detected in 50% of stable outpatients, but a higher incidence of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus infections was observed in asthma exacerbation inpatients. H. influenzae was observed in stable asthmatic patients. Other bacteria, especially S. pneumoniae, were important in asthma exacerbation inpatients.Viral or bacterial infections were observed in 70% of inpatients with an asthma exacerbation in clinical practice. Infection with S. pneumoniae was related to adult asthma exacerbation.

  9. Aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. METHODS: Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10,010...

  10. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choksi Krishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate could not show significant anti-inflammatory activity on their own in acute as well as subacute inflammation models. Aspirin at sub-anti-inflammatory dose (50mg/Kg when co-administered along with calcium salts produced the significant anti-inflammatory response which was comparable to anti-inflammatory response of aspirin at therapeutic dose (200mg/Kg. Also co-adminostration minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.

  11. Effect of Bi-level positive airway pressure combined with vibration spu-tum elimination in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation complicated with respiratory failure%BiPAP联合振动排痰治疗AECOPD合并呼吸衰竭的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海泉; 赵杰; 王海清; 徐俊马; 杜永亮; 李慧婷

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨无创双水平气道正压通气联合振动排痰治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并呼吸衰竭的临床效果。方法将40例患者随机分为A组与B组各20例。 A组患者采用无创双水平正压通气联合振动排痰进行治疗,B组患者仅使用无创双水平正压通气治疗,观察两组的治疗效果。结果 A组患者的PaCO2较B组下降快(P<0.05),呼吸支持时间及住院时间亦明显缩短(P<0.05),气管插管率较B组低(P<0.05)。结论无创正压通气联合振动排痰对治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并呼衰的患者具有明显优势,值得临床推广。%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) combined with vibration sputum elimination in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute exacerbation (AECOPD) com-plicated with respiratory failure. Methods 40 cases of patients with respiratory failure were randomly divided into group A (20 cases) and group B (20 cases).The patients in group A were received noninvasive BiPAP ventilation and vibration sputum elimination.The patients in group B were treated with BiPAP ventilation only.Clinical effect in two groups were observed. Results After treatment,PaCO2 changed more significantly in group A than that in group B .The patients in group A had a significantly shorter duration of respiratory support than group B (P<0.05).The respiratory support time and hospital stay of group A was shorter than that of group B (P<0.05).The rate of endotracheal intubation of group A was lower than that of group B (P<0.05). Conclusion BiPAP combined with vibration sputum elimination in treatment of AECOPD complicated with respiratory failure has good curative effect and it is worth promoting.

  12. Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat MF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MF Barakat,1 HI McDonald,1 TJ Collier,1 L Smeeth,1 D Nitsch,1 JK Quint1,2 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: While acute kidney injury (AKI alone is associated with increased mortality, the incidence of hospital admission with AKI among stable and exacerbating COPD patients and the effect of concurrent AKI at COPD exacerbation on mortality is not known.Methods: A total of 189,561 individuals with COPD were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Using Poisson and logistic regressions, we explored which factors predicted admission for AKI (identified in Hospital Episode Statistics in this COPD cohort and concomitant AKI at a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. Using survival analysis, we investigated the effect of concurrent AKI at exacerbation on mortality (n=36,107 and identified confounding factors.Results: The incidence of AKI in the total COPD cohort was 128/100,000 person-years. The prevalence of concomitant AKI at exacerbation was 1.9%, and the mortality rate in patients with AKI at exacerbation was 521/1,000 person-years. Male sex, older age, and lower glomerular filtration rate predicted higher risk of AKI or death. There was a 1.80 fold (95% confidence interval: 1.61, 2.03 increase in adjusted mortality within the first 6 months post COPD exacerbation in patients suffering from AKI and COPD exacerbation compared to those who were AKI free.Conclusion: In comparison to previous studies on general populations and hospitalizations, the incidence and prevalence of AKI is relatively high in COPD patients. Coexisting AKI at exacerbation is prognostic of poor outcome. Keywords: acute renal failure, mortality, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, prognosis

  13. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill SE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon E Brill, Jadwiga A Wedzicha Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK Abstract: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the history of this debilitating lung condition. Associated health care utilization and morbidity are high, and many patients require supplemental oxygen or ventilatory support. The last 2 decades have seen a substantial increase in our understanding of the best way to manage the respiratory failure suffered by many patients during this high-risk period. This review article examines the evidence underlying supplemental oxygen therapy during exacerbations of COPD. We first discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of respiratory failure in COPD during exacerbations. The rationale and evidence underlying oxygen therapy, including the risks when administered inappropriately, are then discussed, along with further strategies for ventilatory support. We also review current recommendations for best practice, including methods for improving oxygen provision in the future. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, exacerbation, oxygen therapy, respiratory failure, hypercapnia

  14. Effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Moir, A A; Stevens, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow was investigated by rhinomanometry in 25 healthy subjects before and after ingestion of aspirin or vitamin C in a double blind crossover trial. Aspirin caused a significant increase in nasal resistance compared with vitamin C. The effect of aspirin may be due to its inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.

  15. Defining moderate asthma exacerbations in clinical trials based on ATS/ERS joint statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; de Blay, Frédéric;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exacerbations are a key outcome in clinical research, providing patient-relevant information about symptomatic control, health state and disease progression. Generally considered as an episode of (sub)acute deterioration of respiratory symptoms, a precise, clinically useful definition...... al. (2009) [1] which provides a conceptual (or 'theoretical') definition for moderate exacerbations, to an operational (or 'practical') criterion suitable for use in clinical research. RESULTS: The proposed definition for a moderate exacerbation requires ≥1 of the following criteria combined with a...... exacerbations is needed. The proposed definition has been endorsed by the EMA Scientific Advice Working Party in 2011and needs to be trialled in forthcoming clinical studies....

  16. COPD exacerbations · 1: Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, G C; Wedzicha, J A

    2006-01-01

    The epidemiology of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is reviewed with particular reference to the definition, frequency, time course, natural history and seasonality, and their relationship with decline in lung function, disease severity and mortality. The importance of distinguishing between recurrent and relapsed exacerbations is discussed.

  17. Aspirin and cancer: has aspirin been overlooked as an adjuvant therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, R E; Burdett, S.; Tierney, J F; Cafferty, F; Parmar, M K B; Venning, G

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase (Cox), and there is a significant body of epidemiological evidence demonstrating that regular aspirin use is associated with a decreased incidence of developing cancer. Interest focussed on selective Cox-2 inhibitors both as cancer prevention agents and as therapeutic agents in patients with proven malignancy until concerns were raised about their toxicity profile. Aspirin has several additional mechanisms of action that may contribute to its anti-ca...

  18. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have or have ever had asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose, or nasal polyps (growths on the linings of the nose). If you have these conditions, there is a risk that you will have ... ulcers, anemia, bleeding problems such as hemophilia, or kidney or liver ...

  19. Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LIBRARY Hello, Guest! My alerts Sign In Join Facebook Twitter Home About this Journal Editorial Board General Statistics Circulation Cover Doodle → Blip the Doodle Go Red For Women's Issue Information for Advertisers Author Reprints Commercial Reprints Customer Service and Ordering ...

  20. Tolerabilidad de Aspirina Aspirin tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Moreno-Brea

    2005-09-01

    ácter atero-trombótico. El síndrome de Reye es un cuadro de rara presentación, pero de graves consecuencias, que contraindica el uso de Aspirina en niños o adolescentes con fiebre o ciertas infecciones virales. Dada la extensa utilización de Aspirina, puede ser considerado un fármaco bien tolerado en general, cuyas reacciones adversas más graves deben ser objeto de una especial farmacovigilancia, prestando especial atención a la población de mayor riesgo. Esta situación aconseja, asimismo, la puesta en marcha de programas de educación sanitaria sobre el uso de los analgésicos. En todo caso, Aspirina sigue siendo un fármaco de referencia con una importante potencialidad terapéutica derivada de los beneficios inherentes a su uso.The acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is a widely used drug worldwide, both as prescription and over-the-counter products, and both as the only active drug or associated to other drugs in fixed doses. It is used either occasionally for the management of acute symptomatic conditions, or continuously in prophylactic anti-thrombotic regimes. Its profile of adverse reactions and potential interactions with other drugs makes it very important to have a well-tolerated and safe substance. Both things are particularly relevant when the population exposed to this drug has reached a certain age, since its specific features may increase its susceptibility to side effects and complications. Aspirin shares the general profile of adverse reactions of the NSAIs and it is considered as its prototype. When acutely administered, the incidence of side effects, most of them light, are the same as with other analgesics. Gastrointestinal effects are the most frequent of all and several risk factors have been identify for the development of severe gastrointestinal complications. These risk factors must be considered along with the need to take prophylactic measures in order to reduce the morbi-mortality. In recent years, special attention has been devoted to

  1. Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings K

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78. Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.

  2. CALCIUM ENHANCES ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    Choksi Krishna; Shenoy Ashoka M; A. R. Shabharaya; Lala Minaxi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation and to study their possible interactions with Aspirin. Calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) were administered individually and also co-administered along with sub therapeutic dose Aspirin (50mg/kg) to study their interaction. The inflammation was induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate cou...

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation frequency and severity

    OpenAIRE

    Stafyla E; Kerenidi T; Gourgoulianis KI

    2013-01-01

    Eirini Stafyla, Theodora Kerenidi, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, GreeceWe read with great interest the original work by Motegi et al1 comparing three multidimensional assessment systems – BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) index, DOSE (dyspnea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbations) index and ADO (age, dyspnea, obstruction) index – for pred...

  4. Clinical research of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in patients with conscious disturbance due to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with respiratory failure%无创机械通气治疗伴意识障碍AECOPD呼吸衰竭患者的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 孙开宇; 曹洁; 陈宝元

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨无创机械通气救治伴有意识障碍慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)呼吸衰竭患者成功的相关因素.方法 AECOPD伴有意识障碍的重症呼吸衰竭患者54例,接受BiPAP呼吸机治疗.按照治疗效果分为成功组和失败组,比较两组患者各项指标及变化,进行Logistic回归分析,寻找无创通气成功的相关因素.结果 NIPPV失败组患者稳定期FEV1%pred较高,PaCO2值较低,治疗后GCS评分较低,pH值较低,PaCO2较高,均较NIPPV成功组明显.Logistic回归分析提示,治疗后GCS评分NIPPV后期失败有显著影响.结论 治疗后GCS评分是NIPPV治疗伴有意识障碍AECOPD呼吸衰竭患者成功的相关因素.%Objective To investigate the factors related to the success of noninvasive ventilation in the treatment of conscious disturbance due to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated with respiratory failure.Methods Fifty-four patients with conscious disturbance due to AECOPD complicated with respiratory failure were selected in the study,that treated by BiPAP ventilation.They were divided into effective group and failure group according to the curative effect,clinical and physiological parameters were analyzed comparatively between two groups,multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictive factors of the success in noninvasive ventilation.Results In stable phase,FEV1 % predicted was higher,PaCO2 values was lower significantly in patients in NIPPV failure group who also had a lower GCS compared with NIPPV success group.Multi-variable logistic analysis suggests statistical significance in GCS after 2 h ventilation.Conclusions The failure of NIPPV in patients with conscious disturbance due to AECOPD complicated with respiratory failure was influenced by GCS after 2 h ventilation.

  5. COPD exacerbations, inflammation and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bathoorn, Derk

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations into the inflammation in COPD, and its treatment. Inflammation in COPD is a central factor in the onset of the disease and its progression. During acute deteriorations of the disease, exacerbations, the inflammation is more severe, and depending on the cause of the exacerbation, it has a different pattern. To date, it has been difficult to efficiently suppress this inflammation, and the anti-inflammatory treatment currently so far has considerable side eff...

  6. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mastalerz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2 or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs. At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity.

  7. AECOPD呼吸衰竭患者无创正压通气治疗效果的相关因素分析%Analysis on relevant factors of the result of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 曹洁; 陈宝元

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors related to the failure of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation(NIPPV) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and typeⅡ respiratory failure. Methods One hundred and seventy six AECOPD patients with hypercapnia respiratory failure treated by BiPAP ventilation were enrolled and were divided into effective group and failure group according to the curative effect ,clinical and physiological parameters were analyzed comparatively between two groups, multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to find the predictive factors of the failure in noninvasive ventilation. Results In stable phase, FEV1%predicted was higher,PaCO2 values was lower significantly in patients in NIPPV failure group who also had a lower GCS, lower albumin and BMI, higher APACHE Ⅱ on admission compared with NIPPV success group. Multi-variable logistic analysis suggests statistical significance in GCS and APACHE Ⅱ on admission. Conclusions The failure of NIPPV in patients with AECOPD and type Ⅱ respiratory faliure was influenced by GCS and APACHEⅡ on admission.%目的 探讨应用无创正压通气(noninvasive positive pressure ventilation,NIPPV)救治慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重(acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,AECOPD)并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭失败的相关因素.方法 选取176例AECOPD并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的患者接受无创双水平气道内正压呼吸机治疗.按照治疗效果分为成功组和失败组,比较两组患者各项指标及变化,进行Logistic回归分析,寻找无创通气失败的相关因素.结果 NIPPV失败组患者稳定期FEV1%预计值较高,PaCO2值较低,治疗之前GCS评分较低,白蛋白及体质量指数较低,急性生理学和慢性健康状况评分Ⅱ(APACHEⅡ)较高,与NIPPV成功组比较差异有显著性意义.Logistic回归分析提示,治疗前格拉斯哥昏迷评分(GCS)及APACHE Ⅱ评分对NIPPV后期

  8. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search navigation Find an Allergist / Immunologist Search Your Symptoms Ask the ... April 2, 2014 Cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke have long been known to exacerbate respiratory ...

  9. Incidence and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation with and without pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mette Søgaard,1 Morten Madsen,1 Anders Løkke,2 Ole Hilberg,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Reimar W Thomsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark Background: Pneumonia may be a major contributor to hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbation and influence their outcomes.Methods: We examined hospitalization rates, health resource utilization, 30-day mortality, and risk of subsequent hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations with and without pneumonia in Denmark during 2006–2012.Results: We identified 179,759 hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations, including 52,520 first-time hospitalizations (29.2%. Pneumonia was frequent in first-time exacerbations (36.1%, but declined in successive exacerbations to 25.6% by the seventh or greater exacerbation. Pneumonic COPD exacerbations increased 20% from 0.92 per 1,000 population in 2006 to 1.10 per 1,000 population in 2012. Nonpneumonic exacerbations decreased by 6% from 1.74 per 1,000 population to 1.63 per 1,000 population during the same period. A number of markers of health resource utilization were more prevalent in pneumonic exacerbations than in nonpneumonic exacerbations: length of stay (median 7 vs 4 days, intensive care unit admission (7.7% vs 12.5%, and several acute procedures. Thirty-day mortality was 12.1% in first-time pneumonic COPD exacerbations versus 8.3% in first-time nonpneumonic cases (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.24. Pneumonia also predicted increased mortality associated with a second exacerbation (aHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11–1.18, and up to a seventh or greater exacerbation (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07–1.13. In contrast, the aHR of a subsequent exacerbation was 8%–13% lower for patients with pneumonic exacerbations.Conclusions: Pneumonia is frequent among patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations and is associated with increased health care

  10. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  11. Comparative effect of clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on hematological parameters using propensity score matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayasaka M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Hayasaka,1 Yasuo Takahashi,2 Yayoi Nishida,2 Yoshikazu Yoshida,1 Shinji Hidaka,3 Satoshi Asai41Department of Pharmacy, Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, Tokyo, 2Division of Genomic Epidemiology and Clinical Trials, Clinical Trials Research Center, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Chiba, 4Division of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Clopidogrel and aspirin are antiplatelet agents that are recommended to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other cardiovascular events. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin has been shown to increase the risk of hemorrhage, but the effects of the drugs on laboratory parameters have not been well studied in real-world clinical settings. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the effects of combination therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin and aspirin monotherapy on laboratory parameters.Methods: We used data from the Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse obtained between November 2004 and May 2011 to identify cohorts of new users (n = 130 of clopidogrel (75 mg/day plus aspirin (100 mg/day and a propensity score matched sample of new users (n = 130 of aspirin alone (100 mg/day. We used a multivariate regression model to compare serum levels of creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as hematological parameters including hemoglobin level, hematocrit, and white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts up to 2 months after the start of administration of the study drugs.Results: There were no significant differences for any characteristics and baseline laboratory parameters between users of clopidogrel plus aspirin and users of aspirin alone. Reductions in white blood cell and red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, and

  12. Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  13. Aspirin, cyclooxygenase inhibition and colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; Sostres; Carla; Jerusalen; Gargallo; Angel; Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer(CRC)is the third most common type of cancer worldwide.Screening measures are far from adequate and not widely available in resourcepoor settings.Primary prevention strategies therefore remain necessary to reduce the risk of developing CRC.Increasing evidence from epidemiological studies,randomized clinical trials and basic science supports the effectiveness of aspirin,as well as other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,for chemoprevention of several types of cancer,including CRC.This includes the prevention of adenoma recurrence and reduction of CRC incidence and mortality.The detectable benefit of daily low-dose aspirin(at least 75 mg),as used to prevent cardiovascular disease events,strongly suggests that its antiplatelet action is central to explaining its antitumor efficacy.Daily low-dose aspirin achieves complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase(COX)-1 in platelets(in pre-systemic circulation)while causing alimited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells.Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation(about 20 minutes);nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize acetylated COX isozymes within a few hours,while platelets do not.COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin have been suggested to explain its chemopreventive effects but this concept remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses.

  14. Molecular targets of aspirin and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L; Ai, G; Spitale, R C; Bhat, G J

    2014-07-01

    Salicylates from plant sources have been used for centuries by different cultures to treat a variety of ailments such as inflammation, fever and pain. A chemical derivative of salicylic acid, aspirin, was synthesised and mass produced by the end of the 19th century and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Its cardioprotective properties are well established; however, recent evidence shows that it can also act as a chemopreventive agent. Its antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions occur through the inhibition of cyclooxygenases. The precise mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are not clearly established, although multiple mechanisms affecting enzyme activity, transcription factors, cellular signalling and mitochondrial functions have been proposed. This review presents a brief account of the major COX-dependent and independent pathways described in connection with aspirin's anticancer effects. Aspirin's unique ability to acetylate biomolecules besides COX has not been thoroughly investigated nor have all the targets of its primary metabolite, salicylic acid been identified. Recent reports on the ability of aspirin to acetylate multiple cellular proteins warrant a comprehensive study to investigate the role of this posttranslational modification in its anticancer effects. In this review, we also raise the intriguing possibility that aspirin may interact and acetylate cellular molecules such as RNA, and metabolites such as CoA, leading to a change in their function. Research in this area will provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms of action of this drug. PMID:24874482

  15. Aspirin and colorectal cancer: Back to the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tougeron, David; Sha, Dan; Manthravadi, Sashidhar; Sinicrope, Frank A

    2013-01-01

    Abundant epidemiological evidence indicates that regular and long term use of aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). The long duration of aspirin needed to prevent CRC is believed to be due to inhibition of precursor lesions known as adenomas, whose recurrence is inhibited by aspirin in randomized trials. Aspirin intake has also been associated with a statistically significant improvement in patient survival after curative resection of ...

  16. Review of ventilatory techniques to optimize mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Raghu M.; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha K.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global healthcare problem. Studies vary widely in the reported frequency of mechanical ventilation in acute exacerbations of COPD. Invasive intubation and mechanical ventilation may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the airway pathophysiology and lung mechanics in COPD is necessary to appropriately manage acute exacerbations and respiratory failure. The basic pathophysiology in COPD exacerbat...

  17. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive...... care unit and longer postpartum hospital stay. Asthma has been associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, small-for-gestational age, low birth weight, infant hypoglycaemia and preterm birth, but more recent prospective studies have not revealed significant associations with...

  18. 21 CFR 520.1409 - Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. 520.1409... Methylprednisolone, aspirin tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.5 milligram of methylprednisolone and 300 milligrams of aspirin. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000009 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c)...

  19. BiPAP plus vibrating sputum-ejection for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with type Ⅱ respiratory failure%双水平气道正压通气联合振动排痰在AECOPD并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林增锐; 黄泽宽; 林武强

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨双水平气道正压通气(BiPAP)结合振动排痰在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的临床应用价值.方法 30例AECOPD患者随机分为对照组和联合组,对照组予双水平气道正压通气辅助呼吸治疗;联合组在对照组治疗基础上联合 振动排痰.结果两组患者治疗后的HR、RR、pH、PaO2、PACO2有明显改善,有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗1天后,联合组有8例患者的PaCO2降至50mmHg以下,对照组无一例;治疗3天后,联合组有10例患者PaCO2降至50 mmHg以下,对照组有6例,联合组的例数仍较多,联合组的患者其HR、RR、pH、PaO2、PaCO2的改善显著优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 双水平气道正压通气结合振动排痰治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者疗效肯定,有临床应用价值.%Objective To explore the values of bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation (BiPAP)combined with vibrating sputum-ejection for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD)with type Ⅱ respiratory failure.Methods 30 patients were randomly assigned to receive BiPAP alone(control group),or BiPAP plus vibrating sputum-ejection(combination group).Results HR,RR,pH,PaO2,and PaCO2 were obviously improved in the two groups after treatment,with statistical significances(P<0.01). PaCO2 decreased below 50 mmHg in 8 patients in the combination group ore clay after treatment while stayed still in the control group; and it dropped below 50 mmHg in 10 patients in the combination group three days after treatment but stayed unchanged in 6 patients in the control group.the improvement of HR,RR,pH,PaO2,and PaCO2 in the combination group was obviously superior to that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusions Bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation combined with vibrating sputum-ejection is more effeetive in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with type

  20. An experimental model of rhinovirus induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallia Patrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exacerbations of COPD are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and hospitalisation. Respiratory viruses are associated with the majority of exacerbations but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated and the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations are poorly understood. Development of a human experimental model would provide evidence of causation and would greatly facilitate understanding mechanisms, but no such model exists. Methods We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of developing an experimental model of rhinovirus induced COPD exacerbations and to assess safety of rhinovirus infection in COPD patients. We carried out a pilot virus dose escalating study to assess the minimum dose of rhinovirus 16 required to induce experimental rhinovirus infection in subjects with COPD (GOLD stage II. Outcomes were assessed by monitoring of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms, lung function, and virus replication and inflammatory responses in nasal lavage. Results All 4 subjects developed symptomatic colds with the lowest dose of virus tested, associated with evidence of viral replication and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nasal lavage. These were accompanied by significant increases in lower respiratory tract symptoms and reductions in PEF and FEV1. There were no severe exacerbations or other adverse events. Conclusion Low dose experimental rhinovirus infection in patients with COPD induces symptoms and lung function changes typical of an acute exacerbation of COPD, appears safe, and provides preliminary evidence of causation.

  1. [Milestones of cardivascular pharmacotherapy: salicylates and aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerie, P

    2006-01-01

    The analgesic and antipyretic effect of the bark of willow has been known in Egypt and Greece for canturies. The modem era of salicylates starts with a letter sent 1758 by Reverend Edward Stone to The Royal Society in London. He described "an account of the success of the bark of willow in the cure of agues". His report. erroneously attributed to Edmond Stone. was published five years later. The active ingredient of willow bark. "salicine". was first isolated 1828 by Joseph Buchner, then by Henri Leroux, and also prepared from the oil of wintergreen (Gaultheria) and meadowsweet (Spirea ulmaria) by J. W. Lowig 1833. and called "Spirsäure", which was already pure acetylsalicylic acid. It was also synthetised 1853 by Ch. Gerhardt and finally 1897 in Bayer's laboratoires by Felix Hoffman, who also demonstrated its antiinflammatory efficacy. After two years of clinical trials with low doses, Bayer's management decided to start the productions and launched Aspirin as an analgetic worldwide in summer 1899. The first ASPIRIN ERA bagun. A completely new epoch started when J. N. Vane and Priscilla Piner demonstrated 1971 that the main mechanism of action of aspirin-like drugs is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. In later studies the potency to inhibit platelet aggregation with small doses of aspirin (30-125 mg) was demonstrated. The Physicians'Health Study 1988 confirmed this effect: aspirin significantly reduced the risk of both, fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. and is now used in primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. However the idea was not new: The use of salicylates and aspirin was throughly discussed more than 50 years ago: Paul C. Gibson published 1949 a well-documented case report on efficacy of aspirin in patients with angina, and Kl. Weber and P. Klein in Prague used Gibson's mixture successfully for patients with acute myocardial infarction (1951). Recently, the efficacy and security, the interactions and side-effects of low

  2. Clopidogrel: A possible exacerbating factor for psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old man developed palmoplantar pustulosis eventuating into palmoplantar pustular psoriasis following treatment with diltiazem, atenolol, aspirin and atorvastatin for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD. Treatment for psoriasis, stopping atenolol and substituting aspirin with clopidogrel did not benefit. Subsequently, he stopped all his drugs and did not develop psoriasis or symptoms/signs of CAD. Re-challenge with oral clopidogrel precipitated his skin lesions. This case has implications for patients having psoriasis and cardiovascular comorbidity where clopidogrel/ticlopidine or aspirin may not be a useful alternative.

  3. Aspirin and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: bedside to bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Cheng Rui; Zhang Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on clinical results of aspirin's chemopreventive effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and evidences for mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in experimental research.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as aspirin and esophageal cancer.Study selection Articles associated with aspirin and esophageal cancer are analyzed.Results This review focuses on the current evidence for use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent in ESCC.Aspirin is the most widely used among all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),which is cheap and acceptable to patients.Several observational results provide the further investigation of prevention and therapy of aspirin or similar drugs in esophageal cancer.Data from case control studies,cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) also give some support of a beneficial role of aspirin on ESCC.Experimental data suggest that aspirin may prevent carcinogenesis of ESCC by favorably affecting proliferation,apoptosis,or other as yet unidentified growth-regulating processes.But the mechanism by which aspirin influence on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.Conclusion A wealth of evidences ranging from clinical data to experimental results are building to suggest that aspirin has significant effects in reducing both the incidence and mortality of ESCC.

  4. Aspirin metabolism and efficacy in postoperative dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, R A; Williams, F M; Ward, A; Rawlins, M D

    1984-01-01

    Aspirin 1200 mg was compared with placebo in a randomised, double-blind, crossover study in 15 patients with postoperative pain after removal of impacted lower third molars. Over a 5 h investigation period, patients reported significantly less pain (P less than 0.01) after treatment with aspirin, than after treatment with placebo. Peak concentrations of aspirin occurred at 15 min after dosage. Significant negative correlations were observed between plasma aspirin esterase activity and both AUC aspirin (r = -0.904, P less than 0.001) and AUC analgesia (r = -0.91, P less than 0.001). Similarly, a significant correlation was observed between AUC aspirin and AUC analgesia (r = 0.96, P less than 0.001). Evidence from this study would suggest that an individual's pain relief in postoperative dental pain is determined by the rate of aspirin hydrolysis to salicylate. PMID:6378231

  5. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  6. The role of viral infections in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Richard; Farne, Hugo; Ritchie, Andrew; Luke, Emma; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major causes of global morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical course of both asthma and COPD are punctuated by the occurrence of exacerbations, acute events characterized by increased symptoms and airflow obstruction. Exacerbations contribute most of the morbidity, mortality and excess healthcare costs associated with both asthma and COPD. COPD and asthma exacerbations are frequently associated with respiratory virus infections and this has led to an intense research focus into the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbations over the past decade. Current therapies are effective in reducing chronic symptoms but are less effective in preventing exacerbations, particularly in COPD. Understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced exacerbation will lead to the development of new targeted therapies that can reduce the burden of virus-induced exacerbations. In this review we discuss current knowledge of virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and COPD with a particular focus on mechanisms, human studies, virus-bacteria interactions and therapeutic advances. PMID:26611907

  7. Moxifloxacin in the management of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Miravitlles, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria are isolated in more than 50% of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The most prevalent respiratory pathogens include Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis) microorganims. Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including atypicals and those resistant to most common antibiotics. The bi...

  8. Infection Feature and Drug Resistance of Bacteria of Inferior Respiratory Tract in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Guiyang of China%贵阳地区慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期下呼吸道细菌感染特征和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠; 王燕; 蔡翠; 龙海; 张娟; 查小芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infective bacteria of inferior respiratory tract by analyzing sputum and secretion from inferior respiratory tract in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ) in Guiyang of China, and to provide evidence for clinical therapy. Methods Sputum and secretion of inferior respiratory tract of 254 patients with AECOPD admitted in our hospital from 1 April 2009 to 30 April 2010 in Guiyang were cultured and drug sensitivity tests were conducted, with one or more strains of bacteria being cultured. Results Positive sputum and secretion of inferior respiratory tract culture were found in 215 ( 84. 65% ) patients with AECOPD, and 516 strains of pathogenic bacteria were cultured. Among these bacteria, the six main pathogenic bacteria were 305 (59. 11% ) strains of moraxella catarrhalis, 108 ( 20. 93% ) strains of streptococus viridans, 22 ( 4. 26% ) strains escherichia coli, 14 ( 2. 71% ) strains of enteroaerogen, 14 ( 2. 71% ) strains of klebsie pneumoniae and 11 ( 2. 13% ) strains of hafnia alvei. There were single infective bacteria in 154 patients with AECOPD and mixing infective bacteria in 61 patients with AECOPD. Single infective bacteria were the mainly influence factors for the severity of AECOPD. Single infective bacteria and mixing infective bacteria both showed linear regression correlation with the severity of AECOPD. The same bacterial isolates were founded many times in sputum cultures, but the drug resistances of these outcomes were not the same in 60 patients with AECOPD. Six main types of pathogenic bacteria had more drug resistance ( moraxella catarrhalis et al ) to penicillin, ampicillin, erythromycin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Most of the gram-negative bacillus had low drug resistance to cephalosporins. The positive sputum germiculture was positively correlated with the severity of heart function of corpulmonale. Conclusion The moraxella catarrhalis and treptococus

  9. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  10. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanWormer JJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention in some European populations, but the degree to which aspirin is overutilized in the US remains unknown. This study examined the association between regular aspirin use and demographic/clinical factors in a population-based sample of adults without a clinical indication for aspirin for primary prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using 2010–2012 data from individuals aged 30–79 years in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (WI, USA. Regular aspirin users included those who took aspirin at least every other day.Results: There were 16,922 individuals who were not clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary CVD prevention. Of these, 19% were regular aspirin users. In the final adjusted model, participants who were older, male, lived in northern Wisconsin, had more frequent medical visits, and had greater body mass index had significantly higher odds of regular aspirin use (P<0.001 for all. Race/ethnicity, health insurance, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels had negligible influence on aspirin use. A sensitivity analysis found a significant interaction between age and number of medical visits, indicating progressively more aspirin use in older age groups who visited their provider frequently.Conclusion: There was evidence of aspirin overutilization in this US population without CVD. Older age and more frequent provider visits were the strongest predictors of inappropriate aspirin use. Obesity was the only significant

  11. Formulation and evaluation of novel aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Sankar V.; Dhachinamoorthi D.; Chandra Shekar K.B.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the present work is to design aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories which will reduce the side effects caused by aspirin suppositories.Aspirin nanoparticles were prepared initially based on ionic-gelation mechanism and lyophilized.The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated,and the results confirmed that Fa9 formulation was the best with greater drug entrapment efficiency.Aspirin suppositories were prepared in order to investigate the best base composition.The prepared suppositories were evaluated and FS1,FS3,FS4,FS8,FS11,and FS12 were proved to be the best base compositions based on dissolution performed.The lyophilized aspirin nanoparticles of Fa9 were used to prepare aspirin nanoparticles loaded suppositories.The in vitro results revealed that Fas 11 was the best formulation.

  12. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz;

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......-group study of patients with asthma exacerbations associated with respiratory infections and minimal symptoms between episodes. Patients were randomized to receive oral montelukast 4 or 5 mg (depending on age) (n = 278) or placebo (n = 271) once per day for 12 months. Caregivers recorded children's symptoms......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2...

  13. Talk With Your Health Care Provider About Taking Aspirin to Prevent Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... q What are my chances of having a heart attack? q Would I benefit from taking aspirin? q ... Health Care Provider About Taking Aspirin to Prevent Heart Attacks Did you know that aspirin can be an ...

  14. Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and Stroke: Know the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Aspirin for Reducing Your Risk of Heart Attack and ... any pharmacy, grocery or convenience store and buy aspirin without a prescription. The Drug Facts label on ...

  15. Aspirin as Primary Prevention of Acute Coronary Heart Disease Events

    OpenAIRE

    Glasser, Stephen P.; Hovater, Martha; Brown, Todd M.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective Aspirin for primary prophylaxis is controversial. This study evaluated associations between prophylactic aspirin use and incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods and Results The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study was accessed for aspirin use examining black and white hazards for incident CHD, for men and women, each adjusting incrementally for sampling, sociodemographics, and CHD risk factors. Stratified models exami...

  16. Interactions of m-xylene and aspirin metabolism in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, L; Wilson, H.K.; Samuel, A. M.; Gompertz, D

    1988-01-01

    In a series of experiments to investigate interactions between industrial solvents and common medications the interaction between m-xylene and aspirin was studied. As both these substances are metabolised and excreted as glycine conjugates there would possibly be competition for this conjugation pathway. Five male volunteers were exposed on separate occasions to m-xylene by inhalation (100 ppm), aspirin (1500 mg) by mouth, and m-xylene and aspirin together under controlled conditions in an ex...

  17. Phospho-Aspirin (MDC-22) Prevents Pancreatic Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheolabakis, George; Papayannis, Ioannis; Yang, Jennifer; Vaeth, Brandon M; Wang, Ruixue; Bandovic, Jela; Ouyang, Nengtai; Rigas, Basil; Mackenzie, Gerardo G

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease with a dismal 5-year survival rate of <6%. The currently limited treatment options for pancreatic cancer underscore the need for novel chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Accumulating evidence indicates that aspirin use is associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, the anticancer properties of aspirin are restricted by its gastrointestinal toxicity and its limited efficacy. Therefore, we developed phospho-aspirin (MDC-22), a novel derivative of aspirin, and evaluated its chemopreventive efficacy in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Phospho-aspirin inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cell lines 8- to 12-fold more potently than aspirin; based on the 24-hour IC50 values. In a Panc-1 xenograft model, phospho-aspirin, at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d 5 times per week for 30 days, reduced tumor growth by 78% (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle control). Furthermore, phospho-aspirin prevented pancreatitis-accelerated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in mice with activated Kras. In p48-Cre;Kras(G12D) mice, cerulein treatment (6 hourly injections two times per week for 3 weeks) led to a significant increase in ductal metaplasia, replacing the majority of the exocrine compartment. Administration of phospho-aspirin 100 mg/kg/day five times per week for 21 days (starting on the first day of cerulein injection) inhibited the acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, reducing it by 87% (P < 0.01, vs. cerulein-treated control). Phospho-aspirin appeared to be safe, with the animals showing no signs of toxicity during treatment. Mechanistically, phospho-aspirin inhibited EGFR activation in pancreatic cancer, an effect consistently observed in pancreatic cancer cells, primary acinar explants and in vivo In conclusion, our findings indicate that phospho-aspirin has strong anticancer efficacy in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer, warranting its further evaluation. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 624-34. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27138793

  18. Two cases of oral aspirin overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hideaki; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    A 30-year-old woman and a 27-year-old man were found in a parked car after the man had telephoned his father to tell him of their suicide attempt. In spite of emergent hospitalization and intensive care, the woman died. Due to the possibility of his assisting her suicide, medicolegal autopsy and toxicological analysis were performed. On forensic autopsy, no external injuries or pathological findings were detected. The man recovered after 5 days of hospitalization. In spite of a negative toxicological screening test, the police investigation revealed that they may have taken 120 tablets (330 mg/tablet; 39,600 mg total dose) of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) orally; therefore, we analyzed the concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and two kinds of metabolite in specimens obtained at autopsy and on emergent hospitalization using high performance liquid chromatography. Acetylsalicylic acid and/or the two metabolites were found in the woman's specimens. These substances were also present in the man's specimens. It is still unclear why the man survived in spite of what appeared to be a fatal aspirin overdose. It was very straightforward to diagnose aspirin poisoning in these cases; however, we have to be aware of poisoning by drugs which are not included in simple drug screening examinations. PMID:20569957

  19. Aspirin Promotes Oligodendroglial Differentiation Through Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nanxin; Chen, Dong; Wu, Xiyan; Chen, Xianjun; Zhang, Xuesi; Niu, Jianqin; Shen, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin, one of the most commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs, has been recently reported to display multiple effects in the central nervous system (CNS), including neuroprotection and upregulation of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression in astrocytes. Although it was most recently reported that aspirin could promote the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) after white matter lesion, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To dissect the effects of aspirin on oligodendroglial development and explore possible mechanisms, we here demonstrated the following: (i) in vitro treatment of aspirin on OPC cultures significantly increased the number of differentiated oligodendrocytes (OLs) but had no effect on the number of proliferative OPCs, indicating that aspirin can promote OPC differentiation but not proliferation; (ii) in vivo treatment of aspirin on neonatal (P3) rats for 4 days led to a nearly twofold increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), devoid of change in OPC proliferaion, in the corpus callosum (CC); (iii) finally, aspirin treatment increased the phosphorylation level of β-catenin and counteracted Wnt signaling pathway synergist QS11-induced suppression on OPC differentiation. Together, our data show that aspirin can directly target oligodendroglial lineage cells and promote their differentiation through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings suggest that aspirin may be a novel candidate for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. PMID:26059811

  20. Influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chawla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A majority of the studies done on the western population have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes many severe infections in patients with bronchiectasis as compared to other pathogens. There is scarcity of similar data from the Asian population. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was undertaken to identify the various pathogens isolated from the respiratory samples of 117 patients with bronchiectasis from south India and to compare the clinicomicrobiological profile of infections caused by P. aeruginosa and other respiratory pathogens. Results: The respiratory pathogens were isolated from 63 (53.8% patients. P. aeruginosa was the most common isolate (46.0% followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.3% and other pathogenic bacteria. Patients included in the P. aeruginosa group had a higher number of exacerbations (p: 0.008, greater number of hospital admissions (p: 0.007, a prolonged hospital stay (p: 0.03, and poor lung function, compared to the patients infected with the non-Pseudomonas group. Conclusion: It is necessary to investigate the etiology of respiratory tract infections among bronchiectasis patients followed by the prompt management of cases diagnosed with P. aeruginosa infections, so as to lower the morbidity and have a better prognosis.

