Sample records for aspirated nasal air

  1. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Lagercrantz, L.; Sundell, Jan


    The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled and aspirated nasal air was used to objectively assess human response to indoor air pollutants in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured before exposure, after 2, and 4.5 h of exposure, using a chemiluminescence...... NO analyzer. Sixteen healthy female subjects were exposed to two indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 h. Subjective assessments of the environment were obtained by questionnaires. After exposure (4.5 h) to the two polluted conditions a small increase in NO concentration in exhaled...... by the exposures. The results may indicate an association between polluted indoor air and subclinical inflammation.Measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air is a possible objective marker of subclinical inflammation in healthy adults....

  2. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to isopropanol oxidation products and pthtalate esters in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Famula, Basia; Sundell, Jan


    The use of Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled and aspirated nasal air to assess human response to indoor air pollution was tested in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured using a chemiluminescence NO analyser. Sixteen healthy female subjects were...

  3. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry (United States)

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An, S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittleman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara, E.


    Purpose: This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method: Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and…

  4. Nasal packing aspiration in a patient with Alzheimer’s disease: a rare complication

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    Papadakis I


    Full Text Available Eleftherios Koudounarakis, Nikolaos Chatzakis, Ioannis Papadakis, Irene Panagiotaki, George VelegrakisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, GreeceAbstract: Nasal bleeding is a frequent problem for patients receiving anticoagulant agents. Most cases are successfully managed with anterior or posterior nasal packing. However, the complications of nasal packing should be always considered. We report the case of a 78-year-old man with Alzheimer’s disease who was treated for anterior epistaxis with anterior nasal packing using three pieces of antibiotic-soaked gauze. Two days later, the patient was admitted to the emergency department in respiratory distress. A chest x-ray demonstrated atelectasis of the right lung. During an examination of the nasal cavities, the nasal packing was removed, and one of the gauze pieces was missing. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy, and the missing gauze was found to be obstructing the right main bronchus. The patient’s respiratory function improved considerably after removal of the foreign body. It is assumed that gauze packs should be used with caution in patients with an impaired level of consciousness and neurodegenerative diseases.Keywords: epistaxis, nasal packing, aspiration, Alzheimer’s disease, cough reflex

  5. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance. (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Blacker, Kara; Luo, Yuehao; Bryant, Bruce; Jiang, Jianbo


    Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency) is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA) were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss) being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  6. Influence of cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning and nasal geometry. (United States)

    Lindemann, J; Hoffmann, T; Koehl, A; Walz, E M; Sommer, F


    Nasal geometries and temperature of the nasal mucosa are the primary factors affecting nasal air conditioning. Data on intranasal air conditioning after provoking the trigeminal nerve with a cold stimulus simulating the effects of an arctic condition is still missing. The objective was to investigate the influence of skin cooling face masks on nasal air conditioning, mucosal temperature and nasal geometry. Standardized in vivo measurements of intranasal air temperature, humidity and mucosal temperature were performed in 55 healthy subjects at defined detection sites before and after wearing a cooling face mask. Measurements of skin temperature, rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry were accomplished. After wearing the face mask the facial skin temperature was significantly reduced. Intranasal air temperature did not change. Absolute humidity and mucosal temperature increased significantly. The acoustic rhinometric results showed a significant increase of the volumes and the cross-sectional areas. There was no change in nasal airflow. Nasal mucosal temperature, humidity of inhaled air, and volume of the anterior nose increased after application of a cold face mask. The response is mediated by the trigeminal nerve. Increased mucosal temperatures as well as changes in nasal geometries seem to guarantee sufficient steady intranasal nasal air conditioning.

  7. Impact of bacteria in nasal aspirates on disease severity of bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Jiang, Wujun; Wang, Ting; Li, Li; Ji, Wei; Wang, Yuqing; Yan, Yongdong


    The effect of potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPB) on disease severity in patients with bronchiolitis is understudied. This prospective study was carried out in the Children's Hospital of Soochow University during the 2012-2013 autumn and winter seasons. We enrolled consecutive children bronchiolitis. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were tested for multiple respiratory viruses and cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. In all, 30% (188 patients) were positive for Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and Staph. aureus. Length of stay (LOS) for patients with PPB was 4.0 days (interquartile range, IQR, 25th-75th percentile: 3.0-6.0 days) versus 3.0 days (IQR, 3.0-5.0 days) for patients without PPB (p bronchiolitis, especially when they present with RSV infection, fever or percentage of neutrophils > 40%. The presence of H. influenzae in nasal aspirates is associated with longer LOS in patients with bronchiolitis.

  8. Nasal air conditioning in relation to acoustic rhinometry values. (United States)

    Lindemann, Joerg; Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Keck, Tilman; Leiacker, Richard; Wiesmiller, Kerstin M


    Changes of nasal dimensions can influence the air-conditioning capacity of the nose because of alterations of airflow patterns. The goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intranasal temperature and humidity values and nasal dimensions, assessed by means of acoustic rhinometry. Eighty healthy volunteers (40 men and 40 women; median age, 51 years; range, 20-84 years) were enrolled in the study. In total, 160 nasal cavities were examined. All volunteers underwent a standardized acoustic rhinometry. Additionally, intranasal air temperature and humidity measurements at defined intranasal detection sites within the anterior nasal segment were performed. There was no statistically significant difference between the right and left side of the nose regarding air temperature, absolute humidity, and acoustic rhinometric values. A negative correlation was established between the rhinometric nasal volumes/minimal cross-sectional areas and air temperature and absolute humidity values at the three intranasal detection sites. According to our results, nasal volumes and cross- sectional areas relevantly influence nasal air conditioning. A healthy nasal cavity with smaller volumes and cross-sectional areas seems to present a more effective air-conditioning function than a too "wide" open nose because of changes in airflow patterns. This observation should be considered as a limitation for overly extensive nasal surgery especially of the turbinates.

  9. Air-conditioning in the human nasal cavity. (United States)

    Elad, David; Wolf, Michael; Keck, Tilman


    Healthy humans normally breathe through their nose even though its complex geometry imposes a significantly higher resistance in comparison with mouth breathing. The major functional roles of nasal breathing are defense against infiltrating particles and conditioning of the inspired air to nearly alveolar conditions in order to maintain the internal milieu of the lung. The state-of-the-art of the existing knowledge on nasal air-conditioning will be discussed in this review, including in vivo measurements in humans and computational studies on nasal air-conditioning capacity. Areas where further studies will improve our understanding and may help medical diagnosis and intervention in pathological states will be introduced.

  10. Nasal air-conditioning after partial turbinectomy: myths versus facts. (United States)

    Tsakiropoulou, Evangelia; Vital, Victor; Constantinidis, Jannis; Kekes, George


    Turbinectomy, although a common procedure, is often accused of having a negative impact in all nasal functions. This study is the first in vivo study that evaluates objectively the effect of partial turbinectomy on nasal air-conditioning capacity. In total, 57 patients with prior partial inferior turbinectomy and 28 healthy controls were examined. Intranasal temperature and humidity values were measured at the level of the head of inferior and middle turbinate. Nasal patency was evaluated by means of acoustic rhinometry. The clinical assessment was completed with nasal endoscopy and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation questionnaire for subjective evaluation of nasal patency. Significant changes of temperature were found in both detection sites with 13% reduced heating capacity of the air at the level of the inferior and 19% at the level of the middle turbinate, respectively. No similar results were found for humidity measurements. No correlations were found between air-conditioning values and acoustic rhinometry results for both study groups. Nasal endoscopy revealed normal healing in all patients. No major complications were reported by the patients. Their subjective ratings of nasal obstruction were similar to healthy controls. Partial turbinectomy seems to have a negative impact on intranasal air heating but not to humidification. This effect has no impact on clinical condition and subjective perception of surgical outcome.

  11. Changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion in oral breathing children


    Torre, Hilda; Alarcón, Jose Antonio


    Objective: To analyse the changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathing children with maxillary constriction. Material and Methods: Forty-four oral breathing children (mean age 10.57 y) underwent orthodontic RME with a Hyrax screw. Forty-four age-matched children (mean age 10.64 y) with nasal physiological breathing and adequate transverse maxillary dimensions served as the control group. The maxillary widths, nasal air flow assessed via p...

  12. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo. (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo


    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  13. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

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    Takeshi Nishimura


    Full Text Available We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more

  14. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirate and nasal swab specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in different settings in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, L G; Trautner, S; Kofoed, P-E


    OBJECTIVE: To compare detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for diagnostic purposes using nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) and nasal swabs (NS) in different clinical settings in a community study in Guinea-Bissau. METHOD: During 1996-98 paired specimens were obtained from 635 children under 5...... years of age (median: 274 days; interquartile range: 144-453 days) with symptoms of lower respiratory infections (LRI). The specimens were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for RSV antigen in Guinea-Bissau and re-analysed in Denmark using the same assay. The gold standard for RSV antigen...

  15. The effects of air pollutants on nasal functions of outdoor runners. (United States)

    Aydın, Salih; Cingi, Cemal; San, Turhan; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Orhan, Israfil


    Nowadays road running is becoming more and more popular in our country. Road running is mostly done under improper conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of running on nasal response combined with the effects of air pollutants. Twenty road runners were enrolled in the study. All subjects were male and between 20 and 41 years of age. They ran for 60 min on the right side of an avenue in the center of the city. It is in a residential area but has heavy traffic. One week later they were invited to run for 60 min through a running course away from traffic that is located outside the city center. Nasal resistances were measured by active anterior rhinomanometry. Nasal transport time was also measured by saccharin transport method. There was a reduction in nasal resistance, which was statistically significant in city center runners but was not statistically significant in those running outside of the city center after the exercise. Although nasal transport times were statistically shorter in both groups, there were no differences between two groups. Nowadays, everyone is advised to do sports. Due to increase in the number of breaths, the depth of breathing, and the reduction in nasal resistance in outdoor runners during exercise, harmful air pollution particles can easily reach the lower respiratory tract. Exercise is important for our health, but it should be noted that the environment in which we run is as important as doing sports for our health, especially in outdoor runners.

  16. Nasal mucosa secretion exudation response to cold air in bronchial asthma patients

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    Eduard V. Nekrasov


    Full Text Available Background. Combined airway hyper responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli in asthma patients results in impairment of lung respiration function and poor disease control compared to patients with isolated airway hyper responsiveness to only one of the stimuli or without such responsiveness that can be connected with edema or mucus hypersecretion.Aim. The purpose of the study is the estimation of the processes of mucin secretion, plasma exudation and oxidative stress in response to cold air in asthma patients with combined airway responsiveness to cold and hypoosmotic stimuli using nasal mucosa as a model.Materials and methods. 23 patients with asthma participated in the study. For the nasal lavage procedure, a nasal cavity was pre-washed at least three times in 5-min intervals with 5 ml saline solution (~36 °C. A control nasal lavage was done 5 min after the last washing with a dwelling time of 1 min in the nasal cavity. Directly after the control lavage, a cold air nasal challenge was done: a participant was asked to breathe deeply at the pace of a metronome to ensure hyperventilation inhaling cold air (–20 °C through the nose and exhaling through the mouth for 5 min. Nasal lavages were taken at 1 min, 15, and 30 min after the challenge. Mucin secretion was estimated on the basis of total protein (TP content, total carbohydrates (TC, and water-soluble forms of mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B in the lavage fluids. For the estimation of plasma exudation, the concentration of α2-macroglobulin (α2-MG was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in lavage fluid. Lung function and airway responsiveness were studied by the forced expiration spirometry method and the bronchial challenge tests with isocapnic cold air hyperventilation (CAHV and distilled water inhalation (DWI.Results. According to the bronchial challenge tests, the patients were divided into groups: 1 without airway

  17. Cerebral Arterial Air Embolism Associated with Mechanical Ventilation and Deep Tracheal Aspiration

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    S. Gursoy


    Full Text Available Arterial air embolism associated with pulmonary barotrauma has been considered a rare but a well-known complication of mechanical ventilation. A 65-year-old man, who had subarachnoid hemorrhage with Glasgow coma scale of 8, was admitted to intensive care unit and ventilated with the help of mechanical ventilator. Due to the excessive secretions, deep tracheal aspirations were made frequently. GCS decreased from 8–10 to 4-5, and the patient was reevaluated with cranial CT scan. In CT scan, air embolism was detected in the cerebral arteries. The patient deteriorated and spontaneous respiratory activity lost just after the CT investigation. Thirty minutes later cardiac arrest appeared. Despite the resuscitation, the patient died. We suggest that pneumonia and frequent tracheal aspirations are predisposing factors for cerebral vascular air embolism.

  18. Short-time cold dry air exposure: A useful diagnostic tool for nasal hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven, Laura; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Jorissen, Mark; Fokkens, Wytske; Hellings, Peter W.


    Objectives/Hypothesis: Demonstration of nasal hyperreactivity (NHR) in allergic and nonallergic rhinitis remains a diagnostic challenge because of the lack of a clinically attractive protocol with high sensitivity and specificity. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a shortened cold dry air

  19. A new portable monitor for measuring odorous compounds in oral, exhaled and nasal air

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    Ekuni Daisuke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The B/B Checker®, a new portable device for detecting odorous compounds in oral, exhaled, and nasal air, is now available. As a single unit, this device is capable of detecting several kinds of gases mixed with volatile sulfur compounds (VSC in addition to other odorous gasses. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B/B Checker® for detecting the malodor level of oral, exhaled, and nasal air. Methods A total of 30 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (16 males and 14 females participated in this study. The malodor levels in oral, exhaled, and nasal air were measured using the B/B Checker® and by organoleptic test (OT scores. The VSCs in each air were also measured by gas chromatography (GC. Associations among B/B Checker® measurements, OT scores and VSC levels were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficients. In order to determine the appropriate B/B Checker® level for screening subjects with malodor, sensitivity and specificity were calculated using OT scores as an identifier for diagnosing oral malodor. Results In oral and nasal air, the total VSC levels measured by GC significantly correlated to that measured by the B/B Checker®. Significant correlation was observed between the results of OT scores and the B/B Checker® measurements in oral (r = 0.892, p ® was set to 50.0 for oral air, the sensitivity and specificity were 1.00 and 0.90, respectively. On the other hand, the screening level of the B/B Checker® was set to 60.0 for exhaled air, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.82 and 1.00, respectively. Conclusion The B/B Checker® is useful for objective evaluation of malodor in oral, exhaled and nasal air and for screening subjects with halitosis. Trial registration NCT01139073

  20. Nasal provocation test using allergen extract versus cold dry air provocation test: which and when? (United States)

    Kim, Young Hyo; Jang, Tae Young


    Nasal provocation tests (NPTs) are useful for evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis. The cold dry air (CDA) provocation test is useful for evaluation of patients with nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity (NHR). This study aimed to determine whether the NPT or CDA provocation would be more useful for patients with different clinical pictures. We evaluated changes in nasal symptoms (visual analog scale [VAS]) and acoustic parameters after NPT or CDA provocation in healthy volunteers (group A, n = 27), patients with allergic rhinitis (group B, n = 20), and subjects with nonallergic rhinitis (group C, n = 26). According to their subjective cold hyperresponsiveness (SCH), we compared changes in VAS and acoustic parameters after each protocol. The correlation between results of the skin-prick test (SPT) and changes in VAS after each protocol was analyzed. Finally, we performed an analysis of correlation between NPT and CDA provocation. After NPT, group B showed a larger change in VAS for rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching (p < 0.01). After CDA challenge, the change in VAS for nasal obstruction was larger in group C (p < 0.05). Changes in acoustic parameters were larger in groups B and C after NPT (p < 0.01). After CDA challenge, the SCH(+) group (n = 49) showed a larger decrease of acoustic parameters than the SCH(-) group (n = 24; p < 0.01). Significant correlation was observed between the size of SPT and degree of change in VAS after NPT. No significant correlation was observed between NPT and CDA. CDA could be an adjunct tool for evaluating NHR in patients with self-reported SCH.

  1. Numerical study on the air conditioning characteristics of the human nasal cavity. (United States)

    Kim, Da-Woon; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang


    The air-conditioning characteristics of the human nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. The wall layer was modeled as a heat conducting layer consisting of water with constant thickness placed on top of epithelial cells. By assuming constant tissue temperature, prescribed to be 36 °C, which is close to the alveolar condition, the proposed wall model yielded a spatially varying surface temperature distribution that is in reasonable agreement with the measurement studies in the literature. The results show that the regions of the main airway between the nasal valve, and the anterior of the middle turbinate were shown to have relatively low temperatures, whereas the superior meatus exhibited relatively high temperature. Water vapor flux evaluated at the surface of the mucus layer was found to be quite large in the region between the posterior of the vestibule and the anterior of the middle turbinate. Comparing the results obtained from the present model to those obtained with a constant surface temperature boundary condition of 32.6 °C or 34 °C revealed that temperature, and absolute humidity of the airflow increased faster through the turbinated airway passage. Even in the presence of sizable differences in the distributions of surface temperature and water vapor concentration, distributions of relative humidity of the air were found to be quite similar regardless of temperature boundary conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nasal obstruction in neonates and infants. (United States)

    Chirico, G; Beccagutti, F


    The main functions of the nasal airway are respiration and olfaction. The nose and sinuses condition air before reaching the lower respiratory tract by providing almost 100% humidification, warming, filtering and trapping of foreign particles. The airway epithelium contributes to the host defense system. Any alteration of this clearance system may produce significant problems, particularly in neonates, who are obligate nasal breathers until they are at least two months old. Nasal obstruction, and the inability to remove nasal secretion by nose blowing, may have serious consequences, such as respiratory distress or discomfort, altered sleep cycle, increased risk of obstructive apnoea and feeding difficulties. Most cases of nasal obstruction in neonates and infants are due to generalized nasal airway obstruction associated with neonatal rhinitis, viral upper respiratory tract infections, and possibly milk/soy allergies. Saline nasal lavage is recommended as an adjunct therapy for rhinosinusitis and allergic rhinitis, and in most cases of nasal congestion or obstruction in newborns, infants and children. In two recent experiences, was deemed to be the Narhinel method safe and effective for treatment of nasal congestion in babies with viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, or for the prevention of acute otitis media (AOM) and acute rhinosinusitis (AR) in children. Due to the efficacy, ease of use, tolerability and the lack of alternative medications in children younger than 12 years of age, nasal irrigation with physiological saline solution, followed by gentle aspiration, represent an effective method for the prevention and control of nasal congestion or obstruction in term or preterm neonates, infants and children.