  1. Relevance of human metapneumovirus in exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer TT

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a recently discovered respiratory virus associated with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, croup and exacerbations of asthma. Since respiratory viruses are frequently detected in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD (AE-COPD it was our aim to investigate the frequency of hMPV detection in a prospective cohort of hospitalized patients with AE-COPD compared to patients with stable COPD and to smokers without by means of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results We analysed nasal lavage and induced sputum of 130 patients with AE-COPD, 65 patients with stable COPD and 34 smokers without COPD. HMPV was detected in 3/130 (2.3% AE-COPD patients with a mean of 6.5 × 105 viral copies/ml in nasal lavage and 1.88 × 105 viral copies/ml in induced sputum. It was not found in patients with stable COPD or smokers without COPD. Conclusion HMPV is only found in a very small number of patients with AE-COPD. However it should be considered as a further possible viral trigger of AE-COPD because asymptomatic carriage is unlikely.

  2. Expiratory flow limitation relates to symptoms during COPD exacerbations requiring hospital admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetmalani K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kanika Jetmalani,1,2 Sophie Timmins,1,3,4 Nathan J Brown,1,4 Chantale Diba,1,4 Norbert Berend,1,4,5 Cheryl M Salome,1,2,4 Fu-Qiang Wen,6 Peng Chen,6 Gregory G King,1-4 Claude S Farah1,2,7 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, 2Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, 4Cooperative Research Centre for Asthma and Airways, 5Department of Respiratory Research, George Institute of Global Health, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Concord Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Expiratory flow limitation (EFL is seen in some patients presenting with a COPD exacerbation; however, it is unclear how EFL relates to the clinical features of the exacerbation. We hypothesized that EFL when present contributes to symptoms and duration of recovery during a COPD exacerbation. Our aim was to compare changes in EFL with symptoms in subjects with and without flow-limited breathing admitted for a COPD exacerbation.Subjects and methods: A total of 29 subjects with COPD were recruited within 48 hours of admission to West China Hospital for an acute exacerbation. Daily measurements of postbronchodilator spirometry, resistance, and reactance using the forced oscillation technique and symptom (Borg scores until discharge were made. Flow-limited breathing was defined as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory respiratory system reactance (EFL index greater than 2.8 cmH2O·s·L-1. The physiological predictors of symptoms during recovery were determined by mixed-effect analysis.Results: Nine subjects (31% had flow-limited breathing on admission despite similar spirometry compared to subjects without flow-limited breathing. Spirometry and resistance measures did not change between enrolment and discharge. EFL index values improved

  3. Targeting IL-1β and IL-17A driven inflammation during influenza-induced exacerbations of chronic lung inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Sichelstiel A.; Yadava K.; Trompette A.; Salami O; Iwakura Y.; Nicod L.P.; Marsland B.J.

    2014-01-01

    For patients with chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are life-threatening events causing acute respiratory distress that can even lead to hospitalization and death. Although a great deal of effort has been put into research of exacerbations and potential treatment options, the exact underlying mechanisms are yet to be deciphered and no therapy that effectively targets the excessive inflammation is available. In this study, we report that...

  4. Targeting IL-1β and IL-17A Driven Inflammation during Influenza-Induced Exacerbations of Chronic Lung Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Sichelstiel, Anke; Yadava, Koshika; Trompette, Aurélien; Salami, Olawale; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Nicod, Laurent P.; Marsland, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    For patients with chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are life-threatening events causing acute respiratory distress that can even lead to hospitalization and death. Although a great deal of effort has been put into research of exacerbations and potential treatment options, the exact underlying mechanisms are yet to be deciphered and no therapy that effectively targets the excessive inflammation is available. In this study, we report that...

  5. Rhinovirus‐associated pulmonary exacerbations show a lack of FEV 1 improvement in children with cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cousin, Mathias; Molinari, Nicolas; Foulongne, Vincent; Caimmi, Davide; Vachier, Isabelle; Abely, Michel; Chiron, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections lead to bronchial inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis, especially during pulmonary exacerbations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of viral‐associated pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis and failure to improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1) after an appropriate treatment. Methods We lead a pilot study from January 2009 until March 2013. Children with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis were longitudina...

  6. COPD exacerbations: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available COPD exacerbations are a major source of COPD morbidity, mortality and cost. Exacerbations tend to become more frequent as COPD progresses with the cause assumed to be infectious in about 80% of patients. The mainstay of management is inhaled bronchodilators with judicious use of oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids and assisted ventilation. Recent studies have examined strategies to prevent exacerbations of COPD including use of macrolide antibiotics and self-management education.

  7. COPD exacerbations: an evidence-based review

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2012-01-01

    COPD exacerbations are a major source of COPD morbidity, mortality and cost. Exacerbations tend to become more frequent as COPD progresses with the cause assumed to be infectious in about 80% of patients. The mainstay of management is inhaled bronchodilators with judicious use of oxygen, antibiotics, corticosteroids and assisted ventilation. Recent studies have examined strategies to prevent exacerbations of COPD including use of macrolide antibiotics and self-management education.

  8. Implications of altered glutathione metabolism in aspirin-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point for ASA toxicity, we have demonstrated that when GSH synthesis is inhibited in HepG2 cells by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, prior to ASA treatment, cytotoxicity of the drug is augmented. On the other hand, when GSH-depleted cells were treated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, cytotoxicity/apoptosis caused by ASA was attenuated with a significant recovery in oxidative stress, GSH homeostasis, DNA fragmentation and some of the mitochondrial functions. NAC treatment, however, had no significant effects on the drug-induced inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity and ATP synthesis in GSH-depleted cells. Our results have confirmed that aspirin increases apoptosis by increased reactive oxygen species production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory functions. These effects were further amplified when GSH-depleted cells were treated with ASA. We have also shown that some of the effects of aspirin might be associated with reduced GSH homeostasis, as treatment of cells with NAC attenuated the effects of BSO and aspirin. Our results strongly suggest that GSH dependent redox homeostasis in HepG2 cells is critical in preserving mitochondrial functions and preventing oxidative stress associated complications caused by aspirin treatment.

  9. Preventing and managing exacerbations in COPD – critical appraisal of the role of tiotropium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Tashkin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Donald P TashkinDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA,Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The course of COPD is punctuated by acute exacerbations that are associated with an increase in the morbidity and mortality related to this chronic disease and may contribute to its rate of progression. Therefore, preventing and treating exacerbations are major goals of COPD management. The role of tiotropium in the prevention of exacerbations has been investigated in several placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials varying in duration from 3 months to 4 years in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. In all of these trials, tiotropium has uniformly reduced the proportion of patients experiencing at least one exacerbation and delayed the time to the first exacerbation compared with placebo. In the longer trials (≥6 months’ duration tiotropium has also reduced the exposure-adjusted incidence rate of exacerbations. In trials of at least 1 year in duration, tiotropium either significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for an exacerbation and/or the proportion of patients with an exacerbation-related hospitalization. In a meta-analysis that included 15 trials of tiotropium vs either placebo (n = 13 and/or a longacting beta-agonist (LABA; n = 4, tiotropium significantly reduced the odds of experiencing an exacerbation compared to placebo as well as a LABA. The potential additive benefits of tiotropium to those of a LABA and/or inhaled corticosteroid in reducing exacerbations require further investigation. The mechanism whereby tiotropium reduces exacerbations is not due to an anti-inflammatory effect but more likely relates to its property of causing a sustained increase in airway patency and reduction in hyperinflation, thereby counteracting the tendency for respiratory insults to worsen airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. For the management of acute exacerbations, an

  10. Aspirin and clonidine in non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Perioperative Ischaemic Evaluation-2 (POISE-2) is an international 2×2 factorial randomised controlled trial of low-dose aspirin versus placebo and low-dose clonidine versus placebo in patients who undergo non-cardiac surgery. Perioperative aspirin (and possibly clonidine) may reduc...

  11. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  12. Aspirin and lipid mediators in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, Karsten; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2015-09-01

    Aspirin is an unique compound because it bears two active moieties within one and the same molecule: a reactive acetyl group and the salicylate metabolite. Salicylate has some effects similar to aspirin, however only at higher concentrations, usually in the millimolar range, which are not obtained at conventional antiplatelet aspirin doses of 100-300 mg/day. Pharmacological actions of aspirin in the cardiovascular system at these doses are largely if not entirely due to target structure acetylation. Several classes of lipid mediators become affected: Best known is the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) in platelets with subsequent inhibition of thromboxane and, possibly, thrombin formation. By this action, aspirin also inhibits paracrine thromboxane functions on other lipid mediators, such as the platelet storage product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an inflammatory mediator. Acetylation of COX-2 allows for generation of 15-(R)HETE and subsequent formation of "aspirin-triggered lipoxin" (ATL) by interaction with white cell lipoxygenases. In the cardiovascular system, aspirin also acetylates eNOS with subsequent upregulation of NO formation and enhanced expression of the antioxidans heme-oxygenase-1. This action is possibly also COX-2/ATL mediated. Many more acetylation targets have been identified in live cells by quantitative acid-cleavable activity-based protein profiling and might result in discovery of even more aspirin targets in the near future. PMID:26201059

  13. Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations may risk lung function deterioration. Our study tests the hypothesis that both oral azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are superior to placebo at improving resolution rates of respiratory exacerbations by day 14 in children with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods We are conducting a bronchiectasis exacerbation study (BEST, which is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, in five centres (Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Melbourne, Auckland. In the component of BEST presented here, 189 children fulfilling inclusion criteria are randomised (allocation-concealed to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5 mg/kg twice daily with placebo-azithromycin; azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; or placebo-azithromycin with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 14 days. Clinical data and a paediatric cough-specific quality of life score are obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and at day 14. In most children, blood and deep nasal swabs are also collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 14. The main secondary outcome is the paediatric cough-specific quality of life score. Other outcomes are time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalisation; duration of exacerbation; and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood markers will also be reported. Discussion Effective, evidence-based management

  14. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  15. EFFECT OF EDTA ON GASTRIC MUCOSAL LESION INDUCED BY ASPIRIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A FESHARAKI M.A

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric ulcer is a multifactorial disease, which its pathophysioligy has not been clear yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the prophylactic effects of EDTA on Aspirin induced gastric mucosal lesions. Methods. In fasted male rats the effect of a single oral dose of the EDTA was evaluated in the following test systems: combination of 1 ml EDTA 1.5% + 300 mg/kg aspirin and 1 ml EDTA 1.5%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% 30 minutes before 300 mg/kg aspirin. Then the gastric mucosal lesions were assessed microscopically and marcroscopically. Results. EDTA at different doses reduced macroscopic and microscpic gastric mucosal lesion induced by aspirin. Discussion. Combination therapy of EDTA and aspirin has distinct advantages regard to both low gastrointestinal toxicity and restored therapeutic activity.

  16. Prevention of dipyrone (metamizole) induced inhibition of aspirin antiplatelet effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Amin; Richter, Stefan; Schrör, Karsten; Rassaf, Tienush; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Zeus, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that dipyrone (metamizole), a non-opioid analgesic, can nullify aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) antiplatelet effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we analysed the aspirin and dipyrone drug-drug interaction in order to identify strategies to prevent the dipyrone induced inhibition of asprin antiplatelet effects. Platelet function was measured by arachidonic acid-induced light-transmission aggregometry, thromboxane (TX) B2- formation by immunoassay. Dipyrone metabolite plasma levels were determined by high-performance-liquid-chromatography (HPLC). In seven healthy individuals, in vitro ASA (30 µM/ 100 µM/ 300 µM/ 1,000 µM) and dipyrone (10 µM) coincubation revealed, that the aspirin and dipyrone interaction can be overcome by increasing doses of aspirin. In 36 aspirin and dipyrone comedicated CAD patients, addition of ASA (30 µM/ 100 µM) in vitro inhibited, but did not completely overcome the dipyrone induced reduction of aspirin antiplatelet effects. Notably, the inhibition of thromboxane formation in aspirin and dipyrone comedicated CAD patients coincided with dipyrone plasma levels. In a cross-over designed study in four healthy individuals, we were able to prove that inhibition of aspirin (100 mg/ day) effects by dipyrone (750 mg/ day) was reversible. Furthermore, aspirin (100 mg/ day) medication prior to dipyrone (750 mg/ day) intake prevented the inhibition of antiplatelet effects by dipyrone in 12 healthy individuals. In conclusion, aspirin medication prior to dipyrone intake preserves antiplatelet effects, circumventing the pharmacodynamic drug-drug interaction at the level of cyclooxygenase-1. PMID:25789542

  17. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Christodoulou, I; Rohde, G;

    2011-01-01

    accurate and sensitive methodologies. This systematic review summarizes current knowledge and developments in infection epidemiology of acute asthma in children and adults, describing the known impact for each individual agent and highlighting knowledge gaps. Among infectious agents, human rhinoviruses are...... the most prevalent in regard to asthma exacerbations. The newly identified type-C rhinoviruses may prove to be particularly relevant. Respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus are important in infants, while influenza viruses seem to induce severe exacerbations mostly in adults. Other agents are...

  18. Aspirin Plays Dual Role in Helping Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玲梅

    2002-01-01

    贵刊多次介绍“百年老药”aspirin(阿斯匹林,解热镇痛药,又称“乙酰水杨酸”)的神奇作用,我读了贵刊的介绍后,也开始服用aspirin,收到了意想不到的效果。现在,我上网时,对aspirin的报道特别留心。今日又在网上读到此文,特地加注后,发你们。文中有两个单词:interleukin-1(IL-1)/endothelialfunction,查阅了许多词典,仍不得其解。好在紧接其后的同谓语对这两个词作了解释。前者的以意思是:a blood of chemical associated with inflammation(一种炎 症有关的血液化学物质);后者是:the ability of the blood vessels to expand(血管扩张的能力)这两个词与新发现的aspirin两个功能有关,一是,能增加抗炎症作用,二是令血管得以扩张。】

  19. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk in a...... subgroup of 203 COPD individuals with clinical COPD, defined as participants with ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1 < 70% of predicted value and ≥ 1 moderate or severe exacerbation in the year prior to baseline. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During a median of 3.3 years of follow-up (range 0.03-8.1), 1,439 severe and...

  20. Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Siddiqi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Attiya Siddiqi, Sanjay SethiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Western New York Health Care System and University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USAAbstract: Our understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and consequences of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has increased substantially in the last decade. Several new lines of evidence demonstrate that bacterial isolation from sputum during acute exacerbation in many instances reflects a cause-effect relationship. Placebo-controlled antibiotic trials in exacerbations of COPD demonstrate significant clinical benefits of antibiotic treatment in moderate and severe episodes. However, in the multitude of antibiotic comparison trials, the choice of antibiotics does not appear to affect the clinical outcome, which can be explained by several methodological limitations of these trials. Recently, comparison trials with nontraditional end-points have shown differences among antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbations of COPD. Observational studies that have examined clinical outcome of exacerbations have repeatedly demonstrated certain clinical characteristics to be associated with treatment failure or early relapse. Optimal antibiotic selection for exacerbations has therefore incorporated quantifying the risk for a poor outcome of the exacerbation and choosing antibiotics differently for low risk and high risk patients, reserving the broader spectrum drugs for the high risk patients. Though improved outcomes in exacerbations with antibiotic choice based on such risk stratification has not yet been demonstrated in prospective controlled trials, this approach takes into account concerns of disease heterogeneity, antibiotic resistance and judicious antibiotic use in exacerbations.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, bronchitis, antibiotics

  1. Prevention of COPD exacerbation by lysozyme: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuchi Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinosuke Fukuchi,1 Koichiro Tatsumi,2 Hiromasa Inoue,3 Yukinori Sakata,4 Kai Shibata,4 Hideaki Miyagishi,4 Yasuhiro Marukawa,4 Masakazu Ichinose5 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 4Eisai Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan Background/aim: Lysozyme (mucopeptide N-acetyl-muramyl hydrolase is widely used as a mucolytic and anti-inflammatory agent in Japan. We evaluated the effects of long-term lysozyme administration on COPD exacerbation. Methods: In a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial, patients with moderate-to-severe COPD and one or more episodes of COPD exacerbation in the previous year before enrollment were selected. Lysozyme (270 mg or placebo was administered orally for 52 weeks as an add-on to the standard therapies such as bronchodilators. COPD exacerbation, pulmonary function, and COPD assessment test scores were analyzed. An exacerbation was defined as worsening of more than one symptom of COPD (cough, sputum volume, purulent sputum, or breathlessness leading to a change in medication. The primary endpoint was exacerbation rate. Results: A total of 408 patients were randomly assigned to the lysozyme and placebo groups. The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. The exacerbation rate was not significantly different between the two groups (1.4 vs 1.2; P=0.292, Poisson regression. However, a subgroup analysis showed that lysozyme might reduce exacerbation rate in patients with airway-dominant phenotype (1.2 vs 1.6. Moreover, the median time to first exacerbation was longer in patients with airway-dominant phenotype in the lysozyme group than that

  2. Sex hormones alter the effect of aspirin on bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tariq Aftab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interaction of aspirin and sex hormones was investigated through bleeding time. Methods: Bleeding time in 32 males and 105 unmarried females with previous 6 normal menstrual cycles and all aged between 18 to 21 years was found by Duke’s method before and after 2 hours of aspirin administration. Phase of menstrual cycle of each female was determined by present menstrual history. Results: Bleeding time in 32 male was 69.33± 4.94 seconds and in 105 female was 73.03±1.89 seconds which were not statistically different (P>0.05.This time was increased to 107.66±4.76 seconds in males and 113.65±3.73 seconds in females after aspirin administration which were statistically different (P0.05 difference after aspirin administration with a greater effect in Follicular phase probably due to estradiol. Conclusion: Males respond to aspirin more as compared to females which is likely the effect of the drug and testosterone interaction. Similarly females in the follicular phase respond to aspirin more as compared to females in the luteal phase which may be a result of interaction of estrogen and aspirin. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 537-540

  3. Purine Pathway Implicated in Mechanism of Resistance to Aspirin Therapy: Pharmacometabolomics-Informed-Pharmacogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Ellero-Simatos, Sandrine; Georgiades, Anastasia; Zhu, Hongjie; Lewis, Joshua; Horenstein, Richard B; Beitelshees, Amber L; Dane, Adrie; Reijmers, Theo; Hankemeier, Thomas; Fiehn, Oliver; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; ,

    2013-01-01

    Though aspirin is a well-established antiplatelet agent, the mechanisms of aspirin resistance remain poorly understood. Metabolomics allows for measurement of hundreds of small molecules in biological samples enabling detailed mapping of pathways involved in drug response. We defined the metabolic signature of aspirin exposure in subjects from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study. Many metabolites, including known aspirin catabolites, changed upon exposure to aspirin and...

  4. A critical appraisal of the phenomenon of aspirin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup Poulsen, Tina; Risom Kristensen, Søren; Atar, Dan;

    2005-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay antiplatelet treatment in patients with high risk of cardiovascular atherothrombotic events, and its beneficial effect is documented in several clinical trials. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of aspirin has been questioned by the emergence of the concept of 'aspirin...... resistance' (AR). This phenomenon, although lacking a precise definition, covers the fact that some patients do not exhibit the expected platelet inhibition by use of various techniques for measuring platelet function. In this critical review, we evaluate the methods used for measuring AR. We will discuss...

  5. EFFECT OF EDTA ON GASTRIC MUCOSAL LESION INDUCED BY ASPIRIN

    OpenAIRE

    M.A FESHARAKI M.A; A SHARAITI KAMALABADI; R MOKHTARI

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric ulcer is a multifactorial disease, which its pathophysioligy has not been clear yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the prophylactic effects of EDTA on Aspirin induced gastric mucosal lesions. Methods. In fasted male rats the effect of a single oral dose of the EDTA was evaluated in the following test systems: combination of 1 ml EDTA 1.5% + 300 mg/kg aspirin and 1 ml EDTA 1.5%, 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% 30 minutes before 300 mg/kg aspirin. Then the gastric mucosal les...

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection, TLR3 Ligands, and Proinflammatory Cytokines Induce CD161 Ligand LLT1 Expression on the Respiratory Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Satkunanathan, Stifani; Kumar, Naveenta; Bajorek, Monika; Purbhoo, Marco A.; Culley, Fiona J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT During respiratory-virus infection, excessive lymphocyte activation can cause pathology both in acute infection and in exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases. The costimulatory molecule CD161 is expressed on lymphocyte subsets implicated in promoting respiratory inflammation, including Th2, Th17, mucosally associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells. We asked whether the CD161 ligand LLT1 could be expressed on respiratory epithelial cells following re...

  7. Respiratory Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Özyılmaz, Ezgi

    2014-01-01

    The main function of the lungs is to maintain the exchange between the pulmonary capillary and the air in the alveoli. By this way, the arteriel oxygen and carbondioxide tension remains constant. Respiratory failure is a syndrome which is defined as the loss of the ability of respiratory system to exchange oxygen and carbondioxide elimination function. The main pathophysiological causes of respiratory failure include ventilation-perfusion mismatch, alveolar hypoventilation, impaired diffusion...

  8. Update on work-exacerbated asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Tarlo, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) is the term used to describe the worsening of asthma related to work but not the causation of asthma by work. It is common and has been reported to occur for 21.5% of working asthmatics on average. The frequency and severity may range from a single mild exacerbation that may lead to no time lost at work up to daily or severe exacerbations that may require a permanent change in work. Reports from general population surveys and primary care settings include more pa...

  9. Expiratory flow limitation relates to symptoms during COPD exacerbations requiring hospital admission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetmalani, Kanika; Timmins, Sophie; Brown, Nathan J; Diba, Chantale; Berend, Norbert; Salome, Cheryl M; Wen, Fu-Qiang; Chen, Peng; King, Gregory G; Farah, Claude S

    2015-01-01

    Background Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is seen in some patients presenting with a COPD exacerbation; however, it is unclear how EFL relates to the clinical features of the exacerbation. We hypothesized that EFL when present contributes to symptoms and duration of recovery during a COPD exacerbation. Our aim was to compare changes in EFL with symptoms in subjects with and without flow-limited breathing admitted for a COPD exacerbation. Subjects and methods A total of 29 subjects with COPD were recruited within 48 hours of admission to West China Hospital for an acute exacerbation. Daily measurements of post-bronchodilator spirometry, resistance, and reactance using the forced oscillation technique and symptom (Borg) scores until discharge were made. Flow-limited breathing was defined as the difference between inspiratory and expiratory respiratory system reactance (EFL index) greater than 2.8 cmH2O·s·L−1. The physiological predictors of symptoms during recovery were determined by mixed-effect analysis. Results Nine subjects (31%) had flow-limited breathing on admission despite similar spirometry compared to subjects without flow-limited breathing. Spirometry and resistance measures did not change between enrolment and discharge. EFL index values improved in subjects with flow-limited breathing on admission, with resolution in four patients. In subjects with flow-limited breathing on admission, symptoms were related to inspiratory resistance and EFL index values. In subjects without flow-limited breathing, symptoms related to forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity. In the whole cohort, EFL index values at admission was related to duration of stay (Rs=0.4, P=0.03). Conclusion The presence of flow-limited breathing as well as abnormal respiratory system mechanics contribute independently to symptoms during COPD exacerbations. PMID:25999709

  10. A score to predict short-term risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Make BJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Make,1 Göran Eriksson,2 Peter M Calverley,3 Christine R Jenkins,4 Dirkje S Postma,5 Stefan Peterson,6 Ollie Östlund,7 Antonio Anzueto8 1Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 3Pulmonary and Rehabilitation Research Group, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 4George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney and Concord Clinical School, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Department of Pulmonology, University of Groningen and GRIAC Research Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 6StatMind AB, Lund, Sweden; 7Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 8Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas Health Sciences Center and South Texas Veterans Healthcare System, San Antonio, TX, USA Background: There is no clinically useful score to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. We aimed to derive this by analyzing data from three existing COPD clinical trials of budesonide/formoterol, formoterol, or placebo in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: Predictive variables were selected using Cox regression for time to first severe COPD exacerbation. We determined absolute risk estimates for an exacerbation by identifying variables in a binomial model, adjusting for observation time, study, and treatment. The model was further reduced to clinically useful variables and the final regression coefficients scaled to obtain risk scores of 0–100 to predict an exacerbation within 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and the corresponding C-index were used to investigate the discriminatory

  11. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lei; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Zuo, Li

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM) in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress (OS), immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden. PMID:26557095

  12. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  13. Using the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 for monitoring aspirin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Mickley, Hans; Korsholm, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the test characteristics of the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) in patients treated with aspirin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study consisted of two sub-studies. In study 1, 10 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 controls had...... platelet function assessed by optical platelet aggregation and the PFA-100 method in two 5-week periods. Patients with IHD were treated with aspirin 150 mg/day (first 5-week period), and 300 mg/day (second 5-week period), whereas the controls only received aspirin (150 mg/day) during the second 5-week...... period. From the results of study 1, we found that a cut-off value for the PFA-100 collagen/epinephrine cartridge <165 s identified patients not taking aspirin (sensitivity 0.91, specificity 1.00). A good agreement between the PFA-100 method and optical platelet aggregation was found. Within...

  14. Aspirin as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. It is widely accepted that neoplasms such as colonic polyps are precursors to CRC formation; with the polyp-adenoma-carcinoma sequences well described in medical literature [1, 2]. It has been shown that Aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) have a negative effect on polyp and cancer formation. This review aims to describe some of the mechanism behind the chemoprotective properties of aspirin; COX 2 inhibition, regulation of proliferation and apoptosis and effects on the immune system and also the current evidence that supports its use as a chemoprevention agent against CRC. We will also aim to explore the side effects with the use of aspirin and the pitfalls of using aspirin routinely for primary prophylaxis against CRC.

  15. Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Talk with Your Doctor about Taking Aspirin Every Day Browse Sections The ... sections Take Action! Take Action: Talk with Your Doctor Take these steps to protect your health if ...

  16. Acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoyuki Kakugawa; Kazuhiro Tabata; Daiki Ogawara; Tomoshi Tsuchiya; Shintaro Hara; Noriho Sakamoto; Yuji Ishimatsu; Kazuto Ashizawa; Takeshi Nagayasu; Junya Fukuoka; Shigeru Kohno

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Kawabata et al. described a lesion which they termed “airspace enlargement with fibrosis” that could be included on the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. This group also reported that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis but without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type had no acute exacerbations and favorable prognoses on clinical follow-up. Here we describe the first case, to our knowledge, of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement ...

  17. COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England

    OpenAIRE

    Merinopoulou E; Raluy-Callado M; Ramagopalan S; MacLachlan S; Khalid JM

    2016-01-01

    Evie Merinopoulou,1 Mireia Raluy-Callado,1 Sreeram Ramagopalan,1 Sharon MacLachlan,1 Javaria Mona Khalid2 1Real-World Evidence, Evidera, 2Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd, London, UK Objectives: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with accelerated disease progression and are important drivers of health care resource utilization. The study aimed to quantify the rates of COPD exacerbations in England and assess health care resource utilization by ...

  18. Management of acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ontaneda Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of multiple sclerosis is the occurrence of episodes of clinical worsening with either new symptoms or an increase in older symptoms over a few days or weeks. These are known as exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiology and treatment of exacerbations and describe how they are related to the overall management of this disease.

  19. Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Christine; Ortiz, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic data indicate that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Patients with poorly managed COPD are likely to experience exacerbations that require emergency department visits or hospitalization—two important drivers contributing to escalating healthcare resource use and costs associated with the disease. Exacerbations also contribute to worsening lung function and negative outcomes in COPD. The aim of this review is to present th...

  20. The Effects of Bronchiectasis on Asthma Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hye Ran; Choi, Gyu-Sik; Park, Sun Jin; Song, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Ha, Junghoon; Lee, Yung Hee; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jae Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchiectasis and asthma are different in many respects, but some patients have both conditions. Studies assessing the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of bronchiectasis on asthma exacerbation. Methods We enrolled 2,270 asthma patients who were followed up in our hospital. Fifty patients had bronchiectasis and asthma. We selected fifty age- and sex-matched controls from the 2,220 asthma patients without br...

  1. An Efficient Microscale Procedure for the Synthesis of Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Sangeeta; Goyal, Samta

    1998-06-01

    The synthesis of aspirin is a part of many undergraduate organic synthesis labs and is frequently used in qualitative organic analysis laboratory for the identification of salicylic acid. We have found that aspirin can be synthesized on microscale by a simple and efficient procedure that eliminates the heating step employed in literature procedures and gives a pure, ferric-negative product (no purple color with alcoholic ferric chloride solution).

  2. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    VanWormer JJ; Miller AW; Rezkalla SH

    2014-01-01

    Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention i...

  3. Trace element impurity determination in aspirin tablets by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess trace element concentrations in six samples of aspirin tablets acquired in Sao Paulo city, Brazil. Concentrations of the elements Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, La, Na, Sc and Zn were determined. Comparisons were made between the results obtained with published data for aspirins from foreign countries. Certified reference materials, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs were analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  4. Pharmacometabolomics Reveals That Serotonin Is Implicated in Aspirin Response Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Ellero-Simatos, S; Lewis, JP; Georgiades, A; Yerges-Armstrong, LM; Beitelshees, AL; Horenstein, RB; Dane, A.; Harms, AC; Ramaker, R; Vreeken, RJ; Perry, CG; Zhu, H.; Sanchez, CL; Kühn, C.; ORTEL, TL

    2014-01-01

    While aspirin is generally effective for prevention of cardiovascular disease, considerable variation in drug response exists, resulting in some individuals displaying high on-treatment platelet reactivity. We used pharmacometabolomics to define pathways implicated in variation of response to treatment. We profiled serum samples from healthy subjects pre- and postaspirin (14 days, 81 mg/day) using mass spectrometry. We established a strong signature of aspirin exposure independent ...

  5. Small bowel injury in low-dose aspirin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroki; Sakai, Eiji; Kato, Takayuki; Umezawa, Shotaro; Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    The use of low-dose aspirin (LDA) is well known to be associated with an increased risk of serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as peptic ulceration and bleeding. Until recently, attention was mainly focused on aspirin-induced damage of the stomach and duodenum. However, recently, there has been growing interest among gastroenterologists on the adverse effects of aspirin on the small bowel, especially as new endoscopic techniques, such as capsule endoscopy (CE) and balloon-assisted endoscopy, have become available for the evaluation of small bowel lesions. Preliminary CE studies conducted in healthy subjects have shown that short-term administration of LDA can induce mild mucosal inflammation of the small bowel. Furthermore, chronic use of LDA results in a variety of lesions in the small bowel, including multiple petechiae, loss of villi, erosions, and round, irregular, or punched-out ulcers. Some patients develop circumferential ulcers with stricture. In addition, to reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal lesions in LDA users, it is important for clinicians to confirm the differences in the gastrointestinal toxicity between different types of aspirin formulations in clinical use. Some studies suggest that enteric-coated aspirin may be more injurious to the small bowel mucosa than buffered aspirin. The ideal treatment for small bowel injury in patients taking LDA would be withdrawal of aspirin, however, LDA is used as an antiplatelet agent in the majority of patients, and its withdrawal could increase the risk of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel means for the treatment of aspirin-induced enteropathy are urgently needed. PMID:25501289

  6. 'Aspirin resistance' or treatment non-compliance: Which is to blame for cardiovascular complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantsila Eduard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aspirin is one of the 'cornerstone' drugs in our current management of cardiovascular disorders. However, despite the prescription of aspirin recurrent vascular events still occur in 10–20% of patients. These, data together with the observations of diminished antiaggregatory response to aspirin in some subjects have provided the basis of the current debate on the existence of so-called "aspirin resistance". Unfortunately, many of the tests employed to define 'aspirin resistance' lack sufficient sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility. The prevalence of 'aspirin resistance' as defined by each test varies widely, and furthermore, the value of a single point estimate measure of aspirin resistance is questionable. The rate of 'aspirin resistance' is law if patients observed to ingest aspirin, with large proportion of patients to be pseudo-'aspirin resistant', due to non-compliance. What are the implications for clinical practice? Possible non-adherence to aspirin prescription should also be carefully considered before changing to higher aspirin doses, other antiplatelet drugs (e.g. clopidogrel or even combination antiplatelet drug therapy. Given the multifactorial nature of atherothrombotic disease, it is not surprising that only about 25% of all cardiovascular complications can usually be prevented by any single medication. We would advocate against routine testing of platelet sensitivity to aspirin (as an attempt to look for 'aspirin resistance' but rather, to highlight the importance of clinicians and public attention to the problem of treatment non-compliance.

  7. Prevalence of and risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Liu; Jian Cao; Li Fan; Lin Liu; Jian Li; Guo-Liang Hu; Yi-Xin Hu; Xiao-Li Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of and related risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Two hundred and forty-six elderly patients (75.9 ± 7.4 years) with CAD who received daily aspirin therapy (≥ 75 mg) over one month were recruited. The effect of aspirin was assessed using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and thrombelastography platelet mapping assay (TEG). Aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 20% arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation and ≥ 70% adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation in the LTA assay. An aspirin semi-responder was defined as meeting one (but not both) of the criteria described above. Based on the results of TEG, aspirin resistance was defined as ≥ 50% aggregation induced by AA. Results As determined by LTA, 23 (9.3%) of the elderly CAD patients were resistant to aspirin therapy; 91 (37.0%) were semi-responders. As determined by TEG, 61 patients (24.8%) were aspirin resistant. Of the 61 patients who were aspirin resistant by TEG, 19 were aspirin resistant according to LTA results. Twenty-four of 91 semi-responders by LTA were aspirin resistant by TEG. Multivariate logistic risk factor for aspirin resistance as determined by TEG. Conclusions A significant number of elderly patients with CAD are resistant to aspirin therapy. Fasting blood glucose level is closely associated with aspirin resistance in elderly CAD patients.

  8. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  9. Aspirin resistance as cardiovascular risk after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Barbara; Varga, Adam; Rabai, Miklos; Toth, Andras; Papp, Judit; Toth, Kalman; Szakaly, Peter

    2014-05-01

    International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35-40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low ( i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.

  10. Mechanistic and Pharmacological Issues of Aspirin as an Anticancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patrignani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have shown that aspirin, taken for several years, reduces the long-term risk of some cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. The result that aspirin benefit is detectable at daily low-doses (at least 75mg, the same used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, positions the antiplatelet action of aspirin at the center of its antitumor efficacy. At low-doses given every 24 h, aspirin is acting by a complete and persistent inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 in platelets (in the pre-systemic circulation while causing a limited and rapidly reversible inhibitory effect on COX-2 and/or COX-1 expressed in nucleated cells. Aspirin has a short half-life in human circulation (approximately 20 min; nucleated cells have the ability to resynthesize the acetylated COX-isozymes within a few hours, while platelets do not. COX-independent mechanisms of aspirin, such as the inhibition of Wnt/ b-catenin and NF-kB signaling and the acetylation of extra-COX proteins, have been suggested to play a role in its chemo-preventive effects, but their relevance remains to be demonstrated in vivo at clinical doses. In conclusion, the results of clinical pharmacology and the analysis of randomized and epidemiological studies suggest that colorectal cancer and atherothrombosis share a common mechanism of disease, i.e. enhanced platelet activation in response to injury at distinct sites.

  11. Comparison of Two Therapeutic Protocols : Heparin with Aspirin VS Prednisolone with Aspirin, in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rabiee, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: The most common complication of pregnancy is abortion. The etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss is not completely known. There are few therapeutics and diagnostic strategies in recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to compare the use of heparin with aspirin vs prednisolone with aspirin in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL.Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study comprised of 50 patients with RPL referred to Fatemieh Hospital, Hamadan. These patients were selected when β-HCG test was positive and were divided into two groups (n=25 for each group. Patients in the first group received subcutaneous heparin (5000 U twice a day and oral microcoated aspirin (80 mg once a day up to 20th week of pregnancy. Ultrasonography was repeated 3 times for these patients. Ca tablet was administrated in order to prevent osteoporosis. Antiphospholipid and anticardiolipin antibodies were checked for all patients. Neonates were visited by a neonatologist and followed up for one month. Finally, the data were analyzed by t-test and Fisher’s exact test.Results: The mean age of prednisolone with aspirin group were 31.83.3 years while, it was 30.73.2 years in heparin with aspirin group and, this difference was not significant (P>0.05. The mean pregnancy loss number was 2.81.1 while 2.41 in prednisolone with aspirin and heparin with aspirin groups respectively, which was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Anticardiolipin antibody was positive in 4 (8% patients, and antiphospholipid antibody was also positive in 4(8% patients. Pregnancy loss with heparin+aspirin was significantly higher than prednisolone+aspirin (P<0.05. There was not any case of complications in two groups.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that prednisolone with aspirin are more effective than heparin with aspirin in the management of recurrent pregnancy loss and are preferred to use in these patients.

  12. Safety and pharmacokinetics of vitamin A therapy for infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuzil, K M; Gruber, W C; Chytil, F; Stahlman, M. T.; Graham, B S

    1995-01-01

    Infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection have low serum vitamin A levels. We treated 21 respiratory syncytial virus-infected children with 12,500 to 25,000 IU of oral vitamin A. Vitamin A levels were normalized at 6 h, and none of the children experienced vitamin A toxicity or exacerbation of respiratory illness. Vitamin A treatment of previously healthy respiratory syncytial virus-infected infants at these doses is safe and well tolerated.

  13. Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or Stroke, Here Is What You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safe Daily Use of Aspirin Before Using Aspirin to Lower Your Risk of Heart Attack or ... care provider can determine whether regular use of aspirin will help to prevent a heart attack or ...

  14. Aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage: prevention by enteric-coating and relation to prostaglandin synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorne, A. B.; Mahida, Y R; Cole, A. T.; Hawkey, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    1. Gastric damage induced by low-dose aspirin and the protective effect of enteric-coating was assessed in healthy volunteers in a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial using Latin square design. Each was administered placebo, plain aspirin 300 mg daily, plain aspirin 600 mg four times daily, enteric-coated aspirin 300 mg daily, or enteric-coated aspirin 600 mg four times daily for 5 days. Gastric damage was assessed endoscopically, and gastric mucosal bleeding measured. 2. Aspirin...

  15. 15-epi-lipoxin A4-mediated induction of nitric oxide explains how aspirin inhibits acute inflammation.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul-Clark, M. J.; Cao, T; Moradi-Bidhendi, N.; Cooper, D; Gilroy, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The established model for the mechanism of action of aspirin is the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. However, this has never fully explained aspirin\\'s repertoire of antiinflammatory properties. We found in acute pleuritis that aspirin, but not salicylate, indomethacin, or piroxicam, increased plasma nitric oxide (NO), which correlated with a reduction in inflammation. Inhibiting aspirin-elicited NO pharmacologically in this model nullified the antiinflammatory effects of aspirin. Moreo...

  16. 无创正压通气对慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭血气及血乳酸的影响%Effect of No-invasive positive pressure ventilation on blood gas and lactic acid in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and type Ⅱ respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯瑾瑶; 张焕萍

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨无创正压通气(NIPPV)治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的临床疗效.方法 62例慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)急性加重期合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者,随机分为对照组32例,治疗组30例.对照组经常规药物治疗;治疗组在上述常规治疗基础上加间歇NIPPV治疗.比较2组治疗前后动脉血气[血的酸碱度(pH值)、动脉血氧分压(PaO_2)、动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO_2)]及血乳酸变化.结果 2组治疗后24 h血气分析[pH为7.36±0.05和7.34±0.03、PaO_2为84.0±8.9和53.0±12.4、PaCO_2为57.0±7.9和62.0±9.4]及血乳酸[(1.63±1.15)和(2.54±1.28)]比较差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 MPPV是治疗COPD急性加重期合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的有效方法.%Objective To assess the effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in trea-ting acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated with type Ⅱ respiratory failure. Methods Sixty-two AECOPD patients complicated with type Ⅱ respiratory failure was randomly divided into two groups: treated group of 30 patients and control group of 32 patients. The control group was treated with reg-ular medicine, the treated group were treated with NIPPV additional to regular medicine. The pH value, PaO_2, PaCO_2 and lactic acid level in blood gas were measured before and after treatment. Results The level of PH, PaO_2, PaCO_2 and lactic acid at 24 hours after treatment in the treated groups were 7.36 (SD:0.05), 84.0 (SD :8.9) ,57.0 (SD:7.9) and 1.63 (SD:1.15) respectively, which were significantly different to those of the control group (7.34 [SD:0.03] ,53.0[SD:12.4] ,62.0[SD:9.4] and 2.54[SD:1.28] ,respectively) (P <0.05). Conclusinons NIPPV is effective in treating patients with AECOPD and type Ⅱ respiratory failture.

  17. How do COPD patients respond to exacerbations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheij Theo JM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although timely treatment of COPD exacerbations seems clinically important, nearly half of these exacerbations remain unreported and subsequently untreated. Recent studies have investigated incidence and impact of failure to seek medical treatment during exacerbations. Yet, little is known about type and timing of other self-management actions in periods of symptom deterioration. The current prospective study aims at determining the relative incidence, timing and determinants of three types of patient responses. Methods In a multicentre observational study, 121 patients (age 67 ± 11 years, FEV1pred. 48 ± 19 were followed for 6 weeks by daily diary symptom recording. Three types of action were assessed daily: planning periods of rest, breathing techniques and/or sputum clearing (type-A, increased bronchodilator use (type-B and contacting a healthcare provider (type-C. Results Type-A action was taken in 70.7%, type-B in 62.7% and type C in 17.3% of exacerbations (n = 75. Smokers were less likely to take type-A and B actions. Type-C actions were associated with more severe airflow limitation and increased number of hospital admissions in the last year. Conclusions Our study shows that most patients are willing to take timely self-management actions during exacerbations. Future research is needed to determine whether the low incidence of contacting a healthcare provider is due to a lack of self-management or healthcare accessibility.

  18. Comparison of aspirin and indobufen in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Young; Sung, Ki-Chul; Choi, Hyo-In

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the extent and recovery of platelet inhibition after administration of indobufen and aspirin in healthy volunteers. Indobufen inhibits platelet aggregation by reversibly inhibiting the platelet cyclooxygenase enzyme, thereby suppressing thromboxane synthesis. Twenty healthy volunteers completed the study and received aspirin (200 mg/day for 2 weeks) followed by a 4-week washout period and then indobufen (200 mg twice a day for 2 weeks). The percent (%) inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was assessed using arachidonic acid (0.5 mg/ml) and adenosine diphosphate (5 µM) at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after last dose of each drug. IPA assessed using arachidonic acid as the agonist was similar at 4 hours after the last dose of indobufen (81.07 ± 9.36%) and aspirin (96.99 ± 0.29%, p = 0.10), but significantly lower at 12 hours (74.04 ± 9.55% vs. 97.94 ± 0.28%, p = 0.02), 24 hours (33.39 ± 11.13% vs. 97.48 ± 0.32%, p aspirin. IPA assessed using adenosine diphosphate as the agonist was similar in the two groups at 4, 12 and 24 hours after the last dose, but significantly lower 48 hours after the last dose of indobufen, compared to the relative value for aspirin (1.98 ± 3.57% vs. 12.61 ± 2.71%, p = 0.002). Indobufen (200 mg twice a day) caused equivalent initial inhibition of platelet aggregation to aspirin (200 mg daily), and the anti-aggregation effect diminished faster than after aspirin. PMID:26083594

  19. Positional isomerism markedly affects the growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by NOSH-aspirin: COX inhibition and modeling ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Vannini, Federica; Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Rao, Praveen P.N.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported the synthesis of NOSH-aspirin, a novel hybrid that releases both nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In NOSH-aspirin, the two moieties that release NO and H2S are covalently linked at the 1, 2 positions of acetyl salicylic acid, i.e. ortho-NOSH-aspirin (o-NOSH-aspirin). In the present study, we compared the effects of the positional isomers of NOSH-ASA (o-NOSH-aspirin, m-NOSH-aspirin and p-NOSH-aspirin) to that of aspirin on growth of HT-29 and HCT 15 colon canc...

  20. STAT5-induced Lunatic Fringe during Th2 development alters Delta Like-4-mediated Th2 cytokine production in RSV exacerbated airway allergic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sumanta; Rasky, Andrew J.; Lundy, Phil A.; Kittan, Nicolai A.; Kunkel, Steven L.; Maillard, Ivan P.; Kowalski, Paul E.; Kousis, Philaretos C.; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2013-01-01

    Notch activation plays an important role in T cell development and mature T cell differentiation. In this study we investigated the role of Notch activation in a mouse model of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-exacerbated allergic airway disease. During RSV exacerbation, in vivo neutralization of a specific Notch ligand, Delta-like 4 (Dll4) significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity (AHR), mucus production and Th2 cytokines. Lunatic Fringe (Lfng) a glycosyltransferase that enhances Notch...

  1. Regular use of aspirin and prostate cancer risk (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ravi J; Swede, Helen; Niles, Robert; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2006-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can decrease the risk of developing prostate and other cancers, although observational studies have not been very conclusive. The current study examined the effects of regular aspirin use on prostate cancer risk in 1,029 patients with primary, incident cancer of the prostate and 1,029 hospital controls frequency-matched to cases by 5-year age group and period of questionnaire completion. Patients who reported use of aspirin for at least once a week for at least 6 months were classified as regular users, with others classified as non-users. Results indicate that regular aspirin use may not be associated with decreased prostate cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.25], frequency of use (OR for at least seven/week 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.13), duration of use (OR for at least 10 years of use 1.17 95% CI 0.93-1.46) or tablet years (defined as tablets per day x years of use). A similar lack of association was observed when analyses were performed examining stage of the cancer. These data suggest that aspirin use may not be associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. PMID:16489532

  2. Design of aspirin formulation for rapid pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman P. Mohanan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aspirin has always had excellent pain relief benefits. To reduce the gastric problems in the present study we had made an attempt to make aspirin fast dissolving tablets. Methods: Aspirin fast dissolving tablets were developed by direct compression method using Indion 254, Indion 214 and croscarmellose as superdisintegrants. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as diluent, and mannitol, as sweetening agent. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, mechanical strength, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time and drug release characteristics. Results: Hardness and friability data indicated good mechanical strength of tablets. The results of in vitro disintegration time indicated that formulation FD3 (containing 5 mg Indion 254 as superdisintegrant was found to be suitable tablets as it showed rapid disintegration within 8 to 32 seconds. Dissolution study revealed the release rate of aspirin fast dissolving tablet and these was compared with that of marketed tablet formulation of aspirin. Conclusion: It was concluded that superdisintegrants addition technique is a useful method for preparing fast dissolving tablets by direct compression method and present study revealed that Indion 254 could produce good superdisintegrating property. [J Exp Integr Med 2011; 1(2.000: 131-134

  3. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer’s clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA. Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters.

  4. Influence of Differing Analgesic Formulations of Aspirin on Pharmacokinetic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanani, Kunal; Gatoulis, Sergio C; Voelker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin has been used therapeutically for over 100 years. As the originator and an important marketer of aspirin-containing products, Bayer's clinical trial database contains numerous reports of the pharmacokinetics of various aspirin formulations. These include evaluations of plain tablets, effervescent tablets, granules, chewable tablets, and fast-release tablets. This publication seeks to expand upon the available pharmacokinetic information concerning aspirin formulations. In the pre-systemic circulation, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is rapidly converted into its main active metabolite, salicylic acid (SA). Therefore, both substances are measured in plasma and reported in the results. The 500 mg strength of each formulation was chosen for analysis as this is the most commonly used for analgesia. A total of 22 studies were included in the analysis. All formulations of 500 mg aspirin result in comparable plasma exposure to ASA and SA as evidenced by AUC. Tablets and dry granules provide a consistently lower Cmax compared to effervescent, granules in suspension and fast release tablets. Effervescent tablets, fast release tablets, and granules in suspension provide a consistently lower median Tmax compared to dry granules and tablets for both ASA and SA. This report reinforces the importance of formulation differences and their impact on pharmacokinetic parameters. PMID:26247959

  5. Investigating the Effect of Aspirin on Mercury Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Polat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aspirin on the toxicology of mercury was investigated by using fish. The variations between blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed directly to mercury solutions prepared at certain concentrations (500 μg/L, 250 μg/L, 125 μg/L, 62.5 μg/L, and 31.25 μg/L, and blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed to mercury at the same concentrations after they had been interacting with aspirin, were investigated. At the end of the study, increases in blood parameters were observed depending on the increases in mercury concentration. Statistically significant variations were observed in blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed to mercury at the same concentrations after they had been interacting with aspirin, compared to blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed directly to mercury (. It was found that aspirin has caused significant increases in especially the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotranspherase and significant decreases in cortisol and glucose levels among to blood parameters. It was concluded that aspirin alters the toxic effect of mercury.

  6. Potentiation of LPS-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells by Aspirin via ROS and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Protection by N-Acetyl Cysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity and inflammation-associated toxic responses have been observed to be induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS in vitro and in vivo respectively. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as aspirin, has been reported to be beneficial in inflammation-associated diseases like cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Their precise molecular mechanisms, however, are not clearly understood. Our previous studies on aspirin treated HepG2 cells strongly suggest cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we have further demonstrated that HepG2 cells treated with LPS alone or in combination with aspirin induces subcellular toxic responses which are accompanied by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and apoptosis. The LPS/Aspirin induced toxicity was attenuated by pre-treatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC. Alterations in oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox-homeostasis were more pronounced in mitochondria compared to extra- mitochondrial cellular compartments. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with NAC exhibited a selective protection in redox homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that the altered redox metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells play a critical role in LPS/aspirin-induced cytotoxicity. These results may help in better understanding the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic properties of NSAIDs in cancer cells exposed to bacterial endotoxins.

  7. Overexpression of leukotriene C4 synthase in bronchial biopsies from patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowburn, A. S.; Sladek, K; Soja, J; L. Adamek; Nizankowska, E; Szczeklik, A.; Lam, B K; Penrose, J F; Austen, F K; Holgate, S T; Sampson, A P

    1998-01-01

    Aspirin causes bronchoconstriction in aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) patients by triggering cysteinyl-leukotriene (cys-LT) production, probably by removing PGE2-dependent inhibition. To investigate why aspirin does not cause bronchoconstriction in all individuals, we immunostained enzymes of the leukotriene and prostanoid pathways in bronchial biopsies from AIA patients, aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) patients, and normal (N) subjects. Counts of cells expressing the terminal enzyme for cys-LT...

  8. Safety of 12 core transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in patients on aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Pawan Vasudeva; Niraj Kumar; Anup Kumar; Harbinder Singh; Gaurav Kumar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To prospectively assess safety outcome of TRUS guided prostate biopsy in patients taking low dose aspirin. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients, who were planned for 12 core TRUS guided prostate biopsy and satisfied eligibility criteria, were included in the study and divided into two Groups: Group A: patients on aspirin during biopsy, Group B: patients not on aspirin during biopsy, including patients in whom aspirin was stopped prior to the biopsy. Parameters inclu...

  9. Protective Effects of Ginger against Aspirin-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhongzhi; HASEGAWA, JUNICHI; Wang, Xinhui; Matsuda, Akiko; Tokuda, Takahiro; Miura, Norimasa; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism underlying the protective effects of ginger against gastric damage induced by aspirin in rats. Gastric mucosal lesions were produced by orally administering 200 mg/kg aspirin suspended in 1% carboxymethylcellulose solution to pyloric-ligated male Wistar rats. Ginger powder (200 mg/kg) markedly reduced the aspirin-induced gastric hemorrhagic ulcer area. The total acidity of gastric juice was not significantly influenced by aspirin or ginger. Ginger powder did not ...

  10. Antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally, and atherothrombosis is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular events. Several studies have shown that antiplatelet therapy, including aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), reduces the risk of cardiovascular events and death. However, it is well-known that many patients experience cardiovascular events despite treatment with aspirin, often termed "aspirin low-responsiveness". This fact has caused considerable debate: does biochemical aspirin low-responsiveness have prognostic value? Can low-responders be reliably identified? And if so, should antithrombotic treatment be changed? Is the whole discussion of antiplatelet drug response merely a result of low compliance? Compliance should be carefully optimised, before evaluating the pharmacological effect of a drug. It is well-known that cardiovascular disease is multifactorial, and, therefore, total risk reduction is not feasible. Aetiological factors to the variable platelet inhibition by aspirin seem to include genetic factors, pharmacological interactions, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and increased platelet turnover. It is a captivating thought that antiplatelet therapy may be improved by individually tailored therapy based on platelet function testing. Ongoing studies are challenging the current one-size-fits-all dosing strategy, but the preceding evaluation of platelet function assays has not been adequate. The overall objective of this thesis was to evaluate the reproducibility of and aggreement between a number of widely used platelet function tests and to explore the importance of platelet turnover for the antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease. In the intervention studies (studies 1, 3, and 4), optimal compliance was confirmed by measurements of serum thromboxane, which is the most sensitive assay to confirm compliance with aspirin. In study 1, platelet function tests widely used to measure the antiplatelet effect

  11. Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Ozyilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main function of the lungs is to maintain the exchange between the pulmonary capillary and the air in the alveoli. By this way, the arteriel oxygen and carbondioxide tension remains constant. Respiratory failure is a syndrome which is defined as the loss of the ability of respiratory system to exchange oxygen and carbondioxide elimination function. The main pathophysiological causes of respiratory failure include ventilation-perfusion mismatch, alveolar hypoventilation, impaired diffusion capacity and increased shunt. A number of diseases may result in respiratory failure by different pathophysiological reasons. The most common causes are Type 1 (hypoxemic and Type 2 (hypercapnic respiratory failure. When suspected with clinical signs and symptoms, the diagnosis should be confirmed with arterial blood gases. At this step, other diagnostic interventions, which could be performed, may be used to enlighten the underlying pathophysiological cause. Although the main therapeutic approach is similar, specific treatment are also required based on the underlying cause. The basic pathophysiological points, diagnosis and basic treatment approach have been evaluated in this review article. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 428-442

  12. Use and Safety of Non-Steroidal Inflammatory Drugs and Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E. Valkhoff (Vera)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin, dates back to the Egyptians in 1534 BC. Aspirin-like compounds are naturally derived from willow tree bark and myr-tle. At the end of the 19th century aspirin was patented by Bayer as the world’s first syn-thetic drug. The recomme

  13. Genetic Determinants of On-Aspirin Platelet Reactivity: Focus on the Influence of PEAR1

    OpenAIRE

    Würtz, Morten; Nissen, Peter H; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Kristensen, Steen Dalby; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet aggregation during aspirin treatment displays considerable inter-individual variability. A genetic etiology likely exists, but it remains unclear to what extent genetic polymorphisms determine platelet aggregation in aspirin-treated individuals. Aim To identify platelet-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing platelet aggregation during aspirin treatment. Furthermore, we explored to what extent changes in cyclooxygenase-1 activity and platelet activation...

  14. Comparison of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetics on low dose aspirin and not on low dose aspirin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the frequency of hyperuricemia in type 2 diabetes patients who are taking low dose aspirin with those patients who are not taking low dose aspirin. Study design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: This study was carried out at Military Hospital Rawalpindi for a period of two years (June 2006-May 2008). Patients and Methods: Sixty diabetic patients were selected who were taking low dose aspirin comparing group A and sixty diabetic patients who were not taking aspirin were placed in group B. These patients were selected from the OPD through non probability convenience sampling. All these patients were being followed up in medical outpatient quite regularly on fort-nightly basis. Data had been collected through a carefully designed questionnaire. Results: In group A, 90% of the patients had uric acid less than 445 micro mol/l and 10% of the patients had uric acid more than 445micro mol/l. Whereas in group B 100% of the patients had uric acid less than 445umol/l, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Aspirin in low doses cause hyperuricemia and regular monitoring of uric acid is mandatory to prevent its adverse effects. (author)

  15. Use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; García-Rodríguez, L A; Sørensen, H T;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Few studies have examined the association between use of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and risk of glioma and the results have been equivocal. We therefore investigated the influence of NSAID use on glioma risk in a nationwide setting.Methods:We used...... exposure to low-dose aspirin or non-aspirin (NA) NSAIDs into ever use or long-term use, defined as continuous use for 5 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for glioma associated with NSAID use, adjusted for potential...... confounders.Results:A total of 2688 glioma cases and 18 848 population controls were included in the study. Ever use of low-dose aspirin (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.04) or NA-NSAIDs (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.96-1.14) was not associated with glioma risk. Compared with never use, long-term use of low-dose aspirin or of...

  16. The effects of real-time telemedicine consultations between hospital based nursing and severe COPD patients discharged after exacerbation admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Sorknæs, Anne Dichmann; Madsen, H.;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daily real-time teleconsultations for one week between hospital-based nurses specialised in respiratory diseases and patients with severe COPD discharged after acute exacerbation. Patients admitted with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...... (AECOPD) at two hospitals were recruited at hospital discharge. They were randomly assigned to intervention or control. The telemedicine equipment consisted of a briefcase with built-in computer including a web camera, microphone and measurement equipment. The primary outcome was the mean number of total...

  17. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  18. Aspirin use for primary prevention in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrosu, Pierfranco

    2016-01-01

    The net clinical benefit of aspirin in primary prevention is uncertain as the reduction in occlusive events needs to be balanced against the increase in gastro-intestinal and cerebral bleedings. The meta-analysis of ATT (Anti Thrombotic Trialists) Collaboration in 2009 showed that aspirin therapy in primary prevention was associated with 12% reduction in cardio-vascular events, due mainly to a reduction in non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.18% vs 0.23% per year, pheart attack and stroke. As a consequence, it is important consider both likelihoods of benefits as well as harm within the lifespan and functioning of the person. The older people who most likely benefit from aspirin in primary prevention are those at higher cardio-vascular risk, with preserved functional abilities, low comorbidity, low risk of bleeding and a prolonged life expectancy. PMID:27374042

  19. Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, John A

    2006-01-01

    There is significant evidence that low-dose aspirin is effective in preventing the first myocardial infarction in men and ischemic stroke in women. There is also an increased risk for major gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage and a suggestive, but nonsignificant, increase in the risk for hemorrhagic stroke. If there is a history of ulcer disease or upper-gastrointestinal tract bleeding, Helicobacter pylori should be eradicated (if present) and a proton pump inhibitor used with aspirin therapy. In conclusion, the benefits of low-dose aspirin (75-162 mg/day) in the prevention of myocardial infarction in men and thrombotic stroke in women generally outweigh the risks of serious bleeding in adults with a coronary heart disease risk >1% per year or >1% in 10 years. PMID:17066145

  20. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  1. Functionalized bimodal mesoporous silicas as carriers for controlled aspirin delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Sun, Jihong; Li, Yuzhen

    2011-08-01

    The bimodal mesoporous silica modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was performed as the aspirin carrier. The samples' structure, drug loading and release profiles were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption and desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, TG analysis, elemental analysis and UV-spectrophotometer. For further exploring the effects of the bimodal mesopores on the drug delivery behavior, the unimodal mesoporous material MCM-41 was also modified as the aspirin carrier. Meantime, Korsmeyer-Peppas equation ft= ktn was employed to analyze the dissolution data in details. It is indicated that the bimodal mesopores are beneficial for unrestricted drug molecules diffusing and therefore lead to a higher loading and faster releasing than that of MCM-41. The results show that the aspirin delivery properties are influenced considerably by the mesoporous matrix, whereas the large pore of bimodal mesoporous silica is the key point for the improved controlled-release properties.

  2. Impact of respiratory viral infections on cystic fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wat, D

    2003-01-01

    The life expectancy for patients with cystic fibrosis has improved remarkably over the last 20 years. Progressive deterioration of pulmonary function continues despite the aggressive use of antimicrobials. The absence of fever, neutrophilia, and systemic symptoms suggest that during pulmonary exacerbations other non-bacterial factors may have played a part. Some have suggested respiratory viruses as main suspects. So far, few data have illustrated the relationship of respiratory viruses and c...

  3. Non-invasive mechanic ventilation in treating acute respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Lari; Novella Scandellari; Ferdinando De Maria; Virna Zecchi; Gianpaolo Bragagni; Fabrizio Giostra; Nicola DiBattista

    2009-01-01

    Non invasive ventilation (NIV) in acute respiratory failure (ARF) improve clinical parameters, arterial blood gases, decrease mortality and endo tracheal intubation (ETI) rate also outside the intensive care units (ICUs). Objective of this study is to verify applicability of NIV in a general non respiratory medical ward. We enrolled 68 consecutive patients (Pts) with Hypoxemic or Hyper capnic ARF: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE), exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...

  4. Acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kakugawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, Kawabata et al. described a lesion which they termed “airspace enlargement with fibrosis” that could be included on the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. This group also reported that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis but without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type had no acute exacerbations and favorable prognoses on clinical follow-up. Here we describe the first case, to our knowledge, of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type. An 82-year-old man was referred to our department for worsening dyspnea and new alveolar opacities on chest radiograph following left pulmonary segmentectomy (S6 for cancer. A diagnosis of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of other types was made, based on pathological evidence of airspace enlargement with fibrosis and organizing diffuse alveolar damage. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone followed by tapered oral prednisolone resulted in gradual improvement of the clinical condition and chest radiographic findings. Clinicians should be aware that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis may experience acute exacerbation.

  5. Risk of death and readmission of hospital-admitted COPD exacerbations: European COPD Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Sylvia; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Pozo-Rodriguez, Francisco; Castro-Acosta, Ady; Studnicka, Michael; Kaiser, Bernhard; Roberts, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies report high in-hospital and post-discharge mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations varying depending upon patient characteristics, hospital resources and treatment standards. This study aimed to investigate the patient, resource and organisational factors associated with in-hospital and 90-day post-discharge mortality and readmission of COPD exacerbations within the European COPD Audit. The audit collected data of COPD exacerbation admissions from 13 European countries.On admission, only 49.7% of COPD patients had spirometry results available and only 81.6% had blood gases taken. Using logistic regression analysis, the risk associated with in-hospital and post-discharge mortality was higher age, presence of acidotic respiratory failure, subsequent need for ventilatory support and presence of comorbidity. In addition, the 90-day risk of COPD readmission was associated with previous admissions. Only the number of respiratory specialists per 1000 beds, a variable related to hospital resources, decreased the risk of post-discharge mortality.The European COPD Audit identifies risk factors associated with in-hospital and post-discharge mortality and COPD readmission. Addressing the deficiencies in acute COPD care such as making spirometry available and measuring blood gases and providing noninvasive ventilation more regularly would provide opportunities to improve COPD outcomes. PMID:26493806

  6. Prevention of Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in

  7. Novel Pro-resolving Aspirin-Triggered DHA Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Serhan, Charles N.; Fredman, Gabrielle; Yang, Rong; Karamnov, Sergey; Belayev, Ludmila S.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Zhu, Min; Winkler, Jeremy W.; Petasis, Nicos A.

    2011-01-01

    Endogenous mechanisms in the resolution of acute inflammation are of interest since excessive inflammation underlies many pathologies. We report a new aspirin-triggered DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes a potent product in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1)]. The complete stereochemistry of AT-(NPD1/PD1) proved to be 10R,17R-dihydroxydocosa- 4Z,7Z,11E,13E,15Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid. The chirality of hydroxyl groups a...

  8. Investigating the Effect of Aspirin on Mercury Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Polat; Tarık Dal

    2013-01-01

    The effect of aspirin on the toxicology of mercury was investigated by using fish. The variations between blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed directly to mercury solutions prepared at certain concentrations (500 μg/L, 250 μg/L, 125 μg/L, 62.5 μg/L, and 31.25 μg/L), and blood parameters of the fish, which were made exposed to mercury at the same concentrations after they had been interacting with aspirin, were investigated. At the end of the study, increases in blood paramet...

  9. Comorbidities associated with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: association with severity and exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboub, Bassam; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Iqbal, Mohammed Nizam; Salhi, Hocine; Lahlou, Aïcha; Tariq, Luqman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the frequency of comorbidities in subjects with COPD and their association with respiratory symptom severity and COPD exacerbations. Materials and methods This was an analysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of eleven countries in the Middle East and North Africa, including Pakistan. The study population consisted of a sample of subjects with COPD for whom the presence of comorbidities was documented. Three questionnaires were used. The screening questionnaire identified subjects who fulfilled an epidemiological case definition of COPD and documented any potential comorbidities; the detailed COPD questionnaire collected data on respiratory symptoms, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidities associated with COPD; the COPD Assessment Test collected data on the impact of respiratory symptoms on well-being and daily life. Results A total of 2,187 subjects were positively screened for COPD, of whom 1,392 completed the detailed COPD questionnaire. COPD subjects were more likely to report comorbidities (55.2%) than subjects without COPD (39.1%, P<0.0001), most frequently cardiovascular diseases. In subjects who screened positively for COPD, the presence of comorbidities was significantly (P=0.03) associated with a COPD Assessment Test score ≥10 and with antecedents of COPD exacerbations in the previous 6 months (P=0.03). Conclusion Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. This highlights the importance of identification and appropriate management of comorbidities in all subjects with a diagnosis of COPD. PMID:26917957

  10. Use of Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure, 2000–2009: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walkey, Allan J.; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Although evidence supporting use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is strong, evidence varies widely for other causes of acute respiratory failure.

  11. Invasive and Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation For Acute Exacerbations Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Hay I. Abd-Hay; Ahmed S. Alsaily* and Essam A. El-Moselhy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a frequent cause of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. Respiratory failure from airflow obstruction is a direct consequence of acute airway narrowing. Aim of the study: It was to compare the efficacy of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV against conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients and methods: Forty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD were recruited in the present study. A comparative, hospital based study design was used. All the cases were examined; clinically and laboratory. The patients were divided into two groups each include 20 patients. Group A received NIMV in the form of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and group B with CMV. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate and diastolic blood pressure after 6 hours of CPAP in comparison to baseline parameters in group A. While, there were statistically significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 after 6 hours of CPAP in comparison to baseline parameters. In group B there were statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure after 6 hours of CMV in comparison to baseline parameters. While, there were statistically significant increases in pH, PaO2, and SaO2 and a statistically significant decrease in PaCO2 after 6 hours of CMV in comparison to baseline parameters. Further, comparison of respiratory rate and hemodynamic parameters in both groups showed statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in group A in comparison to group B. Finally, failure rate was 35.0% in group A (NIMV compared to 5.0% in group B (CMV with statistically significant difference. Conclusions and recommendations: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is a safe

  12. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, exacerbation frequency and human rhinovirus exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quint Jennifer K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is associated with COPD and increased susceptibility to infection in the general population. Methods We investigated whether COPD patients deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D were more likely to be frequent exacerbators, had reduced outdoor activity and were more susceptible to human rhinovirus (HRV exacerbations than those with insufficient and normal levels. We also investigated whether the frequency of FokI, BsmI and TaqIα 25-hydroxyvitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphisms differed between frequent and infrequent exacerbators. Results There was no difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between frequent and infrequent exacerbators in the summer; medians 44.1nmol/L (29.1 – 68.0 and 39.4nmol/L (22.3 – 59.2 or winter; medians 24.9nmol/L (14.3 – 43.1 and 27.1nmol/L (19.9 – 37.6. Patients who spent less time outdoors in the 14 days prior to sampling had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p = 0.02. Day length was independently associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p = 0.02. There was no difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between baseline and exacerbation; medians 36.2nmol/L (IQR 22.4-59.4 and 33.3nmol/L (23.0-49.7; p = 0.43. HRV positive exacerbations were not associated with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at exacerbation than exacerbations that did not test positive for HRV; medians 30.0nmol/L (20.4 – 57.8 and 30.6nmol/L (19.4 – 48.7. There was no relationship between exacerbation frequency and any VDR polymorphisms (all p > 0.05. Conclusions Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in COPD are not associated with frequent exacerbations and do not increase susceptibility to HRV exacerbations. Independent of day length, patients who spend less time outdoors have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration.

  13. Impairment of aspirin antiplatelet effects by non-opioid analgesic medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amin; Polzin; Thomas; Hohlfeld; Malte; Kelm; Tobias; Zeus

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin is the mainstay in prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. Impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects are associated with enhanced incidence of cardiovascular events. Comedication with non-opioid analgesic drugs has been described to interfere with aspirin,resulting in impaired aspirin antiplatelet effects. Additionally,nonopioid analgesic medication has been shown to enhance the risk of cardiovascular events and death. Pain is very frequent and many patients rely on analgesic drugs to control pain. Therefore effective analgesic options without increased risk of cardiovascular events are desirable. This review focuses on commonly used nonopioid analgesics,interactions with aspirin medication and impact on cardiovascular risk.

  14. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    9. 1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004223 Inhibitive effect on airway mucus overproduction of DNA vaccine based on xenogeneic homologous calcium-activated chloride channel in asthmatic mice. SONG Liqiang (宋立强), et al. Dept Respir Med, Xijing Hosp , 4th Milit Med Univ, Xi’an 710032. Natl Med J China 2004;84(4):329-333.

  15. A comparison of Oral and Inhalant Corticosteroids in Treatment of Mild to Moderate Asthma Exacerbation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral corticosteroids are the main treatment in asthma exacerbation. It has been reported that inhaled corticosteroids can be used instead of oral corticosteroids in asthma exacerbation. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of inhaled fluticasone and oral prednisolone in children with mild to moderate asthma exacerbation. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 60 children with mild-to-moderate acute asthma exacerbation visiting emergency department were randomly assigned to receive oral prednisolone (2 mg/kg or fluticasone spray (2 puffs every 12 hours, each puff contains 250 microgram fluticasone using an spacer for one week. The first dose of the treatment was given in the emergency department.  Children were followed for seven days and signs and symptoms of exacerbation, as well as spirometry findings were evaluated.Results: On the days 1 and 3, symptoms including cough, sputum and need for salbutamol during day was more improved in oral prednisolone and symptoms at night was more improved in inhaled fluticasone. Patients were almost symptom free on the seventh day. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow rate on the seventh day were significantly better with inhaled fluticasone compared to oral prednisolone.Conclusion: Both inhaled fluticasone and oral prednisolone improved symptoms during a week after exacerbation; however, better respiratory function in children treated with inhaled fluticasone is indicative of its further efficacy compared to oral prednisolone. Considering the low systemic effects of inhaled fluticasone, this treatment seems to be more appropriate in treatment of mild to moderate exacerbations. Keywords: Asthma exacerbation; Inhaled fluticasone; Prednisolone

  16. Preparation and analysis of deuterium-labeled aspirin: application to pharmacokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of endogenous prostacyclin and thromboxane biosynthesis by aspirin is critically dose-dependent in humans. Gastrointestinal and hepatic hydrolysis may limit systemic availability of aspirin, especially in low doses, perhaps contributing to the biochemical selectivity of aspirin. Existing analytical methods do not permit determination of systemic bioavailability when low (less than 100 mg) doses of aspirin are administered. Deuterium-labeled aspirin (2-acetoxy[3,4,5,6-2H4]benzoic acid) was synthesized from salicylic acid by catalytic exchange and subsequent acetylation. Analysis of the compounds as benzyl esters by GC-MS followed extractive alkylation from plasma. Heptadeuterated compounds were used as internal standards. Simultaneous administration of tetradeuterated aspirin intravenously with native aspirin orally to anesthetized dogs permitted kinetic studies of both aspirin and salicylic acid. The sensitivity of the method is superior to published methods using HPLC and, thus, more applicable to studies of low dose aspirin. Pulse administration of stable isotope-labeled aspirin permits detailed and repeated studies of dose-related aspirin pharmacokinetics in humans

  17. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Massimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4 overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα. In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293 to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin.