  3. School air quality related to dry cough, rhinitis and nasal patency in children. (United States)

    Simoni, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Sigsgaard, T; Norback, D; Wieslander, G; Nystad, W; Canciani, M; Sestini, P; Viegi, G


    Controls for indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools are not usually performed throughout Europe. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of IAQ on respiratory health of schoolchildren living in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. In the cross-sectional European Union-funded HESE (Health Effects of School Environment) Study, particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm (PM(10)) and CO(2) levels in a day of normal activity (full classroom) were related to wheezing, dry cough at night and rhinitis in 654 children (10 yrs) and to acoustic rhinometry in 193 children. Schoolchildren exposed to PM(10) >50 microg x m( -3) and CO(2) >1,000 ppm (standards for good IAQ) were 78% and 66%, respectively. All disorders were more prevalent in children from poorly ventilated classrooms. Schoolchildren exposed to CO(2) levels >1,000 ppm showed a significantly higher risk for dry cough (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.65-5.44) and rhinitis (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.73). By two-level (child, classroom) hierarchical analyses, CO(2) was significantly associated with dry cough (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.13 per 100 ppm increment) and rhinitis (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.11). Nasal patency was significantly lower in schoolchildren exposed to PM( 10) >50 microg x m(-3) than in those exposed to lower levels. A poor IAQ is frequent in European classrooms; it is related to respiratory disturbances and affects nasal patency.

  4. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations. (United States)

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M


    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes.

  5. Aspiration pneumonia (United States)

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  6. Rapid identification viruses from nasal pharyngeal aspirates in acute viral respiratory infections by RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Fu; Rothman, Richard E; Ramachandran, Padmini; Blyn, Lawrence; Sampath, Rangarajan; Ecker, David J; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A


    Diagnosis of the etiologic agent of respiratory viral infection relies traditionally on culture or antigen detection. This pilot evaluation compared performance characteristics of the RT-PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RT-PCR/ESI-MS) platform to conventional virologic methods for identifying multiple clinically relevant respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The RT-PCR/ESI-MS respiratory virus surveillance kit was designed to detect respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza types 1-4, adenoviridae types A-F, coronaviridae, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Patients (N=192) attending an emergency department during the 2007-2008 respiratory season consented, and "excess" frozen archived nasopharyngeal aspirates were analysed; 46 were positive by conventional virology and 69 by RT-PCR/ESI-MS, among which there were six samples with multiple viral pathogens detected. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 89.1% and 80.3%, respectively. Additional viruses that were not identified by conventional virology assays were detected (4 human bocaviruses and 7 coronaviruses). Samples in which the RT-PCR/ESI-MS results disagreed with conventional virology were sent for analysis by a third method using a commercial RT-PCR-based assay, which can identify viruses not detectable by conventional virologic procedures. Time to first result of RT-PCR/ESI-MS was 8h. RT-PCR/ESI-MS demonstrated capacity to detect respiratory viruses identifiable and unidentifiable by conventional methods rapidly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspiration pneumonia


    Chaiwongkarjohn, S; Heidari, A; Graber, CJ; Goetz, MB


    © Cambridge University Press (2008) 2015. Introduction Aspiration is the introduction of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the respiratory tract. Three major syndromes may develop as a consequence of aspiration: chemical pneumonitis, bronchial obstruction secondary to aspiration of particulate matter, and bacterial aspiration pneumonia. Less commonly, interstitial lung disease occurs in persons with chronic aspiration. Which of these consequences emerges is determined by the amount and n...

  8. Comparison of air samples, nasal swabs, ear-skin swabs and environmental dust samples for detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Vigre, Håkan; Cavaco, Lina


    To identify a cost-effective and practical method for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pig herds, the relative sensitivity of four sample types: nasal swabs, ear-skin (skin behind the ears) swabs, environmental dust swabs and air was compared. Moreover, dependency......-herd prevalence ⩾25%]. The results indicate that taking swabs of skin behind the ears (ten pools of five) was even more sensitive than taking nasal swabs (ten pools of five) at the herd level and detected significantly more positive samples. spa types t011, t034 and t4208 were observed. In conclusion, MRSA...... detection by air sampling is easy to perform, reduces costs and analytical time compared to existing methods, and is recommended for initial testing of herds. Ear-skin swab sampling may be more sensitive for MRSA detection than air sampling or nasal swab sampling....

  9. Nasal hyperresponders and atopic subjects report different symptom intensity to air quality: a climate chamber study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, Lennart; Andersson, K.; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort


    -atopic with nasal histamine hyperreactivity, 13 were non-atopic, and 12 were atopic. Subjective ratings of symptoms and general health were registered four times during four 6-h exposure sessions. Six symptom intensity indices were constructed. The nasal hyperreactive group had a high and time-dependent increase...... and Neurological Effects these were dependent on group affiliation, thus preventing a uniform statement of exposure effects for all three investigated groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Opportunities for identifying persons with high or low sensitivity to low-level exposures are important in preventive medicine...... of mucous membrane irritations, whereas the atopic group had a low and stable rate of irritations with exposure time, close to the reference group (P = 0.02 for differences between the groups with respect to time under exposure for Weak Inflammatory Responses and P = 0.05 for Irritative Body Perception...

  10. Bone marrow aspiration (United States)

    Iliac crest tap; Sternal tap; Leukemia - bone marrow aspiration; Aplastic anemia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelodysplastic syndrome - bone marrow aspiration; Thrombocytopenia - bone marrow aspiration; Myelofibrosis - bone marrow aspiration

  11. PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangement detection is feasible in routine air dried fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise


    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular carcinomas (FTC) and papillary carcinomas (PTC), their detection...... from routine air-dried FNA smears was established which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR). In order to assess......). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion: These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC...

  12. Strategic Aspirations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole


    Strategic aspirations are public announcements designed to inspire, motivate, and create expectations about the future. Vision statements or value declarations are examples of such talk, through which organizations announce their ideal selves and declare what they (intend to) do. While aspirations...... aspirations, in other words, have exploratory and inspirational potential—two features that are highly essential in complex areas such as sustainability and CSR. This entry takes a communicative focus on strategic aspirations, highlighting the value of aspirational talk, understood as ideals and intentions...

  13. Nasal Physiology (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Nasal Physiology Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Noam Cohen, MD, ... control the inflammation. CONCLUSION An understanding of the physiology of the nose is critical to understand nasal ...

  14. Nasal Cancer (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  15. Desmopressin Nasal (United States)

    Desmopressin nasal (DDAVP®) is used to control the symptoms of a certain type of diabetes insipidus ('water ... head injury or after certain types of surgery. Desmopressin nasal (Noctiva®) is used to control frequent nighttime ...

  16. Nasal disease and asthma. (United States)

    Marseglia, G L; Merli, P; Caimmi, D; Licari, A; Labó, E; Marseglia, A; Ciprandi, G; La Rosa, M


    The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.

  17. Joint Injection/Aspiration (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Treatments Joint Injection / Aspiration Joint Injections (Joint Aspirations) Fast Facts Joint aspiration is used ... is derived from a joint aspiration or joint injection? Joint aspiration usually is done for help with ...

  18. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants


    Michelle Mergener; Cláudia R. Rhoden; Sérgio L. Amantéa


    OBJECTIVES: This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. METHODS: Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush...

  19. Retro-nasal aroma release is correlated with variations in the in-mouth air cavity volume after empty deglutition. (United States)

    Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Woda, Alain; Labouré, Hélène; Bourdiol, Pierre; Lachaze, Pauline; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feron, Gilles


    We hypothesized that interindividual differences in motor activities during chewing and/or swallowing were determining factors for the transfer of volatile aroma from the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC) toward the olfactory mucosa. In our first experiment, we looked for changes in IMAC volume after saliva deglutition in 12 healthy subjects. The mean IMAC volume was measured after empty deglutition using an acoustic pharyngometer device. Based on the time course of the IMAC volume after swallowing, we discerned two groups of subjects. The first group displayed a small, constant IMAC volume (2.26 mL ±0.62) that corresponded to a high tongue position. The second group displayed a progressive increase in IMAC (from 6.82 mL ±2.37 to 22.82 mL ±3.04) that corresponded to a progressive lowering of the tongue to its resting position. In our second experiment, we investigated the relationship between IMAC volume changes after deglutition and the level of aroma release at the nostril. For this purpose, the release of menthone was measured at the nostril level in 25 subjects who consumed similar amounts of a mint tablet. The subjects were separated into two groups corresponding to two levels of menthone release: high (H) and low (L). The mean volume of IMAC was measured during and after empty deglutition. Group H displayed a small, constant amplitude of IMAC volume change after deglutition, while Group L displayed a progressive increase in IMAC. It is likely that Group H continuously released the aroma through the veloglossal isthmus as the mint was consumed, while Group L trapped the aroma in the oral cavity and then released it into the nasal cavity upon swallowing. These results show that the in vivo aroma release profile in humans depends closely on the different motor patterns at work during empty deglutition.

  20. Detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC Rearrangements Is Feasible in Routine Air-Dried Fine Needle Aspiration Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise


    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the indeterminate category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs......-PCR). Methods: A new method for RNA extraction from routine air-dried FNA smears was established, which allowed analysis for the presence of four variants of PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC 1 and RET/PTC 3, which were analyzed in 106 routine FNA smears and the corresponding surgically obtained FFPE tissues using real...... of 42 follicular adenomas (FAs). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion: These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air-dried FNA smears for the detection...

  1. Nasal polyps (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  2. Comparison of three methods of collecting nasal specimens for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) is used widely in the collection of nasal specimens for respiratory virus diagnosis. The method has limitations in relation to technical expertise, patient anxiety, and apparatus dependence. Nasal washing (NW) offers an alternative approach. Objective: To identify the merits of ...

  3. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mergener


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. METHODS: Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush. 2,000 cells from each infant sample were analyzed and classified according to the frequency of nuclear abnormalities. RESULTS: Rates of nuclear abnormalities found agree with values reported in other studies of neonates and children. This study found 0.13% of cells with micronuclei; 1.20% karyorrhexis; 0.03% pyknosis; 10.85% karyolysis; 1.11% condensed chromatin; 0.54 binucleated cells; and 0.02% nuclear bud. Differences were not observed between genders or environmental passive smoking, nor was any age correlation found. CONCLUSION: The assay proposed here is suitable for assessing the frequency of nuclear abnormalities from nasal cells in infants.

  4. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants. (United States)

    Mergener, Michelle; Rhoden, Cláudia R; Amantéa, Sérgio L


    This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush. 2,000 cells from each infant sample were analyzed and classified according to the frequency of nuclear abnormalities. Rates of nuclear abnormalities found agree with values reported in other studies of neonates and children. This study found 0.13% of cells with micronuclei; 1.20% karyorrhexis; 0.03% pyknosis; 10.85% karyolysis; 1.11% condensed chromatin; 0.54 binucleated cells; and 0.02% nuclear bud. Differences were not observed between genders or environmental passive smoking, nor was any age correlation found. The assay proposed here is suitable for assessing the frequency of nuclear abnormalities from nasal cells in infants. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlação entre os achados do teste de emissão de ar nasal e da nasofaringoscopia em pacientes com fissura labiopalatina operada Correlation between the findings on the nasal air emission test and nasopharyngoscopy in patients with operated cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Penido


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se as informações colhidas no teste de emissão de ar nasal apresentam compatibilidade com os achados da nasofaringoscopia, podendo auxiliar no julgamento da funcionalidade do mecanismo velofaríngeo. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os achados do teste de emissão de ar nasal e nasofaringoscopia em 21 indivíduos operados de fissura pós-forame e transforame incisivo, de ambos os gêneros, com idade superior a oito anos. A correlação foi feita observando se, diante de um gap velofaríngeo (espaço entre as estruturas da região velofaríngea visualizado na nasofaringoscopia, notava-se embaçamento do espelho de Glatzel no teste de emissão de ar nasal. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo índice de Kappa. RESULTADOS: Notou-se concordância entre os testes (pOBJECTIVE: To verify whether the information collected in the nasal air emission test are compatible to the nasopharyngoscopy findings, helping the assessment of the velopharyngeal mechanism functionality. METHODS: The findings of nasal air emission test and nasopharyngoscopy were analyzed in 21 individuals of both genders, over the age of 8 years, operated for post-foramen and transincisive foramen fissure. The correlation was carried out observing whether or not, in the face of a velopharyngeal gap visualized in the nasopharyngoscopy, misting of the Glatzel mirror was noted in the nasal air emission test. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: An agreement was observed between the tests (p<0,05, and it was considered higher during blowing, emission of isolated stops and fricatives in words and phrases (Kappa: 0,897; 0,887; 0,774 and 0,774, respectively, than for emission of stops in words, isolated fricatives and stops in phrases (Kappa: 0,691; 0,640 and 0,488, respectively. Incompatibility occurred in a few cases, in the presence of a small gap, complete closing and complete closing with bubbling. Regarding the tendency of

  6. Effect of nasal decongestion on nasalance measures. (United States)

    Pegoraro-Krook, Maria Inês; Dutka-Souza, Jeniffer C R; Williams, William N; Teles Magalhães, Lídia C; Rossetto, Patrícia Cortez; Riski, John E


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nasal decongestant on nasalance scores for a group of 100 individuals. Forty-one subjects with hypernasality and 59 subjects without hypernasality underwent nasometric assessment at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil. Nasalance scores were obtained for each subject before the application of a nasal decongestant and again 10 minutes after subjects received a topical nasal decongestant applied into both nostrils. The nasalance scores obtained after the application of the nasal decongestant were significantly higher than those obtained before the decongestant. Nasal decongestion had a small but statistically significant effect on nasalance scores, suggesting that in some individuals, nasal congestion should be a variable of concern when using the Nasometer. Both nasal congestion (i.e., due to nasal rhinitis) and the effects of nasal decongestant sprays may influence Nasometer test results. Interpretation of nasalance scores, therefore, should be done carefully. Furthermore, nasometry, with and without nasal decongestant, can be a valuable clinical tool for screening anterior nasal obstruction, helping to isolate obstruction due to nasal congestion from structural obstruction in the nasal cavities.

  7. The NOFLO trial: low-flow nasal prongs therapy in weaning nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Sinéad M


    To determine if low-flow nasal prongs therapy with room air, compared with no treatment, facilitates weaning from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g) infants.

  8. DNA damage in nasal and brain tissues of canines exposed to air pollutants is associated with evidence of chronic brain inflammation and neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Maronpot, Robert R; Torres-Jardon, Ricardo; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Schoonhoven, Robert; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Nakamura, Jun; Fernando, Reshan; Reed, William; Azzarelli, Biagio; Swenberg, James A


    Acute, subchronic, or chronic exposures to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gases affect people in urban areas and those exposed to fires, disasters, and wars. Respiratory tract inflammation, production of mediators of inflammation capable of reaching the brain, systemic circulation of PM, and disruption of the nasal respiratory and olfactory barriers are likely in these populations. DNA damage is crucial in aging and in age-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. We evaluated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in nasal and brain genomic DNA, and explored by immunohistochemistry the expression of nuclear factor NFkappaB p65, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2), metallothionein I and II, apolipoprotein E, amyloid precursor protein (APP), and beta-amyloid(1-42) in healthy dogs naturally exposed to urban pollution in Mexico City. Nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Forty mongrel dogs, ages 7 days-10 years were studied (14 controls from Tlaxcala and 26 exposed to urban pollution in South West Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC)). Nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium were found to be early pollutant targets. Olfactory bulb and hippocampal AP sites were significantly higher in exposed than in control age matched animals. Ni and V were present in a gradient from olfactory mucosa > olfactory bulb > frontal cortex. Exposed dogs had (a) nuclear neuronal NFkappaB p65, (b) endothelial, glial and neuronal iNOS, (c) endothelial and glial COX2, (d) ApoE in neuronal, glial and vascular cells, and (e) APP and beta amyloid(1-42) in neurons, diffuse plaques (the earliest at age 11 months), and in subarachnoid blood vessels. Increased AP sites and the inflammatory and stress protein brain responses were early and significant in dogs exposed to urban pollution. Oil combustion PM-associated metals Ni and V were detected in the brain. There was an acceleration of Alzheimer

  9. Turning Aspirations into Reality: Ensuring Female and Minority Representation in the US Air Force Officer Corps and Senior Leader Ranks (United States)


    including age, race/ethnicity, religion, and gender 2. Cognitive – Working, thinking, and learning styles, including extroversion/ introversion , Type A...diversity, good management, or a combination of both? Isolating diversity in an effort to determine causality in successful business practices is a...Despite this comparative success , there are two primary caveats that temper USAF gains in this area. First, as illustrated in Table 3, the US Air

  10. Impact of Different Methodologies on the Detection of Point Mutations in Routine Air-dried Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) Smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, C; Münz, S; Krogdahl, A


    promising approach for molecular FNA diagnostics. The objective of this methodological study was to evaluate the feasibility of detecting BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS mutations from routine air-dried thyroid FNA smears, and to find an optimal method for detecting these mutations in FNA samples. DNA...... using hybridization probes and fluorescence melting curve analysis. The high-resolution melting-PCRs revealed a significantly lower number of PCR failures and questionable results, and detected more mutations than the PCRs using hybridization probes. The number of PCR failures ranging from 14...

  11. Nasal Anatomy and Function. (United States)

    Patel, Ruchin G


    The nose is a complex structure important in facial aesthetics and in respiratory physiology. Nasal defects can pose a challenge to reconstructive surgeons who must re-create nasal symmetry while maintaining nasal function. A basic understanding of the underlying nasal anatomy is thus necessary for successful nasal reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Nicotine Nasal Spray (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  13. Skin lesion aspiration (United States)

    ... page: // Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  14. A Case of Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devorah Marks Stowe


    Full Text Available An approximately 2-year-old open Suffolk ewe presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Complex for evaluation of a left nasal mass. An ultrasound-guided aspirate and core biopsies were performed. An epithelial neoplasia with mild mixed inflammation (neutrophils and plasma cells was diagnosed on cytology and confirmed on histopathology. Immunohistochemistry (IHC, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were also performed. IHC and RT-PCR identified the presence of enzootic nasal tumor virus and confirmed the final diagnosis of enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma.

  15. Inanimate foreign bodies in the nasal cavity: a challenge in pediatric rhinology


    Sudhir M Naik; Ravishankara S; Mohan Appaji; Goutham MK; Pinky Devi; Sarika S Naik


    Background: Nasal cavities foreign bodies are common emergencies in pediatric rhinology, sometimes leading to life threatening complications of broncho-aspiration.1,2 Diagnosis is often made by anterior rhinoscopy, but sometimes nasal endoscopy and imaging may be needed for deep seated foreign bodies. 1,2 Objectives; To evaluate 79 cases of inanimate nasal foreign bodies removed in our ENT OPD & type of foreign body and complications. Materials and method: 79 cases of n...

  16. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent


    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  17. Nasal mucosal biopsy (United States)

    Biopsy - nasal mucosa; Nose biopsy ... to fast for a few hours before the biopsy. ... Nasal mucosal biopsy is most often done when abnormal tissue is seen during examination of the nose. It may also be ...

  18. Nasal fracture - aftercare (United States)

    ... page: // Nasal fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose ...

  19. Fentanyl Nasal Spray (United States)

    ... of fentanyl nasal spray out. Remove the protective cap from the bottle tip. Hold the bottle so that the nozzle ... after using fentanyl nasal spray. Replace the protective cap on the bottle and put the bottle back in the child- ...

  20. Naloxone Nasal Spray (United States)

    Naloxone nasal spray is used along with emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. Naloxone nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  1. [Individual aspirations and depression]. (United States)

    Ferenc, Margitics; Zsuzsa, Pauwlik


    The aim of our survey was to reveal the individual aspirations and personal strivings among college students which may play an important role as protective factors in the preservation of mental health, particularly regarding sub-clinical depressive syndromes. 712 college students were involved in the study (545 females and 167 males). The abridged version of Beck's Depression Inventory was used for measuring the severity of depression, while the Aspiration Questionnaire was used to assess the rate of individual aspirations. When estimating the importance of individual aspirations, we found intrinsic aspirations to be predominant for both genders of college students, with a minor shift in individual parameters. While in the case of women, health, social relationships and personal advancement were listed in this order of importance; in the case of men, personal advancement was ranked first, followed by the categories of health and social relationships. Out of the symptoms of depression, social reservation showed the closest correlation with the importance of certain personal strivings, and, within these, with the lack of intrinsic aspirations. Certain symptoms of depression - irrespective of sex - were found to have a very close correlation with the probability of nearly every personal aspiration, as well as with their realisation, and, within these, they were in a stronger correlation with the intrinsic aspirations than with the extrinsic ones (in the case of men, stronger correlation between the probability of every aspiration for depressive syndromes and the realisation thereof were also found to be stronger than in the case of women). When examining the overall correlation between all the three categories of individual aspirations (importance, probability, realisation) in depression, we found that depression showed a close negative correlation with the probability of personal growth and social relationships and the realisation of health; while a positive

  2. Aspiration and leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagersma, P.K.


    Purpose - Management needs an aspiration as to how the company will work in the future. It needs a guide for corporate priorities. Any company - local or global - must be driven by an aspiration that energizes and motivates the company from top to bottom. Yet very few managers and executives know

  3. Aspiration and leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagersma, P.K.


    Management needs an aspiration as to how the company will work in the future. It needs a guide for corporate priorities. Any company - local or global - must be driven by an aspiration that energizes and motivates the company from top to bottom. Yet very few managers and executives know how a

  4. Myopericytoma in nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann, Elise


    Full Text Available Introduction: The myopericytomas represent about 1% of the vascular tumors, is relatively common in the region of head and neck, 25% of the cases, and uncommon in the nasal and paranasal cavities. Objective: To describe one case of myopericytoma in nasal cavity. Case Report: We present a case of an adult patient, of the female sex, with complaints of nasal obstruction, pain in the nasal cavities region and eventual epistaxis in the right nasal cavity, which present an angiomatous and easily bleeding, non-pulsatile mass occupying all the right nasal cavity. Final Considerations: The myopericytomas are uncommon vascular tumors, rarely located in the nasal cavity and in the paranasal sinuses. They must be included in the differential diagnosis of the well delimited, vascular and slow growth masses upon computed tomography.

  5. Nasalance scores in pediatric patients after adenoidectomy. (United States)

    Tuzuner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Akkoc, Ahmet; Arslan, Erhan; Arslan, Necmi; Samim, Etem Erdal


    Adenoidectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in childhood. Nasal obstruction and chronic infection are the basic indications for surgery. Nasometer measures both oral and nasal air pressure during loud speech, and calculates their ratio. The aim of this study was to compare the mean nasal values in patients who had adenoidectomy at different ages against a control group. Eighty children between the ages of three and sixteen that had adenoidectomy in our clinic between 2006 and 2010 were compared against eighty age-matched controls who had not had nasal obstruction in their lifetime and were proven to have open nasal airways on physical examination. Statistical analysis of the data showed that mean nasalance scores were significantly lower in patients who had adenoidectomy before 6 years of age when compared to the ones who had the operation after the age of six. In addition, when we compared the children who had adenoidectomy before 5 years of age and between 5 and 6 years of age, we found that their nasalance scores were significantly lower when compared to those who had adenoidectomy after the age of six (p = 0.017 and p = 0.019, respectively). This study has shown that, even when adenoidectomy is performed, hyponasality may continue in clinically symptomatic patients under the age of six, and that there are no determined risk factors other than the early age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspiration of a cockroach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bousso


    Full Text Available It is described a five-month-old infant admitted to our pediatricintensive care unit who aspirated a cockroach. The cockroach wasremoved through bronchoscopy. The child arrived at the emergencyroom in cardiopulmonary arrest and despite full respiratory andcardiovascular support was discharged with evidence of severeneurological sequelae. It is known that this is the first case of acockroach aspiration in a five-month-old infant and reinforces thataspiration of an insect must be considered a possibility in patientswith an unidentified organic foreign body aspiration.

  7. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu


    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 34-36

  8. Joint Aspiration (Arthrocentesis) (United States)

    ... include juvenile idiopathic arthritis (or JIA, formerly called rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Lyme disease. Joint aspiration is diagnostic but it also can be therapeutic, helping to ...

  9. Measuring nasal nitric oxide in allergic rhinitis patients. (United States)

    Nesic, V S; Djordjevic, V Z; Tomic-Spiric, V; Dudvarski, Z R; Soldatovic, I A; Arsovic, N A


    This study aimed to compare two sampling methods for nasal nitric oxide in healthy individuals and allergic rhinitis patients, and to examine the within-subject reliability of nasal nitric oxide measurement. The study included 23 allergic rhinitis patients without concomitant asthma and 10 healthy individuals. For all participants, nitric oxide levels were measured non-invasively from the lungs through the mouth (i.e. the oral fractional exhaled nitric oxide) and the nose. Nasal nitric oxide was measured by two different methods: (1) nasal aspiration via one nostril during breath holding and (2) single-breath quiet exhalation against resistance through a tight facemask (i.e. the nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide). Compared with healthy participants, allergic rhinitis patients had significantly higher average oral and nasal nitric oxide levels. All methods of nitric oxide measurement had excellent reliability. Nasal nitric oxide measurement is a useful and reliable clinical tool for diagnosing allergic rhinitis in patients without asthma in an out-patient setting.

  10. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA


    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  11. Comparison of Nasal Acceleration and Nasalance across Vowels (United States)

    Thorp, Elias B.; Virnik, Boris T.; Stepp, Cara E.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of normalized nasal acceleration (NNA) relative to nasalance as estimates of nasalized versus nonnasalized vowel and sentence productions. Method: Participants were 18 healthy speakers of American English. NNA was measured using a custom sensor, and nasalance was measured using…

  12. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk


    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  13. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta


    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  14. Small intestine aspirate and culture (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  15. Nasal fracture (image) (United States)

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  16. Diagnostic Limitation of Fine-Needle Aspiration (FNA) on Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules Can Be Partially Overcome by Preoperative Molecular Analysis: Assessment of RET/PTC1 Rearrangement in BRAF and RAS Wild-Type Routine Air-Dried FNA Specimens. (United States)

    Ko, Young Sin; Hwang, Tae Sook; Kim, Ja Yeon; Choi, Yoon-La; Lee, Seung Eun; Han, Hye Seung; Kim, Wan Seop; Kim, Suk Kyeong; Park, Kyoung Sik


    Molecular markers are helpful diagnostic tools, particularly for cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules. Preoperative RET/PTC1 rearrangement analysis in BRAF and RAS wild-type indeterminate thyroid nodules would permit the formulation of an unambiguous surgical plan. Cycle threshold values according to the cell count for detection of the RET/PTC1 rearrangement by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fresh and routine air-dried TPC1 cells were evaluated. The correlation of RET/PTC1 rearrangement between fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens was analyzed. RET/PTC1 rearrangements of 76 resected BRAF and RAS wild-type classical PTCs were also analyzed. Results of RT-PCR and the Nanostring were compared. When 100 fresh and air-dried TPC1 cells were used, expression of RET/PTC1 rearrangement was detectable after 35 and 33 PCR cycles, respectively. The results of RET/PTC1 rearrangement in 10 FNA and paired FFPE papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) specimens showed complete correlation. Twenty-nine (38.2%) of 76 BRAF and RAS wild-type classical PTCs had RET/PTC1 rearrangement. Comparison of RET/PTC1 rearrangement analysis between RT-PCR and the Nanostring showed moderate agreement with a κ value of 0.56 ( p = 0.002). The RET/PTC1 rearrangement analysis by RT-PCR using routine air-dried FNA specimen was confirmed to be technically applicable. A significant proportion (38.2%) of the BRAF and RAS wild-type PTCs harbored RET/PTC1 rearrangements.

  17. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Branislav


    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  18. [Nasal obstruction and compliance to nasal positive airway pressure]. (United States)

    Nowak, C; Bourgin, P; Portier, F; Genty, E; Escourrou, P; Bobin, S


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a very common disease. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is a useful and efficient treatment but compliance depends on several factors including the degree of nasal obstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of surgical correction of nasal obstruction on compliance to nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. This retrospective study (from March 1998 to March 2000) included ten patients suffering from a severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index greater than 30 per hour) treated by nasal continuous positive airway pressure for at least three months and presenting an anatomic nasal obstruction limiting the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Surgical procedures included one septoplasty, two inferior turbinectomies and seven septoplasties with turbinectomies. The post-operative polysomnography showed that surgical correction of nasal obstruction had no effect on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity (no significative change of apnea hypopnea index after surgery) but allowed the use of lower nasal continuous positive airway pressure levels (7.1 mmHg after surgery versus 10 mmHg before) and improved compliance to treatment (six compliant patients after surgery versus no compliant patient before). These results were compared with those published in the literature. An examination of the nose has to be performed before initiating nasal continuous positive airway pressure. If nasal continuous positive airway pressure cannot be tolerated because of nasal obstruction, surgery is required to improve compliance and tolerance to treatment.

  19. Impact of Middle vs. Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics (United States)

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.


    Objectives This computational study aims to: (1) Use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery; (2) Quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning; (3) Quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity. Study Design Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built based on pre-surgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a 15 L/min steady-state inhalation rate. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2. Results In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2 either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. Conclusion TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow, but also impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. PMID:27165673

  20. Impact of Middle versus Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics. (United States)

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M


    This computational study aims to (1) use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery, (2) quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning, and (3) quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity. Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics. Academic tertiary medical center. Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built according to presurgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a steady-state inhalation rate of 15 L/min. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2). In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/m(2) either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow but also impairs the nasal air-conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  1. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  2. Suprapubic Bladder Aspiration in Neonates


    Akierman, Albert R.


    Suprapubic bladder aspiration in neonates is a simple, safe, and useful technique for collection of sterile urine. The procedure can be performed in the hospital or office. Neither sedation nor local anesthetic is required. Suprapubic bladder aspiration of urine is the preferred method of collecting urine for culture in septic neonates. The technique is also indicated to verify urinary tract infection in neonates. Suprapubic bladder aspiration is contraindicated in the presence of abdominal d...

  3. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution (United States)

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  4. Use of heliox delivered via high-flow nasal cannula to treat an infant with coronavirus-related respiratory infection and severe acute air-flow obstruction. (United States)

    Morgan, Sherwin E; Vukin, Kirissa; Mosakowski, Steve; Solano, Patti; Stanton, Lolita; Lester, Lucille; Lavani, Romeen; Hall, Jesse B; Tung, Avery


    Heliox, a helium-oxygen gas mixture, has been used for many decades to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. The lower density and higher viscosity of heliox relative to nitrogen-oxygen mixtures can significantly reduce airway resistance when an anatomic upper air-flow obstruction is present and gas flow is turbulent. Clinically, heliox can decrease airway resistance in acute asthma in adults and children and in COPD. Heliox may also enhance the bronchodilating effects of β-agonist administration for acute asthma. Respiratory syndromes caused by coronavirus infections in humans range in severity from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with human coronavirus OC43 and other viral strains. In infants, coronavirus infection can cause bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia in variable combinations and can produce enough air-flow obstruction to cause respiratory failure. We describe a case of coronavirus OC43 infection in an infant with severe acute respiratory distress treated with heliox inhalation to avoid intubation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. GEAR UP Aspirations Project Evaluation (United States)

    Trimble, Brad A.


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of the first two years of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP) Aspirations Project (Aspirations) using a Context, Input, Process, and Product (CIPP) model so as to gain an in-depth understanding of the project during the middle school…

  6. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration. (United States)

    Tjalma, W A A


    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration.

  7. Mycotic bovine nasal granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conti Díaz Ismael Alejandro


    Full Text Available A case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma in a 10 year-old Jersey cow, produced by Drechslera halodes is presented. Histopathological sections showed abundant hyaline and pigmented extra and intracellular fungal structures together with a polymorphic cellular granuloma formed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmocytes, histiocytes and giant cells of the Langhans type. It is the first case of mycotic bovine nasal granuloma recognized in Uruguay although this disease seems to be frequent according to the opinion of veterinarian specialists. Another similar clinical case also in a Jersey cow from the same dairy house with an intense cellular infiltrate rich in eosinophils without granulomatous image, together with extracellular hyaline and fuliginous fungal forms, is also referred for comparative purposes. Geotrichum sp. was isolated. The need of an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is stressed.

  8. [Dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriers]. (United States)

    Iskandar, Aline; Nguyen, Ngan; Kolmos, Hans Jørn


    Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) is an important cause of hospital-acquired infections, and nasal carriage of Sa is common among health care workers. This study was designed to measure the airborne dispersal of Sa and other bacteria from such carriers and to investigate whether the use of cap, gown, gloves, and mask could reduce this dispersal. A total of 13 nasal Sa carriers were identified among 63 persons screened for Sa nasal carriage. The volunteers were studied for airborne dispersal of Sa in four different situations: quiet breathing, movements of the arms, whispering and loud talking. These activities were performed with and without gown, gloves, mask and cap upon street clothes. The study showed that the highest number of Sa and bacteria in total was dispersed into the air when the volunteers were moving and wearing only their street clothes. The dispersal of Sa into the air was reduced into a minimum by wearing cap, gown and gloves, and no further significant decrease was achieved by wearing a mask. This applied for all volunteers except for one, who had to wear a mask in order to reduce his dispersal of Sa to a minimum. The total dispersal of bacteria was significantly reduced by wearing cap, gown and gloves; however, to reduce this dispersal to a minimum, volunteers also had to wear a mask. Our study supports the rational basis that gown, cap, gloves and mask should be used not only in the operating theatre, but also while e.g. inserting central venous catheters.