  18. Aspirin inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and downregulates specificity protein (Sp transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pathi

    Full Text Available Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin is highly effective for treating colon cancer patients postdiagnosis; however, the mechanisms of action of aspirin in colon cancer are not well defined. Aspirin and its major metabolite sodium salicylate induced apoptosis and decreased colon cancer cell growth and the sodium salt of aspirin also inhibited tumor growth in an athymic nude mouse xenograft model. Colon cancer cell growth inhibition was accompanied by downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and decreased expression of Sp-regulated gene products including bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, VEGFR1, cyclin D1, c-MET and p65 (NFκB. Moreover, we also showed by RNA interference that β-catenin, an important target of aspirin in some studies, is an Sp-regulated gene. Aspirin induced nuclear caspase-dependent cleavage of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 proteins and this response was related to sequestration of zinc ions since addition of zinc sulfate blocked aspirin-mediated apoptosis and repression of Sp proteins. The results demonstrate an important underlying mechanism of action of aspirin as an anticancer agent and, based on the rapid metabolism of aspirin to salicylate in humans and the high salicylate/aspirin ratios in serum, it is likely that the anticancer activity of aspirin is also due to the salicylate metabolite.

  19. In vivo prostacyclin biosynthesis and effects of different aspirin regimens in patients with essential thrombocythaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, V; Rocca, B; Squellerio, I; Dragani, A; Veglia, F; Pagliaccia, F; Porro, B; Barbieri, S S; Tremoli, E; Patrono, C

    2014-07-01

    Essential thrombocythaemia (ET) is characterised by enhanced platelet generation and thrombosis. Once daily (od) aspirin incompletely inhibits platelet thromboxane (TX)A2 production in ET. A twice daily (bid) dosing is necessary to fully inhibit TXA2. Whether this dosing regimen affects in vivo prostacyclin (PGI2) biosynthesis is unknown. PGI2 biosynthesis was characterised in 50 ET patients on enteric-coated (EC) aspirin 100 mg od, by measuring its urinary metabolite, 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF1α (PGI-M). Moreover, in a crossover study 22 patients poorly responsive to standard aspirin based on serum TXB2 levels (≥4 ng/ml) were randomised to different seven-day aspirin regimens: EC aspirin 100 mg od, 100 mg bid, 200 mg od, or plain aspirin 100 mg od. PGI-M measured 24 hours after the last aspirin intake (EC, 100 mg od) was similar in patients and healthy subjects both on (n=10) and off (n=30) aspirin. PGI-M was unrelated to in vivo TXA2 biosynthesis, and not affected by EC aspirin 100 mg bid or 200 mg od as compared to EC 100 mg od. PGI2 biosynthesis in aspirin-treated ET patients appears unrelated to TXA2 biosynthesis, and not affected by an improved aspirin regimen, demonstrating its vascular safety for future trials. PMID:24671522

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in young healthy men is associated with aspirin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Janus, Agnieszka; Jakubowski, Maciej; Turek, Aleksandra; Ilnicka, Paulina; Szuba, Andrzej; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between endothelial dysfunction and aspirin response in a young healthy population (102 men aged 18-40). Initial concentrations of the NO pathway metabolites (ADMA, l-arginine, SDMA), cardiovascular risk markers, oxidative stress markers (MDA, thiol index), sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin, VEGF, thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and arachidonate-induced platelet aggregation (to separate aspirin resistant from sensitive group) were measured. Flow-mediated-vasodilation (FMD) was measured before and after intravenous infusion of 16.0 g of l-arginine. Measurements were repeated following aspirin administration (75 mg/24 h) for 4 days. Both groups were homogenous regarding demographic and biochemical characteristics reflecting cardiovascular risk. Aspirin resistant subjects were characterized by lower baseline FMD and higher FMD following aspirin and l-arginine treatment, as compared to aspirin sensitive control. MDA and nitrotyrosine were greater, whereas thiol index was lower in aspirin resistant men. The sICAM1, sVCAM1, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin and VEGF levels were similar in the analyzed groups. Thromboxane in aspirin resistant subjects was greater both at baseline and following aspirin therapy. However, a significant decrease following aspirin treatment was present in both groups. Aspirin resistance in young men is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which could be due to oxidative stress resulting from lipid peroxidation. PMID:25697550

  1. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Isabella; Ciuffetta, Ambra; Temperilli, Flavia; Ferrandino, Francesca; Zicari, Alessandra; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Felli, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin modifies MRP4 gene expression and its correlation with drug elimination and cell toxicity. We first investigated the effect of high-dose aspirin in Hek-293 and we showed that aspirin is able to increase cell toxicity dose-dependently. Furthermore, aspirin effects, induced at low dose, already enhance MRP4 gene expression. Based on these findings, we compared cell viability in Hek-293, after high-dose aspirin treatment, in MRP4 overexpressing cells, either after aspirin pretreatment or in MRP4 transfected cells; in both cases, a decrease of selective aspirin cell growth inhibition was observed, in comparison with the control cultures. Altogether, these data suggest that exposing cells to low nontoxic aspirin dosages can induce gene expression alterations that may lead to the efflux transporter protein overexpression, thus increasing cellular detoxification of aspirin. PMID:26491233

  2. Monitoring the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets with a fiber-optic dissolution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Ping-Ping Xu; Xin-Xia Li; Kun Nie; Ming-Fu Tuo; Bin Kong; Jian Chen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrolyzation of aspirin during the process of dissolution testing for aspirin delayed-release tablets. Hydrolysis product of salicylic acid can result in adverse effects and affect the determination of dissolution rate assaying. In this study, the technique of differential spectra was employed, which made it possible to monitor the dissolution testing in situ. The results showed that the hydrolyzation of aspirin made the percentage of salicylic acid exceed the limit of free salicylic acid (4.0), and the hydrolyzation may affect the quality detection of aspirin delayed-release tablets.

  3. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin. PMID:26596838

  4. Changes in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota at Pulmonary Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmody, Lisa A.; Zhao, Jiangchao; Schloss, Patrick D.; Petrosino, Joseph F; Murray, Susan; Young, Vincent B.; Li, Jun Z.; LiPuma, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: In persons with cystic fibrosis (CF), repeated exacerbations of pulmonary symptoms are associated with a progressive decline in lung function. Changes in the airway microbiota around the time of exacerbations are not well understood.

  5. Why we should not skip aspirin in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrör, K

    2016-01-01

    Since more than 20 years, aspirin is an approved and established first-line antiplatelet medication in cardiovascular prevention. This is partially due to ist unique mode of action which is not shared with any other antiplatelet agent as well by the reliability of its pharmacological efficacy: inhibition of platelet COX-1 and subsequent thromboxane formation in almost every patient. Aspirin acts synergistic with ADP-antagonists in dual antiplatelet therapy of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and is also approved for long-term secondary prevention. Patients with atrial fibrillation are an exception and benefit more from anticoagulants. After the introduction of the new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), i.e. direct inhibitors of factor Xa or thrombin formation, there is a renewed discussion about the role of antiplatelet agents, specifically if additional dual antiplatelet treatment is still necessary for an optimum clinical effect or whether one component, such as aspirin might be skipped in favor of other classes of oral antiplatelet agents, such as ADP-antagonists. The available data are insufficient to recommend this because of a low number of studies and a still uncertain benefit/risk (bleeding) ratio. More research on aspirin as a chemopreventive appears also to be necessary and is going on, in particular in individuals at high-risk for vascular thrombotic diseases (diabetics, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism). PMID:25891122

  6. Perioperative aspirin and clonidine and risk of acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Amit X; Kurz, Andrea; Sessler, Daniel I;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Acute kidney injury, a common complication of surgery, is associated with poor outcomes and high health care costs. Some studies suggest aspirin or clonidine administered during the perioperative period reduces the risk of acute kidney injury; however, these effects are uncertain and ...

  7. Aspirin for Prevention of Preeclampsia in Lupus Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie M. Schramm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia, the onset of hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy, is a common medical disorder with high maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The underlying pathology remains poorly understood and includes inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and an unbalanced thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio. For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, particularly those with preexisting renal disease or with active lupus, the risk of developing preeclampsia is up to 14% higher than it is among healthy individuals. The mechanism is still unknown and the data for preventing preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies are rare. Modulating the impaired thromboxane A2/prostacyclin ratio by administration of low-dose aspirin appears to be the current best option for the prevention of preeclampsia. After providing an overview of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, preeclampsia in lupus pregnancies, and previous trials for prevention of preeclampsia with aspirin treatment, we recommend low-dose aspirin administration for all lupus patients starting prior to 16 weeks of gestation. Patients with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome should receive treatment with heparin and low-dose aspirin during pregnancy.

  8. Aspirin induced fixed drug eruptions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama R. Bhosale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed drug eruptions are common cutaneous adverse drug reactions, commonly caused by anticonvulsants, antibiotics and analgesics. Here, we report a case of a 27-year-old male of fixed drug eruptions due to Aspirin which was used in treatment of headache. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 220-221

  9. SYNTHESIS OF BIOCOMPATIBLE ACRYLIC POLYMERS HAVING ASPIRIN-MOIETIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fumian; GU Zhongwei; FENG Xinde(S. T. Voong)

    1983-01-01

    Several new monomers, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-(acetylsalicylyloxy)ethyl acrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl methacrylate, β-hydroxy-γ-(acetylsalicylyloxy)propyl acrylate have been synthesized from aspirin with corresponding hydroxyalkyl or glycidyl acrylates, and then polymerized by free radical initiator.

  10. The neuroprotection of Aspirin on Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-ying; YuJuan; ChenChong-hong; ZhouYu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Aspirin (aeetylsalicylic acid, ASA as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug not only has well-established efficacy in anti-thromboxane, but also has direct neuroprotective effect. In this study, we design to investigate its neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI rats, and its effect on ATP level from occluded brain tis-

  11. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger L. Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Two interrelated questions were raised for investigation in this study: (1 why may government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer? (2 Does government intervention make a difference in what these transacting parties would otherwise have decided or chosen in its absence? Approach: An internet literature search was performed, using query term combinations, to identify aspirin-related studies. The search yielded 51 juried publications that met our predetermined criteria for inclusion and thematic analysis. Results: Some variance exists within the surveyed literature concerning government intervention in aspirin prophylaxis for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, particularly heart attacks, strokes and cardiovascular death. This study identified 4 instances of market failure that offer some of the strongest theoretical and practical considerations for public policy intervention in aspirin’s pharmacological information. However, there is also indication that the sense of increased protection arising from safety regulations could stimulate risky behavior that nullifies their net protective effects or benefits. Conclusion: It is not clear either from the surveyed literature or existing economic theory if, ceteris paribus, mandatory safety information is necessary to alter or modify the marginal propensity of a physician to recommend and a patient to purchase, aspirin. The study suggested the need for policy reinforcements to any safety information regulation, if market failures are to be effectively addressed and risk compensating behavior reduced.

  12. The role of aspirin in colorectal cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ranger, Gurpreet

    2016-08-01

    Considerable interest has emerged over the last decade regarding the role of aspirin in prevention of colorectal cancer. This disease is one of the commonest cancers in the Western World, therefore, the existence of a simple "everyday" agent, which could have the ability to prevent the disease, represents an invaluable opportunity clinicians may be able to exploit. Evidence from case-control and cohort studies, and recent updates of randomised controlled trials have been very encouraging-indicating benefit from long term use of aspirin at low dose. Possible mechanisms of chemoprevention include inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, or COX-independent mechanisms, for example, the PIK3CA pathway, or therapy-induced senescence of cancer cells. The most serious side effect of prolonged aspirin treatment is haemorrhage, especially from the GI tract. This is likely to be less of a problem with chemoprevention at lower doses. One also needs to consider the impact if aspirin resistance, an increasingly recognised clinical entity. PMID:27289249

  13. The utilization status of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xian-jun; YU Yong-fei; GUO Zhen-li; XU Kang; HAl Hong; ZHANG Ai-he; JIANG Hong; PENG Hong

    2009-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed to investigate the usage of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke, evaluate the correlated factors, and analyze the reasons for not taking and irregularly taking aspirin. Methods The patients in this group were all stroke survivors who have formerly been diagnosed with a cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in our hospital. We investigated their use of aspirin over a three-year periodfollowing their hospitalization. According to the patients' aspirin usage, they were divided into treatment and non-treatment groups. In addition, the reasons for not taking or irregularly taking aspirin were analyzed in the two groups. Results A total of 1240 patients were studied, including 367 (29.60%) in the treatment group and 873 (70.40%) cases in the non-treatment group. In addition, 201 (16.20%) cases in the treatment group had been regularly taking aspirin (50-325 mg of aspirin daily) for 1 to 3 years or longer. The results demonstrated that the main reasons for not taking aspirin in this study were related to patients' concems regarding the side effects of taking aspirin (46.45%), as well as the doctors' inadequacy in informing their patients to take aspirin (38.71%). The major reasons for patients to irregularly take aspirin were that the doctors did not notify the length of aspirin usage to their patients (41.57%), and that doctors did not prescribe aspirin upon the patients' follow-up visit (26.51%). Conclusion The most effective way to increase patient's compliance for aspirin consumption is to promote the guidelines for stroke treatment and to relay these advances in stroke therapy to the patient.

  14. Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

    OpenAIRE

    Attiya Siddiqi; Sanjay Sethi

    2008-01-01

    Attiya Siddiqi, Sanjay SethiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Western New York Health Care System and University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USAAbstract: Our understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and consequences of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has increased substantially in the last decade. Several new lines of evidence demonstrate that bacterial isola...

  15. Treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis - could do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Alan

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the nature and significance of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis (CF). The effectiveness and safety of current exacerbation treatment are explored. The article concludes with a summary of clinical trials (completed and ongoing) which aim to improve the efficacy and safety of exacerbation treatment. PMID:27349725

  16. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  17. Self-reported sleep quality and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger-Brown J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeanne Geiger-Brown,1 Sarah Lindberg,2 Samuel Krachman,3 Charlene E McEvoy,4 Gerard J Criner,3 John E Connett,2 Richard K Albert,5 Steven M Scharf6 1Center for Health Outcomes Research, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, 2University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Division of Biostatistics, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 4Health Partners Institute of Education and Research, St Paul, MN, 5The Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, the University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, 6Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD suffer from poor sleep quality. We hypothesized that poor sleep quality in otherwise stable patients predicted exacerbations in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of the results of a previously published randomized trial of azithromycin in 1,117 patients with moderate to severe COPD who were clinically stable on enrollment. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Other quality of life indices included the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey and the St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire. Outcomes included time to first exacerbation and exacerbation rate. Results: Sleep quality was “poor” (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index >5 in 53% of participants but was not related to age or severity of airflow obstruction. Quality of life scores were worse in “poor” sleepers than in “good” sleepers. Major classes of comorbid conditions, including psychiatric, neurologic, and musculoskeletal disease, were more prevalent in the “poor” sleepers. Unadjusted time to first exacerbation was shorter (190 versus 239 days and exacerbation rate (1

  18. Risk of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia after pulmonary resection for lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on preoperative high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with lung cancer accompanied by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute exacerbation of the IPF often occurs after pulmonary resection; however, few studies have been done to identify its preexisting risk factors. We analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of IPF to identify the radiological characteristics of IPF susceptible to acute exacerbation after lung cancer surgery. We reviewed retrospectively 28 lung cancer patients with IPF who underwent pulmonary resection. Clinical data, respiratory function, HRCT findings, and historical features were compared between the acute exacerbation (n=9) and nonexacerbation (n=19) groups. The classification of radiological findings of IPF on HRCT was done using a scoring system of seven factors related to the interstitial shadow, including fibrosis, ground-glass opacity, and low-attenuation area. There were no significant differences in clinical background, respiratory function, composite physiologic index, or pathological features between the groups; however, the degree of fibrosis on preoperative HRCT was significantly higher in the exacerbation group (P<0.003). The fibrosis score was higher on the opposite side to the lung cancer in the exacerbation group (P<0.05). Although it is difficult to predict postoperative acute IPF exacerbation, the degree and laterality of co-existing fibrosis seem to be predictors. (author)

  19. Poor awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury with combined protective medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-Ling Zhu; Ling-Cheng Xu; Yan Chen; Quan Zhou; Su Zeng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate prescribing pattern in low-dose aspirin users and physician awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal (GI) injury with combined protective medications.METHODS:A retrospective drug utilization study was conducted in the 2nd Affiliated Hospital,School of Medicine,Zhejiang University.The hospital has 2300 beds and 2.5 million outpatient visits annually.Data mining was performed on all aspirin prescriptions for outpatients and emergency patients admitted in 2011.Concomitant use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs),histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) and mucoprotective drugs (MPs) were analyzed.A defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was applied to each MP.A further investigation was performed in aspirin users on combination use of GI injurious medicines [non-steoid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),corticosteroids and clopidogrel and warfarin] or intestinal protective drugs (misoprostol,rebamipide,teprenone and gefarnate).Data of major bleeding episodes were derived from medical records and adverse drug reaction monitoring records.The annual incidence of major GI bleeding due to low-dose aspirin was estimated for outpatients.RESULTS:Prescriptions for aspirin users receiving PPIs,H2RA and MPs (n =1039) accounted for only 3.46%of total aspirin prescriptions (n =30 015).The ratios of coadministration of aspirin/PPI,aspirin/H2RA,aspirin/MP and aspirin/PPI/MP to the total aspirin prescriptions were 2.82%,0.12%,0.40% and 0.12%,respectively.No statistically significant difference was observed in age between patients not receiving any GI protective medications and patients receiving PPIs,H2RA or MPs.The combined medication of aspirin and PPI was used more frequently than that of aspirin and MPs (2.82% vs 0.40%,P < 0.05) and aspirin/H2RA (2.82% vs 0.12%,P < 0.05).The values of DDDs of MPs in descending order were as follows:gefarnate,hydrotalcite > teprenone > sucralfate oral suspension > L-glutamine and sodium

  20. Determination of the etiological organism during acute exacerbations of COPD and efficacy of azithromycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor. Turkish Thoracic Society COPD Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umut, S; Tutluoglu, B; Aydin Tosun, G; Müsellim, B; Erk, M; Yildirim, N; Vahapoglu, H; Yilmaz, N; Arseven, O; Türker, H; Erelel, M; Ilvan, A; Göylüsün, V; Yilmaz Kuyucu, T; Koşar, F; Soysal, F; Gür, A; Unutmaz, S; Oztürk, S; Akman, M

    1999-06-01

    Acute exacerbations, most of which are due to lower respiratory tract infections, cause great morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and most of these are due to lower respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the causative organism and the effects of azithromycin, ampicillin sulbactam (sultamicillin), ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate therapy in COPD. One hundred and six patients with COPD in acute exacerbation were randomized into four groups for empiric antibiotic treatment following lung function tests and sputum examination. The most common strains isolated from sputum were Haemophilus influenzae (30.8%), Streptoccocus pneumoniae (12%) and Moraxella catarrhalis (7.7%). Azithromycin, sultamicillin, ciprofloxacin and cefaclor monohydrate were found to be effective in treating COPD exacerbations. PMID:10435684

  1. Always Consider the Possibility of Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression in Patients Presenting with Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure Who Fail to Improve as Expected with Appropriate Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Steynor; Andrew MacDuff

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnic respiratory failure is a frequently encountered medical emergency. Two common causes are acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and as a side effect of opioids. The two causes may coexist leading to diagnostic confusion and consequent delay in optimal management. We report a case of what was initially thought to be an exacerbation of COPD. The patient failed to improve with treatment as expected which led to the empirical administration of naloxone res...

  2. Bacterial–viral load and the immune response in stable and exacerbated COPD: significance and therapeutic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Anna SE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvestro Ennio D’Anna,1 Bruno Balbi,2 Francesco Cappello,3,4 Mauro Carone,2 Antonino Di Stefano21Department of Rehabilitation, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio di Cefalù, 2Pneumology Unit and Laboratory of Cytoimmunopathology of Heart and Lung, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno (NO and Cassano delle Murge (BA, 3Human Anatomy Section, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections. In this review, we present the most updated information about the role of bacteria and viruses in stable and exacerbated COPD. In our opinion, to optimize therapeutic strategies, the dynamic events involving bacterial–viral infections and related immune response in COPD phenotypes need to be better clarified. Our paper would address these points that we consider of great importance for the clinical management of COPD.Keywords: COPD phenotype, biomarkers, exacerbations, severity of COPD, microbiome

  3. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  4. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  5. Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J R; Lawrence, J R

    2001-08-01

    Aspirin was introduced into clinical practice more than 100 years ago. This unique drug belongs to a family of compounds called the salicylates, the simplest of which is salicylic acid, the principal metabolite of aspirin. Salicylic acid is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin, and may cause the reduced risk of colorectal cancer observed in those who take aspirin. Yet salicylic acid and other salicylates occur naturally in fruits and plants, while diets rich in these are believed to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Serum salicylic acid concentrations are greater in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and there is overlap between concentrations in vegetarians and those taking low-dose aspirin. We propose that the cancer-preventive action of aspirin is due to its principal metabolite, salicylic acid, and that dietary salicylates can have the same effect. It is also possible that natural salicylates contribute to the other recognized benefits of a healthy diet. PMID:11493722

  6. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Once-daily aspirin is standard treatment, but recent studies point towards increased platelet function at the end of the dosing interval. Stent thrombosis (ST) has been linked with reduced antiplatelet effect of aspirin, so we investigated if platelet inhibition by aspirin declines...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity......, platelet activation, immature platelets, and thrombopoietin were measured. RESULTS: Platelet aggregation increased by 109±150 (arachidonic acid) and 47±155 (collagen) aggregation units per minute from 1 to 24 h after aspirin intake (p-values <0.0001) with corresponding increases in thromboxane B2 (5...

  7. Risk analysis for aspirin and postoperative intracranial hemorrhage - report of 3 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shu-qing; WANG Ji-sheng; JI Nan; LIU Wei; QIAN Ke

    2009-01-01

    @@ Aspirin has been widely used clinically since 1899.For patients with cerebral ischemia and implanted intravascular stents, aspirin has been used routinely for prevention of intracranial hemorrhage and for anticoagulation treatment. However, many multi-center,large sample, controlled studies have shown that aspirin may actually increase the risk of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, and that aspirin was an independent predictor of death shortly after cerebral hemorrhage. Here we report a case series, between July 1 2006 and January 1 2008, of 3 patients who experienced postoperative intracranial hemorrhage after receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the Center of Neurosurgery,Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University.Two of them died. There were 86 patients in all receiving regular aspirin treatment before surgery in the same period. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in this group is 3.49%.

  8. Aspirin vs Heparin for the Prevention of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Kanellopoulou, Theoni; Makris, Thomas; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Nomikou, Efrosyni; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that remains a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preeclampsia can be resolved by delivery, and most of the proposed preventive treatment approaches are based on processes involved in placental development in early pregnancy. Yet, none of these has been established in clinical practice. Low-dose aspirin is the most promising candidate, nevertheless; while some individual randomized controlled trials showed minimal or no statistically significant benefit, recent metanalyses showed that early initiation before 16 weeks of gestation is associated with prevention of early-onset preeclampsia and reduction in prevalence of perinatal death or morbidity of pregnant women. Heparin could be an alternative antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory median to prevent preeclampsia either alone or in combination with aspirin; however, results are conflicting concerning efficacy. PMID:27251704

  9. Always Consider the Possibility of Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression in Patients Presenting with Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure Who Fail to Improve as Expected with Appropriate Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steynor, Martin; MacDuff, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnic respiratory failure is a frequently encountered medical emergency. Two common causes are acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and as a side effect of opioids. The two causes may coexist leading to diagnostic confusion and consequent delay in optimal management. We report a case of what was initially thought to be an exacerbation of COPD. The patient failed to improve with treatment as expected which led to the empirical administration of naloxone resulting in a dramatic reversal of her respiratory failure. The patient was subsequently discovered to be taking regular dihydrocodeine for chronic back pain. PMID:25893118

  10. Always Consider the Possibility of Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression in Patients Presenting with Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure Who Fail to Improve as Expected with Appropriate Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steynor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercapnic respiratory failure is a frequently encountered medical emergency. Two common causes are acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and as a side effect of opioids. The two causes may coexist leading to diagnostic confusion and consequent delay in optimal management. We report a case of what was initially thought to be an exacerbation of COPD. The patient failed to improve with treatment as expected which led to the empirical administration of naloxone resulting in a dramatic reversal of her respiratory failure. The patient was subsequently discovered to be taking regular dihydrocodeine for chronic back pain.

  11. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marson; Pasero, G

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba) were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Itali...

  12. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Against the backdrop of the 2009 scientific studies qualifying the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits of aspirin, two interrelated questions are raised for investigation in this study. First, why may the government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer, when it involves contentious pharmacological information? Second, does government intervention make a difference in what these transactin...

  13. Aspirin in Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events: Does Market Failure Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Against the backdrop of the 2009 scientific studies qualifying the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits of aspirin, two interrelated questions are raised for investigation in this study. First, why may the government intervene in an otherwise private transaction between physician and patient and between drug manufacturer and buyer, when it involves contentious pharmacological information? Second, does government intervention make a difference in what these transacting parties would otherwise have chosen to do in its absence? Approach: An Internet literature search was performed, using query term combinations, to identify relevant aspirin studies. The search yielded 61 juried publications that met our predetermined criteria for inclusion and thematic analysis. Results: Variance exists within the mix of economic and non-economic literature on aspirin information regulation. The study identified 4 instances of market failure that offer some of the most compelling theoretical and practical considerations for public policy intervention in the context of the 2009 findings. However, there is also indication that the sense of increased protection arising from safety regulations could stimulate risky behavior that nullifies their net protective effects or benefits. Conclusion: It is not clear either from the surveyed literature or existing economic theory if, ceteris paribus, regulated information alters or modifies the marginal propensity of a physician to recommend, and a patient to consume, aspirin to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, particularly heart attacks, strokes and vascular death. The study suggests the need for policy reinforcements to safety information, if market failures are to be efficiently addressed and risk compensating behavior reduced.

  14. Anti-thrombotic effects of a nitric oxide-releasing, gastric-sparing aspirin derivative.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, J. L.; McKnight, W; del Soldato, P; Baydoun, A. R.; Cirino, G

    1995-01-01

    Effects of a nitroxybutylester derivative of aspirin (NCX 4215) on platelet aggregation and prostanoid synthesis were compared to the effects of aspirin. NCX 4215 was approximately seven times more potent than aspirin as an inhibitor of thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro, but did not inhibit platelet thromboxane synthesis or gastric prostaglandin synthesis. NCX 4215 released nitric oxide when incubated in the presence of platelets and increased platelet levels of cGMP within...

  15. Selective Cumulative Inhibition of Platelet Thromboxane Production by Low-dose Aspirin in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Patrignani, Paola; Filabozzi, Paola; Patrono, Carlo

    1982-01-01

    Acetylation of platelet cyclooxygenase by oral aspirin is dose dependent and cumulative with repeated administration. However, no single dose of aspirin has been found to be completely selective of platelet thromboxane (TX) synthesis inhibition in man. We determined the dose dependence, cumulative nature and selectivity of aspirin effects on platelet TXB2 and renal prostaglandin (PG) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production. We measured, by radioimmunoassay, serum TXB2 levels after whole blood clot...

  16. New Perspectives on Aspirin and the Endogenous Control of Acute Inflammatory Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Morris; Melanie Stables; Gilroy, Derek W.

    2006-01-01

    Aspirin is unique among the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in that it has both anti-inflammatory as well as cardio-protective properties. The cardio-protective properties arise form its judicious inhibition of platelet-derived thromboxane A2 over prostacyclin, while its anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin stem from its well-established inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis within inflamed tissues. Thus aspirin and the other NSAIDs have popularised the notion of inhibiting PG biosy...

  17. Pharmacokinetics of aspirin and salicylate in relation to inhibition of arachidonate cyclooxygenase and antiinflammatory activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, G. A.; Salmon, J. A.; Henderson, B; Vane, J R

    1987-01-01

    Among the nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs there is generally a close correlation between the potency of their inhibition of arachidonate cyclooxygenase, and thus prostaglandin production, and their antiinflammatory activity. One anomaly in this generalization is that whereas aspirin and salicylate are equipotent as antiinflammatory agents, salicylate is less active than aspirin in inhibiting prostaglandin production in vitro. Using rats, we have now measured the concentrations of aspirin an...

  18. Aspirin induces nitric oxide release from vascular endothelium: a novel mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, D.; Berkels, R; Grosser, N.; Schröder, H; Gründemann, D; Schömig, E

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to test the hypothesis that aspirin may stimulate nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium, a pivotal factor for maintenance of vascular homeostasis.Clinical evidence suggests that low-dose aspirin may improve vascular endothelial function. Since other cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors showed no beneficial vascular effects, aspirin may exhibit a vasculoprotective, COX-independent mechanism.Luminal NO release was monitored in real time on dissected porcine coron...

  19. Low-Dose Aspirin for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ae Jin; Lim, Hye Jin; Ro, Han; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Han, Song Yi; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Ji Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD...

  20. Estimates of benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzick, J; Thorat, M. A.; Bosetti, C; Brown, P H; Burn, J.; Cook, N. R.; Ford, L. G.; Jacobs, E. J.; Jankowski, J.A.; La Vecchia, C.; Law, M.; Meyskens, F.; Rothwell, P.M.; Senn, H. J.; Umar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence supports an effect of aspirin in reducing overall cancer incidence and mortality in the general population. We reviewed current data and assessed the benefits and harms of prophylactic use of aspirin in the general population. Methods: The effect of aspirin for site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, cardiovascular events was collated from the most recent systematic reviews. Studies identified through systematic Medline search provided data regarding ha...

  1. Profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoping Liu; Yang Yu; Yuanjie Mao; Xinhua Wang; Jianzhong Wang; Yong Huo

    2008-01-01

    Objective Aspirin has been used extensively in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease,particularly for subjects at high risk such as metabolic syndrome.However,the responsiveness to aspirin treatment may vary among individuals.The present study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with metabolic syndrome.Methods In 221 consecutive patients,platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid (0.5mg/ml) was assessed after 10 days of aspirin treatment (200mg/d).Aspirin resistance was defined as mean optical platelet aggregation =20%.Results Aspirin resistance occurred in 39 patients (17.6%).Serum fibrinogen level was higher in patients with than in those without aspirin resistance (2.6_+0.4g/l vs 2.4±0.4g/L,P=0.017).The 2 groups,aspirin resistance group and no aspirin resistance group,did not differ significantly,with regard to gender,age,body mass index,waist-hip ratio,blood pressure level,serum cholesterol level and history of myocardial or cerebral infarction.Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only serum fibrinogen level entered the model (odds ratio 2.973,p=0.023).Subgroup analysis further showed that aspirin resistance occurred more in male patients with myocardial infarction (50% vs14.5%,P=0.02) and in female patients with diastolic blood pressure=85mmHg (34% vs 15.5%,P=0.043).But after multifactor logistic regression,in women blood pressure=85mmHg was not a predictor any more.Conclusions In patients with metabolic syndrome,aspirin resistance is not uncommon,especially for men with history of myocardial infarction.Patients with aspirin resistance have an increased serum fibrinogen level.(J Geriatr Cardio12008;5:7-10)

  2. Aspirin versus warfarin in atrial fibrillation: decision analysis may help patients' choice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2012-03-01

    the primary prevention of ischaemic stroke in chronic non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) typically involves consideration of aspirin or warfarin. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc estimates annual stroke rates for untreated AF patients, which are reduced by 60% with warfarin and by 20% with aspirin. HAS-BLED estimates annual rates of major bleeding on warfarin. The latter risk with aspirin is 0.5-1.2% per year.

  3. Aspirin Resistance: A Clinical Review Focused on the Most Common Cause, Noncompliance

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is an inexpensive, readily available medication that reduces the risk of subsequent vascular disease by about 25% in patients with known occlusive vascular disease. Aspirin’s beneficial effect is mediated via inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) activation of platelets and is detected by demonstrating a decrease in platelet function and/or a decrease in prostaglandin metabolites. Patients who are assumed to be taking their aspirin, but who do not demonstrate an aspirin effect are label...

  4. Effect of allopurinol, sulphasalazine, and vitamin C on aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    McAlindon, M E; Muller, A F; Filipowicz, B; Hawkey, C J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The mechanisms of aspirin induced gastroduodenal injury are not fully understood. Aspirin induces the release of reactive oxygen metabolites in animal models, which may contribute to mucosal injury. AIMS--To investigate the effects of aspirin administered with placebo or antioxidants on gastric mucosal reactive oxygen metabolite release and gastroduodenal injury in human volunteers. SUBJECTS--Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the study (seven male; mean age 27 years, ran...

  5. Multidrug Resistance Protein-4 Influences Aspirin Toxicity in Human Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of efflux transporters, in human cells, is a mechanism of resistance to drug and also to chemotherapy. We found that multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4) overexpression has a role in reducing aspirin action in patients after bypass surgery and, very recently, we found that aspirin enhances platelet MRP4 levels through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα). In the present paper, we verified whether exposure of human embryonic kidney-293 cells (Hek-293) to aspirin...

  6. Critical appraisal of a fixed combination of esomeprazole and low dose aspirin in risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Vachhani, Ravi; Bouhaidar, Doumit; Zfass, Alvin; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Nawras, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Low dose aspirin (≤325 mg) is routinely used for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The use of low dose aspirin is associated with two- to four-fold greater risk of symptomatic or complicated peptic ulcers. Risk factors associated with low dose aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity includes prior history of ulcer or upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, concomitant use of other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid or warfarin, d...

  7. Interactions of aspirin and other potential etiologic factors in an animal model of Reye syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, D.R.; Maassab, H. F.; Mason, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of Reye syndrome (RS) patients have suggested aspirin treatment as a possible factor in the etiology of this often fatal childhood disorder. the relationship of aspirin treatment to other factors that have been strongly implicated (influenza, ammonia toxicity) cannot be examined directly in patients because aspirin treatment is usually initiated by family members in the prodromal period before RS is diagnosed. In this report we describe the use of an animal model for RS in exam...

  8. Cancers prevented in Australia in 2010 through the consumption of aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Louise F.; Green, Adele C.; Kendall, Bradley J; Jordan, Susan J.; Nagle, Christina M; Bain, Christopher J; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers in Australia in 2010 that may have been prevented from occurring due to daily use of aspirin in the population. Methods We calculated the Prevented Fraction (PF) of colorectal and oesophageal cancers using standard formulae. The PF is the proportion of the hypothetical total load of cancer in the population that was prevented by exposure to aspirin. The formula incorporates estimates of the prevalence of aspirin use in Australian adu...

  9. Characterisation and prevention of exacerbations in frequently exacerbating patienst with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Uzun (Sevim)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease which is characterised by airway inflammation and progressive airflow limitation with poor reversibility. Periods of acute deterioration lie in the natural course of the disease and are called exacerbations. In l

  10. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  11. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as the initial presentation of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sakamoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical course of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is generally marked by a decline in pulmonary function over time, although recently there is increasing recognition that fatal deterioration from acute exacerbation can occur at any stage. The patient described in the present case study was a 65-yr-old male who presented with exertional dyspnoea and fever of 2 weeks' duration. He had no history of chronic lung disease or physiological or radiological hallmarks of pre-existing disease. He underwent surgical lung biopsy and the histological examination showed a background pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP with a pattern of focal acute diffuse alveolar damage (DAD in the area where normal lung architecture was preserved. It is notable that the pathological diagnosis of this rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia was DAD on UIP, which is typically seen in acute exacerbations of IPF. Unusual findings on high-resolution computed tomography scan were also noted. We presume that in this case acute exacerbation developed in the very early course of IPF. Given the possibility that similar cases may have arisen among patients diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, the histopathology of rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia may need to be revisited.

  12. Association of regular aspirin use and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swede, Helen; Mirand, Amy L; Menezes, Ravi J; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2005-01-01

    Of the limited number of epidemiological investigations on aspirin (and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and breast cancer, the majority observe a protective role, yet only a few report dose-response effects for frequency or duration of use. We studied aspirin use among 1,478 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1982 to 1998, and 3,383 cancer-free hospital controls at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared to never use,both regular (> or =1 tablet per week for > or =1 year) and occasional use were inversely associated with breast cancer (adjusted OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.64-0.97; adjusted OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.96, respectively). Among regular users, an inverse trend was found for number of tablets consumed per week (1, 2-6, or > or =7) with corresponding ORs of 0.95, 0.80, and 0.74 (P(trend) = 0.01). Daily use spanning 10 or more years was associated with a more pronounced reduction in risk (P(trend) = 0.005). Our findings corroborate the growing body of observational evidence that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:15802928

  13. Phytoremediation of aspirin and tetracycline by Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Sonal; Gauba, Pammi

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing release of pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, research is in progress for investigating alternative methods for their remediation. Various studies have shown the phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea for metals. The current study was aimed at evaluating the phytoremediation potential of B. juncea for two different pharmaceutical drugs i.e. aspirin and tetracycline in in-vitro conditions. The seeds of B. juncea were germinated and grown for a period of 28 and 24 days for aspirin and tetracycline, respectively. The study analyzed the remediation rate of B. juncea for the selected drugs in three different sets of varying concentration along with any phytotoxic effects exerted by the drugs on the seeds. Preliminary results showed that the average remediation rate of aspirin and tetracycline at the end of experiment was approximately 90% and 71%, respectively. As initial drug concentrations were increased in the media, the remediation rate also improved. However, at higher concentrations, the plants showed phytotoxicity as depicted by the decrease in shoot length of the germinated seeds. These preliminary results indicated that B. juncea could tolerate and remediate pharmaceutical drugs such as analgesics and antibiotics. PMID:26696522

  14. [Epidemiology of digestive complications associated with use of low-dose aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernichow, Pierre; Merle, Véronique

    2004-04-01

    Low-dose aspirin (myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Six to 12% of the general population is exposed to low-dose aspirin. The most frequently studied digestive complications are bleeding peptic ulcers, whose risk is increased twofold by low-dose aspirin treatment, and non-complicated peptic ulcers. History of bleeding or non-complicated peptic ulcer, alcohol intake, concomitant treatment with NSAID or calcic inhibitors are demonstrated risk factors of bleeding ulcer associated with low-dose aspirin. The role of enteric coating, of low-dose aspirin dose, of delay since low-dose aspirin treatment onset, and of Helicobacter pylori infection, remains controversial. Antisecretory drugs (H2 inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors), and nitroglycerin are associated with a decreased risk of bleeding ulcer. The protective effect of COX-2 inhibitors on the risk of bleeding ulcer is suppressed by concomitant treatment with low-dose aspirin. The risk of no- complicated peptic ulcer was increased by low-dose aspirin intake by a factor 2.9 in one study. Low-dose aspirin dose, infection by Helicobacter pylori, NSAID intake, and absence of enteric coating, are possible risk factors for non-complicated peptic ulcer. No association was retrieved with alcohol intake and peptic ulcer history. PMID:15366673

  15. Effect of aspirin on DNA damage induced by MMC in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, Miki; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2007-06-01

    In our previous paper, we found that aspirin suppressed the genotoxicity of mitomycin C (MMC) in a somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. In order to reveal the mechanism of antigenotoxicity of aspirin, we evaluated the protective effects of aspirin against the genotoxicity of MMC with the DNA repair test in Drosophila melanogaster. Three types of treatment of aspirin were performed as co-, post- and pre-treatment. Aspirin co-treatment suppressed effectively the genotoxicity of MMC in a dose-dependent manner and the sex ratio at a dose of aspirin 10mg/bottle elevated from 0.01 (without aspirin) to 0.65 at sc z(1) w(+(TE)) mei-9(a) mei-41(D5)/-C(1)DX, y f [mei-9 mei-41, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female] consists of DNA repair-deficient (Rec(-)) males and -proficient (Rec(+)) females. The antigenotoxic effect of aspirin on [mei-41, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female] was similar to that on [mei-9, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female]. But post- and pre-treatment by aspirin did not affect the genotoxicity of MMC on [mei-9 mei-41, Rec(-) male.Rec(+) female]. PMID:17336029

  16. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  17. Cigarette smoking inhibits the anti-platelet activity of aspirin in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei-ju; ZHANG Hong-yin; MIAO Cheng-long; TANG Ri-bo; DU Xin; SHI Ji-hui; MA Chang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which suggests that low-dose aspirin used in common clinical practice may not effectively inhibit platelet activity in smokers with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review was performed to assess the effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in patients with CHD.Data sources We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE (starting from the beginning to March 15, 2009)using the term "smoking" or "tobacco" paired with the following: "platelet", "aspirin" or "coronary heart disease".Study selection We looked for review articles regarding the effect of tobacco smoking on platelet activity and on the anti-platelet efficacy of aspirin in healthy people and patients with CHD. The search was limited in "core clinical journal".In total, 1321 relevant articles were retrieved, and 36 articles were ultimately cited.Results Tobacco smoking results in increased platelet aggregability, which can be inhibited by low-dose aspirin in the healthy population. However, in patients with CHD, the increased platelet aggregability can not be effectively inhibited by the same low-dose of aspirin. A recent study indicated that clopidogrel or an increased dose of aspirin can effectively inhibit the increased platelet aggregability induced by tobacco smoking in patients with CHD.Conclusions It is important for patients with CHD to quit smoking. For the current smoker, it may be necessary to take larger doses of aspirin than normal or take an adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor along with aspirin to effectively inhibit the increased platelet activity.

  18. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis

  19. Aspirin as a risk factor for hemorrhage in patients with head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, M A; Marbet, G; Radü, E W; Gratzl, O

    1992-01-01

    The role of aspirin as a risk factor in the occurrence of intracranial bleeding following head injury was investigated. Chronic subdural hematoma appears to be a suitable model for the evaluation of risk factors in the development of hemorrhage. The most common risk factors found in our study were, apart from age, chronic alcohol abuse (28%), consumption of cumarin-derivates (21%), aspirin (13%), and heparin (5%). A patient undergoing aspirin treatment must be considered at risk of development of chronic subdural hematoma. Aspirin should not be prescribed to patients with post-traumatic headaches. PMID:1584433

  20. Drug/drug interaction of common NSAIDs with antiplatelet effect of aspirin in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aaruni; Balaramnavar, Vishal M; Hohlfeld, Thomas; Saxena, Anil K

    2013-12-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may interfere with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin at the level of the platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzyme. In order to examine the interference of common NSAIDs with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin the human platelet rich plasma from voluntary donors was used for arachidonic acid-induced aggregation and determination of thromboxane synthesis. Further, docking studies were used to explain the molecular basis of the NSAID/aspirin interaction. The experimental results showed that celecoxib, dipyrone (active metabolite), ibuprofen, flufenamic acid, naproxen, nimesulide, oxaprozin, and piroxicam significantly interfere with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin, while diclofenac, ketorolac and acetaminophen do not. Docking studies suggested that NSAIDs forming hydrogen bonds with Ser530, Arg120, Tyr385 and other amino acids of the COX-1 hydrophobic channel interfere with antiplatelet activity of aspirin while non interfering NSAIDs do not form relevant hydrogen bond interactions within the aspirin binding site. In conclusion, docking analysis of NSAID interactions at the COX-1 active site appears useful to predict their interference with the anti-platelet activity of aspirin. The results, demonstrate that some NSAIDs do not interfere with the antiplatelet action of aspirin while many others do and provide a basis for understanding the observed differences among individual non-aspirin NSAIDs. PMID:24075938

  1. The effects of aspirin plus cisplatin on SGC7901/CDDP cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hanzhang; Liu, Gaogao; Jiang, Biao; Guo, Jiubing; Tao, Guoquan; Yiu, Wei; Zhou, Jingsong; Li, Guoxin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin plus cisplatin (CDDP) in the chemotherapy of gastric cancer. We cultured SGC7901/CDDP cells by long-term exposure of SGC7901 cells to small doses of CDDP in vitro. The cells were treated with aspirin, CDDP or aspirin plus CDDP for 24 h and cell growth was assessed by the MTT assay, the apoptotic rate by flow cytometry, the survivin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and the survivin protein expression by western blotting. The results revealed that the cell growth in the aspirin plus CDDP group was significantly inhibited. The apoptotic rate in the aspirin plus CDDP was significantly higher compared to that in the other groups. The survivin mRNA and protein expression were also significantly reduced in the aspirin plus CDDP group. Our data suggest that the combination of aspirin and CDDP exhibited a higher degree of toxicity against SGC7901/CDDP cells compared to that of aspirin or CDDP alone. Thus, the combination of aspirin plus CDDP may reduce the expression of survivin and induce the apoptosis of SGC7901/CDDP cells. PMID:24748972

  2. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  3. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivery, and other respiratory disorders may lead to respiratory failure and death particularly in people with OI Type ... have OI. It is a sobering fact that respiratory failure is the leading cause of death for people ...

  4. Low dose aspirin therapy and renal function in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Rotimi Oluyombo,2 Paul Sunday Ogunro,3 Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,4 Oluyomi Olusola Okunola,5 Olugbenga Edward Ayodele21Department of Medicine, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 3Department of Chemical Pathology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaPurpose: To determine whether low dose aspirin has any deleterious effects on renal function in elderly patients.Methods: We conducted a prospective pilot study of 30 Nigerians older than 60 years with various chronic ailments necessitating the use of low dose aspirin. Patients gave their consent, and institutional ethical clearance was obtained. Each patient's baseline samples at enrolment (before commencing aspirin use served as a control, and subsequent weekly samples were compared. The weekly mean of each parameter was calculated, and the differences of means from baseline were determined, and values were compared for statistical differences with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16.Results: We found that a majority of patients (86.67% had basal renal functions at chronic kidney disease stages 1 and 2. When compared with the corresponding baseline parameters, the mean weekly serum and urinary electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and uric acid parameters did not change, and the P-value did not show any statistical significance. However, there was positive statistical significance for the creatinine clearance (P = 0.025. Also, unlike in previous studies, anemia and hypoalbuminemia did not affect the renal function parameters.Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effects with short-term, low dose (75 mg daily aspirin use on kidney functions in

  5. Lights and shadows of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Lopez-Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1 NIV is not invariably available, 2 its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3 numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year. Even with an established indication, the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbations faces important challenges. First, the location and personnel using NIV should be carefully selected. Second, the use of NIV is not straightforward despite the availability of technologically advanced ventilators. Third, NIV therapy of critically ill patients requires a thorough knowledge of both respiratory physiology and existing ventilatory devices. Accordingly, an optimal team-training experience, the careful selection of patients, and special attention to the selection of devices are critical for optimizing NIV outcomes. Additionally, when applied, NIV should be closely monitored, and endotracheal intubation should be promptly available in the case of failure. Another topic that merits careful consideration is the use of NIV in the elderly. This patient population is particularly fragile, with several physiological and social characteristics requiring specific attention in relation to NIV. Several other novel indications should also be critically examined, including the use of NIV during fiberoptic bronchoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography, as well as in interventional cardiology and pulmonology. The present narrative review aims to provide updated information on the use of NIV in acute settings to improve the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations.

  6. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior heart attack: ticagrelor plus aspirin versus aspirin monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Frank; Schlesinger, Alex; Mazzoni, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Bonaca MP, Bhatt DL, Cohen M, et al. Long-term use of ticagrelor in patients with prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2015;372:1791-1800. This Practice Pearl reviews the recent study Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared With Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54 (PEGASUS-TIMI 54). It challenges the current standard of care of 12 months of dual antiplatelet followed by aspirin indefinitely. The study demonstrated that patients who received ticagrelor, either the 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily plus aspirin, showed a decreased risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The PEGASUS-TIMI 54 trial also proved that the benefit of ticagrelor was seen early and continued to accrue over time, with a median of 33 months of follow-up, meaning that the benefit persists over time. It is important to note that both doses of the ticagrelor were associated with higher incidence of bleeding, but the rates of fatal bleeding did not show any difference between the ticagrelor or placebo. PMID:26689345

  7. Association of airborne Aspergillus with asthma exacerbation in Southern Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Azam, Iqbal; Awan, Safia; Zafar, Afia; Imam, Asif Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to airborne fungi has been related with exacerbation of asthma in adults and children leading to increased outpatient, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Hypersensitivity to these airborne fungi may be an important initial predisposing factor in the development and exacerbation of asthma. Objective This study was conducted to determine an association between fungal types and spore concentrations with the risk of asthma exacerbation in adults. Methods This cross-s...

  8. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron (59Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca2+ uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca2+ uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by

  9. Differential Sex Response to Aspirin in Decreasing Aneurysm Rupture in Humans and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M; Correa, Tatiana; Jabbour, Pascal M; Zanaty, Mario; Brown, Robert D; Torner, James C; Hasan, David M

    2016-08-01

    We previously found that aspirin decreases the risk of cerebral aneurysm rupture in humans. We aim to assess whether a sex differential exists in the response of human cerebral aneurysms to aspirin and confirm these observations in a mouse model of cerebral aneurysm. A nested case-control analysis from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms was performed to assess whether a sex differential exists in the response of human cerebral aneurysms to aspirin. A series of experiments were subsequently performed in a mouse model of cerebral aneurysms. Aneurysms were induced with hypertension and elastase injection into mice basal cisterns. We found that aspirin decreased the risk of aneurysm rupture more significantly in men than in women in the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. In mice, aspirin and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor did not affect cerebral aneurysm formation but significantly decreased the incidence of rupture. The incidence of rupture was significantly lower in male versus female mice on aspirin. Gene expression analysis from cerebral arteries showed higher 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase levels in male mice. The rate of cerebral aneurysm rupture was similar in male mice receiving aspirin and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor compared with females receiving aspirin and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase agonist, signaling a reversal of the sex-differential response to aspirin. Aspirin decreases aneurysm rupture in human and mice, in part through cyclooxygenase-2 pathways. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests a consistent differential effect by sex. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activation in females reduces the incidence of rupture and eliminates the sex-differential response to aspirin. PMID:27296993

  10. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  11. Club Cell-16 and RelB as Novel Determinants of Arterial Stiffness in Exacerbating COPD Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Labonté

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are acute events of worsened respiratory symptoms that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, a leading cause of mortality amongst COPD patients. The utility of lung-specific inflammatory mediators such as club cell protein-16 (CC-16 and surfactant protein D (SPD and that of a novel marker of CV outcomes in COPD- RelB- in predicting adverse cardiovascular events during exacerbation is not known.Thirty-eight subjects with COPD admitted to the hospital for severe exacerbation were included in this analysis. Clinical, physiological and arterial stiffness measurements were performed within 72 hours of admission; this was followed by measurements taken every 3 days until hospital discharge, then once a week until 30 days after discharge, and then again at 90 and 180 days. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory mediators were measured from peripheral venous blood taken at admission, and at days 15, 30, 90 and 180.CC-16 and RelB concentrations were increased at day 15 of exacerbations whereas SPD concentrations were decreased. The course of change in CC-16 and RelB levels over time was inversely associated with that of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, the gold-standard measure of arterial stiffness. Increases in CC-16 could predict a decreased number of subsequent exacerbations during follow-up.Lung-specific (CC-16 and novel (RelB biomarkers are associated with systemic cardiovascular changes over time. CC-16 can predict subsequent exacerbations in subjects with severe COPD and may be an important biomarker of pulmonary and systemic stress in COPD.

  12. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zarqa Ali, Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy.Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the PubMed database.Results: During pregnancy, up to 6% of women with asthma are hospitalized for an acute exacerbation. The maternal immune system is characterized by a very high T-helper-2:T-helper-1 cytokine ratio during pregnancy and thereby provides an environment essential for fetal survival but one that may aggravate asthma. Cells of the innate immune system such as monocytes and neutrophils are also increased during pregnancy, and this too can exacerbate maternal asthma. Severe or difficult-to-control asthma appears to be the major risk factor for exacerbations during pregnancy, but studies also suggest that nonadherence with controller medication and viral infections are important triggers of exacerbations during pregnancy. So far, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the effect of fetal sex on exacerbations during pregnancy. Other risk factors for exacerbation during pregnancy include obesity, ethnicity, and reflux, whereas atopy does not appear to be a risk factor.Discussion: The incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is disturbingly high. Severe asthma – better described as difficult-to-control asthma – nonadherence with controller therapy, viral infections, obesity, and ethnicity are likely to be important risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy, whereas inconsistent findings have been reported with regard to the importance of sex of the fetus.Keywords: acute exacerbations

  13. Aspirin induces apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a nude mouse xenograft model

    OpenAIRE

    HOSSAIN, MOHAMMAD AKBAR; Kim, Dong Hwan; JANG, JUNG YOON; KANG, YONG JUNG; YOON, JEONG-HYUN; Moon, Jeon-OK; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Copple, Bryan L.; Kim, Nam Deuk

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells, including colon, prostate, breast and leukemia. Among them, aspirin, a classical NSAID, shows promise in cancer therapy in certain types of cancers. We hypothesized that aspirin might affect the growth of liver cancer cells since liver is the principal site for aspirin metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the effects of aspirin on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line in vi...

  14. The effects of real-time telemedicine consultations between hospital- based nurses and patients with severe COPD discharged after exacerbation admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of daily real-time teleconsultations for one week between hospital-based nurses specialised in respiratory diseases and patients with severe COPD discharged after acute exacerbation. Patients admitted with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...... (AECOPD) at two hospitals were recruited at hospital discharge. They were randomly assigned to intervention or control. The telemedicine equipment consisted of a briefcase with built-in computer including a web camera, microphone and measurement equipment. The primary outcome was the mean number of total...

  15. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  16. Variability in the Responsiveness to Low-Dose Aspirin: Pharmacological and Disease-Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main pharmacological aspects of pharmacodynamics (PD and pharmacokinetics (PK of aspirin as antiplatelet agent were unravelled between the late sixties and the eighties, and low-dose aspirin given once daily has been shown to be a mainstay in the current treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, several PD and PK aspects of aspirin in selected clinical conditions have recently emerged and deserve future clinical attention. In 1994, the term “aspirin resistance” was used for the first time, but, until now, no consensus exists on definition, standardized assay, underlying mechanisms, clinical impact, and possible efficacy of alternative therapeutic interventions. At variance with an undefined aspirin-resistant status, in the last 5 years, the concept of variability in response to aspirin due to specific pathophysiological mechanisms and based on PK and/or PD of the drug has emerged. This growing evidence highlights the existence and possible clinical relevance of an interindividual variability of pharmacological aspirin response and calls for new, large studies to test new low-dose aspirin-based regimens which may ameliorate platelet acetylation, reduce variability in drug responsiveness, and improve clinical efficacy on selected populations.

  17. The ADAPTABLE Trial and Aspirin Dosing in Secondary Prevention for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Abigail; Jones, W Schuyler; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2016-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the underlying cause of death in one out of seven deaths in the USA. Aspirin therapy has been proven to decrease mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Despite a plethora of studies showing the benefit of aspirin in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, debate remains regarding the optimal dose due to relatively small studies that had disparate results when comparing patients taking different aspirin dosages. More recently, aspirin dosing has been thoroughly studied in the CAD population with concomitant therapy (such as P2Y12 inhibitors); however, patients in these studies were not randomized to aspirin dose. No randomized controlled trial has directly measured aspirin dosages in a population of patients with established coronary artery disease. In 2015, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) developed a network, called PCORnet, that includes patient-powered research networks (PPRN) and clinical data research networks (CDRN). The main objective of PCORnet is to conduct widely generalizable observational studies and clinical trials (including large, pragmatic clinical trials) at a low cost. The first clinical trial, called Aspirin Dosing: A Patient-centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long-term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE), will randomly assign 20,000 subjects with established coronary heart disease to either low dose (81 mg) or high dose (325 mg) and should be able to finally answer which dosage of aspirin is best for patients with established cardiovascular disease. PMID:27423939

  18. Evaluation of nootropic and neuroprotective effects of low dose aspirin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nootropic and neuroprotective effects of aspirin in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR and central 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches were assessed using repeated electroconvulsive shock (ECS in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: control (pretreated with distilled water, scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg i.p., ECS (150 V, 50 Hz sinusoidal with intensity of 210 mA for 0.5 s pretreated, aspirin (6.75 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined scopolamine and aspirin pretreated, ondansetron (0.36 mg/kg orally pretreated, combined ECS and ondansetron pretreated and combined ECS and aspirin pretreated groups. Data was analyzed by the chi-square test and ANOVA. Results: Findings show that administration of single ECS daily for consecutive 8 days results in enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior (lithium-induced head twitches and in disruption of the retention of CAR. Aspirin and ondansetron administration significantly increased the retention of conditioned avoidance response compared to control. Ondansetron and aspirin significantly prevented ECS-induced attenuation of the retention of conditioned avoidance response also. On the other hand, ondansetron and aspirin significantly retarded the ECS-induced enhancement of 5-HT-mediated behavior. Conclusion: Inhibition of the serotonergic transmission by aspirin is responsible for its nootropic and neuroprotective actions.

  19. Study of effects of donepezil and aspirin on working memory in rats using electroconvulsive shock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul M. Manjare

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorder like AD. Combination of aspirin with donepezil increased the nootropic and neuroprotective effect of aspirin and thus may hold great clinical significance in such disorders. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1012-1015

  20. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  1. Aspirin and coumadin after acute coronary syndromes (the ASPECT-2 study) : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, RF; Jonker, JJC; Verheugt, FWA; Deckers, JW; Grobbee, DE

    2002-01-01

    Background Antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and oral anticoagulants reduces reocurrence of ischaemic events after myocardial infarction. We aimed to investigate which of these drugs is more effective in the long term after acute coronary events, and whether the combination of aspirin and oral ant

  2. Apixaban vs. warfarin with concomitant aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation: insights from the ARISTOTLE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, J.H.; Lopes, R.D.; Thomas, L.; Alings, M.; Atar, D.; Aylward, P.; Goto, S.; Hanna, M.; Huber, K.; Husted, S.; Lewis, B.S.; McMurray, J.J.; Pais, P.; Pouleur, H.; Steg, P.G.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Wojdyla, D.M.; Granger, C.B.; Wallentin, L.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We assessed the effect of concomitant aspirin use on the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In ARISTOTLE, 18 201 patients were randomized to apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin. Concomitant aspirin use was le

  3. Affordability Calculations on a Health Education Campaign to Promote the Use of Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Aspirin has far-reaching public health potential in reducing the risk of heart attacks, ischemic strokes and possibly cancer. Balanced against this potential are undesirable effects of the drug. It seems reasonable to allow every individual over the age of 50 years to make an informed choice about whether or not to take aspirin. A health education…

  4. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Smokers are at increased risk for developing lung and other cancers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  5. Effects of combined octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐承薇; 王春晖; 汤丽平

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the combination of octreotide and aspirin on the growth of gastric cancer. Methods Proliferation of gastric cancer cell lines treated with octreotide or aspirin was determined by 3 H-thymidine incorporation. After xenografts of human gastric cancer were implanted orthotropically in the stomach of nude mice, they were administered octreotide plus aspirin for 8 weeks. The mRNA of somatostatin receptor in the tissues of gastric carcinoma was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric cancer tissues was measured by immuno~histochemistry. Results Both octreotide and aspirin significantly reduced the 3 H-thymidine incorporation of gastric cancer cells. Xenografts in situ were found in all stomachs of nude mice except for two in the combination group. Either size or weight of tumors treated by octreotide, aspirin or in combination was significantly reduced as compared with that of controls. The inhibition rate for tumor was 60.6% (octreotide), 39.3% (aspirin), and 85.6% (in combination) respectively. No severe side effects were observed in any treated groups. Somatostatin receptor-2 and -3 were expressed in the transplanted gastric adenocarcinomas. Aspirin could down-regulate the strong expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the tissue of gastric adenocarcinomas of nude mice.Conclusion A combination of octreotide and aspirin significantly inhibited proliferation of gastric cancer through mediation of somatosatin receptors and suppression of cyclooxygenase-2.

  6. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of aspirin with warfarin in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenlin; Huang, Xiaohui; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ping; Li, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Tingting; Pappoe, Faustina; Huang, Jihan; Tang, Haiqin

    2016-01-01

    1. Warfarin and aspirin are widely used in a wide spectrum of thromboembolic and atherothrombotic diseases. Despite the potential efficacy of warfarin-aspirin therapy, the safety and side effect of combined therapy remains unclear. 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between warfarin and aspirin in beagles after single and multiple doses. 3. Coadministration of aspirin had no significant effects on the area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-t)) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of R- and S-warfarin after a single dose of warfarin, but significantly increase the AUC(0-t) and Cmax and dramatically decrease the clearance (CL) of R- and S-warfarin after multiple dose of warfarin. Accordingly, there was a slight increase in the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) after multiple dose of warfarin. 4. Coadministration of warfarin had no markedly effects on the AUC(0-t) and Cmax of aspirin and its metabolite salicylic acid after single or multiple dose of aspirin. Meanwhile, the AUEC(0-t) and Emax of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) were not significantly affected by warfarin. 5. Our animal study indicated that coadministration of aspirin with warfarin can cause significant pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions in beagles. However, more studies are urgently needed to assess related information of warfarin-aspirin drug interactions in healthy volunteers or patients. PMID:26548565

  7. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  8. Evaluation of Low-Intensity Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Combination with Aspirin for Reduction of Controlled Thermal Sensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kajander, Keith C.

    1988-01-01

    Reductions in cutaneous thermal sensation produced by placebo, aspirin, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin were compared in 60 normal volunteers. The combination of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus aspirin produced a statistically significant reduction as compared with placebo. The results suggest this treatment combination may provide levels of analgesia useful for completion of minor dental procedures.

  9. Fourteen-Year Follow-Up From CABADAS : Vitamin K Antagonists or Dipyridamole Not Superior to Aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Zijlstra, Felix; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background. Secondary prophylaxis using aspirin is standard of care after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Limited data are available for long-term results. We evaluated the effect of aspirin, aspirin with dipyridamole, and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) on 14-year clinical outcome of patients inc

  10. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  11. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio; Locantore, Nicholas; Müllerova, Hana; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Miller, Bruce; Lomas, David A; Agusti, Alvar; Macnee, William; Calverley, Peter; Rennard, Stephen; Wouters, Emiel F M; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; NN, NN

    2010-01-01

    COPD that is independent of disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and associations of exacerbation in 2138 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. Exacerbations were defined as events that led a care provider...

  12. Factors associated with change in exacerbation frequency in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donaldson, Gavin C; Müllerova, Hanna; Locantore, Nicholas;

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be categorized as having frequent (FE) or infrequent (IE) exacerbations depending on whether they respectively experience two or more, or one or zero exacerbations per year. Although most patients do not change category from year to...

  13. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma...

  14. Anti-apoptotic effects of aspirin following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Qiu; Bin Du; Ying Li; Hongbin Fan; Zhiyong Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pharmacological effects of aspirin on apoptosis are complex. The underlying mechanisms have not been properly defined. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different doses of aspirin on brain cell apoptosis following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) in rats. DESING, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment, performed at the School of Medicine and Pharmaceutics, Jiangnan University between June and October 2006. MATERIALS: Twenty-six male, adult, Sprague Dawley rats (grade II), weighing 240-290 g, were obtained from Shanghai Experimental Animal Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Aspirin was provided by Sigma (USA). METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham-operation (SO), CIRI+ vehicle, CIRI+ aspirin (6 mg/kg), and CIRI + aspirin (60 mg/kg). Rats in the lesion groups were intragastrically administrated saline, aspirin (6 mg/kg), or aspirin (60 mg/kg), respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of pyramidal neurons with normal appearance in the cerebral cortex at 2-4 mm from the midline; apoptotic cell death as measured by TUNEL; Bcl-2 and Bax protein localization was determined by immunohistochemistry; maiondiaidehyde (MDA) and super oxidation (SOD) content were determined by biochemistry method; adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content measured by capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: Following CIRI, the following parameters were altered compared with sham-operated animals: the number of neurons with normal appearance was significantly reduced in the cerebral cortex; the number of apoptotic cells increased; Bax protein expression was enhanced; and the ratio between Bcl-2 and Bax decreased. In addition, MDA content increased significantly, whereas ATP content decreased (P < 0.01 ). Aspirin ameliorated the loss of healthy pyramidal neurons. Both 6 and 60 mg/kg aspirin increased the ratio between Bcl-2 and Bax, with no significant difference between the treatment groups. In addition, 60 mg

  15. Spirometry Findings Following Treatment with Oral and Inhalant Corticosteroids in Mild to Moderate Asthma Exacerbation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Asthma exacerbation is common in children. Treatment with oral corticosteroids (OCS and inhaled corticosteroids are suggested for asthma exacerbation. It is shown that inhaled corticosteroids has similar outcome in reducing asthma symptoms compared to OCS. But few studies have evaluated the pulmonary function changes in these two treatments. In this study, we evaluated the changes in pulmonary function tests in children with mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbation receiving oral prednisolone and inhaled Budesonide. Methods and Materials: Forty-four children with mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbation were randomly assigned to receive oral prednisolone (2 mg/kg or Budesonide spray (2 puffs every 12 hours, each puff contains 200 microgram Budesonide using a spacer for one week. The first dose of the treatment was given in the emergency department. Children were followed for seven days and spirometry findings before and after treatment were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between pulmonary function tests before and after treatment between groups. Children receiving oral prednisolone had significantly more improvement in PEF (p=0.01. There was significant improvement in all respiratory parameters after treatment in both groups (p

  16. Low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera: a pilot study. Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia (GISP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this pilot study, aimed at exploring the feasibility of a large-scale trial of low-dose aspirin in polycythaemia vera (PV), 112 PV patients (42 females, 70 males. aged 17-80 years) were selected for not having a clear indication for, or contraindication to, aspirin treatment and randomized to receive oral aspirin (40 mg/d) or placebo. Follow-up duration was 16 +/- 6 months. Measurements of thromboxane A2 production during whole blood clotting demonstrated complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase activity in patients receiving aspirin. Aspirin administration was not associated with any bleeding complication. Within the limitations of the small sample size, this study indicates that a biochemically effective regimen of antiplatelet therapy is well tolerated in patients with polycythaemia vera and that a large-scale placebo-controlled trial is feasible. PMID:9163613

  17. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the colon. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a two-by-two design to investigate the effects of aspirin, at a dose of 600 mg per day, and resistant starch (Novelose), at a dose of 30 g per day, in reducing the risk of adenoma and carcinoma among persons with the Lynch...... carcinoma developed in 141 participants. Of 693 participants randomly assigned to receive aspirin or placebo, neoplasia developed in 66 participants receiving aspirin (18.9%), as compared with 65 receiving placebo (19.0%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.4). There were no...

  18. Low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Charlotte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Borre, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that aspirin use may protect against prostate cancer. In a nationwide case-control study, using Danish high-quality registry data, we evaluated the association between the use of low-dose aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the...... risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We identified 35,600 patients (cases) with histologically verified prostate cancer during 2000-2012. Cases were matched to 177,992 population controls on age and residence by risk-set sampling. Aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID exposure was defined by type, estimated dose......, duration, and consistency of use. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs), with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs), for prostate cancer associated with low-dose aspirin (75-150 mg) or nonaspirin NSAID use, adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Use of low-dose aspirin was...

  19. Medically treated exacerbations in COPD by GOLD 1-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We hypothesized that medically treated exacerbations in COPD defined as treatments with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics by register linkage with a nationwide prescription registry is a valid, robust and low-biased measure of exacerbations. METHODS: A total of 13......,591 individuals with COPD in the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2013) were linked to the Danish prescription registry. Exacerbations were defined as dispensing of oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics, dispensed less than four weeks apart during three years of follow......-up. Construct validity of this definition of medically treated exacerbations was assessed by studying baseline determinants as well as by studying the association between GOLD 1 through 4 grades and time to first exacerbation during follow-up. RESULTS: Among individuals with COPD, 964 individuals (7.1%) had at...

  20. Mepolizumab for the reduction of exacerbations in severe eosinophilic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Brightling, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Asthma affects over 300 million people worldwide and is severe in 10% of sufferers. Severe asthma is associated with greater morbidity and mortality particularly as a consequence of frequent exacerbations. Advances in approaches to phenotype the heterogeneity of severe asthma has established the importance of eosinophilic inflammation and emerging new therapies are broadly designed to target T2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation with the aim to reduce exacerbation frequency. Here, we summarize the evidence that eosinophilic asthma is an important pheno(endo)type and identifies a group at risk of exacerbations; that established therapies reduce exacerbations, particularly in eosinophilic severe asthma; and discuss the role of mepolizumab, an IL-5 neutralising monoclonal antibody therapy, in reducing exacerbations in severe eosinophilic asthma compared to established and other emerging therapies. PMID:27058452

  1. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: causes and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sunil K; Dash, Devi Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are recognised clinically as episodes of increased breathlessness and productive cough requiring a more intensive treatment. A subset of patients with this disease is especially prone to such exacerbations. These patients are labelled as 'frequent exacerbators'. Though yet poorly characterised in terms of host characteristics, including any genetic basis, these patients are believed to represent a distinct phenotype as they have a different natural history with a more progressive disease and a poorer prognosis than those who get exacerbations infrequently. Most exacerbations appear to be associated with infective triggers, either bacterial or viral, although 'non-infective' agents, such as air pollution and other irritants may also be important. Susceptibility to exacerbations is determined by multiple factors. Several risk factors have been identified, some of which are modifiable. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are major drivers of health status and patient-centered outcomes, and are a major reason for health care utilisation including hospitalisations and intensive care admissions. These are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, both immediate and long-term. These episodes have a negative impact on the patient and the disease including high economic burden, increased mortality, worsening of health status, limitation of activity, and aggravation of comorbidities including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and neuro-psychiatric complications. Exacerbations also increase the rate of progression of disease, increasing the annual decline in lung function and leading to a poorer prognosis. Evaluation of risk of exacerbations is now included as a major component of the initial assessment of a patient with COPD in addition to the traditionally used lung function parameter, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Decreasing the risk of exacerbations

  2. Serum cholesterol concentration associated with aspirin esterase activity in older people: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kotani, Russell Caccavello, Ricardo Hermo, Toshiyuki Yamada, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, Alejandro Gugliucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Metabolism of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, commonly used in older people for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, is important to the effectiveness of this drug. Whereas part of aspirin hydrolysis occurs in blood, there is a paucity of information in regards to circulating aspirin esterase activity in various physiological and pathological conditions. High aspirin esterase activity, corresponding to faster aspirin hydrolysis (thus aspirin non-responsiveness, may occur in cardiovascular disease-prone states. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cardio-metabolic variables such as cholesterol on serum aspirin esterase activity in older people who participated in an intervention study on physical activity. METHODS: A total of 18 non-medicated subjects (7 men/11 women, mean age 67.8 years, body mass index = 23.4 ± 3.3 kg/m2, who completed a 3-month interventional program for a mild-to-moderate increase in physical activity, were analyzed. The body mass index, plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and aspirin esterase activity were measured in the pre- and post-interventional phases of the study. RESULTS: During the interventional period, the changes in aspirin esterase activity correlated significantly and positively with those of total cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.542, P = 0.020; β = 0.609, P = 0.035 in a multiple linear regression analysis after adjusting for all the measured variables. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that cholesterol metabolism alterations may be associated with aspirin metabolism in older people.

  3. Cardioprotective aspirin users and their excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Rodríguez Luis A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To balance the cardiovascular benefits from low-dose aspirin against the gastrointestinal harm caused, studies have considered the coronary heart disease risk for each individual but not their gastrointestinal risk profile. We characterized the gastrointestinal risk profile of low-dose aspirin users in real clinical practice, and estimated the excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin among patients with different gastrointestinal risk profiles. Methods To characterize aspirin users in terms of major gastrointestinal risk factors (i.e., advanced age, male sex, prior ulcer history and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, we used The General Practice Research Database in the United Kingdom and the Base de Datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria in Spain. To estimate the baseline risk of upper gastrointestinal complications according to major gastrointestinal risk factors and the excess risk attributable to aspirin within levels of these factors, we used previously published meta-analyses on both absolute and relative risks of upper gastrointestinal complications. Results Over 60% of aspirin users are above 60 years of age, 4 to 6% have a recent history of peptic ulcers and over 13% use other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The estimated average excess risk of upper gastrointestinal complications attributable to aspirin is around 5 extra cases per 1,000 aspirin users per year. However, the excess risk varies in parallel to the underlying gastrointestinal risk and might be above 10 extra cases per 1,000 person-years in over 10% of aspirin users. Conclusion In addition to the cardiovascular risk, the underlying gastrointestinal risk factors have to be considered when balancing harms and benefits of aspirin use for an individual patient. The gastrointestinal harms may offset the cardiovascular benefits in certain groups of patients where the

  4. A Randomized trial comparing ticlopidine with aspirin fof the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yizhao; Li Danian; Wang Lei

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect and cafety of t iclopidine in the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke and to compare theeffect of low-dose aspirin with t iclopidine. BACKGROUND The effect and safety of ticlopidine irn the prevention of ischemic cerebral stroke in China has not been reported. METHODS 329 patients with TIA or mild ischemic cevebral stroke wasrandonmly assigned to ticlopidine group(165 case) or aspirin group (164 case) in this study.These patrents were randomly allocated to receive either 250mg trclopidine or 50mg aspirin daily and didnd take any other platelet antiaggregating drugs. Time of eacn follow up visit was one to two months. Follow up lasted for 6 to 18 months. RESULTS The event rate for stroke or death from any cause was 8.3% in ticlopidine group arid 14.9% in aspirin group. This repesented a risk reduction of 44.3%(95% cofidence interval, 0.29-0.94) for ticiopidine group as compared with aspirin group. The event raite for ischemic cerebral stroke or myocarction of ticlopidine group(7.0%)was lower than that cf aspirin group(14.8%)(P<0.05).A riskreduction of 52.7%(95% confidence interval,0.24-0.92) for ticlopidine group compared with aspirin group. The rate of adverse effects of ticlopidine group and aspirin group were 6.9% and 11.0% during the trial ,but this was not statistically significant(P<0.05).DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION Therapeutic efficacy for the prevention oi ischemic stroke of ticlopidine was better than that of aspirin, the rate of side effects in ticlopidine group and aspirin group are not statistically significant. So ticiopidine could serve as a first-line drug for the prevention of ischemic stroke.