  9. Meconium aspiration syndrome: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A


    Full Text Available Ankita Goel, Sushma Nangia Department of Neonatology, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Kalawati Saran Children Hospital, Shaheed Bhagat Singh Marg, New Delhi, India Abstract: Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among term newborns. A result of antepartum or postpartum aspiration of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF, MAS causes respiratory distress of varying severity, often complicated by air leaks or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN. There has been a tremendous change in the concepts of pathophysiology and management of MAS over the last few decades. Routine endotracheal suctioning is no longer recommended in both vigorous and nonvigorous neonates with MSAF. Supportive management, along with newer therapies such as surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide, and high-frequency ventilation, has resulted in marked improvement in the overall outcome of MAS. The present review highlights the challenges in understanding the complex pathophysiology and optimal management approach to MAS. Potential future therapies and drugs in trial are also discussed briefly. Keywords: meconium aspiration syndrome, endotracheal suction, surfactant, inhaled nitric oxide, high-frequency ventilation, persistent pulmonary hypertension

  10. Nosocomial nasal myiasis. (United States)

    Smith, D R; Clevenger, R R


    Sixty-five fly maggots were retrieved from the nasal cavity of an unconscious 64-year-old man who had been admitted 18 days earlier with diabetic hyperosmolar coma. The larvae were identified as Cochliomyia macellaria, an organism commonly associated with myiasis in the United States. The clinical time sequence indicates that this infection was acquired in the hospital. This incident provides further evidence that immobile and debilitated patients are at risk to acquire myiasis.

  11. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  12. Comparison of nasalance scores obtained with the Nasometer, the NasalView, and the OroNasal System. (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim


    To compare nasalance scores obtained with the Nasometer, the NasalView, and the OroNasal System; evaluate test-retest reliability of the three systems; and explore whether three common text passages used for nasalance analysis could be shortened to a sentence each. Seventy-six adults with normal speech and hearing (mean age 26.5 years). Subjects read the complete Zoo Passage, Rainbow Passage, and Nasal Sentences. Mean nasalance magnitudes and mean nasalance distances were obtained with the three devices. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the nonnasal Zoo Passage. The NasalView had the highest nasalance scores for the phonetically balanced Rainbow Passage. The OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences. The nasalance distance was largest for the Nasometer and smallest for the OroNasal System. Over 90% of the recordings were within 4% to 6% nasalance for most materials recorded with the Nasometer and the NasalView and within 7% to 9% for materials recorded with the OroNasal System. There were significant differences between the complete Zoo Passage and the Nasal Sentences and the individual sentences from these passages for the Nasometer and the OroNasal System. The three systems measure nasalance in different ways and provide nasalance scores that are not interchangeable. Test-retest variability for the Nasometer and the NasalView may be higher than previously reported. Individual sentences from the Zoo Passage and the Nasal Sentences do not provide nasalance scores that are equivalent to the complete passages.

  13. [Weiss' nasal lymphoma (histiocytic, malignant)]. (United States)

    Pons, S; Ortiz Medina, A


    We presented a patient with a deforming and necrotizing syndrome of the nasal pyramid. The histopathology demonstrated a lymphoma. The original works of Weiss are related. The diseases is characterized by: ecotaxis of the nasal pyramid, localized persistency during a long time, malaise in advanced studies and sensibility to radiations. We proposed the name linfoma histiocitico maligno nasal de Weiss and consider it as a autonomous entity.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzeja, R.


    Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.

  15. Comparison between Perceptual Assessments of Nasality and Nasalance Scores (United States)

    Brunnegard, Karin; Lohmander, Anette; van Doorn, Jan


    Background: There are different reports of the usefulness of the Nasometer[TM] as a complement to listening, often as correlation calculations between listening and nasalance measurements. Differences between findings have been attributed to listener experience and types of speech stimuli. Aims: To compare nasalance scores from the Nasometer with…

  16. Meconium aspiration in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ct Dis cand virus of uman. 991; us ion in une tes in. 1-179. a- eral infants g el is of om. ; 9: l acute us. Meconium aspiration in. South Africa. M. Adhikari, E. Gouws. This retrospective study of 569 cases of meconium aspiration from 11 institutions in South Africa reveals a high incidence varying from 4 to 11/1 000 and a ...

  17. Efeito do exercício físico sobre o volume nasal Effects of physical exercise in nasal volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconi Teixeira Fonseca


    Full Text Available A variação da permeabilidade nasal tem sido demonstrada usando-se várias técnicas de exame. As estruturas nasais geram uma resistência que representa cerca de 50% da resistência respiratória total. O exercício físico é um dos fatores que pode causar um efeito vasoconstritor sobre a mucosa nasal. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o grau de mudança do volume nasal após exercício físico e o tempo de retorno aos níveis basais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Dezenove indivíduos foram submetidos à realização de teste físico em bicicleta ergométrica. O volume nasal foi obtido através da rinometria acústica, realizada em repouso, após o fim do exercício físico, e nos minutos décimo e vigésimo de seu final. RESULTADOS: Os resultados rinométricos mostram um aumento estatisticamente significativo do volume nasal (p The nasal permeability has been demonstrated using several exams. Nasal structures produces a resistance to the nasal air flux that represents over 50% of the total respiratory resistance. Physical exercises is a factor that brings a vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa. AINS: Evaluate the improvement degree of nasal volume after aerobic physical exercises and time to return to previous levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Nineteen heathly subjects were submitted to aerobic exercise in ergometric bike. The nasal volume was obtained by Acoustic Rhinometry perfomed in rest, after aerobic exercise, 10o and 20o minutes after the aerobic exercise. RESULTS: Rhynometrics results shows a statically and significant increase of nasal volume (p<0,001. The nasal volume, in twenty minutes, returns nearby the rest levels. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercises, generally, increases the nasal volume. However, the increase of nasal volume was transitory, and occurs a major reduction of increase in the first ten minutes after the exercises ends, and perform a greater vasoconstrictor effect over nasal mucosa, Twenty minutes after the physical

  18. Investigation of the abnormal nasal aerodynamics and trigeminal functions among empty nose syndrome patients. (United States)

    Li, Chengyu; Farag, Alexander A; Maza, Guillermo; McGhee, Sam; Ciccone, Michael A; Deshpande, Bhakthi; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Otto, Bradley A; Zhao, Kai


    Abnormal nasal aerodynamics or trigeminal functions have been frequently implicated in the symptomology of empty nose syndrome (ENS), yet with limited evidence. Individual computed tomography (CT)-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to 27 ENS patients to simulate their nasal aerodynamics and compared with 42 healthy controls. Patients' symptoms were confirmed with Empty Nose Syndrome 6-item Questionnaire (ENS6Q), 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores. Nasal trigeminal sensitivity was measured with menthol lateralization detection thresholds (LDTs). ENS patients had significantly lower (∼25.7%) nasal resistance and higher (∼2.8 times) cross-sectional areas compared to healthy controls (both p aerodynamics in a large cohort of ENS patients. The results indicated that a combination of loss of neural sensitivity and poorer inferior air-mucosal stimulation may potentially lead to ENS symptomology. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Air (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  20. High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilkinson, Dominic


    High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered cannulae used to deliver oxygen or blended oxygen and air at flow rates of > 1 L\\/min. HFNC can be used to provide high concentrations of oxygen and may deliver positive end-expiratory pressure.

  1. An audit of paediatric nasal foreign bodies in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all these factors determine the degree of nasal obstruction, discomfort, time of presentation and management. Various methods of foreign body removal, employed by both otolaryngologists and non-otolaryngologists, have been reported.6 Positive-pressure methods with forceful expulsion of air through the nostril have been ...

  2. How to perform nasal douching. (United States)

    Bartle, Janette; Millington, Alexander


    Rationale and key points This article provides information on nasal douching, which nurses can use to advise patients on how to perform this procedure. It explains how to prepare and use a home-made solution for nasal douching, and discusses the various products available that can assist patients in undertaking this procedure. » Nasal douching, also known as nasal washout, irrigation or lavage, is recommended to clear mucus and allergens from the nose for people with rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. It is also recommended following nasal surgery to cleanse and aid healing inside the nose. » Nasal douching can be used as a baseline preparation treatment or alone to reduce the symptoms of sinonasal disease and/or allergy. It can also be performed 10-20 minutes before using a corticosteroid nasal spray, which increases the efficacy of this treatment. » Saline solutions used for nasal douching can be home-made or ready-mixed products. While it may be easier to use ready-mixed products to perform the procedure, they can be expensive. A balanced isotonic saline solution made at home using common household ingredients is considered equally safe and effective. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you could use this article to enable patients to understand the benefits of nasal douching. 2. How you can support patients to perform nasal douching on a daily basis, to maximise the effectiveness of their treatment.

  3. Characteristics of nasal resonance and perceptual rating in prelingual hearing impaired adults. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Yeon; Yoon, Mi Sun; Kim, Hyang Hee; Nam, Chung Mo; Park, Eun Sook; Hong, Sung Hwa


    Resonance problems in hearing impaired (HI) individuals have been described as aspects of nasality. However, there are limitations in being able to explain the range of resonance problems. Therefore, this study suggests a perceptual rating that will effectively explain the characteristics of resonance problems in HI individuals. Nasalance scores were obtained from 32 subjects in each of HI and normal hearing (NH) groups using a nasometer. The subjects were categorized into groups based on normal and abnormal nasalance ranges. The abnormal nasalance range group was further divided into hyper-, hypo-, and mixed-nasal groups. Nasalance scores were based the individuals performance in a series of passage and syllable tasks. The perceptual rating was evaluated using a newly introduced tool, 'vertical focus of resonance' (VFR), which focuses on the resonance energy in the frontal, throat, pharyngeal and nasal locations. The NH group demonstrated a significantly lower nasalance score in the oral coupling and passage tasks than the HI group. Based on the results of nasalance correlation analysis, the HI group showed highly significant correlations between syllable and passage tasks, as contrasted with the NH group. There were significant differences in VFR between the nasalance types in both the NH and the HI groups. The HI hyper-nasal group showed tendencies of velopharyngeal opening, as opposed to the HI hypo-nasal group which showed tendencies of velopharyngeal closure. The HI mixed-nasal group showed inappropriate coordination of velopharyngeal function. In the HI group, the results of VFR showed that the air flow and the resonance energy were not released from the cavity of resonance. The suggested VFR tool explains the focusing characteristics of resonance energy within a continuation of speech sound regardless of the phonetic environment. Therefore, VFR may be a useful tool in explaining the deviant resonance patterns of HI individuals.

  4. Same Noses, Different Nasalance Scores: Data from Normal Subjects and Cleft Palate Speakers for Three Systems for Nasalance Analysis (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Klaiman, Paula; Fischbach, Simone


    Nasalance scores from the Nasometer, the NasalView and the OroNasal System were compared. The data was collected from 50 normal participants and 19 hypernasal patients with cleft palate. The Nasometer had the lowest nasalance scores for the non-nasal Zoo Passage and that the OroNasal System had the lowest nasalance scores for the Nasal Sentences.…

  5. Definitive magnetic nasal prosthesis for partial nasal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nagaraj


    Full Text Available Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, trauma, the presence of foreign objects, animal or human bites, and burns. Facial defects can be devastating in their impact on physical structure and function of the affected individual, leading to potential compromises in quality of life. Restoration of facial defects, especially nasal defects, is a difficult challenge for both the surgeon and the prosthodontist. Here is a case report of partial nasal defect caused by trauma, rehabilitated with a magnetic nasal prosthesis made with silicone elastomers using mechanical and anatomical retentive aids.

  6. Observational study on the performance of the Narhinel method (nasal aspirator and physiological saline solution) versus physiological saline solution in the prevention of recurrences of viral rhinitis and associated complications of the upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), with a special focus on acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis of the middle ear. (United States)

    Montanari, G; Ceschin, F; Masotti, S; Bravi, F; Chinea, B; Quartarone, G


    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Narhinel method in the prevention of recurrences of viral rhinitis and of any associated sequelae, in particular acute otitis of the middle ear (AOM) and acute rhinosinusitis (AR). This was a prospective observational study, in children aged from two months to two years, observed for five months during the cold season and carried out by family pediatricians (FIMP association) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. The study enrolled 435 patients. The observed population consisted of two groups: the first one of 238 children treated with Narhinel method and the second one of 197 patients treated only with the physiological saline solution. In compliance with the guidelines of an observational trial, the children were prescribed the therapeutic treatments used as a routine. The patients were recruited for the trial after the responsible parent had signed the informed consent form. The study protocol had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the area of Pordenone. In order to be recruited, patients had to comply with the following criteria: symptoms suggestive of the common cold; age > or =2 months common cold; systemic and/or topical use of antibiotics and/or corticosteroids at the moment of recruitment. During the five months of the observation period, all the therapies that the investigators had decided it was necessary to administer had been included and recorded in the CRF. Patients evaluations were carried out for five months. The clinical assessment was performed at baseline (B), in the first week (Fw) and monthly and described as M1 to 5; several clinical parameters were analyzed (anterior and posterior rhinorrhoea, oral respiration, noisy nasal respiration, and nasally transmitted thoracic sounds) and measured by the pediatrician at all examinations from B to M5. Other parameters were derived from the parents' daily observations, recorded in a diary and made note of the quality of sleep, diet and respiration


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninuk Dian Kurniawati


    Full Text Available Introduction: The provision of oxygen therapy is traditionally use a humidifier to moisten the oxygen and prevent irritation of the nasal mucosa. Recent research proves that the use of a maximum of 4 lpm nasal oxygen without using a humidifier (non humidifier up to 8 hours does not cause irritation of the nasal mucosa and prevent colonization of bacteria in the humidifier. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of nasal oxygen administration using a non-humidifier more than 8 hours in the prevention of irritation of the nasal mucosa. Method: This study employed an analytic survey with cross-sectional study design. As many as 20 patients at inpatient wards of Port Health Center Hospital Surabaya were recruited as sample by means of consecutive sampling. Inclusion criteria was patients must not suffer from upper respiratory tract infection and do not suffer from impaired immunity. Independent variables were oxygen flow and long of oxygen therapy. Dependent variable was irritation of the nasal mucosa. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and tested with spearman rho correlation test. Result: The results showed that the use of oxygen up to 140 hours with 4 LPM had no effect on the nasal mucosa such as signs of irritation and complaints of discomfort in the nose area. Discussion: It can be concluded that the use of non-humidifier for a maximum of 140 hours with flow maximum of 4 lpm is effective in preventing irritation of the nasal mucosa. Further research on the effectiveness of non humidi fi ers in the elderly population and children under five years of age is needed.

  8. ASPIRE: Added-value Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Cetin, Kamil; Mihovska, Albena D.


    FP7 ICT project ASPIRE is one of the coordinated European efforts to further the advancement of this technology, in the areas of enabling technology development for RFID. The focus of ASPIRE is on the design, development and adoption of an innovative, programmable, royalty-free, lightweight...... and privacy friendly RFID middleware. Advances in active RFID integration with WSNs allow for more RFID-based applications to be developed. In order to fill the gap between the active RFID system and the existing middleware, a HAL for active reader and ALE server extension to support sensing data from active...

  9. Late metastasis from renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid and nasal cavity: report of a case. (United States)

    Roux, A; Alzharani, A M; Rousselot, C; Beutter, P; Bakhos, D


    Multifocal cervico-facial metastases are very rare. Medical history of the patient and clinical context make easier the diagnosis. A 54-year-old woman presenting with a nasal obstruction, was referred to our department. She had a past medical history of an operated renal cancer 12 years ago and a right hemithyroidectomy 30 years ago. Clinical examination revealed a polypoid lesion obstructing the right nasal cavity and a thyroid goiter. Fine-needle aspiration was positive for a renal metastasis. Computed tomography confirmed the nasal lesion without bone destruction and a cervical cystic lesion into the left thyroid lobe. Completion thyroidectomy and polyp excision were performed. The final histologic examination revealed a metastasis from a renal cancer. The association of intra-thyroid and nasal cavity metastases is uncommon and not related in the literature, the practitioner must suspect the diagnosis if the patient had a thyroid tumor, a suspicious nasal lesion and a past history of cancer. The surgical management is recommended for isolated metastasis to the nasal cavity and the thyroid gland especially in renal cancer.

  10. The Relationship between Nasalance and Nasality in Children with Cleft Palate. (United States)

    Watterson, Thomas; And Others


    This study correlated measures of nasalance computed by the Nasometer with listener judgments of nasality of speech passages spoken by 25 children with craniofacial disorders. Results showed a significant correlation between nasalance and nasality only when nasal consonants were not included in the passage spoken. (Author/DB)

  11. Dihydroergotamine Injection and Nasal Spray (United States)

    DHE-45® Injection ... to use the nasal spray or administer the injection correctly. After that, you may spray or inject ... home.If you are using the solution for injection, you should never reuse syringes. Dispose of syringes ...

  12. Complications of Nasal Bone Fractures. (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Yeom, Seung Han; Hwang, Suk Hyun


    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the treatment of nasal bone fractures. The search terms ("nasal bone fracture" AND complication) and ("nasal bone fracture" AND [anosmia OR olfaction OR olfactory nerve OR smell]) and (anosmia AND ["nasal preparation" OR "nasal antiseptics"]) were used to search PubMed and SCOPUS. Of the 500 titles, 40 full papers were reviewed. One paper was excluded, and 3 mined papers were added. Ultimately, 12 papers were analyzed. The overall deformity rate was 10.4% ± 4.8%. No significant differences were found between patients who underwent closed reduction (14.7% ± 7.3%) and those who underwent open reduction (9.4% ± 4.4%), between those who underwent local anesthesia (5.8% ± 4.5%), and those who underwent general anesthesia (8.8% ± 3.8%), or between those who received timely treatment (5.7%) and those whose treatment was delayed (9.0%). Septal deviation occurred in 10.0% of patients as a sequela of nasal bone fracture. The nasal obstruction rate was 10.5% ± 5.3%. Fewer patients of nasal obstruction occurred in the open reduction patients (6.9% ± 4.4%) than in the closed reduction patients (15.2%). One patient of epiphora and 1 patient of diplopia were reportedAmong the 77 patients with nasal bone fractures, 29 (37.7% ± 11.3%) complained of olfactory disturbances. No significant associations were found between the type of fracture and the presence of olfactory disturbances. It is recommended for providers to explain to patients that approximately one-tenth of nasal bone fractures exhibit deformity, septal deviation, or nasal obstruction after surgery. Surgeons should take considerable care to avoid the olfactory mucosa during reduction surgery.