  5. Frequency and clinical relevance of human bocavirus infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix C Ringshausen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Felix C Ringshausen1, Ai-Yui M Tan1, Tobias Allander2, Irmgard Borg1, Umut Arinir1, Juliane Kronsbein1, Barbara M Hauptmeier1, Gerhard Schultze-Werninghaus1, Gernot Rohde11Clinical Research Group “Significance of viral infections in chronic respiratory diseases of children and adults,” University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine III–Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a recently discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of HBoV infection in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD.Methods: We retrospectively tested 212 COPD patients, 141 (66.5% with AE-COPD and 71 (33.5% with stable disease, of whom nasal lavage and induced sputum had been obtained for the presence of HBoV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. The specificity of positive polymerase chain reaction results was confirmed by sequencing.Results: Two hundred two of 212 patients for whom PCR results were available both for nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were eligible for data analysis. HBoV DNA was detected in three patients (1.5%. Of those, only one patient had AE-COPD. Thus, the frequency of HBoV infection demonstrated to be low in both AE-COPD (0.8% and stable COPD (2.9%. HBoV was found in two sputum and one nasal lavage sample in different patients, respectively. Sequencing revealed >99% sequence identity with the reference strain.Conclusion: HBoV detection was infrequent. Since we detected HBoV in both upper and lower respiratory tract specimens and in AE-COPD as well as stable disease, a major role of HBoV infection in adults with AE-COPD is unlikely

  6. Alzheimer's Disease: An Exacerbation of Senile Phenoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, N K; Stelmashook, E V; Genrikhs, E E; Oborina, M V; Kapkaeva, M R; Skulachev, V P

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline accompanied by degeneration of neuronal synapses, massive loss of neurons in the brain, eventually resulting in complete degradation of personality and death. Currently, the cause of the disease is not fully understood, but it is believed that the person's age is the major risk factor for development of Alzheimer's disease. People who have survived after cerebral stroke or traumatic brain injury have substantially increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Social exclusion, low social activity, physical inactivity, poor mental performance, and low level of education are among risk factors for development of this neurodegenerative disease, which is consistent with the concept of phenoptosis (Skulachev, V. P., et al. (1999) Biochemistry (Moscow), 64, 1418-1426; Skulachev, M. V., and Skulachev, V. P. (2014) Biochemistry (Moscow), 79, 977-993) stating that rate of aging is related to psychological and social aspects in human behavior. Here we assumed that Alzheimer's disease might be considered as an exacerbation of senile phenoptosis. If so, then development of this disease could be slowed using mitochondria-targeted antioxidants due to the accumulated data demonstrating a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress both with normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26638682

  7. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  8. Low dose rapamycin exacerbates autoimmune experimental uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapamycin, a potent immune modulator, is used to treat transplant rejection and some autoimmune diseases. Uveitis is a potentially severe inflammatory eye disease, and 2 clinical trials of treating uveitis with rapamycin are under way. Unexpectedly, recent research has demonstrated that low dose rapamycin enhances the memory T cell population and function. However, it is unclear how low dose rapamycin influences the immune response in the setting of uveitis. DESIGN AND METHODS: B10.RIII mice were immunized to induce experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU. Ocular inflammation of control and rapamycin-treated mice was compared based on histological change. ELISPOT and T cell proliferation assays were performed to assess splenocyte response to ocular antigen. In addition, we examined the effect of rapamycin on activation-induced cell death (AICD using the MitoCapture assay and Annexin V staining. RESULTS: Administration of low dose rapamycin exacerbated EAU, whereas treating mice with high dose rapamycin attenuated ocular inflammation. The progression of EAU by low dose rapamycin coincided with the increased frequency of antigen-reactive lymphocytes. Lastly, fewer rapamycin-treated T cells underwent AICD, which might contribute to exaggerated ocular inflammation and the uveitogenic immune response. CONCLUSION: These data reveal a paradoxical role for rapamycin in uveitis in a dose-dependent manner. This study has a potentially important clinical implication as rapamycin might cause unwanted consequences dependent on dosing and pharmacokinetics. Thus, more research is needed to further define the mechanism by which low dose rapamycin augments the immune response.

  9. Eosinophils and their Interactions with Respiratory Virus Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Helene F; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophils are implicated in the pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection, most typically in negative roles, such as promoting wheezing and bronchoconstriction in conjunction with virus-induced exacerbations of reactive airways disease and in association with aberrant hypersensitivity responses to antiviral vaccines. However, experiments carried out in vitro and in vivo suggest positive roles for eosinophils, as they have been shown to reduce virus infectivity in tissue culture and pro...

  10. A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. II. Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of aspirin, an antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, undoubtedly represents a milestone in the history of medical therapy. Since ancient times the derivatives of willow (Salix alba were used to treat a variety of fevers and pain syndromes, although the first report dates back to 1763 when the English Reverend Edward Stone described the effect of an extract of the bark willow in treating malaria. In the XIX century many apothecaries and chemists, including the Italian Raffaele Piria and Cesare Bertagnini, developed the biological processes of extraction and chemical synthesis of salicylates, and then analyzed their therapeutic properties and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. In 1899 the Bayer Company, where Felix Hoffmann, Heinrich Dreser and Arthur Eichengrün worked, recorded acetyl-salicylic acid under the name “Aspirin”. In the XX century, besides the definition of the correct applications of aspirin in the anti-rheumatic therapy being defined, Lawrence L. Crawen identified the property of this drug as an anti-platelet agent, thus opening the way for more widespread uses in cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Evaluation of aspirin hypersensitivity in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, Chul; Kim, Su Il; Lee, Kun Hee; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion The recurrence rates of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were higher in the aspirin nasal provocation test (ANPT)-positive group, regardless of the presence of nasal polyps. Thus, a careful endoscopic examination is required during follow-up in ANPT-positive patients with CRS. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and prognosis after surgical treatment in patients with CRS and aspirin hypersensitivity. Methods In a prospective study, 100 patients were analyzed with CRS who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery at the hospital from October 2012 to March 2013. This study measured changes in nasal volume and symptoms before and after the ANPT and examined patient's asthma history, allergy, Lund-Mackay score (LMS), total immunoglobulin E, percentage of peripheral eosinophils, and objectively measured relapse at 6 months. Results Patients wwith CRS and nasal polyps (CRSwNP) were more likely to have a positive ANPT test result compared to those without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) (21.4% vs 5.5%). The ANPT-positive group had a higher LMS and required more revision endoscopic sinus surgery than those in the ANPT-negative group. The results were that similar results were observed in CRSwNP and CRSsNP. PMID:26924187

  12. Air pollution and daily hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in London, Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, K. Y.; LUGINAAH, I.; GOREY, K. M.; Webster, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiovascular and respiratory disease hospitalization in London, Ontario from 1 November 1995 to 31 December 2000. The number of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions was linked to concentrations of air pollutants (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, coefficient of haze, PM10) and weather variables (maximum and minimum of temperature and humidity). Results showed that current day car...

  13. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cong-Yi; Tominaga Makoto; Johnson Richard D; Chen Meng; Ling Jennifer X; Xing Hong; Gu Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograd...

  14. Environmental exposures to Florida red tides: Effects on emergency room respiratory diagnoses admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Bean, Judy A.; Tamer, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Kane, Terrance; Wanner, Adam; Dalpra, Dana; Reich, Andrew; Baden, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    Human exposure to Florida red tides formed by Karenia brevis, occurs from eating contaminated shellfish and inhaling aerosolized brevetoxins. Recent studies have documented acute symptom changes and pulmonary function responses after inhalation of the toxic aerosols, particularly among asthmatics. These findings suggest that there are increases in medical care facility visits for respiratory complaints and for exacerbations of underlying respiratory diseases associated with the occurrence of ...

  15. NAC attenuates LPS-induced toxicity in aspirin-sensitized mouse macrophages via suppression of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774.2 mouse macrophage cell line. Protection from LPS-induced toxicity by NAC was also studied. LPS alone markedly induced ROS production and oxidative stress in macrophage cells. When ASA was added to LPS-treated macrophages, the increase in oxidative stress was significantly higher than that with LPS alone. Similarly, alteration in glutathione-dependent redox metabolism was also observed in macrophages after treatment with LPS and ASA. The combination of LPS and ASA selectively altered the CYP 3A4, CYP 2E1 and CYP 1A1 catalytic activities. Mitochondrial respiratory complexes and ATP production were also inhibited by LPS-ASA treatment. Furthermore a higher apoptotic cell death was also observed in LPS-ASA treated macrophages. NAC pre-treatment showed protection against oxidative stress induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects are presumed, at least in part, to be associated with alterations in NF-κB/Nrf-2 mediated cell signaling. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to LPS when challenged with ASA and that NAC pre-treatment protects the macrophages from these deleterious effects.

  16. Use of Health Care System-Supplied Aspirin by Veterans With Postoperative Heart Attack or Unstable Angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Cathleen M; Copeland, Laurel A; McNeal, Catherine J; Mortensen, Eric M; Pugh, Mary J; MacCarthy, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the use of aspirin in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events are well established. Despite this, the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention is suboptimal. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events when it is dispensed as a prescription, as is performed in the Veterans Affairs (VA) managed care system. VA patients who had undergone major surgery and experienced a postoperative myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina between the years 2005 and 2009 were identified from administrative databases. VA pharmacy records were used to determine whether a prescription for aspirin was filled after the postoperative MI or unstable angina. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated odd ratios of filling aspirin prescriptions for the predictors of interest. Of the 321,131 men and women veterans who underwent major surgery, 7,700 experienced a postoperative MI or unstable angina. Among those 7,700, 47% filled an aspirin prescription. Only 59% of veterans with no co-pay filled an aspirin prescription. Aspirin fills were more common in younger veterans, Blacks, Hispanics, males, hypertensive veterans, mentally ill patients, those with no co-pay and those prescribed antiplatelets/anticoagulants in addition to aspirin postoperatively. These findings suggest that the impact of dispensing aspirin as a prescription may not be significant in increasing the appropriate use of aspirin for secondary prevention. PMID:26351774

  17. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although we know that exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), our understanding of their frequency, determinants, and effects is incomplete. In a large observational cohort, we tested the hypothesis that there is a frequent-exacerbation phenotype of...... could be predicted on the basis of the patient's recall of previous treated events. In addition to its association with more severe disease and prior exacerbations, the phenotype was independently associated with a history of gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn, poorer quality of life, and elevated...

  18. The effect of aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients with femoral neck fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, Brian J

    2012-02-03

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin will increase the risk of intra- and post-operative bleeding, clinical studies have not consistently supported this assumption. We aimed to assess the effect of pre-operative aspirin on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing emergency fixation of femoral neck fractures. A prospective case-control study was undertaken in patients presenting with femoral neck fractures. Parameters recorded included intra-operative blood loss, post-operative blood loss, transfusion requirements and peri-operative reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Of 89 patients presenting with femoral neck fractures 32 were on long-term aspirin therapy. Pre-operative aspirin ingestion did not significantly affect peri-operative blood loss, or change in haemoglobin concentration or haematocrit. However those patients taking aspirin pre-operatively had a significantly lower haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit and were more likely to be anaemic at presentation than those who were not receiving aspirin. Patients taking aspirin were also more likely to receive blood transfusion post-operatively.

  19. Effects of copper-aspirin complex on platelet-neutrophil interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang SHEN; Peng CHEN; Ling LI; Peng CHEN; Wei-ping LIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat thrombosis and the interaction between platelets and neutrophils. METHODS: The model of electrically stimulated carotid artery thrombosis in Sprague Dawley rats was used; the effects of copper-aspirin complex on rat platelet-neutrophil adhesion and platelet aggregation stimulated by activated neutrophils were observed by rosette assay and Born's method, respectively. RESULTS:Intragastric copper-aspirin complex (5, 7, and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently prolonged the occlusion time; it significantly decreased the rosette number formed between thrombin-activated platelets and neutrophils; the 50 % of inhibitory concentration (IC50) was (54.6±4.3) μmol/L. Copper-aspirin complex markedly inhibited rat platelet aggregation induced by either cell free supernatant of activated neutrophils or by activated neutrophil suspension.The values of IC50 were (224.5±16.2) μmol/L and (820.5±21.4) μmol/L, whereas aspirin had no influence.CONCLUSION: Copper-aspirin complex inhibited platelet-neutrophil interactions through a different property from aspirin and resulted in a more potent antithrombotic activity.

  20. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone. PMID:25342594

  1. Pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid following administration of aspirin tablets and three different forms of soluble aspirin in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Attardo Parrinello, G; Vitiello, B; Perucca, E

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of an innovative formulation of soluble aspirin (l-ornithine acetylsalicylate, ldB 1003) was compared with that of conventional tablets and two other soluble dosage forms (d, l-lysine acetylsalicylate and a buffered effervescent formulation of acetylsalicylic acid) after administration of single oral doses in six normal volunteers. All soluble forms showed a rapid absorption profile, peak plasma salicylic acid levels being attained after about 30 min on average and without statistically significant differences among the solutions tested. As compared to the soluble formulations, acetylsalicylic acid given as tablets resulted in slower absorption, with peak plasma salicylic acid levels being reached more than 1 h after dosing. Despite these differences in time course of plasma level profiles, the extent of absorption was similar for all formulations. Apart from the potential advantages in terms of improved gastric tolerability, the increased rate of absorption of aspirin solutions is therapeutically useful whenever a rapid onset of action is required. In this respect, the kinetic pattern of the innovative formulation compares favourably with that of other available soluble dosage forms. PMID:2517497

  2. European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP): a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Marchioli, R

    1997-01-01

    Thrombotic complications characterize the clinical course of polycythemia vera (PV) and represent the main cause of morbidity and mortality. However, uncertainty still exists as to the benefit/risk ratio of aspirin prophylaxis in this setting. In vivo platelet biosynthesis of thromboxane A2 is enhanced and can be suppressed by low-dose aspirin in PV, thus providing a rationale for assessing the efficacy and safety of a low-dose aspirin regimen in these patients. The Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera has recently performed a pilot study on 112 patients randomized to receive aspirin, 40 mg daily, or placebo and followed for 16 +/- 6 months (mean +/- SD). This study showed that low-dose aspirin is well tolerated in PV patients, and that a large-scale efficacy trial is feasible in this setting. In this article we report the protocol of the European Collaboration on Low-dose Aspirin in Polycythemia Vera (ECLAP) study, which is a randomized trial designed to assess the risk/benefit ratio of low-dose aspirin in PV. To estimate the size and the follow-up duration required for the ECLAP trial, a retrospective analysis of the clinical epidemiology of a large PV population has recently been completed by the Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera. On this basis, approximately 3500 patients will be enrolled in the ECLAP study with a follow-up of 3 to 4 years. The uncertainty principle will be used as the main eligibility criterion: Polycythemic patients of any age, having no clear indication for or contraindication to aspirin treatment, will be randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive oral aspirin (100 mg daily) or placebo. According to current therapeutic recommendations, the basic treatment of randomized patients should be aimed at maintaining the hematocrit value 50. Randomization will be stratified by participating center. The study is funded by the European Union BIOMED 2 program. PMID:9387206

  3. Aspirin in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: current facts and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, R; Patrono, C

    1996-09-01

    The role of aspirin in the antithrombotic strategy of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) is highly controversial. Long considered unsafe on the basis of a single clinical trial testing very high doses in PV patients, aspirin is being increasingly used at lower dosage. The rationale for the use of aspirin in patients with PV and ET is provided by the efficacy of this agent in the treatment of microcirculatory disturbances of thrombocythemic states associated with myeloproliferative disorders and by recent evidence that asymptomatic PV and ET patients have persistently increased thromboxane (TX) A2-biosynthesis. This increase, which most likely reflects enhanced platelet activation in vivo, is independent of the platelet mass and blood viscosity and largely supressed by a short term low-dose aspirin regimen (50 mg/day for 7 days). Since enhanced TXA2 biosynthesis may play a role in transducing the increased thrombotic risk associated with PV and ET, long-term low-dose aspirin administration has been proposed as a possible antithombotic strategy in these subjects. The safety of this treatment in PV patients has been recently reassessed by the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Policitemia Vera (GISP) which has followed for over one year 112 patients randomized to receive 40 mg/day aspirin or placebo. In the same study, serum TXB2 measurements provided evidence that the low-dose aspirin regimen tested was fully effective in inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase activity. On this basis, a large scale trial aimed at assessing the antithrombotic efficacy of this approach is currently being organized. In patients with ET both the minimal aspirin dose required for complete inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase and the safety of long-term aspirin administration need to be established prior to extensive clinical evaluation of this strategy. PMID:8951777

  4. Aspirin use and lung cancer risk: a possible relationship? Evidence from an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has emerged and controversial results reported on possible relationship between aspirin use and lung cancer risk. We, therefore, conducted this updated and comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate this issue, with focus on dose-risk and duration-risk relationships.We searched electronic databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies. Relative risk (RR and its 95% confidence interval (CI were used for cohort studies, while odds ratio (OR were employed for case-control studies. The random effects and fixed effects models were used for analyses.18 studies were identified including 19835 lung cancer cases, which were eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Pooled data from case-control studies showed a significant inverse association between regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk. But for cohort studies, insignificant association was detected with little evidence of heterogeneity (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.95 - 1.16; I2: 10.3%, p value: 0.351. In case-control studies, standard aspirin use (>325mg was related to lower lung cancer incidence, compared with low-dose aspirin use (75-100mg. A similar trend was observed in cohort studies. Besides, when analysis was restricted to long time regular aspirin use (>5 years, insignificant results were reported in both cohort and case-control studies. Finally, regular aspirin use might result in higher reduction of non-small cell lung cancer incidence among men.Our findings do not support the protective effect of regular aspirin use on lung cancer risk. Long time aspirin use, sex, dose and type of lung cancer might alter the effect of aspirin use on lung cancer risk. More well-designed studies are needed to further clarify these associations.

  5. Safety of low-dose aspirin in endovascular treatment for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel versus high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel in prevention of vascular risk within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment. METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, this prospective and observational study enrolled 370 patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis of ≥70% with poor collateral undergoing intracranial endovascular treatment. Antiplatelet therapy consists of aspirin, at a low-dose of 100 mg or high-dose of 300 mg daily; clopidogrel, at a dose of 75 mg daily for 5 days before endovascular treatment. The dual antiplatelet therapy continued for 90 days after intervention. The study endpoints include acute thrombosis, subacute thrombosis, stroke or death within 90 days after intervention. RESULTS: Two hundred and seventy three patients received low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel and 97 patients received high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel before intracranial endovascular treatment. Within 90 days after intervention, there were 4 patients (1.5% with acute thrombosis, 5 patients (1.8% with subacute thrombosis, 17 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (0.7% in low-dose aspirin group, compared with no patient (0% with acute thrombosis, 2 patient (2.1% with subacute thrombosis, 6 patients (6.2% with stroke, and 2 death (2.1% in high-dose aspirin group, and there were no significant difference in all study endpoints between two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel is comparative in safety with high-dose aspirin plus clopidogrel within 90 days of duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with intracranial endovascular treatment.

  6. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Zhang; Wei-Hong Wang; Yu Tian; Wen Gao; Jiang Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression.

  7. Early-Life Intranasal Colonization with Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Exacerbates Juvenile Airway Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jessica R; Mason, Stanley N; Auten, Richard L; St Geme, Joseph W; Seed, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a connection between asthma development and colonization with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Specifically, nasopharyngeal colonization of human infants with NTHi within 4 weeks of birth is associated with an increased risk of asthma development later in childhood. Monocytes derived from these infants have aberrant inflammatory responses to common upper respiratory bacterial antigens compared to those of cells derived from infants who were not colonized and do not go on to develop asthma symptoms in childhood. In this study, we hypothesized that early-life colonization with NTHi promotes immune system reprogramming and the development of atypical inflammatory responses. To address this hypothesis in a highly controlled model, we tested whether colonization of mice with NTHi on day of life 3 induced or exacerbated juvenile airway disease using an ovalbumin (OVA) allergy model of asthma. We found that animals that were colonized on day of life 3 and subjected to induction of allergy had exacerbated airway disease as juveniles, in which exacerbated airway disease was defined as increased cellular infiltration into the lung, increased amounts of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13 in lung lavage fluid, decreased regulatory T cell-associated FOXP3 gene expression, and increased mucus production. We also found that colonization with NTHi amplified airway resistance in response to increasing doses of a bronchoconstrictor following OVA immunization and challenge. Together, the murine model provides evidence for early-life immune programming that precedes the development of juvenile airway disease and corroborates observations that have been made in human children. PMID:27113355

  8. Computerized lung sound analysis following clinical improvement of pulmonary edema due to congestive heart failure exacerbations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; XIONG Ying-xia

    2010-01-01

    Background Although acute congestive heart failure (CHF) patients typically present with abnormal auscultatory findings on lung examination, lung sounds are not normally subjected to rigorous analysis. The goals of this study were to use a computerized analytic acoustic tool to evaluate lung sound patterns in CHF patients during acute exacerbation and after clinical improvement and to compare CHF profiles with those of normal individuals.Methods Lung sounds throughout the respiratory cycle was captured using a computerized acoustic-based imaging technique. Thirty-two consecutive CHF patients were imaged at the time of presentation to the emergency department and after clinical improvement. Digital images were created, geographical area of the images and lung sound patterns were quantitatively analyzed.Results The geographical areas of the vibration energy image of acute CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema were (67.9±4.7) and (60.3±3.5) kilo-pixels, respectively (P <0.05). In CHF patients without and with radiographically evident pulmonary edema (REPE), after clinical improvement the geographical area of vibration energy image of lung sound increased to (74.5±4.4) and (73.9±3.9) kilo-pixels (P <0.05), respectively. Vibration energy decreased in CHF patients with REPE following clinical improvement by an average of (85±19)% (P <0.01). Conclusions With clinical improvement of acute CHF exacerbations, there was more homogenous distribution of lung vibration energy, as demonstrated by the increased geographical area of the vibration energy image. Lung sound analysis may be useful to track in acute CHF exacerbations.

  9. Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chason Kelly D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances the susceptibility to respiratory virus infections, which in turn leads to increased virus-induced exacerbation of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized (OVA male C57BL/6 mice were instilled with diesel exhaust particles (DEP or saline and 24 hours later infected with influenza A/PR/8. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and analyzed for markers of lung injury, allergic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results Exposure to DEP or infection with influenza alone had no significant effects on markers of injury or allergic inflammation. However, OVA-sensitized mice that were exposed to DEP and subsequently infected with influenza showed increased levels of eosinophils in lung lavage and tissue. In addition Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, and markers of eosinophil chemotaxis, such as CCL11 and CCR3, were increased in OVA-sensitized mice exposed to DEP prior to infection with influenza. These mice also showed increased levels of IL-1α, but not IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung homogenates. Conclusion These data suggest that in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to diesel exhaust could enhance virus-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation.

  10. Differential effect of aspirin on thromboxane and prostaglandin biosynthesis in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritter, J M; Cockcroft, J R; Doktor, H S; Beacham, J; Barrow, S E

    1989-01-01

    1. Effects of a single intravenous dose of aspirin (600 mg) on bradykinin-stimulated prostaglandin (PG) and on thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis were determined in nine healthy male volunteers. Plasma concentrations of 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-oxo-PGF2 alpha were measured in samples obtained during repeated 10 min intravenous infusions of bradykinin before and up to 6 h after the dose of aspirin. TXB2 was measured in serum from blood allowed to clot at 37 degrees C. 2. Aspirin inhibi...

  11. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million

  12. Formulasi dan Evaluasi Pemakaian Cangkang Kapsul Alginat untuk Pembuatan Sediaan Floating dari Dispersi Padat Aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Anggono, Jeriko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aspirin is the group of non steroid anti-inflamatory drug besides that is used as antiplatelet drug. Aspirin is poorly soluble in water and can cause the irritation in the stomach in oral route. Therefore, it is necessary to modify solid dispersion dosage form that can remain in the stomach, as the example is floating dosage form by using alginate as capsule shell. Purpose: The aim of this study was to prepare floating dosage form of aspirin solid dispersion that can remain in ...

  13. Elastic properties of aspirin in its crystalline and glassy phases studied by micro-Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Sei; Ike, Yuji; Kojima, Seiji

    2008-11-01

    The acoustic waves propagating along the direction perpendicular to the (1 0 0) cleavage plane of aspirin crystal were investigated using micro-Brillouin spectroscopy from which C11, C55 and C66 were obtained. The temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic waves could be explained by normal anharmonic lattice models, while the transverse acoustic waves showed an abnormal increase in the hypersonic attenuation at low temperatures indicating their coupling to local remnant dynamics. The sound velocity as well as the attenuation of the longitudinal acoustic waves of glassy aspirin showed a substantial change at ˜235 K confirming a transition from glassy to supercooled liquid state in vitreous aspirin.

  14. The effects of aspirin plus cisplatin on SGC7901/CDDP cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, HANZHANG; LIU, GAOGAO; Jiang, Biao; GUO, JIUBING; TAO, GUOQUAN; YIU, WEI; Zhou, Jingsong; Li, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin plus cisplatin (CDDP) in the chemotherapy of gastric cancer. We cultured SGC7901/CDDP cells by long-term exposure of SGC7901 cells to small doses of CDDP in vitro. The cells were treated with aspirin, CDDP or aspirin plus CDDP for 24 h and cell growth was assessed by the MTT assay, the apoptotic rate by flow cytometry, the survivin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and the survivin protein expression by western blotting. The results rev...

  15. Stress modification of the toxicity of antimotion sickness drugs and Aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Marra, C.; Goodwin, A.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on the toxicity of cyclizine, trimethobenzamide, and Aspirin were studied in mice. LD-50s were compared at 30 C, 22 C, and 15 C. At 30 C the toxicity of all three drugs increased, with that to Aspirin being affected most. Cooling decreased the toxicity of cyclizine and had no significant effect on that of trimethobenzamide or aspirin. These findings indicate that alterations in environmental temperature markedly affect drug toxicity. They emphasize that such alterations, and particularly increases in temperature, do not have to be particularly drastic, but that 'mild' variations in the environment are effective in altering an animal's sensitivity to a drug.

  16. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  18. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Respiratory Failure? Diseases and conditions that impair breathing can cause ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, ...

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  20. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and ... you didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about ...

  1. Comorbidities associated with COPD in the Middle East and North Africa region: association with severity and exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboub B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bassam Mahboub,1 Ashraf Alzaabi,2 Mohammed Nizam Iqbal,3 Hocine Salhi,4 Aïcha Lahlou,5 Luqman Tariq,6 Abdelkader El Hasnaoui6 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, 2Respirology Division, Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 4Foxymed, Paris, France; 5MS Health, Rabat, Morocco, 6GlaxoSmithKline, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Objective: To assess the frequency of comorbidities in subjects with COPD and their association with respiratory symptom severity and COPD exacerbations.Materials and methods: This was an analysis of the BREATHE study, a cross-sectional survey of COPD conducted in the general population of eleven countries in the Middle East and North Africa, including Pakistan. The study population consisted of a sample of subjects with COPD for whom the presence of comorbidities was documented. Three questionnaires were used. The screening questionnaire identified subjects who fulfilled an epidemiological case definition of COPD and documented any potential comorbidities; the detailed COPD questionnaire collected data on respiratory symptoms, COPD exacerbations, and comorbidities associated with COPD; the COPD Assessment Test collected data on the impact of respiratory symptoms on well-being and daily life.Results: A total of 2,187 subjects were positively screened for COPD, of whom 1,392 completed the detailed COPD questionnaire. COPD subjects were more likely to report comorbidities (55.2% than subjects without COPD (39.1%, P<0.0001, most frequently cardiovascular diseases. In subjects who screened positively for COPD, the presence of comorbidities was significantly (P=0.03 associated with a COPD Assessment Test score ≥10 and with antecedents of COPD exacerbations in the previous 6 months (P=0.03.Conclusion: Comorbidities are frequent in COPD and associated with more severe respiratory symptoms

  2. Approaches to prevent the patients with chronic airway diseases from exacerbation in the haze weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jin; Li, Bo; Yu, Dan; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Haze weather is becoming one of the biggest problems in many big cities in China. It triggers both public anxiety and official concerns. Particulate matter (PM) plays the most important role in causing the adverse health effects. Chemical composition of PM2.5 includes primary particles and secondary particles. The toxicological mechanisms of PM2.5 to the human body include the oxidative stress, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Short or long-term exposure to PM (especially PM2.5) can cause a series of symptoms including respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheezing and dyspnea as well as other symptoms. There are positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality due to a number of causes. PM2.5 is considered to contribute to the onset of asthma, the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in haze weather. Some approaches including outdoor health care, indoor health care and preventive medications can prevent the patients with chronic airway diseases from exacerbations. PMID:26904232

  3. Role of BiPAP applied through endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dua R; Biswas D; Sindhwani G; Rawat J

    2012-01-01

    Jagdish Rawat,1 Girish Sindhwani,1 Debasis Biswas,2 Ruchi Dua11Department of Pulmonary Medicine, 2Department of Microbiology, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Swami Ram Nagar, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, IndiaBackground and objectives: Mechanical ventilation is the recommended treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapenic respiratory failure. But, in resource-poor countries, many of these patients are...

  4. To investigate the prevention of OM-85 on bronchiectasis exacerbations (iPROBE) in Chinese patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jinming; Gao, Xiang; Kong, Lingfei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is characterized by the irreversible dilatation of the medium-sized bronchi as a result of airway injury from recurrent or chronic inflammation and lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchiectasis airways are commonly colonized with bacterial species. Infections of the airways play important role in bronchiectasis exacerbations. The non-specific prevention of recurrent airway infections by immunostimulating agents has gained growing interest. O...

  5. Phenytoin induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome exacerbated by cefepime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Varsha A.; Doddapaneni, Sahiti; Thunga, Girish; Thiyagu, Rajakannan; Prabhu, M. Mukyaprana; Naha, Kushal

    2013-01-01

    Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare drug induced mucocutaneous reaction. Here, we present an elaborate report of a 28-year-old female patient who developed Phenytoin induced SJS, which was exacerbated by cefepime. PMID:24250210

  6. Phenytoin induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome exacerbated by cefepime

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, Varsha A.; Sahiti Doddapaneni; Girish Thunga; Rajakannan Thiyagu; M Mukyaprana Prabhu; Kushal Naha

    2013-01-01

    Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare drug induced mucocutaneous reaction. Here, we present an elaborate report of a 28-year-old female patient who developed Phenytoin induced SJS, which was exacerbated by cefepime.

  7. Phenytoin induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome exacerbated by cefepime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha A Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steven Johnson syndrome (SJS is a rare drug induced mucocutaneous reaction. Here, we present an elaborate report of a 28-year-old female patient who developed Phenytoin induced SJS, which was exacerbated by cefepime.

  8. Fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin in COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Marott, J. L.; Rode, L.;

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the hypotheses that fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin are observationally and genetically associated with exacerbations in COPD. Methods We studied 13 591 individuals with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2013), of whom 6857 were genotyped for FGB -455...... (rs1800790, G>A) and FGB -448 (rs4220, G>A) and had plasma fibrinogen measured. Furthermore, 13 405 individuals were genotyped for the SERPINA1 S-allele (rs17580) and the Z-allele (rs28929474) and had measurements of plasma alpha(1)-antitrypsin. Exacerbations were defined as hospital admissions or...... exacerbations in instrumental variable analyses. Results Elevated fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin levels were associated with increased risk of exacerbations in COPD, HR=1.14 (1.07 to 1.22, p...

  9. Is there a threshold concentration of cat allergen exposure on respiratory symptoms in adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Zock, J.P.; Villani, S.; Olivieri, M.; Modig, L.; Jarvis, D.; Norbäck, D.; Verlato, G.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Cat allergen concentrations higher than 8 μg/g in settled house dust, have been suggested to provoke exacerbation of allergic respiratory symptoms. However, whether the 8μg/g of indoor cat allergen concentration is indeed the minimal exposure required for triggering the ast

  10. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    DaisukeKurai

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respirato...

  11. Exacerbations in cystic fibrosis · 1: Epidemiology and pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, Christopher H.; Burns, Jane L.

    2007-01-01

    With the improving survival of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), the clinical spectrum of this complex multisystem disease continues to evolve. One of the most important clinical events for patients with CF in the course of this disease is an acute pulmonary exacerbation. Clinical and microbial epidemiology studies of CF pulmonary exacerbations continue to provide important insight into the course, prognosis and complications of the disease. This review provides a summary of the pathophysio...

  12. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Z; Ulrik CS

    2013-01-01

    Zarqa Ali, Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy.Methods: A narrative literature rev...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A A A Text Size What's in ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  14. Paroxysmal vascular events in Sturge– Weber syndrome: Role of aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sanghvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS is a rare, sporadically occurring neurocutaneous disorder with a frequency of approximately 1 per 50,000. The hallmark is an intracranial leptomeningeal vascular angioma in association with a port wine nevus, usually involving ophthalmic or maxillary distribution of trigeminal nerve. Other clinical findings associated with SWS are seizures, glaucoma, hemiparesis and mental retardation. The radiological hallmark is "Tram-line" or "Gyri-form" calcification. 25 to 56% of patients experience recurrent episodes of paroxysmal focal neurological deficits in form of transient hemiparesis, which may be due to vascular ischemia or postictal in origin. EEG helps to differentiate the exact etiology, as it is normal in former. Aspirin prophylaxis in those, due to ischemia decreases their recurrences and improves overall neurological prognosis. We report a 25-month-old child of SWS with recurrent episodes of transient hemiparesis and atypical midline location of facial vascular nevus.

  15. Aspirin Could Save 40,000 Lives a Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Reaney; 励蓓蓓

    2002-01-01

    鄙人是服用Aspirin的受益者,所以当我在网上读到此文时,非常兴奋,很想把此短文推荐给我最喜爱的《科技英语学习》的读者们。Aspirin能够稀释人体血液的浓度,因而能有效减少心脏病和中风的危险。服用Aspirin后,体内血液更加流畅,因此,我感到服用Aspirin后,头脑清晰如洗,精神也清朗如浴。 当然,本文的最后一句哲理之言,不能不细读: Aspirin is not an appropriate treatment for everyon but it is important that allthase who might benefit are actually offered it。】

  16. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for aspirin recognition and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Xianwen; Geng Zhirong; Zhao Yao; Wang Zhilin; Zhu Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, MOE Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: wangzl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn

    2009-04-22

    Core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs) with combined properties of molecular recognition and controlled release were prepared and characterized. Magnetic MIPs were synthesized by the co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) around aspirin (ASP) at the surface of double-bond-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in chloroform. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 500 nm had obvious superparamagnetism and could be separated quickly by an external magnetic field. Binding experiments were carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity and selectivity to ASP. Moreover, release profiles and release rate of ASP from the ASP-loaded magnetic MIPs indicated that the magnetic MIPs also had potential applications in drug controlled release.

  17. Effects of prednisone, aspirin, and acetaminophen on an in vivo biologic response to interferon in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, F R; Woods, A S; Griffin, M D; Smith, C R; Nadler, P; Lietman, P S

    1988-08-01

    In healthy volunteers receiving a single intramuscular dose of 18 X 10(6) U interferon alone or after 24 hours of an 8-day course of prednisone (40 mg/day), aspirin (650 mg every 4 hours), or acetaminophen (650 mg every 4 hours), the magnitude of the biologic response to interferon was quantified by measuring the time course of the induction of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase and resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Prednisone decreased the AUC of 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity (p less than 0.05), whereas administration of aspirin or acetaminophen did not affect this biologic response. No measurable effect was seen during administration of prednisone, aspirin, or acetaminophen on the duration or intensity of vesicular stomatitis virus yield reduction. The side effects seen with interferon administration at the dose tested were not altered in a clinically meaningful manner by prednisone, aspirin, or acetaminophen. PMID:2456175

  18. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela-Corina Rosu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 °C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  19. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcela-Corina Rosun; Ioan Bratu

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 1C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber) with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin) it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  20. Expert Panel Reaffirms Daily Aspirin's Use Against Heart Disease, Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Panel Reaffirms Daily Aspirin's Use Against Heart Disease, Colon Cancer Guideline applies to people in their 50s, many ... reduce their risk of both heart disease and colon cancer, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends. ...

  1. Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kommalage, Mahinda; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Aspirin and paracetamol have been shown to suppress non-inflammatory pain conditions like thermal, visceral and mechanical pain in mice and rats. The non-inflammatory antinociception appears to be mediated by central receptor mechanisms, such as the cholinergic system. In this study, we tested the...... hypothesis that the non-inflammatory antinociception of aspirin and paracetamol could be mediated by an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in anesthetized rats for acetylcholine sampling. Subcutaneously administered aspirin 100 and 300 mg....../kg increased, while paracetamol 300 mg/kg decreased intraspinal acetylcholine release. Intraspinal drug administration did not affect acetylcholine release. Our results suggest that an increased intraspinal acetylcholine release could be involved in part of the non-inflammatory pain suppression by aspirin, but...

  2. Role of Dispersion Interactions in the Polymorphism and Entropic Stabilization of the Aspirin Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony M.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-08-01

    Aspirin has been used and studied for over a century but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  3. Study Shows Aspirin Reduces Colorectal Cancer in Those at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.

  4. Aspirin and clopidogrel resistance: possible mechanisms and clinical relevance. Part II: Potential causes and laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadász, Dávid; Sztriha, László K; Sas, Katalin; Vécsei, László

    2013-01-30

    Recent meta-analyses have indicated that patients with vascular disease demonstrated by laboratory tests to be aspirin or clopidogrel-resistant are at an increased risk of major vascular events. The suggested mechanisms of aspirin resistance include genetic polymorphism, alternative pathways of platelet activation, aspirin-insensitive thromboxane biosynthesis, drug interactions, or a low aspirin dose. Clopidogrel resistance is likely to develop as a result of a decreased bioavailability of the active metabolite, due to genetic variation or concomitant drug treatment. Additional work is required to improve and validate laboratory tests of platelet function, so that they may become useful tools for selection of the most appropriate antiplatelet therapy for an individual patient. Improvements in antiplatelet treatment strategies in the future should lead to a reduction in premature vascular events. PMID:23607225

  5. Markers of exacerbation severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Michael J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD can experience 'exacerbations' of their conditions. An exacerbation is an event defined in terms of subjective descriptors or symptoms, namely dyspnoea, cough and sputum that worsen sufficiently to warrant a change in medical management. There is a need for reliable markers that reflect the pathological mechanisms that underlie exacerbation severity and that can be used as a surrogate to assess treatment effects in clinical studies. Little is known as to how existing study variables and suggested markers change in both the stable and exacerbation phases of COPD. In an attempt to find the best surrogates for exacerbations, we have reviewed the literature to identify which of these markers change in a consistent manner with the severity of the exacerbation event. Methods We have searched standard databases between 1966 to July 2004 using major keywords and terms. Studies that provided demographics, spirometry, potential markers, and clear eligibility criteria were included in this study. Central tendencies and dispersions for all the variables and markers reported and collected by us were first tabulated according to sample size and ATS/ERS 2004 Exacerbation Severity Levels I to III criteria. Due to the possible similarity of patients in Levels II and III, the data was also redefined into categories of exacerbations, namely out-patient (Level I and in-patient (Levels II & III combined. For both approaches, we performed a fixed effect meta-analysis on each of the reported variables. Results We included a total of 268 studies reported between 1979 to July 2004. These studies investigated 142,407 patients with COPD. Arterial carbon dioxide tension and breathing rate were statistically different between all levels of exacerbation severity and between in out- and in-patient settings. Most other measures showed weak relationships with either level or setting, or they had

  6. Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first 7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzi, Andrea; Porta, Daniela; Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Lauriola, Paolo; Davoli, Marina; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background Ambient air pollution has been consistently associated with exacerbation of respiratory diseases in schoolchildren, but the role of early exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the first occurrence of respiratory symptoms and asthma is not yet clear. Methods We assessed the association between indexes of exposure to traffic-related air pollution during different periods of life and respiratory outcomes in a birth cohort of 672 newborns (Rome, Italy). Direct interviews of the ...

  7. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  8. Study of effects of donepezil and aspirin on working memory in rats using electroconvulsive shock model

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul M. Manjare; Abhijit V. Tilak; Bhalchandra T. Rane; Sanjay A. Dabhade; Rahul R. Bhalsinge; Harshal P. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Memory is the most common cognitive ability lost with dementia commonly seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Donepezil was the first cholinesterase inhibitor to be licensed in UK for AD. There is preliminary evidence that aspirin decreases the risk and delays the onset of AD. Low dose aspirin users had numerically lower prevalence of Alzheimer's dementia and had better cognitive function than non-users. Methods: Retention of conditioned avoidance response (CAR) was assessed by usi...

  9. Mucus glycoprotein biosynthesis in the human gall bladder: inhibition by aspirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, M; A. Allen; Lennard, T W

    1992-01-01

    Aspirin, which inhibits mucin secretion in the gastrointestinal tract prevents gall stone formation in animals and may reduce gall stone recurrence in man. This study examines the effect of aspirin on mucin synthesis in human gall bladder explants. Two hundred explants were cultured with 3H-glucosamine (74 kBq/ml) for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. Mucin and other glycoproteins were isolated by papain digestion (72 hours) and exhaustive dialysis (144 hours) to remove non-incorporated radioactivity...

  10. Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase 2 gene transcription by aspirin and sodium salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Sansores-Garcia, Leticia; Chen, Xian-Ming; Matijevic-Aleksic, Nevenka; Du, Min; Kenneth K. Wu

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacological action of salicylate cannot be explained by its inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. In this report, the effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate on COX-2 expressions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and foreskin fibroblasts were evaluated. Aspirin and sodium salicylate at therapeutic concentrations equipotently blocked COX-2 mRNA and protein levels induced by interleukin-1β and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The suppressing effect was more pronounced in...

  11. Aspirin and Serum Estrogens in Postmenopausal Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Catherine; Wang, Ching-Yun; Xiao, Liren; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of breast cancer among women who use aspirin. A plausible mechanism is through aspirin’s effect on estrogens, possibly mediated through interference with estrogen synthesis via reduction in inflammation, which is increased in adipose tissues including breast. In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the effects of 6-months administration of 325 mg/day aspirin on serum estrogens (estradiol, estrone, free estradiol, bioavailable estradi...

  12. Effect of sucralfate on aspirin induced mucosal injury and impaired haemostasis in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, N; Murray, F. E.; Cole, A. T.; Filipowicz, B; Hawkey, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sucralfate does not have potent anti-ulcerogenic actions in users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, sucralfate may influence intragastric haemostasis favourably. AIM: To investigate separately the effects of sucralfate on acute gastric and duodenal injury and on changes in intragastric bleeding induced by aspirin. METHOD: On three occasions, 24 healthy volunteers received three days' treatment with aspirin 900 mg twice daily together with placebo, sucralf...

  13. Leukocyte lipid body formation and eicosanoid generation: cyclooxygenase-independent inhibition by aspirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bozza, P T; Payne, J L; Morham, S G; Langenbach, R; Smithies, O; Weller, P F

    1996-01-01

    Lipid bodies, cytoplasmic inclusions that develop in cells associated with inflammation, are inducible structures that might participate in generating inflammatory eicosanoids. Cis-unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic and oleic acids) rapidly induced lipid body formation in leukocytes, and this lipid body induction was inhibited by aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Several findings indicates that the inhibitory effect of aspirin and NSAIDs on lipid body formation was i...

  14. Impact of aspirin and clopidogrel interruption on platelet function in patients undergoing major vascular surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Manach, Yannick; Kahn, David; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla; Le Sache, Frederic; Smadja, David M.; Remones, Veronique; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Coriat, Pierre; Gaussem, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. Methods/Results We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group). The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline) and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was e...

  15. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  16. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  17. Genç Bireylerde Aspirin Ve Vitamin C Emiliminin Etkileşimi

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDENER, H.; AMANVERMEZ, R.; ÇELİK, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Interaction of Aspirin and Ascorbic Acid Absorption in Healthy Young Individuals Aspirin (acetylsalicyclic acid) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are commonly used two drugs. Metabolic importance of vitamin C has been risen due to understanding the function of vitamin C on metabolic pathway in human. To known how maintain serum and tissue levels in normal ranges is very crucial to avoid vitamin C deficiency. Therefore vitamin C and drug interaction, particulary for long term use, is ve...

  18. Prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with an evolving acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Jørgensen, Bo; Korsholm, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    was twice the prevalence in patients without AMI. METHODS: We included 298 consecutive patients with known cardiovascular disease who were admitted to hospital with symptoms suggestive of an AMI. All had been taking aspirin 150 mg/day for at least 7 days prior to hospital admission. Platelet function...... with symptoms suggestive of an AMI, and aspirin resistance is significantly associated with the diagnosis of a definite AMI....

  19. Low-dose aspirin for prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Jin Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD.From a total of 25340 patients with CKD, 1884 recipients of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day were paired 1∶1 with non-recipients for analysis using propensity score matching. The primary endpoint was the development of atherosclerotic CVD, including coronary arterial disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Secondary endpoints included death from any cause, bleeding events, doubling of serum creatinine, and renal death.The incidence of a primary endpoint of any atherosclerotic CVD was significantly higher in the aspirin users than in the non-users (P<0.001. Secondary endpoints, including all-cause mortality and composite bleeding events, were not significantly different between the aspirin users and the non-users. However, the doubling of serum creatinine levels (P = 0.001 and renal death (P = 0.042 were significantly associated with the use of aspirin.These results suggest that the use of low-dose aspirin in patients with CKD may have harmful consequences related to the development of CVD and renal progression.

  20. Gender differences in the activities of aspirin-esterases in rat tissues

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    Benedito M.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The activities of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid-esterases were measured in several tissues (liver, kidney, adrenal glands, brain and serum from adult male and female Wistar rats. In males, both aspirin-esterase I (assayed at pH 5.5 and II (assayed at pH 7.4 activities were higher in liver homogenates when compared to females (aspirin-esterase I: males 48.9 ± 4.8 (N = 8 and females 29.3 ± 4.2 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 41.4 ± 4.1 (N = 8 and females 26.1 ± 4.5 (N = 8 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In serum, enzyme activity was higher in females than in males (aspirin-esterase I: males 0.85 ± 0.06 (N = 6 and females 1.18 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1; aspirin-esterase II: males 1.03 ± 0.13 (N = 6 and females 1.34 ± 0.11 (N = 6 nmol of salicylic acid formed min-1 mg protein-1, P<0.001. In the other tissues assayed, no statistically significant difference between males and females was found. There were no statistically significant differences when the enzymes were assayed in different phases of the estrous cycle in liver and serum. These results show that the differences in aspirin-esterase activity observed between males and females are not due to the estrous cycle. The gender difference obtained in our study may indicate an involvement of gonadal hormones in the control of the hydrolysis of aspirin. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  1. Distribution of Copper in Rats Submitted to Treatment With Copper Aspirinate

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Weiping; Yang, Yikun; Xiong, Huizhou; Lu, Ying; Yang, Rong

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of copper in Sprague – Dawley rats following a three month oral administration of 0,10 or 50mg/kg copper aspirinate has been investigated. Metal content was determined by ICP – AES in blood, brain, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and dejection. The results show that treatment with copper aspirinate did not cause accumulation of copper in rats and excess ingested copper was excreted through feces.

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of drug residues in water by the example of tetracycline, gentamicine and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichgrebe, D; Danilova, E; Rosenwinkel, K H; Vedenjapin, A A; Baturova, M

    2004-01-01

    Electro-chemical oxidation as a method to destroy drug residues like aspirin, tetracycline or gentamicine in water was investigated with C-anodes (modified by manganese oxides) and Pt anodes. The mechanism of aspirin and tetracycline oxidation and the influence of the biocide effect was observed using GC-MS and three different microbiological tests. In general, the biological availability increases with progressive oxidation of the antibiotics. PMID:15077972

  3. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  4. Aspirin inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated fractalkine expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG De-qian; LIU Hong; ZHANG She-bing; ZHANG Xiao-lian

    2009-01-01

    Background Fractalkine is an important chemokine mediating local monocyte accumulation and inflammatory reactions in the vascular wall. Aspirin inhibits inflammatory cytokine expression closely related to atherosclerosis through the way independent of platelet and cyclooxygenase (COX). There has been no report about the effect of aspirin on fractalkine expression. We aimed to determine the fractalkine expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) stimulated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the effect of aspirin intervention.Methods Six of 8 HUVEC groups received either different concentrations of aspirin (0.02, 0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mmol/L) or 40 μmol/L pyrrolidinecarbodithioc acid (PDTC) or 0.5 μmol/L NS-398. The other two groups were negative control and positive control (TNF-α-stimulated). After being incubated for 24 hours, cells of the 8 groups except the negative control one were stimulated with TNF-a (4 ng/ml) for another 24 hours. After that, the cells were collected for RNA isolation and protein extraction.Results Both mRNA and protein expressions of fractalkine in HUVEC were upregulated by 4 ng/ml TNF-α stimulation,Aspirin inhibited fractalkine expression in a dose-dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels. Nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor, PDTC, effectively decreased the fractalkine expression. Fractalkine expression was not influenced by COX-2 selective inhibitor NS-398. COX-1 protein expression was not changed by either TNF-α stimulation or aspirin, PDTC,NS-398 intervention. Both mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 in HUVEC were upregulated by 4 ng/ml TNF-α stimulation. Aspirin decreased COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner at mRNA and protein levels.Conclusions TNF-α-stimulated fractalkine expression is suppressed by aspirin in a dose-dependent manner through the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 pathway.

  5. Use of Aspirin Associates with Longer Primary Patency of Hemodialysis Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Bradley S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Dember, Laura M; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Greenberg,Arthur; Delmez, James A.; Allon, Michael; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Hu, Bo; Greene, Tom; Radeva, Milena K.; Davidson, Ingemar J.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Braden, Gregory L.; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release dipyridamole plus low-dose aspirin (ERDP/ASA) prolongs primary unassisted graft patency of newly created hemodialysis arteriovenous grafts, but the individual contributions of each component are unknown. Here, we analyzed whether use of aspirin at baseline associated with primary unassisted graft patency among participants in a randomized trial that compared ERDP/ASA and placebo in newly created grafts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for prespecified b...

  6. Effect of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Henk; Rotmans, Nel; Brommer, E.J.Ph.; Wallenburg, Henk

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of a daily oral dose of 60 to 80 mg of aspirin from 12 weeks gestation until delivery on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective controlled study labor was electively induced in 24 patients, eight receiving low-dose aspirin and 16 controls. Levels were determined in maternal and cord plasma of tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, plasminogen ...

  7. Aspirin has little additional anti-platelet effect in healthy volunteers receiving prasugrel

    OpenAIRE

    LEADBEATER, P D M; Kirkby, N S; Thomas, S.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); DHANJI, A-R; Tucker, A T; MILNE, G L; Mitchell, J. A.; Warner, T D

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: Strong P2Y12 blockade, as can be achieved with novel anti-platelet agents such as prasugrel, has been shown in vitro to inhibit both ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways of platelet aggregation, calling into question the need for the concomitant use of aspirin. Objective: The present study investigated the hypothesis that aspirin provides little additional anti-aggregatory effect in a group of healthy volunteers taking prasugrel. Study participants/methods: In all, 9 m...

  8. Assessment of aspirin resistance varies on a temporal basis in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Muir, A. R.; McMullin, Mary; Patterson, Christopher; McKeown, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Laboratory tests including optical platelet aggregometry (OPA), platelet function analyser (PFA-100), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) metabolite levels have been used to define aspirin resistance. This study characterised the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and investigated the concordance and repeatability of these tests. Design, setting and patients: Consecutive outpatients with stable IHD were enrolled. They were commenced on 150 mg aspi...

  9. Serum Specific IgE to Thyroid Peroxidase Activates Basophils in Aspirin Intolerant Urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yoo Seob; Suh, Dong-Hyeon; Yang, Eun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid antibodies are frequently observed in urticaria patients, but their roles in urticaria are not clearly elucidated. We investigated the role of serum specific IgE to thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in patients with aspirin intolerant acute urticaria (AIAU) and aspirin intolerant chronic urticaria (AICU). We recruited 59 AIAU and 96 AICU patients with 69 normal controls (NC). Serum specific IgE to TPO was measured by manual direct ELISA, and CD203c expressions on basophil with additions of TPO...

  10. Clinical evidence for the use of aspirin in the treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Although the anti-cancer effects of aspirin were first identified in pre-clinical models four decades ago, a clear role for the drug in either the prevention or treatment of cancer has not been established. Concerns about toxicity, particularly major haemorrhage, and a lack of randomised evidence demonstrating efficacy have limited its use in primary prevention; there was also doubt that a simple aspirin could have a significant therapeutic effect against established malignancy. Three new pie...

  11. The gastrointestinal toxicity of aspirin: an overview of randomised controlled trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Roderick, P. J.; Wilkes, H C; Meade, T W

    1993-01-01

    The proven benefit of aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and its possible value in primary prevention must be weighted against its potential hazards. This paper is an overview of the gastrointestinal toxicity of aspirin, its most serious complication after intracerebral haemorrhage. Information on toxicity has been drawn only from randomised trials, thus avoiding the potential biases of observational studies. All randomised placebo controlled trials listed in the An...

  12. Psychotropic effects of aspirin, acetylsalicylate cobalt and acetylsalicylate zinc at various doses

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Yakovchyuk; Oksana V. Katiushyna; Ivan I. Koreniuk; Denis R. Khusainov; Tatyana V. Gamma

    2012-01-01

    For the first time it is shown that psychotropic action of acetylsalicylates at various doses is manifested as a nonmonotonic dependence having its peaks at therapeutic and ultra-low dose zones. It is discovered that development of effects of aspirin resembles that of acetylsalicylate zinc. Acetylsalicylate cobalt at extremely low doses zone showed the highest antidepressant activity, demonstrating toxicity at high doses. Generally, it is revealed that the use of aspirin and its salts at high...

  13. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  14. The influence of gender on the effects of aspirin in preventing myocardial infarction

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    Sin Don D

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable variation in the effect of aspirin therapy reducing the risk of myocardial infarction (MI. Gender could be a potential explanatory factor for the variability. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether gender mix might play a role in explaining the large variation of aspirin efficacy across primary and secondary MI prevention trials. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that examined the efficacy of aspirin therapy on MI were identified by using the PUBMED database (1966 to October 2006. Weighted linear regression technique was used to determine the relationship between log-transformed relative risk (RR of MI and the percentage of male participants in each trial. The reciprocal of the standard error of the RR in each trial (1/SE was used as the weight. Results A total of 23 trials (n = 113 494 participants were identified. Overall, compared with placebo, aspirin reduced the risk of non-fatal MI (RR = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.64–0.81, p Conclusion Gender accounts for a substantial proportion of the variability in the efficacy of aspirin in reducing MI rates across these trials, and supports the notion that women might be less responsive to aspirin than men.

  15. Impact of aspirin and clopidogrel interruption on platelet function in patients undergoing major vascular surgery.

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    Yannick Le Manach

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate functional platelet recovery after preoperative withdrawal of aspirin and clopidogrel and platelet function 5 days after treatment resumption. METHODS/RESULTS: We conducted an observational study, which prospectively included consecutive patients taking aspirin, taking clopidogrel, and untreated controls (15 patients in each group. The antiplatelet drugs were withdrawn five days before surgery (baseline and were reintroduced two days after surgery. Platelet function was evaluated by optical aggregation in the presence of collagen, arachidonic acid (aspirin and ADP (clopidogrel and by VASP assay (clopidogrel. Platelet-leukocyte complex (PLC level was quantified at each time-point. At baseline, platelet function was efficiently inhibited by aspirin and had recovered fully in most patients 5 days after drug withdrawal. PLC levels five days after aspirin reintroduction were similar to baseline (+4±10%; p = 0.16, in line with an effective platelet inhibition. Chronic clopidogrel treatment was associated with variable platelet inhibition and its withdrawal led to variable functional recovery. PLC levels were significantly increased five days after clopidogrel reintroduction (+10±15%; p = 0.02, compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin withdrawal 5 days before high-bleeding-risk procedures was associated with functional platelet recovery, and its reintroduction two days after surgery restored antiplaletet efficacy five days later. This was not the case of clopidogrel, and further work is therefore needed to define its optimal perioperative management.

  16. Which people should take aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Lozano,1 Maria-Esther Franco21Pharmacy Department, 2Haematology Department, Hospital Real de Nuestra Señora de Gracia, Zaragoza, SpainDear editorA single trial, ISIS-2,1 in 1988, demonstrated the utility of daily aspirin in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, reducing the risk of vascular death by 23%. In addition, aspirin has also proven effective in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.2 Thus, for a subset of the general population, aspirin may help to prevent heart attacks and strokes. In fact, at low doses, in the range of 75 to 100 mg per day, aspirin prevents the progression of existing cardiovascular disease (CVD, including coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, and reduces the frequency of cardiovascular events in patients with history of CVD,3,4 referred to as secondary prevention.Although the benefits of aspirin for secondary prevention of CVD are well known, its use in primary prevention of CVD, defined as prevention of the first occurrence of CVD for all patients without clinical CVD, including those with diabetes mellitus and those without clinical evidence of atherosclerotic disease who are at higher CVD risk, is less clear and controversial results have been obtained. In fact, the results of several studies using aspirin for primary prevention of CVD have generally shown more modest reductions of major vascular events compared with secondary prevention (12% vs 23%.3,5

  17. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of aspirin and prasugrel

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    Shital M Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aspirin and prasugrel, using a Kromasil 100 C 18 (150×4.6 mm, 5 μ column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:methanol:water (30:10:60, v/v, pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid. The retention times of aspirin and prasugrel were found to be 3.28 min and 6.61 min, respectively. Linearity was established for aspirin and prasugrel in the range of 15-150 and 2-20 μg/ml, respectively. The percentage recoveries of aspirin and prasugrel were found to be in the range of 99.34-100.32% and 98.92-102.09%, respectively. Both the drugs were subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, and UV degradation. The degradation studies indicated aspirin to be more susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis, while prasugrel to be more susceptible to neutral hydrolysis. The degradation products were well resolved from the pure drug with significant differences in their retention time values. This method can be successfully employed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of aspirin and prasugrel in bulk drugs and formulations.

  18. Effects of aspirin on metastasis-associated gene expression detected by cDNA microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-qin GAO; Jin-xiang HAN; Hai-yan HUANG; Shi YAN; Chang-zheng SONG; Hai-nan HUANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of aspirin on the metastasis-associated gene expression in 3AO ovarian cancer cells.METHODS: 3AO cells were treated with aspirin at the concentration of 1.2 mmol/L for 16 and 48 h, respectively.The total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagents and reverse transcribed with Superscript II and hybridized with cDNA microarray (containing oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, signal transduction pathway molecules, adhesive molecules, growth factors and ESTs) fabricated in our lab. After normalization, the ratio of gene expression of aspirin treated to untreated 3AO cells being either 2 fold up higher or 0.5 fold down (lower) were defined as differential expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray results. RESULTS: Among the 447 metastasis-associated genes, 4 genes were up-regulated and 14 genes were down-regulated in 3AO cells treated with aspirin for 16 h compared with untreated cells. While 24 genes were up-regulated and 10 genes were down-regulated in cells treated with aspirin for 48 h. Several up or down-regulated gene expression changes continued from 16 h to 48 h. CONCLUSION: Aspirin might exert its anti-metastasis effects on ovarian cancer by affecting metastasis-associated gene expression.

  19. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies on aspirin : An experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, R.; Premkumar, S.; Rekha, T. N.; Parameswari, A.; Mathavan, T.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies on aspirin molecule adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were synthesized by the solution-combustion method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. The averaged particle size of synthesized AgNPs was calculated as ˜55 nm. The normal Raman spectrum (nRs) and SERS spectrum of the aspirin were recorded. The molecular structure of the aspirin and aspirin adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/ B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The calculated nRs and SERS frequencies were correlated well with the observed frequencies. The flat-on orientation was predicted from the nRs and SERS spectra, when the aspirin adsorbed on the AgNPs. Hence, the present studies lead to the understanding of adsorption process of aspirin on the AgNPs, which paves the way for biomedical applications.

  20. SOX7 is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhou; Shu-Yan Huang; Jing-Xin Feng; Yan-Yan Gao; Li Zhao; Jun Lu; Bai-Qu Huang; Yu Zhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To confirm the role of sex-determining region Y-box 7 (Sox7) in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of COX-independent human colorectal cancer cells.METHODS: The cell survival percentage was examined by MTT (Moto-nuclear cell direc cytotoxicity) assay.SOX7 expression was assessed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. SB203580 was used to inhibit the p38MAPK signal pathway. SOX7 promoter activity was detected by Luciferase reporter assay.RESULTS: SOX7 was upregulated by aspirin and was involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of SW480 human colorectal cancer cells. The p38MAPK pathway played a role in aspirin-induced SOX7 expression, during which the AP1 transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos upregulated SOX7 promoter activities.RESULTS: SOX7 is upregulated by aspirin and is involved in aspirin-mediated growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer SW480 cells.

  1. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  2. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in hamster lung microsomes is not completely inhibited by aspirin and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uotila, P.; Paajanen, H.; Schalin, M.; Simberg, N.

    1983-10-01

    Aspirin (100 microM or 1 mM) or indomethacin (10 microM or 100 microM) was incubated with a microsomal preparation of hamster lungs in the presence of NADPH for 10 min. Then 14C-arachidonic acid (20 microM) was added and the incubation was continued for an additional 20 min. The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate first at pH 7.4 and then at pH 3.5 and analysed by thin layer chromatography. Both aspirin and indomethacin inhibited dose dependently the formation of all identified prostaglandins, including PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, PGE2 and PGD2. The rate of formation of some unidentified metabolites extracted at pH 7.4 and 3.5 was, however, not changed by aspirin or indomethacin. We have earlier reported that in isolated perfused hamster lungs the formation of all arachidonate metabolites is inhibited by both aspirin and indomethacin. As the present study indicates that in the microsomes of hamster lungs all metabolic pathways of arachidonic acid are not inhibited by aspirin or indomethacin, it is possible that in isolated tissues and in vivo aspirin-like drugs have some other inhibitory effects on arachidonate metabolism than the inhibition of the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme.

  3. Critical appraisal of a fixed combination of esomeprazole and low dose aspirin in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Vachhani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ravi Vachhani1, Doumit Bouhaidar1, Alvin Zfass1, Bimaljit Sandhu1, Ali Nawras21Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia 23298–0341, USA; 2Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390, USAAbstract: Low dose aspirin (≤325 mg is routinely used for primary and secondary prophylaxis of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The use of low dose aspirin is associated with two-to four-fold greater risk of symptomatic or complicated peptic ulcers. Risk factors associated with low dose aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity includes prior history of ulcer or upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding, concomitant use of other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid or warfarin, dual antiplatelet therapy, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, and advanced age. Esomeprazole, like other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs is very effective in decreasing the risk of aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Although evidence to support esomeprazole or other PPIs for primary prophylaxis in aspirin induced gastrointestinal toxicity is limited, its role in secondary prophylaxis is well established.Keywords: esomeprazole, proton pump inhibitors, low dose aspirin, gastrointestinal toxicity, gastrointestinal bleeding

  4. Roles of Periostin in Respiratory Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Kenji; Conway, Simon J; Moore, Bethany B; Matsumoto, Hisako; Holweg, Cecile T J; Matthews, John G; Arron, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Periostin is a matricellular protein that has been implicated in many disease states. It interacts with multiple signaling cascades to modulate the expression of downstream genes that regulate cellular interactions within the extracellular matrix. This review focuses on the role of periostin in respiratory diseases, including asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and its potential to help guide treatment or assess prognosis. Epithelial injury is a common feature of many respiratory diseases, resulting in the secretion, among others, of periostin, which is subsequently involved in airway remodeling and other aspects of pulmonary pathophysiology. In asthma, periostin is recognized as a biomarker of type 2 inflammation; POSTN gene expression is up-regulated in bronchial epithelial cells by IL-13 and IL-4. Serum periostin has been evaluated for the identification of patients with increased clinical benefit from treatment with anti-IL-13 (lebrikizumab, tralokinumab) and anti-IgE (omalizumab) therapy and may be prognostic for increased risk of asthma exacerbations and progressive lung function decline. Furthermore, in asthma, periostin may regulate subepithelial fibrosis and mucus production and may serve as a systemic biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Periostin is also highly expressed in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and its serum levels may predict clinical progression. Overall, periostin contributes to multiple pathogenic processes across respiratory diseases, and peripheral blood levels of periostin may have utility as a biomarker of treatment response and disease progression. PMID:26756066

  5. [Anesthetic management of posterior lumbar spinal fusion in a patient suspected of having acute exacerbation of chronic interstitial pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mayuko; Takenami, Tamie; Otsuka, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Norito; Yoshino, Kazuhisa; Matsumoto, Shigehiro; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2014-02-01

    A patient complicated with interstitial pneumonia required emergency posterior lumbar spinal fusion. The blood gas analysis showed relatively benign values (PaO2 81 torr, PaCO2 44 torr, under room air), but the honeycombing lungs were noted in the bilateral lung fields on CT, and the KL-6 level was high (1,000 U x ml(-1)), for which the acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was suspected. Sivelestat sodium administration was initiated during the surgery and continued postoperatively. During surgery, setting the FIO2 at 0.34, the P/F ratio and intra-airway pressure could be maintained at 500 and 25 mmHg, respectively. To reduce postoperative respiratory complication, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane, which is dissipated easily, and 0.5% ropivacaine 15 ml was subcutaneously injected to the surgical field at the time of wound closure to reduce the total doses of intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesics. After the completion of surgery, the endotracheal tube was removed with head elevated position, and the patient was transported back to the ward. No acute exacerbation occurred thereafter, and the patient was discharged 67 days after surgery. The prediction of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia is difficult. Moreover, there is no established preventive method, although the mortality is high. Therefore, physicians should be thoroughly informed about the currently available evidence, including developmental factors. PMID:24601111

  6. Aspirin resistance may be identified by miR-92a in plasma combined with platelet distribution width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Helle Glud; Houlind, Kim; Madsen, Jonna Skov;

    2016-01-01

    operating characteristic curves for miR-92a levels and PDW were used to set cut-off values for discrimination between aspirin responding and aspirin resistant patients. RESULTS: When defining aspirin resistance as an ASPItest ≥30U, the optimal cut-off values for discrimination of aspirin responders and...... aspirin resistant patients were found to be PDW>11.8fL and a relative expression level of miR-92a>4.5. Using these cut-off values we could define a PDW/miR-92a-score with a specificity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 80.0% in relation to detect aspirin resistance. The corresponding positive and negative...

  7. TRPM8 mechanism of autonomic nerve response to cold in respiratory airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cong-Yi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breathing cold air without proper temperature exchange can induce strong respiratory autonomic responses including cough, airway constriction and mucosal secretion, and can exacerbate existing asthma conditions and even directly trigger an asthma attack. Vagal afferent fiber is thought to be involved in the cold-induced respiratory responses through autonomic nerve reflex. However, molecular mechanisms by which vagal afferent fibers are excited by cold remain unknown. Using retrograde labeling, immunostaining, calcium imaging, and electrophysiological recordings, here we show that a subpopulation of airway vagal afferent nerves express TRPM8 receptors and that activation of TRPM8 receptors by cold excites these airway autonomic nerves. Thus activation of TRPM8 receptors may provoke autonomic nerve reflex to increase airway resistance. This putative autonomic response may be associated with cold-induced exacerbation of asthma and other pulmonary disorders, making TRPM8 receptors a possible target for prevention of cold-associated respiratory disorders.

  8. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  9. Oral single high-dose aspirin results in a long-lived inhibition of anodal current-induced vasodilatation

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, S; Fromy, B; Koïtka, A; Tartas, M; Saumet, J L; Abraham, P

    2002-01-01

    Acetyl salicyclic acid (aspirin) irreversibly blocks cyclo-oxygenase (COX). This effect is short-lived in endothelial or smooth muscle cells due to resynthesis but long-lived in platelets devoid of synthesis ability. Aspirin blocks the anodal current-induced vasodilatation, suggesting participation by prostaglandin (PG). We analysed the time course of the effect of aspirin as an indirect indicator of the origin of the PG possibly involved in anodal current-induced vasodilatation.In healthy vo...

  10. Mucosal adaptation to aspirin induced gastric damage in humans. Studies on blood flow, gastric mucosal growth, and neutrophil activation.

    OpenAIRE

    Konturek, J W; Dembinski, A; Stoll, R.; Domschke, W; Konturek, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    The gastropathy associated with the ingestion of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin is a common side effect of this class of drugs, but the precise mechanisms by which they cause mucosal damage have not been fully explained. During continued use of an injurious substance, such as aspirin, the extent of gastric mucosal damage decreases and this phenomenon is named gastric adaptation. To assess the extent of mucosal damage by aspirin and subsequent adaptation the eff...

  11. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    De Berardis, Giorgia; Sacco, Michele; Strippoli, Giovanni F.M.; Pellegrini, Fabio; Graziano, Giusi; Tognoni, Gianni; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefits and harms of low dose aspirin in people with diabetes and no cardiovascular disease. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline (1966-November 2008), the Cochrane central register of controlled trials (Cochrane Library 2008;issue 4), and reference lists of retrieved articles. Review methods Randomised trials of aspirin compared with placebo or no aspirin in people with diabetes and no pre-existing cardiovascular disease were e...

  12. Viral Etiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations during the A/H1N1pdm09 Pandemic and Postpandemic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sanz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections are one of the main causes of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD. Emergence of A/H1N1pdm influenza virus in the 2009 pandemic changed the viral etiology of exacerbations that were reported before the pandemic. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of respiratory viruses in 195 Spanish patients affected by AE-COPD from the pandemic until the 2011-12 influenza epidemic. During the study period (2009–2012, respiratory viruses were identified in 48.7% of samples, and the proportion of viral detections in AE-COPD was higher in patients aged 30–64 years than ≥65 years. Influenza A viruses were the pathogens most often detected during the pandemic and the following two influenza epidemics in contradistinction to human rhino/enteroviruses that were the main viruses causing AE-COPD before the pandemic. The probability of influenza virus detection was 2.78-fold higher in patients who are 30–64 years old than those ≥65. Most respiratory samples were obtained during the pandemic, but the influenza detection rate was higher during the 2011-12 epidemic. There is a need for more accurate AE-COPD diagnosis, emphasizing the role of respiratory viruses. Furthermore, diagnosis requires increased attention to patient age and the characteristics of each influenza epidemic.

  13. Asthma exacerbations during pregnancy: incidence and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, V E; Clifton, V.L.; Gibson, P G

    2006-01-01

    Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy represent a significant clinical problem and may be related to poor pregnancy outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted for publications related to exacerbations during pregnancy. Four studies with a control group (no asthma) and two groups of women with asthma (exacerbation, no exacerbation) were included in meta‐analyses using fixed effects models. During pregnancy, exacerbations of asthma which require medical intervention occur ...

  14. Aspirin protected against endothelial damage induced by LDL:role of endogenous NO synthase inhibitors in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng DENG; Pan-yue DENG; Jun-lin JIANG; Feng YE; Jing YU; Tian-lun YANG; Han-wu DENG; Yuan-jian LI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of aspirin on damages of the endothelium induced by low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and whether the protective effect of aspirin is related to reduction of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor level.METHODS: Vascular endothelial injury was induced by a single injection of native LDL (4 mg/kg) in rats. Vasodilator responses to acetylcholine (Ach) in the isolated aortic rings were determined, and serum concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and the activity of dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) were measured. RESULTS: A single injection of LDL (4 mg/kg)significantly decreased vasodilator responses to Ach, increased the serum level of ADMA, MDA, and TNF-α, and decreased DDAH activity. Aspirin (30 or 100 mg/kg) markedly reduced the inhibition of vasodilator responses to Ach by LDL, and the protective effect of aspirin at the lower dose was greater compared with high-dose aspirin group. Aspirin inhibited the increased level of MDA and TNF-α induced by LDL. Aspirin at the dose of 30 mg/kg,but not at higher dose (100 mg/kg), significantly reduced the concentration of ADMA and increased the activity of DDAH. CONCLUSION: Aspirin at the lower dose (30 mg/kg) protects the endothelium against damages elicited by LDL in vivo, and the protective effect of aspirin on endothelium is related to reduction of ADMA concentration by increasing DDAH activity.

  15. Down-regulation of β-catenin Nuclear Localization by Aspirin Correlates with Growth Inhibition of Jurkat Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of aspirin on the growth rates, subcellar distribution of β-catenin protein, the expression of β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway target gene cyclinD1 mRNA,and cell cycle of Jurkat cell line (Human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Our results showed that the treatment with aspirin inhibited the growth of Jurkat cell line. Jurkat cells treated with 3 mmol/L of aspirin could significantly decrease nuclear localization of β-catenin, and at 5 mmol/L of aspirin,the nuclear localization of β-catenin was undetectable. QRT-PCR showed that the target gene cyclinD1 mRNA expression was gradually decreased with the dosage of aspirin. Aspirin induced G0/G1cell cycle arrest in Jurkat cells. We are led to conclude that aspirin acts through β-catenin-independent mechanisms. The effects of aspirin include down-regulation of β-catenin nuclear localization and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which might serve as a means of growth inhibition in aspirin-treated human Jurkat cell line.