  13. Needle Aspiration and Syndromic Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A series of Bartholin's abscesses was managed on an outpatient basis by needle aspiration followed by triple antimicrobial therapy. The presence of Mineral gonorrhoea was evident in 27.8 per cent of the cases. Based on the premise that Bartholin's abscess is to be treated as a sexually transmitted disease ...

  14. Lifelong Learning: Capabilities and Aspirations (United States)

    Ilieva-Trichkova, Petya


    The present paper discusses the potential of the capability approach in conceptualizing and understanding lifelong learning as an agency process, and explores its capacity to guide empirical studies on lifelong learning. It uses data for 20 countries from the Adult Education Survey (2007; 2011) and focuses on aspirations for lifelong learning. The…

  15. Pediatric Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Virbalas


    Full Text Available Background. LCH is a benign vascular growth of the skin and mucous membranes commonly affecting the head and neck. Since it was first described in the nineteenth century, this entity has been variously known as “human botryomycosis” and “pyogenic granuloma.” The shifting nomenclature reflects an evolving understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. We review the histopathology of and current epidemiological data pertaining to LCH which suggests that the development of these lesions may involve a hyperactive inflammatory response influenced by endocrine factors. We report two new cases of pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH of the nasal cavity and review current theories regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nasal LCH. Methods. Retrospective case series. Case Series. Two adolescent females presented with symptoms of recurrent epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. Both patients underwent computed tomography imaging and biopsy of their intranasal mass. The tumors were excised using image-guided transnasal endoscopic technique. Seven other cases of nasal LCH have been reported to date in the pediatric population. Conclusion. Nasal LCH is a rare cause of an intranasal mass and is associated with unilateral epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. We advocate for image-guided endoscopic excision of LCH in the adolescent population.

  16. Shape of the human nasal cavity promotes retronasal smell (United States)

    Trastour, Sophie; Melchionna, Simone; Mishra, Shruti; Zwicker, David; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Brenner, Michael P.


    Humans are exceptionally good at perceiving the flavor of food. Flavor includes sensory input from taste receptors but is dominated by olfactory (smell) receptors. To smell food while eating, odors must be transported to the nasal cavity during exhalation. Olfactory performance of this retronasal route depends, among other factors, on the position of the olfactory receptors and the shape of the nasal cavity. One biological hypothesis is that the derived configuration of the human nasal cavity has resulted in a greater capacity for retronasal smell, hence enhanced flavor perception. We here study the air flow and resulting odor deposition as a function of the nasal geometry and the parameters of exhalation. We perform computational fluid dynamics simulations in realistic geometries obtained from CT scans of humans. Using the resulting flow fields, we then study the deposition of tracer particles in the nasal cavity. Additionally, we derive scaling laws for the odor deposition rate as a function of flow parameters and geometry using boundary layer theory. These results allow us to assess which changes in the evolution of the human nose led to significant improvements of retronasal smell.

  17. A entomoftorose nasal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade


    Full Text Available São apresentados os dados clínico-patológicos de dois casos de entomoftorose nasal, nova doença humana causada por um ficomiceto - Entomophthora coronata. Os pacientes, uma menina e um homem, com 8 e 44 anos de idade respectivamente, apresentaram doença localizada, com nódulos no nariz e região paranasal, edema e deformação da face. O parasito foi isolado do primeiro caso, mas todas as tentativas para isolá-lo no segundo caso resultaram negativas. Histologicamente, havia reação granulomatosa, fibrose e edema, em torno de hifas não septadas, as quais exibiam envólucro eosinófilo amorfo em torno. Foram demonstrados anticorpos circulantes contra, as hifas do E. coronata no soro de um dos pacientes. O material eosinófilo em torno das hifas continha fibrina e material auto-fluorescente sob luz ultra-violeta, provavelmente lipofuscina, mas não foram demonstrados anticorpos ou antígenos nesta área. A apresentação destes casos, os primeiros a serem descritos no Brasil, é acompanhado, de uma revisão geral do assunto, pois tal poderá vir a ser de interesse para aqueles que estudam os problemas da patologia tropical em nosso meio.

  18. Aspirations of Latina Adolescent Suicide Attempters (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.


    Parents' aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents' aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes…

  19. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator. (a) Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed to...

  20. Nasal response in patients with diisocyanate asthma. (United States)

    Sastre, Joaquín; Poltronieri, Anna; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; Aguado, Erika; García Del Potro, Manuela; Fernandez-Nieto, Mar


    To date, no studies have assessed nasal and bronchial response to diisocyanates during specific inhalation challenges (SIC). This study was performed to assess nasal response during SIC with diisocyanates (nasal and oral breathing) in patients with suspected occupational asthma due to these agents. Fourteen patients with suspected clinical history of diisocyanate-induced asthma were challenged with diisocynates in a 7m3 chamber. Nasal response testing during challenges was assessed by acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), and visual analog scale (VAS), alongside bronchial responses. Eleven patients had a significant asthmatic response to diisocyanates. None reported clear work-related nasal symptoms. In patients with positive bronchial response to diisocyanates, nasal mean minimal cross-sectional area (MCA) decreased by 26.9%, nasal volume at 5 cm decreased by 33.5%, and PNIF decreased by 28.3%, all from baseline. A positive nasal response was elicited in 45%, 54%, and 45% of patients, respectively. A significant increase in VAS was observed in 4 patients. Three patients with negative bronchial response had a negative nasal response. SIC revealed an objective nasal response in around 50% of patients with occupational asthma due to diisocyanates, in spite of the fact that none of them reported work-related nasal symptoms. The clinical significance of this finding is a poor association between nasal symptoms at work and an objective nasal response during positive SIC with diisocyanates.

  1. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun


    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  2. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions. (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra


    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  3. Nasal Drug Absorption from Powder Formulations: Effect of Fluid Volume Changes on the Mucosal Surface. (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Enomura, Yuki; Hori, Tomoki; Shimomura, Rina; Maeda, Chiaki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Inoue, Daisuke; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira


    The effect of changes in the mucosal fluid volume on the nasal drug absorption of powder formulations was evaluated using warfarin (WF), piroxicam (PXC), and norfloxacin (NFX) as model drugs. Lactose and sodium chloride (NaCl), which are water soluble and small-sized chemicals that increase osmotic pressure after dissolution, were used as excipients to change the mucosal fluid volume. The in vitro study using a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer indicated that lactose and NaCl, sprayed over the surface of air interface monolayers, increased the fluid volume on the monolayer surface and enhanced the transepithelial transport of the model drugs. The in vivo animal study indicated that the nasal absorption of PXC is enhanced by lactose and NaCl after nasal administration of the powder formulations. This is likely due to the enhanced dissolution of PXC on fluid-rich nasal mucosa and an increase in the effective surface area for drug permeation, which lead to better nasal absorption. However, both excipients failed to increase the nasal absorption of WF and NFX. To clarify the mechanism of the drug-dependent effect of lactose and NaCl, the nasal residence of the formulation was examined using FD70 as a non-absorbable marker. The nasal clearance of FD70 was enhanced by lactose and NaCl, leading to a decrease in the nasal drug absorption. Lactose and NaCl caused no damage to the nasal tissue. These results indicate that the addition of water-soluble excipients such as lactose to powder formulations can enhance the nasal absorption of highly permeable but poorly soluble drugs.

  4. [Foreign body aspiration in children]. (United States)

    Ibarz, J A Esteban; Samitier, A Sáinz; Alvira, R Delgado; Prades, P Burgués; Martínez-Pardo, N González; Pollina, J Elías


    The aim to this study is evaluate the history, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings in 420 children who were admitted for suspected foreign body aspiration in our hospital between 1972 and 2005. In 13 children we didn't find foreign body and in 16 children the foreign bodies were lodged in larynx. The mean age was 33 months. The medical history, phisical exploration, auscultation and radiological findings were positive in 91,4%, 78,3%, 91,6% and 81%. The frecuency or foreign body aspiration is undervaluate and sometimes is excluded as diagnosis. Only 218 (51,9%) patients went to the hospital in the first 24 hours, although 87,8% of patients presented symptoms and 75,4% presented severe symptoms. Moreover the removed foreign bodies and suspected foreign bodies are the same in 82,95%. We think that bronchoscopy should by performed in all children who have had a choking episode.

  5. Nasal epithelial cells can act as a physiological surrogate for paediatric asthma studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Thavagnanam

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Differentiated paediatric epithelial cells can be used to study the role of epithelial cells in asthma. Nasal epithelial cells are easier to obtain and may act as a surrogate for bronchial epithelium in asthma studies. We assessed the suitability of nasal epithelium from asthmatic children to be a surrogate for bronchial epithelium using air-liquid interface cultures. METHODS: Paired nasal and bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children (n = 9 were differentiated for 28 days under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Morphological and physiological markers were analysed using immunocytochemistry, transepithelial-electrical-resistance, Quantitative Real-time-PCR, ELISA and multiplex cytokine/chemokine analysis. RESULTS: Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic children exhibit similar cytokine responses to stimulation with IL-13 compared with paired bronchial epithelial cells. Morphologically however, nasal epithelial cells differed significantly from bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic patients under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Nasal epithelial cells exhibited lower proliferation/differentiation rates and lower percentages of goblet and ciliated cells when unstimulated, while exhibiting a diminished and varied response to IL-13. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that morphologically, nasal epithelial cells would not be a suitable surrogate due to a significantly lower rate of proliferation and differentiation of goblet and ciliated cells. Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells respond similarly to exogenous stimulation with IL-13 in cytokine production and could be used as a physiological surrogate in the event that bronchial epithelial cells are not available.

  6. A study of nasal cavity volume by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosa, Yasuyoshi (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)


    The nasal cavity volume in 69 healthy volunteers from 8 to 23 years old (17 males and 52 females) was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Merits of MRI such as no radiation exposure, less artifact due to bone and air and measurement of intravascular blood flow; and demerits such as contraindication in users of heart pace-makers or magnetic clips, contraindication in people with claustrophobia and influence of environmental magnetic fields must be considered. A Magunetom M10 (Siemens), a superconduction device with 1.0 Tesla magnetic flux density was used. Enhanced patterns of T[sub 1], and pulse lines were photographed at 600 msec TR (repetition time) and 19 msec TE (echo time) using SE (spin echo) and short SE (spin echo), and 3 or 4 mm slices. Photographs were made of the piriform aperture, choana, superior-middle-inferior concha including the nasal meatus, the frontal sinus, maxillary sinus, cribriform plate, and upper surface of the palate. The line connecting the maximum depression point in the nasal root and the pontomedullary junction was selected by sagittal median section, because this corresponds well with the CM (canthomeatal) line which is useful in CT (computed tomography). The transverse section of the nasal cavity volume was traced by display console with an accessory MRI device and calculated by integration of the slice width. The increase of height and body weight neared a plateau at almost 16 years, whereas increase of nasal cavity volume continued until about 20 years. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and regression line were significant. There were no significant differences in these parameters between male and female groups. Comparatively strong correlation between nasal cavity volume, and age, height and body weight was statistically evident. (author).

  7. Cosmetic reconstruction of a nasal plane and rostral nasal skin defect using a modified nasal rotation flap in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828750; Buiks, S.C.; Kirpensteijn, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189846992


    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report reconstruction of a defect of the nasal plane and the rostral dorsum of the nose in a dog using a nasal rotation flap with Burow's triangles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical report. ANIMALS: Mixed-breed dog (1.5 years, 8.6 kg). METHODS: A nasal defect caused by chronic

  8. Myxoma of the nasal bone. (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Khalid; Islam, Tahera; AlOulah, Mohammad; Bafaqeeh, Sameer; Faqeeh, Yasser


    Myxoma is a benign tumor that arises from mesenchymal tissue, and found in the soft tissue and less commonly in the bone. The majority of bony myxomas of the head and neck occur in the jaws and maxilla. We report an extremely rare case of nasal bone myxoma in a 52-year-old man. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy. Due to the aggressive nature of the lesion the nasal bone was eroded by the disease. The patient underwent resection of the mass with reconstruction of the defect by septal cartilage. The patient remains tumor free after 5 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Schwannoma of the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Karatas


    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign and slow growing tumors originating from the Schwann cells of peripheral nerve sheath. Schwannomas of sinonasal origin are rare (4% however septal schwannomas are much more rarer. We presented a 31 year old female patient. At physical examination a pale gray, smooth polypoid lesion obstructing the right nasal cavity was detected. Midfacial degloving and endoscopic approach were combined for surgical treatment. The tumor was originating from posteromedial area of the septal nasal cartilage, close to the bony cartilaginous junction. Postoperative histological examination of the specimen showed a benign tumoral growth consisting of spindle shaped cells and immunohistochemical staining of the tumor proved septal schwannoma.

  10. The assessment of nasality with a nasometer and sound spectrography in patients with nasal polyposis. (United States)

    Hong, K H; Kwon, S H; Jung, S S


    With the development of computerized acoustic analysis systems, an objective measure of nasal speech has become readily available by means of a simple, noninvasive technique. In this study, we assessed the nasality in patients with multiple nasal polyposis before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. With the nasometer, we measured nasalance, which reflects the ratio of acoustic energy output of nasal sounds from the nasal and oral cavities, and the slope score of the nasogram curve. The nasalance scores of nasal sentences and the slope scores of the nasogram curves for all nasal consonants were significantly lower in patients with nasal polyposis than in healthy subjects. After surgery, however, the nasalance and slope scores increased significantly to the normal range. On the sound spectrographic analysis, the frequencies of the first nasal formant decreased slightly and the sound intensity increased slightly for all nasal consonants after surgery. However, no significant change was noticed in the frequencies of the second nasal formant. In conclusion, nasometric and sound spectrographic analyses are considered to be useful tools for objectively assessing the extent of nasality in patients with nasal airway obstruction.

  11. Estimation of Stature from Nasal Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratindra Nath Shrestha


    Conclusions: Both Nepali male and female nasal height had positive partial correlation with stature; r = 0.18 for male and 0.19 for female. Stature in Nepali population could be calculated as: Stature=148.22+3.02x nasal height in male where as Stature=133.01+3.12x nasal height in female. Keywords: estimation; stature; nasal height. | PubMed

  12. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  13. Nasal penetration of particles of small inertia in experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asset, G.; Gongwer, L.E.; Ryan, S.


    Heads of killed animals were exposed to air stream containing triphenyl phosphate aerosol (1.2 gm/cm/sup 3/, 1.3 for 10 to 30 min. Nasal penetration was 92.7 +- 7% in rabbits, 85 +- 2% in dogs, and 76 +- 10% in guinea pigs (significantly less in guinea pigs because of their greater inhalation velocity). No effect of wind direction was observed.

  14. Contribution of nasal biopsy to leprosy diagnosis. (United States)

    Melo Naves, Marcell; Gomes Patrocinio, Lucas; Patrocinio, José Antonio; Naves Mota, Flávia Marques; Diniz de Souza, Antônio; Negrão Fleury, Raul; Bernardes Goulart, Isabela Maria


    The nasal mucosa plays the main role as the entry and the exit of leprosy bacilli and the nasal involvement may precede the skin lesions by several years. Nasal biopsy has been used in research but its clinical application has not been described. We evaluated the contribution of the nasal biopsy for the diagnosis of leprosy and its correlation to skin biopsy and skin smear in untreated patients. We evaluated changes in nasal biopsy in 227 leprosy patients. Patients were clinically classified and skin and nasal biopsies and skin smear were performed. Nasal biopsy showed positivity in 100% of the lepromatous spectrum decreasing toward the tuberculoid (TT) pole. Patients with TT or indeterminate forms did not present any nasal alterations, showing that they are the true paucibacillary forms. Also, the nasal biopsies of two patients were the only exam to show positivity. The bacillary index of the nasal biopsy was strongly correlated to skin biopsy and slit-skin smear. Additionally, the agreement among the exams was good, revealing the reliability of the nasal biopsy in leprosy diagnosis. The present study showed a rate of 48% of positivity in nasal biopsy of untreated patients, correlating well with skin biopsy and skin smear. Thus, the method in leprosy diagnosis and clinical form classification has shown great reliability.

  15. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh


    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  16. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H


    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...

  17. Nasal allergy to avian antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); P.H. Dieges


    textabstractThis study describes the case of a patient who developed symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis on exposure to budgerigars and parrots. An IgE‐mediated allergy to budgerigar, parrot and pigeon antigens was demonstrated using both in‐vivo challenge tests (skin and nasal provocation tests) and

  18. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca


    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  19. Nasal drug delivery in humans. (United States)

    Bitter, Christoph; Suter-Zimmermann, Katja; Surber, Christian


    Intranasal administration is an attractive option for local and systemic delivery of many therapeutic agents. The nasal mucosa is--compared to other mucosae--easily accessible. Intranasal drug administration is noninvasive, essentially painless and particularly suited for children. Application can be performed easily by patients or by physicians in emergency settings. Intranasal drug delivery offers a rapid onset of therapeutic effects (local or systemic). Nasal application circumvents gastrointestinal degradation and hepatic first-pass metabolism of the drug. The drug, the vehicle and the application device form an undividable triad. Its selection is therefore essential for the successful development of effective nasal products. This paper discusses the feasibility and potential of intranasal administration. A series of questions regarding (a) the intended use (therapeutic considerations), (b) the drug, (c) the vehicle and (d) the application device (pharmaceutical considerations) are addressed with a view to their impact on the development of products for nasal application. Current and future trends and perspectives are discussed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The WAD goat was presented with a clinical history of 31/2 months seromucoid to mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnoea with audible rales, stertorous breathing with open mouth, coughing and sneezing. Cytological evaluation revealed anaplastic features such as hyperchromasia and binucleation with 2 or more ...