  16. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute significantly to disease progression. However, the effect on tissue structure and turnover is not well described. There is an urgent clinical need for biomarkers of disease activity associated with disease...... progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... elevated levels of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  17. Paradoxical exacerbation of chronic plaque psoriasis by sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Z Z N; Ali, F R; Griffiths, C E M

    2016-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists have been investigated as a potential treatment for psoriasis, but there have been reports of VEGF antagonists triggering and/or exacerbating pre-existing psoriasis. We present the case of a 61-year old-man with exacerbation of pre-existing psoriasis after treatment with sorafenib, a small molecule inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase domain of the VEGF receptor, and we review the literature for other published cases of sorafenib-induced or sorafenib-exacerbated psoriasis. Clinicians, including both dermatologists and oncologists, should be aware of this potential side-effect of sorafenib in addition to the other cutaneous side effects reported for this drug. PMID:26667599

  18. Aspirin At 100, Still A ’Wonderdrug’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt; Karnitschnig; 庄秀琴

    1999-01-01

    1899年3月6日,阿司匹林在德国拜耳公司诞生。今年3月6日,德国拜耳公司举行了庆祝活动,纪念阿司匹林诞生100周年。100年前,拜耳公司的化学家霍夫曼博士提取出具有镇痛和退烧作用的乙酰水杨酸。该公司以阿司匹林的商业名称注册的专利,很快它就成为使用最广泛的常规药品。人们在医学实践中发现,阿司匹林还能抑制血小板聚集,对于冠心病、中风等由于血凝而引发的心血管疾病具有辅助治疗效果。近年来还有一些研究表明它能够防癌,百年老药又展示了它旺盛的生命力。 本文使用了许多精彩的赞誉之词,让读者感到既是夸张,又不是夸张。如: …aspirin, like Coca Cola and Levis(著名牛仔裤的品牌),is one of only a handful of brands to have transcended(超越)cultures, borders and generations to enjoy almost universal recognition. Mentioned in films and fiction, it has become as enduring an element of life in the 20th century as the car and television. …modern man lived in "the age of the aspirin". 让人惊奇的是,对人类作出巨大贡献的阿司匹林,问世之初竟遭“冷遇”: …whose potential was at first doubted by the firm’s management. 因为阿司匹林能够有效防止心脏病的发作,聪明的商人?

  19. COPD exacerbations in general practice: variability in oral prednisolone courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of oral corticosteroids as treatment of COPD exacerbations in primary care is well established and evidence-based. However, the most appropriate dosage regimen has not been determined and remains controversial. Corticosteroid therapy is associated with a number of undesirable side effects, including hyperglycaemias, so differences in prescribing might be relevant. This study examines the differences between GPs in dosage and duration of prednisolone treatment in patients with a COPD exacerbation. It also investigates the number of general practitioners (GPs who adjust their treatment according to the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Methods Cross-sectional study among 219 GPs and 25 GPs in training, located in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Results The response rate was 69%. Nearly every GP prescribed a continuous dose of prednisolone 30 mg per day. Among GPs there were substantial differences in treatment duration. GPs prescribed courses of five, seven, ten, or fourteen days. A course of seven days was most common. The duration of treatment depended on exacerbation and disease severity. A course of five days was especially prescribed in case of a less severe exacerbation. In a more severe exacerbation duration of seven to fourteen days was more common. Hardly any GP adjusted treatment to the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Conclusion Under normal conditions GPs prescribe prednisolone quite uniformly, within the range of the current Dutch guidelines. There is insufficient guidance regarding how to adjust corticosteroid treatment to exacerbation severity, disease severity and the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Under these circumstances, there is a substantial variation in treatment duration.

  20. Identification of preadmission predictors of outcome of noninvasive ventilation in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameem Mohd.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV has been shown to be an effective treatment for ventilatory failure, particularly resulting from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, NIV is associated with significant failure rates. Hence, there is a need for identifying preadmission predictors for outcome of NIV in patients for acute exacerbation of COPD, thereby sparing the discomfort of a trial of NIV on these patients. Aim: The study was carried to identify the preadmission predictors of outcome of NIV in acute exacerbation of COPD with respiratory failure. Material and Methods: The study was carried in the Department of TB & Chest diseases at the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU; 250 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD were enrolled in the study. These patients were grouped on the basis of six different independent variables, viz. age, performance status, pH, late failures, SaO2, and presence or absence of pedal edema. Analysis was done by z-test, P Observation: Age had no impact on the outcome of patient on NIV ( z = 0.3.The risk for endotracheal intubation was found to be increased by the presence of pedal edema ( z = 6.2; P < 0.001, O2 saturation of less than 86% ( z = 4.7; P < 0.001, and acidemia (pH < 7.3 on admission ( z = 10.6; P < 0.001. In addition, poor performance status of limited self-care ( z = 3.2; P < 0.01 and late failures carried poor outcome of NIV ( z = 8.3; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients′ COPD with poor baseline performance status, pedal edema, low oxygen saturation, and academia carry a high likelihood of failure and should be spared a prolonged trial of NIV.

  1. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  2. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T;

    2014-01-01

    in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident...... 10 years, 1 109 individuals experienced a severe asthma exacerbation (430 with asthma as the primary diagnostic code). In the age- and sex-adjusted analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations defined using the primary diagnostic code (hazard ratio, HR: 1...

  3. CONTRAST ADVERSE EFFECT STUDY OF ASPIRIN AND CLOPIDOGREL IN STROKE PATIENTS USING COMBINATION AND INDIVIDUAL MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Giri Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and hemorrhage are the conditions which may lead to stroke. As stroke is a medical emergency, treated with medications such as aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole. In the present study the combination and individual adverse effects of aspirin and clopidogrel medication were studied. The study during was around nine months in one of the private hospital at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Adverse effects evaluation was based on WHO guide lines and Naranjo’s Algorithm. Total 69 stroke patients were taken in to studies. 46 (66.66% were males and 23 (33.33% were females. The number of ischemic stroke patients was 39(56.5% and hemorrhage stroke was 30(43.4%. Among 41 patients, 19 patients was on Aspirin (46.34%, 10 patients was on clopidogral (24.34% and 12 patients was on combinations medication (29.26%. Adverse effects reported among the antiplatelate users were 6 patients. Among these 6 patients 4 patients were observed with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI the overall percentage was 66.66% and 2 patients were observed with Vomiting, the overall percentage was 33.33%. In this study, the relative risk reduction for secondary stroke prevention was 37% with use of a combination of extended- release dipyridamole and aspirin. Importantly, the risk of major bleeding attributable to the combination therapy was no greater than that seen with aspirin alone. The benefit of clopidogrel over aspirin for the prevention of vascular events was a relative risk reduction of 8.7%.In addition, there was less major bleeding in the clopidogrel group, yielding a relative net benefit of about 10%. This study revels clopidogrel is the safe drug when compared with Aspirin and as well as combination therapy.

  4. Effects of aspirin on atherosclerosis and the cyclooxygenase-2 expression in atherosclerotic rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yi; WANG Qi-zhang; TANG Bing-shan; ZUO Yan-fang; LI Fang-ming; JIANG Xin; WANG Ling; MA Ke-fu

    2006-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a complex vascular inflammatory disease. Aspirin is a mainstay in the prevention of vascular complications of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effectiveness of aspirin in suppressing atherosclerosis and the inflammation process was evaluated in rabbits fed with a high fat diet.Methods Eighteen male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, untreated cholesterol-fed group, aspirin treated cholesterol-fed group, which were fed for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the aorta was harvested for pathologic morphology observation. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) was performed. The statistical analysis was performed by the statistical program SPSS 10.0.Results The aorta plaque/intima size (P/I) by pathologic morphology observation was 0%, (59.6± 13.7)% and (36.3± 16.5)% in the control, untreated cholesterol-fed group and aspirin treated group, respectively. The maximum plaque thickness, the degree of artery stenosis and the proportion of the intimal circumference occupied by atheroma of the 3 groups were significantly different from each other (P<0.01). The expression of COX-2 and macrophage in plaque of the aspirin treated group were decreased compared with that in untreated cholesterol-fed group. However, no difference was found in the expression of VSMC between the aspirin treated and the untreated cholesterol-fed group.Conclusion The mechanism of atherosclerosis suppression by aspirin in cholesterol-fed rabbits is related to the inhibition of COX-2 expression together with the reduced inflammation followed by, but not related to the hypolipidemic effects.

  5. Clinical pharmacology of cyclooxygenase inhibition and pharmacodynamic interaction with aspirin by floctafenine in Thai healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenthaisong, R; Tacconelli, S; Sritara, P; Del Boccio, P; Di Francesco, L; Sacchetta, P; Archararit, N; Aryurachai, K; Patrignani, P; Suthisisang, C

    2013-01-01

    Floctafenine, a hydroxyquinoline derivative with analgesic properties, is widely used in Thailand and many other countries. The objectives of this study were to evaluate in Thai healthy volunteers: i) the inhibition of whole blood cyclooxygenase(COX)-2 and COX-1 activity by floctafenine and its metabolite floctafenic acid in vitro and ex vivo after dosing with floctafenine; ii) the possible interference of floctafenine administration with aspirin antiplatelet effects. We performed an open-label, cross-over, 3-period study, on 11 healthy Thai volunteers, who received consecutively floctafenine(200mg/TID), low-dose aspirin(81mg/daily) or their combination for 4 days, separated by washout periods. Floctafenine and floctafenic acid resulted potent inhibitors of COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro (floctafenic acid was more potent than floctafenine) showing a slight preference for COX-1. After dosing with floctafenine alone, whole blood COX-1 and COX-2 activities were inhibited ex vivo in a time-dependent fashion which paralleled floctafenic acid plasma concentrations. Aspirin alone inhibited profoundly and persistently platelet COX-1 activity and AA-induced platelet aggregation throughout 24-h dosing interval which was affected by the co-administration of floctafenine. At 24 h after dosing with aspirin and floctafenine, the inhibition of platelet thromboxane(TX)B2 generation and aggregation were significantly(P less than 0.05) lower than that caused by aspirin alone. Therapeutic dosing with floctafenine profoundly inhibited prostanoid biosynthesis through the rapid conversion to floctafenic acid. Floctafenine interfered with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. Our results suggest that floctafenine should be avoided in patients with cardiovascular disease under treatment with low-dose aspirin. PMID:23755755

  6. Aspirin augments carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Rachel C; Muller, Matthew D; Blaha, Cheryl A; Mast, Jessica L; Herr, Michael D; Stocker, Sean D; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2013-10-15

    Muscle mechanoreflex activation decreases the sensitivity of carotid baroreflex (CBR)-heart rate (HR) control during local metabolite accumulation in humans. However, the contribution of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) toward this response is unknown. Therefore, the effect of inhibiting TXA2 production via low-dose aspirin on CBR-HR sensitivity during muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in humans was examined. Twelve young subjects performed two trials during two visits, preceded by 7 days' low-dose aspirin (81 mg) or placebo. One trial involved 3-min passive calf stretch (mechanoreflex) during 7.5-min limb circulatory occlusion (CO). In another trial, CO was preceded by 1.5 min of 70% maximal voluntary contraction isometric calf exercise to accumulate metabolites during CO and stretch (mechanoreflex and metaboreflex). HR (ECG) and mean arterial pressure (Finometer) were recorded. CBR function was assessed using rapid neck pressures ranging from +40 to -80 mmHg. Aspirin significantly decreased baseline thromboxane B2 production by 84 ± 4% (P aspirin, stretch with metabolite accumulation significantly augmented maximal gain (GMAX) and operating point gain (GOP) of CBR-HR (GMAX; -0.71 ± 0.14 vs. -0.37 ± 0.08 and GOP; -0.69 ± 0.13 vs. -0.35 ± 0.12 beats·min(-1)·mmHg(-1) for aspirin and placebo, respectively; P aspirin and placebo during stretch with metabolite accumulation. In conclusion, these findings suggest that low-dose aspirin augments CBR-HR sensitivity during concurrent muscle mechanoreflex and metaboreflex activation in humans. This increased sensitivity appears linked to reduced TXA2 production, which likely plays a role in metabolite sensitization of muscle mechanoreceptors. PMID:23970529

  7. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF MUTUAL PRODRUG OF ASPIRIN AND CHLORZOXAZONE

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    Sandeep Walsangikar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin chlorzoxazone ester linked mutual prodrug was synthesized with the aim of improving the therapeutic index through prevention of gastrointestinal irritation and bleeding. The structure of the synthesized ester prodrug was confirmed by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and their purity was established by elemental analysis, HPLC and TLC. The release of ASP as well as CZX, from the ester prodrug was studied. A validated analytical HPLC method for the estimation of the ASP, and the prodrug was developed. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis was studied in four different non-enzymatic buffer solutions, at pH 3, 4, 5 and 7.4 as well as in experimental plasma. Study of skeletal muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory properties in comparison with the reference compounds has shown that both skeletal muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory activities were present at the same doses of the investigated compounds. The ester was found to be less irritating to gastric mucosal membrane than the parent drugs. These results suggest that the synthesized prodrug is characterized by better therapeutic index than the parent drugs.

  8. [Oral exposure testing in non-aspirin-induced analgesic intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedow, O; Brasch, J; Christophers, E

    1996-12-01

    Although intolerance reaction to analgesics are not uncommon, there is still a lack of standardized procedures to diagnose the problem. We retrospectively analyzed results of scratch tests as well as oral challenges with analgesics in order to evaluate risk and diagnostic relevance of these procedures. In 1987-1992 a total of 650 patients with supposed intolerance to drugs were tested by oral challenge. Among them were 98 patients with a positive history of intolerance to non-aspirin analgesics. In 56 patients the intolerance could be verified by oral challenge. In order of decreasing frequency, the most likely agents were propyphenazone, diclofenac, metamizole, ibuprofen, carbamazepine, indomethacin, phenazone (antipyrine), and paracetamol (acteaminophen). Oral provocation showed clear dose-response relationships. For propyphenazone, the half-effective provocation dose was the same for all symptoms (cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, anaphylactoid). Scratch testing was not of diagnostic significance. Standardized test protocols starting with low dose oral challenges are suitable and helpful in minimizing the risk of severe side effects. PMID:9081936

  9. Facial Involuntary Movements and Respiratory Failure in CANOMAD, Responsive to IVIG Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CANOMAD is a rare chronic neuropathy, characterized by chronic sensory ataxia and intermittent brain stem symptoms due to antidisialosyl antibodies. The disorder results in significant morbidity but is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. We describe a unique case of CANOMAD, associated with involuntary movements of the face; patient reported exacerbations with citrus and chocolate and respiratory muscle weakness. Our patient was initially misdiagnosed with Miller Fisher Syndrome, highlighting the need for vigilance should neurological symptoms recur in patients initially diagnosed with a Guillain Barre variant. Moreover, the optimal treatment is unknown. This patient responded remarkably to intravenous immunoglobulin and has been maintained on this treatment, without further exacerbations.

  10. A prospective study of aspirin use and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Huang

    Full Text Available Data regarding the influence of dose and duration of aspirin use on risk of gastrointestinal bleeding are conflicting.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 32,989 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS in 1994 who provided biennial aspirin data. We estimated relative risk of major gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization or a blood transfusion.During 14 years of follow-up, 707 men reported an episode of major gastrointestinal bleeding over 377,231 person-years. After adjusting for risk factors, regular aspirin use (≥2 times/week had a multivariate relative risk (RR of gastrointestinal bleeding of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.55 compared to non-regular use. The association was particularly evident for upper gastrointestinal bleeding (multivariate RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.92. Compared to men who denied any aspirin use, multivariate RRs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding were 1.05 (95% CI 0.71-1.52 for men who used 0.5-1.5 standard tablets/week, 1.31 (95% CI 0.88-1.95 for 2-5 aspirin/week, 1.63 (95% CI, 1.15-2.32 for 6-14 aspirin/week and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.10-5.22 for >14 aspirin/week (P(trend<0.001. The relative risk also appeared to be dose-dependent among short-term users <5 years; P(trend<.001 and long-term users (≥5 years; P(trend = 0.015. In contrast, after controlling for dose, increasing duration of use did not appear to be associated with risk (P(trend = 0.749.Regular aspirin use increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, especially from the upper tract. However, risk of bleeding appears to be more strongly related to dose than to duration of use. Risk of bleeding should be minimized by using the lowest effective dose among short-term and long-term aspirin users.

  11. Withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids and exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Helgo; Disse, Bernd; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long-acting bronchod......BACKGROUND: Treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids in combination with long-acting bronchodilators is recommended in patients with frequent exacerbations of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the benefit of inhaled glucocorticoids in addition to two long......-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid...... fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric...

  12. Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children 1

    OpenAIRE

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Lu, Xiaoyan; Teague, W. Gerald; Kazerouni, Neely; Anderson, Larry J.; Erdman, Dean D.

    2008-01-01

    To determine links between human rhinoviruses (HRV) and asthma, we used data from a case–control study, March 2003–February 2004, among children with asthma. Molecular characterization identified several likely new HRVs and showed that association with asthma exacerbations was largely driven by HRV-A and a phylogenetically distinct clade of 8 strains, genogroup C.

  13. Novel Human Rhinoviruses and Exacerbation of Asthma in Children1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Lu, Xiaoyan; Teague, W. Gerald; Kazerouni, Neely; Anderson, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    To determine links between human rhinoviruses (HRV) and asthma, we used data from a case–control study, March 2003–February 2004, among children with asthma. Molecular characterization identified several likely new HRVs and showed that association with asthma exacerbations was largely driven by HRV-A and a phylogenetically distinct clade of 8 strains, genogroup C. PMID:18976575

  14. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  15. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Archana; Ram, Heera; Purohit, Ashok; Jatwa, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte) count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry. PMID:27190691

  16. Preventing cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes: use of aspirin for primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dhaval; Ahmed, Haitham M; Michos, Erin D

    2015-03-01

    Diabetics are at high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and are considered a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. The utility of aspirin in primary prevention of ASCVD in diabetic patients has been widely studied and is still debated. Overall, the current evidence suggests a modest benefit for reduction in ASCVD events with the greatest benefit among those with higher baseline risk, but at the cost of increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Diabetic patients at higher risk (with 10-year ASCVD risk >10 %) are generally recommended for aspirin therapy if bleeding risk is felt to be low. A patient-provider discussion is recommended before prescribing aspirin therapy. Novel markers such as coronary artery calcium scores and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein may help refine ASCVD risk prediction and guide utility for aspirin therapy. This article will review the literature for the most up-to-date studies evaluating aspirin therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD in patients with diabetes. PMID:25676828

  17. Evaluation of ketorolac, aspirin, and an acetaminophen-codeine combination in postoperative oral surgery pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, J A; Butterworth, G A; Burchfield, W H; Beaver, W T

    1990-01-01

    One-hundred twenty-eight outpatients with postoperative pain after the surgical removal of impacted third molars were randomly assigned, on a double-blind basis, to receive oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine 10 mg, aspirin 650 mg, a combination of acetaminophen 600 mg plus codeine 60 mg, or placebo. Using a self-rating record, subjects rated their pain and its relief hourly for 6 hours after medicating. All active medications were significantly superior to placebo. The acetaminophen-codeine combination was significantly superior to aspirin for peak analgesia. Ketorolac was significantly superior to aspirin for every measure of total and peak analgesia, and significantly superior to acetaminophen-codeine for measures of total effect. The analgesic effect of ketorolac was significant by hour 1 and persisted for 6 hours. Repeat-dose data also suggested that ketorolac 10 mg was superior to aspirin 650 mg and acetaminophen-codeine on the day of surgery. Differences among the active medications were trivial for the postoperative days 1-6 analyses. The frequency of adverse effects was over 4 times greater for acetaminophen-codeine than for ketorolac or aspirin. PMID:2082317

  18. Effect of Glucose or Fat Challenge on Aspirin Resistance in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein N. Yassine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin has lower antiplatelet activity in diabetic patients. Our aim is to study the roles of acute hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia on aspirin function in diabetic subjects with and without cardiovascular disease. Using urine thromboxane (pg/mg creatinine and VerifyNow (Aspirin Resistance Measures-ARU, we investigated diabetic subjects during a 2-hour glucose challenge (n=49 or a 4-hour fat challenge (n=11. All subjects were currently taking aspirin (81 or 325 mg. After fat ingestion, urine thromboxane increased in all subjects (Mean ± SE before: after (1209 ± 336: 1552 ±371, P=.01, while we noted a trend increase in VerifyNow measures (408±8: 431±18, P=.1. The response to glucose ingestion was variable. Diabetic subjects with cardiac disease and dyslipidemia increased thromboxane (1693±364: 2799 ± 513, P<.05 and VerifyNow (457.6 ± 22.3: 527.1 ± 25.8, P<.05 measures after glucose. We conclude that saturated fat ingestion increases in vivo thromboxane production despite aspirin therapy.

  19. Time of taking aspirin can have an effect on the frequency of occurrence of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ildiko Csoboth; Anita Matyus; Krisztina Gabara; Imre Boncz

    2009-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: We read the article by Ke et al1 with great interest, in which they investigated the usage of aspirin for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. The incidence of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack assessed by onset of clinical symptoms exhibits a marked circadian variation with a peak period during the morning. Stroke usually occurs unexpectedly or more frequently in the morning hours, between 7-12 a.m. In this morning period there is a higher aggregability of thrombocytes. Patients usually take aspirin in the morning for prevention as the treatment regimen is one tablet per day to be swallowed without chewing at least 30 minutes before breakfast (Figure). The highest plasma level of the drug occurs after the morning peak-incidence of the thromboembolic event, suggesting lower prophylactic effect of aspirin. Taking aspirin in the morning has its highest protective effect during the day, when normal physical activity exerts a protective action. Furthermore, this method of daily aspirin administration has its lowest protective value against cardio- and cerebrovascular events during the night and early rooming, when the lack of physical activity further augment the cascade of haemorheological events favoring platelet aggregation and subsequent ischemia.2-5

  20. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering studies of the slow dynamics of supercooled and glassy aspirin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Mamontov, Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent β(Q) is independent of the wavevector transfer Q in the measured Q range and (ii) the structural relaxation time τ(Q) follows a power-law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time τ0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of τ0 can be fitted with the mode-coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function χT(Q, t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement langx2rang and the non-Gaussian parameter α2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  1. RP-HPLC analysis of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandakumar K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate in formulation. The separation was achieved by octadecyl column (C 18 and acetonitrile:methanol:20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 3 (50:7:43 v/v as eluent, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 240 nm. Quantitation was done by external standard calibration method. The retention time of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate was found to be 2.40 and 9.27 min, respectively. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity for aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate were in the range of 10-50 µg/ml for both the drugs. The mean recoveries obtained for aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate were 100.86% and 100.20%, respectively. The developed method was found to be accurate, precise, selective and rapid for the simultaneous estimation of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulphate in capsules.

  2. Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering Studies of the Slow Dynamics of Supercooled and Glassy Aspirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang [ORNL; Tyagi, M. [NCNR and University of Maryland; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Chen, Sow-hsin H [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is not only a wonderful drug, but also a good glass former. Therefore, it serves as an important molecular system to study the near-arrest and arrested phenomena. In this paper, a high-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) technique is used to investigate the slow dynamics of supercooled liquid and glassy aspirin from 410 K down to 350 K. The measured QENS spectra can be analyzed with a stretched exponential model. We find that (i) the stretched exponent (Q) is independent of the wave vector transfer Q in the measured Q-range, and (ii) the structural relaxation time (Q) follows a power law dependence on Q. Consequently, the Q-independent structural relaxation time 0 can be extracted for each temperature to characterize the slow dynamics of aspirin. The temperature dependence of 0 can be fitted with the mode coupling power law, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation and a universal equation for fragile glass forming liquids recently proposed by M. Tokuyama in the measured temperature range. The calculated dynamic response function T(Q,t) using the experimentally determined self-intermediate scattering function of the hydrogen atoms of aspirin shows a direct evidence of the enhanced dynamic fluctuations as the aspirin is increasingly supercooled, in agreement with the fixed-time mean squared displacement x2 and non-Gaussian parameter 2 extracted from the elastic scattering.

  3. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Mizukami; Kazunari Murakami; Takashi Abe; Kunimitsu Inoue; Masahiro Uchida; Tadayoshi Okimoto; Masaaki Kodama; Toshio Fujioka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a singlecenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebocontrolled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications.

  4. In Vivo Platelet Activation and Aspirin Responsiveness in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccardi, Francesco; Rizzi, Alessandro; Petrucci, Giovanna; Ciaffardini, Flavia; Tanese, Luigi; Pagliaccia, Francesca; Cavalca, Viviana; Ciminello, Angela; Habib, Aida; Squellerio, Isabella; Rizzo, Paola; Tremoli, Elena; Rocca, Bianca; Pitocco, Dario; Patrono, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Platelet activation is persistently enhanced, and its inhibition by low-dose aspirin is impaired in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated in vivo thromboxane (TX) and prostacyclin (PGI2) biosynthesis and their determinants, as well as aspirin responsiveness, in young adult subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) without overt cardiovascular disease and stable glycemic control. The biosynthesis of TXA2 was persistently increased in subjects with T1DM versus matched healthy subjects, with females showing higher urinary TX metabolite (TXM) excretion than male subjects with T1DM. Microalbuminuria and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, an index of in vivo oxidative stress, independently predicted TXM excretion in T1DM. No homeostatic increase in PGI2 biosynthesis was detected. Platelet COX-1 suppression by low-dose aspirin and the kinetics of its recovery after drug withdrawal were similar in patients and control subjects and were unaffected by glucose variability. We conclude that patients with T1DM and stable glycemic control display enhanced platelet activation correlating with female sex and microvascular and oxidative damages. Moreover, aspirin responsiveness is unimpaired in T1DM, suggesting that the metabolic disturbance per se is unrelated to altered pharmacodynamics. The efficacy and safety of low-dose aspirin in T1DM warrant further clinical investigation. PMID:26470782

  5. Combining aspirin with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3--a potential new tool for controlling possum populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Morgan

    Full Text Available The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested.

  6. PREVENTION OF ONE-YEAR VEIN-GRAFT OCCLUSION AFTER AORTOCORONARY-BYPASS SURGERY - A COMPARISON OF LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN, LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN PLUS DIPYRIDAMOLE, AND ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEER, J; HILLEGE, HL; KOOTSTRA, GJ; ASCOOP, CAPL; PFISTERER, M; VANGILST, WH; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    Aspirin, alone or in combination with dipyridamole, is known to prevent occlusion of aortocoronary vein grafts. The benefit of dipyridamole in addition to aspirin remains controversial, and the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants for prevention of vein-graft occlusion have not been establishe

  7. EFFECTS OF LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN (50-MG/DAY), LOW-DOSE ASPIRIN PLUS DIPYRIDAMOLE, AND ORAL ANTICOAGULANT AGENTS AFTER INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY BYPASS-GRAFTING - PATENCY AND CLINICAL OUTCOME AT 1 YEAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEER, J; DELARIVIERE, AB; VANGILST, WH; HILLEGE, HL; PFISTERER, M; KOOTSTRA, GJ; DUNSELMAN, PHJM; MULDER, BJM; LIE, KI

    1994-01-01

    Objectives. This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of aspirin, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and oral anti coagulant agents in the prevention of internal mammary artery graft occlusion. Background. Antithrombotic drugs increase vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass surger

  8. Thiazolidinediones are associated with a reduced risk of COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne ST

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seppo T Rinne,1,2 Chuan-Fen Liu,3,4 Laura C Feemster,3,5 Bridget F Collins,3,5 Christopher L Bryson,3,6 Thomas G O’Riordan,7 David H Au3,4 1Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA; 3VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Department of Veterans Affairs, 4Department of Health Services, University of Washington, 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Washington, 6Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, 7Gilead Sciences, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA Background: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are oral antihyperglycemic medications that are selective agonists to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and have been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory effects in the lung.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether exposure to TZDs is associated with a decreased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbation.Methods: A cohort study was performed by collecting data on all US veterans with diabetes and COPD who were prescribed oral antihyperglycemic medications during from period of October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2007. Patients who had two or more prescriptions for TZDs were compared with patients who had two or more prescriptions for an alternative oral antihyperglycemic medication. Multivariable negative binomial regression was performed with adjustment for potential confounding factors. The primary outcome was COPD exacerbations, including both inpatient and outpatient exacerbations.Results: We identified 7,887 veterans who were exposed to TZD and 42,347 veterans who were exposed to non-TZD oral diabetes medications. COPD exacerbations occurred in 1,258 (16% of the TZD group and 7,789 (18% of the non-TZD group. In multivariable negative binomial regression, there was a significant reduction in the expected number of COPD exacerbations among patients who were

  9. Otpornost na acetilsalicilnu kiselinu u kasnom poslijeoperacijskom razdoblju nakon kirurške revaskularizacije miokarda [Aspirin resistance in late postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Fučkar, Krunoslav

    2016-01-01

    Study goals: In patients after coronary artery bypass grafting during the early postoperative stage there is a higher prevalence of aspirin resistance. Data concerning the issue of aspirin resistance in the late postoperative period are rare. Clinical impact of aspirin resistance has not yet been thoroughly investigated. The primary objective of this dissertation was to assess the prevalence of laboratorically defined aspirin resistance during the late postoperative period afte...

  10. Digging through the Obstruction: Insight into the Epithelial Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Matthew R; Bomberger, Jennifer M

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory virus infections are common but generally self-limiting infections in healthy individuals. Although early clinical studies reported low detection rates, the development of molecular diagnostic techniques by PCR has led to an increased recognition that respiratory virus infections are associated with morbidity and acute exacerbations of chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The airway epithelium is the first barrier encountered by respiratory viruses following inhalation and the primary site of respiratory viral replication. Here, we describe how the airway epithelial response to respiratory viral infections contributes to disease progression in patients with CF and other chronic lung diseases, including the role respiratory viral infections play in bacterial acquisition in the CF patient lung. PMID:26865718

  11. Aspirin, nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and acetaminophen use and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Ness, Roberta B; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan;

    2014-01-01

    reduced risk of ovarian cancer, especially among daily users of low-dose aspirin. These findings suggest that the same aspirin regimen proven to protect against cardiovascular events and several cancers could reduce the risk of ovarian cancer 20% to 34% depending on frequency and dose of use....

  12. Early outcome in acute ischemic stroke is not influenced by the prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeKeyser, J; Herroelen, L; DeKlippel, N

    1997-01-01

    Aspirin reduces the occurrence of ischemic strokes. In some prophylactic trials it was suggested that aspirin might also lessen stroke severity, and hence improve outcome in patients sustaining an ischemic stroke. We examined stroke severity (by using the Mathew scale) and early outcome (Barthel ind

  13. Effects of aspirin on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and left ventricular dilation one year after acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterga, M; Anthonio, RL; de Kam, PJ; Kingma, JH; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH

    1998-01-01

    There are conflicting reports on the interaction of aspirin with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure and systemic hypertension. A past hoc analysis of the Captopril and Thrombolysis Study (CATS) study was conducted. At randomization, 94 patients (31.5%) took aspirin. In patient

  14. Thalamic mediation of hypoxic respiratory depression in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo; Ibe, Basil; Guerra, Catalina; Kruger, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Immaturity of respiratory controllers in preterm infants dispose to recurrent apnea and oxygen deprivation. Accompanying reductions in brain oxygen tensions evoke respiratory depression, potentially exacerbating hypoxemia. Central respiratory depression during moderate hypoxia is revealed in the ventilatory decline following initial augmentation. This study determined whether the thalamic parafascicular nuclear (Pf) complex involved in adult nociception and sensorimotor regulation (Bentivoglio M, Balerecia G, Kruger L.Prog Brain Res87: 53-80, 1991) also becomes a postnatal controller of hypoxic ventilatory decline. Respiratory responses to moderate isocapnic hypoxia were studied in conscious lambs. Hypoxic ventilatory decline was compared with peak augmentation. Pf and/or adjacent thalamic structures were destroyed by the neuron-specific toxin ibotenic acid (IB). IB lesions involving the thalamic Pf abolished hypoxic ventilatory decline. Lesions of adjacent thalamic nuclei that spared Pf and control injections of vehicle failed to blunt hypoxic respiratory depression. Our findings reveal that the thalamic Pf region is a critical controller of hypoxic ventilatory depression and thus a key target for exploring molecular concomitants of forebrain pathways regulating hypoxic ventilatory depression in early development. PMID:26818057

  15. Do Aspirin and Other Antiplatelet Drugs Reduce the Mortality in Critically Ill Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lösche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet activation has been implicated in microvascular thrombosis and organ failure in critically ill patients. In the first part the present paper summarises important data on the role of platelets in systemic inflammation and sepsis as well as on the beneficial effects of antiplatelet drugs in animal models of sepsis. In the second part the data of retrospective and prospective observational clinical studies on the effect of aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs in critically ill patients are reviewed. All of these studies have shown that aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs may reduce organ failure and mortality in these patients, even in case of high bleeding risk. From the data reviewed here interventional prospective trials are needed to test whether aspirin and other antiplatelet drugs might offer a novel therapeutic option to prevent organ failure in critically ill patients.

  16. Low-Dose Aspirin Treatment Alleviates Gamma Irradiation Impaired Fertility in Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the extensively prescribed analgesic, can improve female fertility by suppressing the prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and modulating the uterine circulation. Aspirin has also been found to exhibit a protective ability on the radiation induced oxidative stress. Thus the present work aims to investigate the effect of oral low-dose Aspirin treatment on the radiation induced female reproductive disturbance. Adult female rats were used in the current experiment. All rat group treatments started at the onset of the proestrus phase and terminated at the diestrus encompassing 2 complete estrus cycles. Subsequently, the rats were divided into 4 equal groups: Group 1-Control: female rats receiving distilled water via an oral gavage; Group 2- Irradiation: female rats subjected to 6 Gy gamma rays at the proestrus cycle and receiving distilled water; Group 3-Aspirin: rats orally administered a daily dose of 7mg/kg body weight aspirin dissolved in distilled water via an oral gavage and Group 4- Irradiation + Aspirin: female rats irradiated as group 2 and receiving aspirin treatment. A number of rats from each experimental group were allowed to mate following every treatment to serve as Control mated (Subgroup 1), Irradiated mated (Subgroup 2), Aspirin administered mated (Subgroup 3) and Irradiated + Aspirin treated mated (Subgroup 4). At the assigned day of the second estrus cycle completion, blood was collected from Groups 1-4 for subsequent hormonal assay, lipid peroxides and glutathione (GSH) estimation whereas Subgroups 1-4 were carefully monitored for reproduction and infertility rates. Results have shown that the 6 Gy γ- irradiation of the rats at the proestrus cycle (Group 2) caused a decrease in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (E2) levels associated with a drastic increase in the progesterone levels in addition to the significant

  17. Low-dose aspirin use and the risk of ovarian cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kjaer, S K; Olsen, J H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A comprehensive body of evidence has shown that aspirin has cancer-preventive effects, particularly against gastrointestinal cancer, but its effects on the risk of ovarian cancer are less well established. This nationwide case-control study examined the association between low...... were seen for mucinous and endometrioid tumours. CONCLUSION: This nationwide case-control study indicates that low-dose aspirin use may be associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer....... regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between low-dose aspirin use and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and for specific histological types. RESULTS: For 4103 ovarian cancer cases and 58 706 population controls, the...

  18. Chemometric simultaneous estimation of clopidogrel bisulphate and aspirin from combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajput S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two chemometric methods, inverse least square and classical least square, were applied to simultaneous assay of clopidogrel bisulphate and aspirin in their combined dosage tablet formulation. Twelve mixed solutions were prepared for the chemometric calibration as training set and 10 mixed solutions were prepared as validation set. The absorbance data matrix was obtained by measuring the absorbance at 16 wavelength points, from 220 to 250 nm with the interval of 2 nm (Dl= 2 nm. The developed calibrations were successfully tested for laboratory mixtures as well as commercial tablet formulation for their clopidogrel bisulphate and aspirin concentration. Mean recoveries for clopidogrel bisulphate and aspirin were found to be in good agreement with the label claim.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and electronic structure of aspirin and paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motozaki, W.; Nagatani, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Endo, K.; Takemura, T.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and antioxidant activity of phenolic antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol). X-ray photoelectron and emission spectra of the antioxidants have been simulated by deMon density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the molecules. The chemical bonding of aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen 'lone-pair' π-orbitals which can neutralize free radicals and thus be related to antioxidant properties of the drug. In the case of paracetamol the additional nitrogen 'lone pair' is formed which can explain toxicity of the drug. We propose an evaluation method of antioxidant activity based on the relationship between experimental half-wave oxidation potential ( Ep/2 ) and calculated ionization potentials ( IP) by the DFT calculations, and can conclude that paracetamol has the higher antioxidant activity than aspirin.

  20. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn. PMID:26760414