  1. Tracheobronchial Foreign Body Aspiration: Dental Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataman Köse


    Full Text Available It is important to extract foreign bodies for avoiding life-threatening complications. They can lead to death if they are not treated. Different signs and symptoms could occur according to the complete or partial airway obstruction. Foreign body aspiration is a rare incident in adults. The organic foreign materials such as foods are found to be aspirated more commonly and are usually settled in the right bronchial system. However, dental prosthesis and teeth aspirations are rare in literature. In our study, a 52-year-old male patient who had aspirated the front part of his lower dental prosthesis accidentally is presented and the foreign body is extracted by using rigid bronchoscopy. There are many causes of aspiration but dental prosthetic aspirations should be kept in mind during sleep. For this reason, dental apparatus must be taken out while asleep.

  2. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee


    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  3. A mechanism for stroke complicating thrombus aspiration. (United States)

    Brown, Eddie D; Blankenship, James C


    We propose a mechanism of how stroke may be caused by thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), and how it may be technique-dependent. Two recent meta-analyses report increased risk of stroke in patients undergoing routine thrombus aspiration during STEMI and the value of this technique has been controversial. The mechanism of stroke has not been fully explained. This case demonstrates 2 mechanisms by which aspiration might cause thrombus embolization. We recommend that if thrombus aspiration is performed during PPCI for STEMI, it should be done selectively and carefully. It is prudent to make sure the guide catheter tip is not free in the aorta when the aspiration catheter is withdrawn, to maintain suction on the aspiration catheter as it is withdrawn (particularly if the aspiration port seems to be obstructed), and to aspirate the guide catheter after the aspiration catheter is removed to capture any fragments of thrombus that remain in the guide catheter. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Kang

    Full Text Available As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for

  5. Cosmetic rhinoseptoplasty in acute nasal bone fracture. (United States)

    Kim, Ji Heui; Lee, Jung Woo; Park, Chan Hum


    Traditionally, rhinoseptoplasty for nasal bone fracture is only considered after an unsatisfactory outcome from initial closed reduction. However, better surgical outcomes may be achieved if rhinoseptoplasty is performed at the same time as the nasal bone fracture reduction. This study investigated the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent rhinoseptoplasty concomitantly with nasal bone fracture reduction according to their computed tomography image-based nasal bone fracture classifications. Case series with chart review. Academic tertiary care medical center. Fifty-six patients who underwent rhinoseptoplasty concomitantly with nasal bone fracture reduction were enrolled in this study. Nasal bone fractures were classified into 6 types by computed tomography scans. Two independent facial plastic surgeons evaluated the outcomes 6 months postoperatively using a visual analog scale. The nasal tip projection and rotation were measured using the pre- and postoperative profile views. The satisfaction scores of type I, IIo, and IIIo fractures without septal fracture were significantly higher than those of type II, III, and IV fractures with septal fractures. Among the patients, 82.1% underwent lower vault surgery. The nasal tip projection and rotation were increased after surgery in patients without septal fractures, whereas the tip rotation was elevated but the projection was unchanged postoperatively in patients with septal fractures. Rhinoseptoplasty for acute nasal bone fractures can be performed at the same time as nasal bone fracture reduction. However, nasal bone fracture with septal fracture should be managed carefully.

  6. Detection of Pneumocystis in the nasal swabs of immune-suppressed rats by use of PCR and microscopy. (United States)

    Can, Hüseyin; Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Mert; Değirmenci, Aysu; Karaçalı, Sabire; Polat, Ceylan; Gürüz, Yüksel; Uner, Ahmet


    Detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci colonization in lungs or oral samples due to high sensitivity of PCR methods results in undue treatment of patients without any symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate Pneumocystis carinii in rats, immune suppressed by oral and subcutaneous administration of dexamethasone. Blood, oral, nasal and eye swabs were collected prior to immune suppression and 2, 6, 12 weeks after administration of dexamethasone. Also, samples were collected from lung, heart, liver, kidney, diaphragm, brain, spleen, tongue, muscle, eye, intestine, and feces. Cysts and trophozoites were investigated in stained slides and MSG gene was detected by PCR. The results showed that weight loss is significantly higher in rats administered oral dexamethasone (Pdexamethasone. PCR was positive in lungs and oral swabs of rats prior to the administration of dexamethasone. After the administration of dexamethasone, the MSG gene was detected in oral swabs, lungs, spleen, kidney and (for the first time) in nasal swabs. PCR was positive in nasal swabs during the second and sixth weeks of oral and subcutaneous administration of dexamethasone, respectively. Presence of P. jiroveci in nasopharyngeal aspirate, oropharyngeal wash, oral swab, induced sputum or BAL, and absence in nasal swab in a patient without symptoms of PCP may support clinician's decision regarding colonization. Overall, detection of P. carinii in nasal swabs of rats by PCR demonstrated that nasal sampling can be used for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia.

  7. Endometriome: Aspiration versus Operation // Endometrioma: Aspiration versus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommergruber M


    Full Text Available Endometriosis is often associated with sterility. In 20–50 % of women with endometriosis the ovaries are affected. Ovarian endometrioma often present with inhomogeneous ultrasound patterns. The differentiation to other ovarian tumors could be difficult. In case of primary diagnosis, histological findings are indicated, all the more as ovarian endometriosis has an increased risk for malignant transformation. Therapeutic surgical intervention should be done in sano.brNevertheless, to affect a compromise in case of infertility, especially in patients with reduced ovarian reserve, laparoscopic aspiration or laser coagulation after fenestration could be a second option with the occurrence of small recurrent endometriomas. A histological diagnosis should be done, too. The surgical procedure should be discussed with the department of reproductive medicine.brThe effect of endometriomas on the reproductive outcome is not clear. Systematic reviews have shown that regarding pregnancy rates, endometriomas do not have to be necessarily removed. Primary ultrasound-guided transvaginal aspiration of endometriomas should be avoided to decrease the risk of infection. If the same is the truth in case of accidental aspiration during the oocyte retrieval, remains unproven. Contaminated follicular fluid by endometrioma content may have an influence on clinical pregnancy and live birth rate. p bKurzfassung: /bEndometriose und Sterilität sind häufig assoziiert. Bei 20–50 % aller Frauen mit Endometriose sind die Ovarien befallen. Ovarielle Endometriome weisen häufig ein typisches echoinhomogenes Schallmuster auf, sind aber nicht immer eindeutig gegenüber anderen Ovarialtumoren abgrenzbar. Eine histologische Abklärung ist daher bei Erstdiagnose indiziert, umso mehr als ein erhöhtes Entartungsrisiko bei ovarieller Endometriose nachgewiesen wurde. Therapeutisch sollte die Resektion in sano erfolgen.brGleichwohl sind dabei wegen des oft gebotenen Erhalts der

  8. Numerical simulation of two consecutive nasal respiratory cycles: toward a better understanding of nasal physiology. (United States)

    de Gabory, Ludovic; Reville, Nicolas; Baux, Yannick; Boisson, Nicolas; Bordenave, Laurence


    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have greatly improved the understanding of nasal physiology. We postulate that simulating the entire and repeated respiratory nasal cycles, within the whole sinonasal cavities, is mandatory to gather more accurate observations and better understand airflow patterns. A 3-dimensional (3D) sinonasal model was constructed from a healthy adult computed tomography (CT) scan which discretized in 6.6 million cells (mean volume, 0.008 mm3 ). CFD simulations were performed with ANSYS©FluentTMv16.0.0 software with transient and turbulent airflow (k-ω model). Two respiratory cycles (8 seconds) were simulated to assess pressure, velocity, wall shear stress, and particle residence time. The pressure gradients within the sinus cavities varied according to their place of connection to the main passage. Alternations in pressure gradients induced a slight pumping phenomenon close to the ostia but no movement of air was observed within the sinus cavities. Strong movements were observed within the inferior meatus during expiration contrary to the inspiration, as in the olfactory cleft at the same time. Particle residence time was longer during expiration than inspiration due to nasal valve resistance, as if the expiratory phase was preparing the next inspiratory phase. Throughout expiration, some particles remained in contact with the lower turbinates. The posterior part of the olfactory cleft was gradually filled with particles that did not leave the nose at the next respiratory cycle. This pattern increased as the respiratory cycle was repeated. CFD is more efficient and reliable when the entire respiratory cycle is simulated and repeated to avoid losing information. © 2018 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Neutrophil influx measured in nasal lavages of humans exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, D.; Henderson, F.; House, D.


    Neutrophils (PMNs) obtained by nasal lavage were counted to determine if ozone, an oxidant air pollutant, induces an acute inflammatory response in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of humans. Background data were obtained by the nasal lavages from 200 nonexperimentally exposed subjects. Then, using a known inflammatory agent for the URT, rhinovirus-type 39, the induction, peak, and resolution of an acute inflammatory response was shown to be documented by the nasal lavage PMN counts. To determined if ozone induces this response, 41 subjects were exposed to either filtered air or 0.5 ppm ozone for 4 hr, on 2 consecutive days. Nasal lavages were taken pre-, immediately post each exposure, and 22 hr following the last exposure. Lavage PMN counts increased significantly (p = .005) in the ozone-exposed group, with 3.5-, 6.5-, and 3.9-fold increases over the air-exposed group at the post 1, pre 2, and post 2 time points, respectively. Ozone induces an inflammatory response in the URT of humans, and nasal lavage PMN counts are useful to assay the inflammatory properties of air pollutants.

  10. Choosing VET: Aspirations, Intentions and Choice (United States)

    Hargreaves, Jo; Osborne, Kristen


    This summary brings together the findings from two research projects: "Choosing VET: Investigating the VET Aspirations of School Students" and "In Their Words: Student Choice in Training Markets--Victorian Examples." The research investigated school students' post-school aspirations for vocational education and training (VET),…

  11. (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment. (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W. F. van Wyk, D. M. Dent, E. Anne Hacking,. Genevieve Learmonth, R. E. Kottler,. C. Anne Gudgeon, A. Tiltman. We examined the safety and utility of the combined assessment of aspiration cytology and mammography ...

  12. Shareholders’ expectations, aspiration levels, and mergers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diecidue, E.; van de Ven, J.; Weitzel, U.

    This paper offers a new explanation of value-reducing mergers and stock market driven takeovers by introducing recent research on aspiration levels and individual decision making under risk. If market valuation constitutes an aspiration level for managers, we show that managers may be tempted to

  13. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Marie


    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology in lesions of the nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. (United States)

    Gupta, Nalini; Kaur, Jasleen; Srinivasan, Radhika; Das, Ashim; Mohindra, Satyawati; Rajwanshi, Arvind; Nijhawan, Raje


    To assess the spectrum of lesions in the sinonasal region diagnosed on FNAC. This is a retrospective audit of sinonasal lesions diagnosed on FNAC over a period of 12 years (1998-2009). Out of a total of 79,851 FNACs, 158 (0.2%) were from the sinonasal region. FNAC was non-diagnostic in 20 (12.6%) cases. Infective/inflammatory lesions comprised of 30 (19%) cases including non-specific inflammation (19), fungal infection (7), tuberculosis (2), actinomycosis (1) and filariasis (1). Benign cysts (24; 15.2%) included epidermal inclusion cysts, mucocele and aneurysmal bone cyst. Benign bone tumors (4) comprised of giant cell tumor, fibrous dysplasia, chondroma, and osteoblastoma. Other benign tumors included lipoma (6), hemangioma (5), schwannoma (2), meningioma (1), pleomorphic adenoma (1), sebaceous adenoma (1) and other skin adnexal tumors (3). Malignant epithelial tumors (24; 15.2%) included squamous cell carcinoma (10), basal cell carcinoma (5), poorly differentiated carcinoma (4) and metastatic carcinoma (5). Two cases of chordoma and one case each of dermatofibrosarcoma pertuberance and hemangiopericytoma were seen. Sarcomas included sarcoma, not otherwise specified (4), rhabdomyosarcoma (3), osteosarcoma (2), chondrosarcoma (2), leiomyosarcoma (1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (1), fibrosarcoma (1) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1). There were cases of malignant small round cell tumor (11), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (3), plasmacytoma (2) and malignant melanoma (2). A variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions can involve the sinonasal region. FNAC is a reliable diagnostic procedure in a good number of cases, especially in the light of clinico-radiological data. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid (United States)

    ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy uses sound waves ... Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the ...

  16. Nasal Outcomes of Presurgical Nasal Molding in Complete Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Williams


    Full Text Available Objective. Short-term nasal forms following primary lip repair were compared between presurgical nasal molding and control groups. Aim. To compare nasal symmetry between patients that had nasal molding and lip repair with those that had only lip repair. Design. Retrospective case-control study Patients. Complete unilateral CL+P patients had basilar and frontal photographs at two time points: (1 initial (2 postsurgical. 28 nasal molding patients and 14 control patients were included. Intervention. Presurgical nasal molding was performed prior to primary lip repair in intervention group. No nasal molding was performed in control group. Hypothesis. Nasal molding combined with lip surgery repair according to the Millard procedure provides superior nasal symmetry than surgery alone for nostril height-width ratios and alar groove ratios. Statistics. Shapiro-Wilk test of normality and Student’s -tests. Results. A statistically significant difference was found for postsurgical nostril height-width ratio (<.05. No other statistically significant differences were found. Conclusions. Nasal molding and surgery resulted in more symmetrical nostril height-width ratios than surgery alone. Alar groove ratios were not statistically significantly different between groups perhaps because application of nasal molding was not early enough; postsurgical nasal splints were not utilized; overcorrection was not performed for nasal molding.

  17. Acute effect of glucan-spiked office dust on nasal and pulmonary inflammation in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Nervana, Metwali


    by acoustic rhinometry (AR) and animals were exposed by inhalation for 4 hr to curdlan spiked dust, unspiked dust, purified air (negative controls) or LPS (positive controls). After exposure (+5 hr) or the following day (+18 hr) measurements were repeated by AR and followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL......). Total and differential cell counts, IL-8 in BAL fluid and change in nasal volume was compared between groups. A 5-10% increase in nasal volume was seen for all groups including clean air except for a significant 5% decrease for spiked-dust inhalation (+18 hr). No marked differences were observed in BAL...

  18. The benefits of hypopharyngeal packing in nasal surgery: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennessy, B G


    BACKGROUND: Hypopharyngeal packs are used in nasal surgery to reduce the risk of aspiration and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Side effects associated with their use range from throat pain to retained packs postoperatively. AIM: To evaluate, as a pilot study, postoperative nausea\\/vomiting and throat pain scores for patients undergoing nasal surgery in whom a wet or dry hypopharyngeal pack was placed compared with patients who received no packing. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind prospective trial in a general ENT unit. RESULTS: The study failed to show a statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of their postoperative nausea\\/vomiting and throat pain scores at 2 and 6 h postoperatively. This is the first study in which dry packs have been compared with wet and absent packs. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, the authors recommend against placing hypopharyngeal packs for the purpose of preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  19. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor Associated with Carboplatin in Treatment of Metastatic Nasal Carcinoma in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Fonseca-Alves


    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, intact male, pinscher was presented with unilateral bloodstained nasal discharge, sneezing, dyspnea, zygomatic arch deformity, submandibular lymph node increase, blindness in right eye, and exophthalmia. After clinical examination, it was found that the animal presented with upper respiratory tract dyspnea origin, possibly caused by an obstructive process. Complete blood count (CBC, ocular ultrasonography, thoracic radiographs, mandibular lymph node, and nasal sinus fine needle aspiration were performed. The right mandibular lymph node excisional biopsy was conducted and a tumor sample was obtained through the nasal fistula at hard palate. The material was processed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3, vimentin, and COX-2 was performed. After histopathological evaluation nasal carcinoma diagnosis was obtained. Chemotherapy was established with carboplatin 300 mg/m2 intravenously—four cycles with intervals of 21 days—and firocoxib 5 mg/kg orally every 24 hours for 7 months. After 7 months the treatment started, the animal presented with ataxia, vocalization, hyperesthesia, and anorexia. Due the clinical condition presented, the animal owner opted for performing euthanasia. The chemotherapy protocol was effective causing the disease stagnation, minimizing the clinical signs, and extending patient survival and quality of life.

  20. The relationship between nasalance scores and nasality ratings obtained with equal appearing interval and direct magnitude estimation scaling methods. (United States)

    Brancamp, Tami U; Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas


    To assess the nasalance/nasality relationship and Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity when nasality ratings are obtained with both equal appearing interval (EAI) and direct magnitude estimation (DME) scaling procedures. To test the linearity of the relationship between nasality ratings obtained from different perceptual scales. STIMULI: Audio recordings of the Turtle Passage. Participants' nasalance scores and audio recordings were obtained simultaneously. A single judge rated the samples for nasality using both EAI and DME scaling procedures. Thirty-nine participants 3 to 17 years of age. Across participants, resonance ranged from normal to severely hypernasal. Nasalance scores and two nasality ratings. The magnitude of the correlation between nasalance scores and EAI ratings of nasality (r  =  .63) and between nasalance and DME ratings of nasality (r  =  .59) was not significantly different. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity for EAI-rated nasality were .71 and .73, respectively. For DME-rated nasality, sensitivity and specificity were .62 and .70, respectively. Regression of EAI nasality ratings on DME nasality ratings did not depart significantly from linearity. No difference was found in the relationship between nasalance and nasality when nasality was rated using EAI as opposed to DME procedures. Nasometer test sensitivity and specificity were similar for EAI- and DME-rated nasality. A linear model accounted for the greatest proportion of explained variance in EAI and DME ratings. Consequently, clinicians should be able to obtain valid and reliable estimates of nasality using EAI or DME.

  1. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.


    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  2. Estimation of Stature from Nasal Length


    Ratindra Nath Shrestha; Dinesh Banstola; Dipeshwara Nepal; Prakash Baral


    Introduction: Estimation of stature for the purpose of identification has a significant forensic importance. This technique is based on a principle that bones or human body parts correlate positively with the stature. Stature can be estimated from measurements of various body parts such as arm, leg, feet, finger, facial height, nasal height etc. The aim of study was to correlate Stature of Nepalese with Nasal height and estimate Stature from Nasal height. Methods: A cross-sectional study o...

  3. Validation of polyvinylidene fluoride nasal sensor to assess nasal obstruction in comparison with subjective technique. (United States)

    Roopa Manjunatha, G; Mahapatra, D Roy; Prakash, Surya; Rajanna, K


    The aim of this study is to validate the applicability of the PolyVinyliDene Fluoride (PVDF) nasal sensor to assess the nasal airflow, in healthy subjects and patients with nasal obstruction and to correlate the results with the score of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). PVDF nasal sensor and VAS measurements were carried out in 50 subjects (25-healthy subjects and 25 patients). The VAS score of nasal obstruction and peak-to-peak amplitude (Vp-p) of nasal cycle measured by PVDF nasal sensors were analyzed for right nostril (RN) and left nostril (LN) in both the groups. Spearman's rho correlation was calculated. The relationship between PVDF nasal sensor measurements and severity of nasal obstruction (VAS score) were assessed by ANOVA. In healthy group, the measurement of nasal airflow by PVDF nasal sensor for RN and LN were found to be 51.14±5.87% and 48.85±5.87%, respectively. In patient group, PVDF nasal sensor indicated lesser nasal airflow in the blocked nostrils (RN: 23.33±10.54% and LN: 32.24±11.54%). Moderate correlation was observed in healthy group (r=-0.710, p<0.001 for RN and r=-0.651, p<0.001 for LN), and moderate to strong correlation in patient group (r=-0.751, p<0.01 for RN and r=-0.885, p<0.0001 for LN). PVDF nasal sensor method is a newly developed technique for measuring the nasal airflow. Moderate to strong correlation was observed between PVDF nasal sensor data and VAS scores for nasal obstruction. In our present study, PVDF nasal sensor technique successfully differentiated between healthy subjects and patients with nasal obstruction. Additionally, it can also assess severity of nasal obstruction in comparison with VAS. Thus, we propose that the PVDF nasal sensor technique could be used as a new diagnostic method to evaluate nasal obstruction in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgical jejunostomy in aspiration risk patients. (United States)

    Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L


    One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899

  5. Primary nasal tuberculosis: a case report. (United States)

    Stojanović, Jasmina; Belić, Branislav; Mitrović, Slobodanka; Stanković, Predrag; Stojanović, Stevan; Erdevicki, Ljiljana; Zivić, Ljubica; Arsenijević, Snezana


    During the past two decades, tuberculosis (TBC) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, has emerged to be a major health problem. Nasal tuberculosis is a specific inflammatory process which is, in most cases, joined by the inflammation of neck lymph nodes. Thirty-year-old man presented with shortness of breath through the nose and periodical headaches. Clinical examination showed signs of chronic rhinitis, with slight granular changes of nasal septal mucosa. Laboratory analyses were within the reference ranges. Nasal and throat swabs for bacteria and fungi were normal. Skin allergy testing to standard inhalatory allergens was positive. Computer rhinomanometry showed increased nasal resistance at medium difficulty level, on the right. Radiography of paranasal sinuses indicated chronic polysinusitis on the right. Anti-allergy therapy was prescribed. The patient came for checkup after a month with subjective deterioration and a neck tumefact on the right. Nasal endoscopy revealed the presence of dark red infiltrates with the 3 mm diameter on nasal septal mucosa, dominantly on the right, with small greyish nodules. This findings indicated a potential specific nasal inflammatory process. In the upper jugulodigastric area, on the left, painless tumefact 3 x 5 cm in size was palpated, it was mobile comparing to supra- and infrastructure, with unaltered skin above. The definite diagnosis was established on the basis of the results of nasal mucosa biopsy. After histopathological diagnosis was obtained, we started with antituberculosis therapy at once. Due to actual trends of TBC incidences, otolaryngologist should have in mind nasal TBC, when granulomatose lesions are found in nose.

  6. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Taperte


    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation. Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total. According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  7. Comparison of nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView. (United States)

    Lewis, Kerry E; Watterson, Thomas


    Nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView were compared for five different sentences. Vowel content was controlled in the design of the five stimulus sentences. One sentence was loaded with high-front vowels, one with high-back vowels, one with low-front vowels, one with low-back vowels, and one contained a mixture of vowel types. The subjects were 50 elementary school children ranging from kindergarten to sixth grade. Each subject was a native speaker of English, had no history of adenoidectomy, and was not currently enrolled in speech therapy services. The main outcome measures were the nasalance scores obtained from the Nasometer and the NasalView for each of the five sentences. There was a significant difference in the nasalance scores between the Nasometer and the NasalView for four of the five stimuli, but not all differences were in the same direction. For two stimuli, the Nasometer scores were significantly higher, and for two stimuli the NasalView scores were higher. Bivariate correlations between nasalance scores for individual stimuli were in the good range for the Nasometer but poor for the NasalView. Speech stimuli weighted with different vowel types are differentially affected by the different acoustical filtering used in the Nasometer versus the NasalView. Nasalance scores obtained with the NasalView were qualitatively and quantitatively different from those obtained with the Nasometer. This suggests that the two machines provide different information, and the scores are not interchangeable.

  8. Avaliação da aeração nasal pré e pós a realização de manobras de massagem e limpeza nasal Evaluation of nasal aeration before and after the accomplishment of massage and nasal cleanness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Maria Gomes de Melo


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a modificação da aeração nasal após a realização de manobras de massagem e limpeza nasal. MÉTODOS: vinte crianças na faixa etária de quatro a onze anos com diagnóstico de rinite alérgica foram submetidas à avaliação da aeração nasal com o auxílio do espelho milimetrado de Altmann. Inicialmente houve a marcação do ar expirado na placa metálica, posteriormente foram realizadas manobras de massagem e limpeza nasal para retirada da secreção, havendo uma nova marcação para a comparação dos resultados. Foi aplicado o teste Kolmogorov-Smirnov para observar a suposição de normalidade dos dados e o teste t-student para amostras pareadas, sendo todas as conclusões tomadas ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: pode-se observar que as médias obtidas da quantificação da aeração nasal após as manipulações e limpeza na região foram significativas pPURPOSE: to identify the modification of nasal aeration after the accomplishment of maneuvers of massage and nasal cleanness. METHODS: twenty children aging from four to eleven years with diagnosis of allergic rhinitis have been submitted to evaluation of nasal aeration with the Altmann's milimetric mirror. Initially, we was marked the air exhaled on the metallic plate, afterwards we made a massage and nasal cleanness for removing of the secretion, having a new benchmark to compare the results. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to test the assumption of normality for the data and t-student test for paired samples. All conclusions were taken under 5% significance. RESULTS: it was observed that the obtained averages of the nasal aeration after the manipulations and cleanness in the region were significant: p<0,001. CONCLUSION: from the results obtained in this research it was possible to observe a significant increase in the nasal aeration after the massage and nasal cleanness.

  9. Changes in nasal resonance after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. (United States)

    Jiang, Rong-San; Huang, Hui-Tsu


    Hyponasality may be present in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis because of decreased resonance of nasal cavities. Nasalance is a parameter of nasality measured by a nasometer. This study investigated the influence of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on nasalance and determined the correlation of the nasalance change with nasal volume change. When patients with chronic rhinosinusitis underwent FESS, nasalance was measured by nasometry and nasal volume was measured by acoustic rhinometry before and at least 6 months after surgery. There were 81 eligible patients enrolled in the study. Nasalance scores and nasal volumes were significantly increased after FESS. The increased nasalance value was moderately correlated with the increased midnasal and postnasal volumes. The correlation between postoperative changes in nasalance scores and nasal volumes was more remarkable in patients without nasal polyps than in those with nasal polyps and it was also higher in patients with allergic rhinitis than in those without allergic rhinitis. This study showed that the FESS effectively increased nasalance scores and nasal volumes in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, but the increase in nasalance scores did not appear to be achieved largely through the increased nasal volumes.

  10. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin


    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous...

  11. Estimation of Stature from Nasal Length. (United States)

    Shrestha, R N; Banstola, D; Nepal, D; Baral, P


    Estimation of stature for the purpose of identification has a significant forensic importance. This technique is based on a principle that bones or human body parts correlate positively with the stature. Stature can be estimated from measurements of various body parts such as arm, leg, feet, finger, facial height, nasal height etc. The aim of study was to correlate Stature of Nepalese with Nasal height and estimate Stature from Nasal height. A cross-sectional study of 214 healthy adults comprising 110 males and 104 females in the age group of 25 to 35 years were carried out. Study was carried out in central Nepal where people from various parts of Nepal are migrated. Total body height and Nasal height were recorded with stadiometer and sliding caliper respectively. The mean of total body height in the male and female was 160.4 (±6.80) cm and 151.8 (±4.88) cm respectively. The mean of nasal height in the male and female was 4.6 (±0.31) cm and 4.3 (±0.29) cm respectively. This study observed that in both male and female nasal height had positive partial correlation with stature; r = 0.18 for male and 0.19 for female. Stature in nepali population could be calculated as: Stature=148.22+3.02x nasal height in male where as Stature=133.01+3.12x nasal height in female. Both Nepali male and female nasal height had positive partial correlation with stature; r = 0.18 for male and 0.19 for female. Stature in Nepali population could be calculated as: Stature=148.22+3.02x nasal height in male where as Stature=133.01+3.12x nasal height in female.

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sharma


    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is an aggressive malignant soft tissue tumor that arises from primitive striated muscle cells called rhabdomyoblasts. RMS is a rare tumor in adults, and involvement of the sinonasal area is extremely rare, comprising only 1.5% of all reported head and neck RMSs. Alveolar RMS, mainly seen in adults, has the worst prognosis. Incidence of lymph node metastases is more common in this type compared with the other forms. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC has been used extensively in the diagnosis of metastatic malignancies. However, metastatic soft tissue sarcomas are often overlooked, primarily due to the low frequency with which they occur. Here, we report a rare case of metastatic alveolar RMS in the cervical lymph nodes of an 18-year-old girl that was detected by FNAC. After 6 months, the patient came with a huge mass involving the nasal vestibule and the upper lip. Histology of both the main mass and the lymph nodes revealed alveolar RMS.

  13. Identification of Ambiguous Activities in Radionuclide Cisternography Using SPECT/CT: Aspirated and Ingested CSF Rhinorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    A 2 year-old little girl underwent Tc-99m diethylenthriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) radionuclide cisternography to evaluate CSF rhinorrhea (Fig. 1). Cisternography clearly showed consecutive tracer activity in the nasal cavity and nasal tip, reflecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, several unexpected activities appeared on the bilateral mid- and unilateral lower thorax on delayed images, respectively. We performed additional SPECT/CT to delineate the CSF leakage tract and identify the unexpected activities. Through SPECT/CT, we could confirm that the mid-thoracic activity was in the lung parenchyma, while the lower thoracic activity was in the stomach. Thus, we speculated that these unexpected activities were the result of aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura mater and the skull base and discharge of CSF from the nose. A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection that could produce fulminant meningitis. Therefore, identification of the fistulous tract is helpful for patient management. Radionuclide cisternography is an important imaging modality to detect the site of leakage in patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The combination of radionuclide cistenography and SPECT/CT has led to a major improvement in the diagnostic accuracy for localization of CSF leakage. This case also shows an important role for SPECT/CT fusion imaging in radionuclide cisternography not only for localizing the primary CSF fistula tract, but also for evaluating ambiguous radiotracer activities in planar imaging; these ultimately turned out to be aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea.

  14. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various ...

  15. Amniotic Fluid Aspiration in Medicolegal Autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermet Koç


    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid aspiration occurs due to intrauterine anoxia. Being one of the causes of respiratory insufficiency and death in newborns, it can be diagnosed solely by histopathological examination. In the present paper, 12 cases with the diagnosis of amniotic fluid aspiration in autopsies between 1996-1997 in the mortuary section of the Council of Forensic Medicine are reevaluated from the medicolegal point of view. In the majority of the cases, delivery took place in locations other than hospitals, and the lack of medical intervention has been an important factor for the infavorable outcome of the autopsies. Findings of amniotic fluid aspiration stained with meconium were detected in four cases. Key words: Amniotic fluid aspiration, intrauterin asphyxia, Neonatal death, Medicolegal autopsy.

  16. Ultrasound guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-guided percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsy (PFNAB)/US-guided percutaneous needle core biopsy (PNCB) of abdominal lesions is efficacious in diagnosis, is helpful in treatment choice, to evaluate whether various other investigations ...

  17. Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined assessment (aspiration cytology and mammography) of clinically suspicious breast masses. W.F. van Wyk, D Dent, E Anne Hacking, Genevieve Learmonth, R.E. Kottler, C Anne Gudgeon, A Tiltman ...

  18. Aspiration cytology of the conjunctival surface. (United States)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Stulting, R Doyle; Gansler, Ted; Aaberg, Thomas M


    To evaluate a method of obtaining conjunctival cells that utilizes aspiration of the conjunctival surface. Eighteen eyes from 16 patients with epibulbar lesions underwent aspiration of the conjunctival surface using a tuberculin syringe without a needle. The aspirated cells were prepared by the cytocentrifuge or Millipore filter technique. The lesions were subsequently biopsied, and the cytologic and histologic diagnoses were compared. Diagnoses of the conjunctival lesions, in decreasing order of frequency, were conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia, carcinoma in situ), squamous cell carcinoma, squamous metaplasia, nevus, lymphoma and inflammation. In this feasibility study, the cytologic diagnosis accurately correlated with the histologic diagnosis in most cases. There were two cases in which the cytologic diagnosis led to the correct histologic diagnosis. Aspiration cytology of the conjunctival surface is useful in obtaining diagnostic material and may be used as a guide to where a biopsy should be performed. Limitations include inadequate samples and lack of observer experience.

  19. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos


    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies.

  20. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: detection of fungal DNA in sinus aspirate using polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    El-Morsy, S M; Khafagy, Y W; El-Naggar, M M; Beih, A A


    This study investigated allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases, and aimed to compare the detection of fungi in sinus aspirate by culture and by polymerase chain reaction assay, and to relate the presence of fungi in the nasal sinuses to the type of fungal allergen causing disease. Sixty-eight cases of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis underwent fungal culture and polymerase chain reaction assay for universal fungal, aspergillus and bipolaris DNA. Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin E levels were measured in sinus aspirate, and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were calculated. A control group of 10 cases was included in the study. Of the 68 allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases, only 42 (61.7 per cent) had positive fungal cultures; of the 10 controls, only three (30 per cent) had positive cultures. Species from the dematiaceous family were most commonly grown, being isolated in 30 cases (71.4 per cent). Bipolaris was the most commonly isolated species (18 cases) followed by curvularia (11 cases) and alternaria (one case). Polymerase chain reaction assay detected fungal DNA in all the allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases and also in four controls (40 per cent). Ten patients (of 68; 14.7 per cent) were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus specific immunoglobulin E. The mean concentration of this immunoglobulin was 11.32 +/- 4.12 IU/ml in patients and 0 IU/ml in controls, a statistically significant difference. Detection of fungal DNA in nasal aspirate by polymerase chain reaction was superior to fungal cultures as a method of detecting fungal growth. In allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal growth is not always accompanied by an allergic reaction.

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Sinex® (0.05% Oxymetazoline) Nasal Spray on Reduction of Nasal Congestion Using Computational Fluid Dynamics. (United States)

    Kishore, Aravind; Blake, Lauren; Wang, Chengming; Ba, Shan; Gross, Gary


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate air flow changes in reconstructed nasal passages based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a previous clinical study of 0.05% Oxymetazoline (Vicks Sinex Micromist®). Total-pressure boundary conditions were uniquely applied to accommodate low patency subjects. Net nasal resistance, the primary simulation outcome, was determined using a parallel-circuit analogy and compared across treatments. Relative risk (RR) calculations show that for a 50% reduction in nasal resistance, subjects treated with Sinex® are 9.1 times more likely to achieve this after 8 hr, and 3.2 times more likely after 12 hr compared to Sham.

  2. Esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity. (United States)

    Hollen, Tyler R; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Vaysberg, Mikhail; Mendenhall, William M


    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the nasal cavity. We describe the outcomes for 26 patients treated with curative intent with photon radiotherapy (RT) at the University of Florida. Between May 1972 and June 2007, 26 patients received RT for previously untreated esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity. Sixteen patients were males and 10 were females with a median age of 55 years (range, 3 to 82 y). The modified Kadish stage distribution was: B, 7 patients; C, 17 patients; and D, 2 patients. Treatment modalities included the following: definitive RT, 5 patients; preoperative RT, 2 patients; and postoperative RT after resection, 19 patients. Elective neck irradiation (ENI) was performed in 17 (71%) of 24 N0 patients. Rates of local control, cause-specific survival, and absolute overall survival at 5 years were 79%, 72%, and 69%, respectively. Overall survival among patients treated with definitive RT was 20% at 5 years, compared with 81% among those who underwent surgery and adjuvant RT (P=0.01). One (6%) of 17 patients who received ENI developed a recurrence in the neck and was successfully salvaged. Ultimate neck control was 100% at 5 years for patients who received ENI versus 69% among those not receiving ENI (P=0.0173). Resection combined with adjuvant RT is more effective than surgery or RT alone in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma. ENI reduces the risk of regional relapse in patients with Kadish stage B and C cancers.

  3. Suspension suture techniques in nasal valve surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Page, Meile S.; Menger, Dirk J.


    Impaired nasal breathing or collapse of the lateral side wall of the nasal valve region during inspiration is a frequently encountered symptom. In general, this is caused by a cross-sectional area that is too small, a weak lateral side wall, or a combination of both. Over the years, many techniques

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Surgical personnel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of both community and hospital acquired bacterial infection. There is strong correlation between S aureus nasal carriage and disease progress. Nasal carriage is high among health care workers. Inappropriate usage of antibiotic may

  5. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and Antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for invasive S. aureus infections in various population including children. The extent of S. aureus carriage in Sierra Leonean children is largely unknown. To determine the prevalence and pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of nasal S.

  6. Rhinoscleroma and nasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Henrique Fernandes de


    Full Text Available Introduction: Rhinoscleroma, a rare nasal granulomatous disease, is caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. The nose is the primary occurrence region. Nasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare cancer, and could be of T or B type. The rhinoscleroma and the nasal non-Hodgkin lymphoma present with nasal obstruction as the main symptom, and are part of the nasal granulomatosis differential diagnosis. Objective: To report the association of rhinoscleroma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the same patient, by remarking the importance of the nasal granulomatosis' differential diagnosis. Case Report: A forty-nine year old female patient that appeared with a one-month progressive nasal obstruction. Rhinoscopy showed papillomatous feature lesion in left middle meatus. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed rhinoscleroma. The patient was duly treated with total remission of the lesion. Ten months after, she returned with the same symptoms, but the histologic study confirmed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Final Comments: Both pathologies may cause more severe nasal symptoms and complications. The early diagnostic enables the choice for the right treatment and contributes for the prognosis. The immunohistochemical study was essential for the diagnostic differentiation.



    Attuluri Navya


    Context: Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is one of the associated condition reported in individuals with repaired cleft lip and palate (RCLP) leading to hypernasality. Nasality can be assessed by nasometer through nasalance values. But, mean nasalance values (N) found to be overlapping between individuals with RCLP and normals. To overcome these limitations Nasalance Distance (ND) and Nasalance Ratio (NR) are derived based on nasalance range. Aims: The study is aimed to evaluate, corre...

  8. Can nasal decongestants improve eustachian tube function? (United States)

    Ovari, Attila; Buhr, Anne; Warkentin, Mareike; Kundt, Günther; Ehrt, Karsten; Pau, Hans-Wilhelm


    To evaluate the effect of nasal decongestants on eustachian tube (ET) opening. A prospective nonrandomized study. A tertiary referral center. Twenty-four patients (44 ears) with intact eardrums, 39 patients (43 ears) having a noninfected eardrum defect, and six patients with an upper airway infection. Nasal or intratympanal (in perforated ears) application of a nasal decongestant (xylometazoline 0.1%). Change of tube opening quality (yes or no; better or worse) measuring tube opening parameters (pressure, latency) using the Estève method and pressure equalization tests (swallowing at negative and positive external ear canal pressures). In most cases, nasal decongestion or intratympanal use of decongestants have no effect on ET opening. Improvement in tube opening is rather an exception and, in a minority of patients, a reduced ET function was evident. Our acute studies revealed no improvement in eustachian ventilatory tube function with the administration of nasal decongestants.

  9. Common aspirations of world women. (United States)

    Huang, B


    The comments of the Director of Foreign Affairs for the China State Family Planning Commission reflect satisfaction with the achievements at the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing. It is posited that the historic documents from the conference reflect the common aspirations of all women in the world for equality, development, and peace. The conference's focus on social development for women has been translated in China into a "vigorous" IEC campaign. China is developing integrated approaches to family planning in rural areas. The approach aims to help rural women to become economically independent before achieving equality within the family and society. A National Conference on Integrated Programs was held in Sichuan province. Examples of integrated programs in Sichuan, Jilin, and Jiangsu were described for conference participants. The example is given of how poor rural women in Deyang Prefecture, Sichuan province, have received credit for income generation and access to skill development and literacy classes. Continuous economic and social development are important for achieving "poverty eradication and the liberation of women." Sustainable development involves use of resources, environmental protection, the reasonable change in consumption patterns, and transitional changes in modes of production. The concept of reproductive health means Chinese family planning workers must meet higher standards. Future plans include intensifying the IEC program in meeting the comprehensive biological, psychological, and social reproductive health needs of women. Respect must be given to the fertility intentions and reproductive rights of wives and husbands. "In China, voluntary choice of childbearing should be guided by the fertility policy formulated by the government." Training of family planning workers should be intensified to include training in public health, reproductive theory, contraception, and the techniques of interpersonal communication. Some provinces

  10. Nosehouse: heat-conserving ventilators based on nasal counterflow exchangers. (United States)

    Vogel, Steven


    Small birds and mammals commonly minimize respiratory heat loss with reciprocating counterflow exchangers in their nasal passageways. These animals extract heat from the air in an exhalation to warm those passageways and then use that heat to warm the subsequent inhalation. Although the near-constant volume of buildings precludes direct application of the device, a pair of such exchangers located remotely from each other circumvents that problem. A very simple and crudely constructed small-scale physical model of the device worked well enough as a heat conserver to suggest utility as a ventilator for buildings.

  11. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers. (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; M C Ramos, Ercy


    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term nasal high flow treatment with oxygen in COPD - exacerbations, admissions and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinreich, Ulla; Storgaard, Line; Hockey, Hans


    Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. Exacerbations (AECOPD) and hospital admissions are prevalent and have a negative impact on prognosis. The AIRVO device delivers nasal high flow (NHF) heated, humidified oxygenated air, 20...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Shlyakhtov


    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the efficacy of novel biodegradable Nasopore® nasal dressing for bleeding prevention in postoperative period after endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.Patients and methods. Two cohorts of patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy were analyzed. In these patients, the area of rhinostoma was plugged with biodegradable Nasopore® or non-biodegradable Merocel® nasal dressing to prevent bleeding. 37 women and 9 men (mean age 56 years underwent the surgery which was performed under anesthetic using standard technology and endoscopic instruments. Nasopore® and Merocel® were used in 20 and 26 cases, respectively. Re-bleeding rate and the presence of post-operative discomfort were assessed. Specifics of nasal mucosa regeneration, formation of granulations, synechiae, and membranes in the area of nasolacrimal anastamosis were noted.Results. Efficacy of nasal dressing was assessed in the first week after the surgery. In group 1 (Nasopore®, no nasal bleeding was observed and no re-tamponade was required. In group 2 (Merocel®, nasal bleeding occurred in 10 cases (38.4% after nasal dressing removal, and re-tamponade was performed in 8 patients (30.8%. Main disadvantage of Merocel® is the «sawing» effect due to the pore texture of its surface. This property resulted in the bleeding after nasal dressing removal. None of group 1 patients complained of severe discomfort while 19% of group 2 patients experienced significant discomfort.Conclusions. Biodegradable Nasopore® nasal dressing use in endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy prevents recurrent post-operative nasal bleedings, decreases patient discomfort, provides better anatomical and functional outcomes and improves quality of life and medical social rehabilitation. 

  14. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali


    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  15. Nasal drug delivery in traditional persian medicine. (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali


    Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy.

  16. Olfactory Dysfunction in Nasal Bone Fracture. (United States)

    Kim, Sug Won; Park, Beom; Lee, Tae Geun; Kim, Ji Ye


    All nasal bone fractures have the potential for worsening of olfactory function. However, few studies have studied the olfactory outcomes following reduction of nasal bone fractures. This study evaluates posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction in patients with nasal bone fracture before and after closed reduction. A prospective study was conducted for all patients presenting with nasal bone fracture (n=97). Each patient consenting to the study underwent the Korean version of Sniffin' Sticks test (KVSS II) before operation and at 6 month after closed reduction. The nasal fractures were divided according to the nasal bone fracture classification by Haug and Prather (Types I-IV). The olfactory scores were compared across fracture types and between preoperative and postoperative settings. Olfactory dysfunction was frequent after nasal fracture (45/97, 46.4%). Our olfactory assessment using the KVSS II test revealed that fracture reduction was not associated with improvements in the mean test score in Type I or Type II fractures. More specifically, the mean posttraumatic Threshold, discrimination and identification score decreased from 28.8 points prior to operation to 23.1 point at 6 months for Type II fracture with septal fracture. Our study has revealed two alarming trends regarding post-nasal fracture olfactory dysfunction. First, our study demonstrated that almost half (46.4%) of nasal fracture patients experience posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction. Second, closed reduction of these fractures does not lead to improvements olfaction at 6 months, which suggest that olfactory dysfunction is probably due to factors other than the fracture itself. The association should be further explored between injuries that lead to nasal fracture and the mechanism behind posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction.

  17. Nursing Care Guidelines for prevention of nasal breakdown in neonates receiving nasal CPAP. (United States)

    McCoskey, Lisa


    Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is increasing as a means of respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome in many premature neonates across the United States. Nasal CPAP is less invasive and may be as effective as mechanical ventilation in premature infants, and has been shown to cause less lung damage in premature neonates. Because of the increased use of nasal CPAP in neonates, especially younger and more fragile neonates, the presence of nare and nasal septum breakdown may be seen as a complication. Currently, all nasal CPAP systems use a hat and prong or mask type of delivery system. This appears to be effective for many neonates, but for some, it is difficult to appropriately fit the hat and prongs. The result of an inappropriately fitted device can be mild to severe nare and nasal septum damage. This article will discuss the need for nasal CPAP and the mechanics of nasal CPAP, but more importantly, serve to guide caregivers in the appropriate physical assessment and care of a neonate on nasal CPAP with the goal of preventing skin breakdown and nasal damage.

  18. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

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    Tetsuji Yamashita


    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  19. No aspiration to win? An experimental test of the aspiration level model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diecidue, E.; Levy, M.; van de Ven, J.


    A growing body of literature studies the effects of aspiration levels on people’s choices. Researchers often assume an aspiration level at zero, which helps to explain several empirical phenomena. In two experiments, we test this assumption. Our experimental design exploits the discontinuity in the

  20. Etiology of Nasal Bone Fractures. (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Ki, So Jung; Ko, Sang Hyun


    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the etiology of nasal bone fractures (NBFs).In PubMed (500 titles) and Scopus (272), the search terms "nasal bone fracture" AND "etiology OR cause" were used. Among the 772 titles, 137 were duplicated and excluded. The 552 titles were excluded and 83 abstracts were read. Subsequently, 42 abstracts were excluded and 41 full articles providing data on etiologies of NBFs were reviewed. Finally, 26 papers were incorporated into this analysis.The causes of NBFs were different between adults and children. In adults, the most frequent causes were fights (36.3%), traffic accidents (20.8%), sports (15.3%), and falls (13.4%). In children, the most frequent causes were sports (59.3%), fights (10.8%), traffic accidents (8.3%), collisions (5.0%), and falls (3.3%). It is noticeable that fights, traffic accidents, and falls were more frequent in adults than in children, although sports and collisions were more frequent in children than in adults (P causes of NBFs varied geographically. Fights were the most frequent cause in Asia (36.7%), South America (46.5%), and Europe (40.8%). In North America, however, traffic accidents were the most frequent cause (33.6%), followed by fights (20.7%) and sports (17.3%). Among the sports injuries, ball-related sports were the most frequent cause (84.2%). Fighting-related sports (6.4%) contributed to relatively small proportion of NBFs.In efforts to prevent NBFs in children, sports injuries should be primarily considered. Restraining devices such as seatbelts are needed to prevent NBFs caused by traffic accidents, especially in North America.

  1. Nasal cytology in children: recent advances

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    Matteo Gelardi


    Full Text Available Abstract Nasal cytology is a very useful diagnostic tool in nasal disorders, being able to detect both the cellular modifications of the nasal epithelium caused by either allergen exposure or irritative stimuli (that may be physical or chemical, acute or chronic, or inflammation. Over these past few years, nasal cytology has allowed to identify new disorders, such as the non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils (NARES, the non-allergic rhinitis with mast cells (NARMA, the non-allergic rhinitis with neutrophils (NARNE, and the non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophils and mast cells (NARESMA. The rhinocytogram is actually able to distinguish the different forms of allergic rhinitis and to suggest the appropriate treatment, such as antinflammatory drugs or allergen immunotherapy. The technique is easy to perform and nasal cytology is therefore particularly suitable even for children. Such a consideration suggests the utility of a systematic use of nasal cytology in the diagnostic work-up of nasal disorders in children, in order to reach a proper defined diagnosis and to set a rational therapeutic approach: in facts, these two elements are fundamental in order to prevent from complications and to improve the patient’s quality of life.

  2. Primary nasal tuberculosis: A case report

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    Stojanović Jasmina


    Full Text Available Introduction. During the past two decades, tuberculosis (TBC both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, has emerged to be a major health problem. Nasal tuberculosis is a specific inflammatory process which is, in most cases, joined by the inflammation of neck lymph nodes. Case report. Thirty-yearold man presented with shortness of breath through the nose and periodical headaches. Clinical examination showed signs of chronic rhinitis, with slight granular changes of nasal septal mucosa. Laboratory analyses were within the reference ranges. Nasal and throat swabs for bacteria and fungi were normal. Skin allergy testing to standard inhalatory allergens was positive. Computer rhinomanometry showed increased nasal resistance at medium difficulty level, on the right. Radiography of paranasal sinuses indicated chronic polysinusitis on the right. Anti-allergy therapy was prescribed. The patient came for checkup after a month with subjective deterioration and a neck tumefact on the right. Nasal endoscopy revealed the presence of dark red infiltrates with the 3 mm diameter on nasal septal mucosa, dominantly on the right, with small greyish nodules. This findings indicated a potential specific nasal inflammatory process. In the upper jugulodigastric area, on the left, painless tumefact 3 x 5 cm in size was palpated, it was mobile comparing to supra- and infrastructure, with unaltered skin above. The definite diagnosis was established on the basis of the results of nasal mucosa biopsy. After histopathological diagnosis was obtained, we started with antituberculosis therapy at once. Conclusion. Due to actual trends of TBC incidences, otolaryngologist should have in mind nasal TBC, when granulomatose lesions are found in nose.

  3. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

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    Jana Taperte


    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  4. Compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral inferior turbinate in patients with unilateral nasal septal deviation. A computed tomography study. (United States)

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos; Rivera Schmitz, Teresa; Ossa Echeverri, Carla C; Betances Reinoso, Frank A; Osorio Velasquez, Alejandra; Santidrian Hidalgo, Carmelo


    The compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in patients with septal deviation to one of the nostrils is considered to protect the airways from the excess of air that could enter through the nostril and its potential negative effects such as dryness, alteration of air filtration, mucociliary flow, or lung involvement. A prospective, longitudinal, non-randomized study. Patients were divided in two groups: 10 consecutive patients, with nasal septal deviation and compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in the contralateral nasal cavity (10 non-hypertrophied turbinates as control and 10 contralateral hypertrophied turbinates as study cases), and the second group with 5 patients without any nasal pathology (10 turbinates without any obvious pathology). In both groups CT scans of the nasal region were performed. A comparison of patients with nasal septal deviation with compensatory hypertrophy of the inferior turbinate in the contralateral nasal cavity and with non-pathological inferior turbinate was carried out. When analyzing the groups of patients with septal deviation, the contralateral hypertrophied turbinate and the non-hypertrophied turbinate side, we found a significant hypertrophy in the anterior portion of the inferior turbinate, at the level of the medial mucosa (P = 0.002) and bone (P = 0.001) in the group of patients with contralateral hypertrophied turbinate. However, when we compared the contralateral hypertrophic turbinate with the turbinate of patients without septal deviation, we found a significant difference in all volumes of the medial and lateral mucosa and the bone portion (P = 0.001, P = 0.005). Surgical correction of the nasal septum and lateralization or reduction of the volume of the inferior turbinate (which may include the medial mucosa, head or part of the bone) is necessary in order to improve air passage into the nasal valve.

  5. The anatomy and histology of the nasal cavity of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).


    Kratzing, J E


    The anatomy of the nose of the koala was studied from fixed 0.5 cm thick sections of a whole head. Right and left nasal cavities are separated by a slender septum which does not exhibit 'swell bodies'. Dorsal and ventral conchae are simple curved plates without elaborate scrolls; the ventral concha is recurved to form a bulla. The nasal cavity communicates with confluent rostral maxillary and frontal air sinuses. A ventrocaudal maxillary sinus opens from the ventral meatus close to the choana...

  6. Nasal toxicological investigations of Carbopol 971P formulation of apomorphine: effects on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal primary cell culture and in vivo on rabbit nasal mucosa. (United States)

    Ugwoke, M I; Agu, R U; Jorissen, M; Augustijns, P; Sciot, R; Verbeke, N; Kinget, R


    The objective of this study was to investigate the nasal toxicity of a mucoadhesive Carbopol 971P formulation of apomorphine. The effects of different concentrations of Carbopol 971P and apomorphine on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were studied in suspension cultures of human nasal epithelial cells. The rabbit nasal mucosal tolerance of the formulation and its components were investigated using light microscopy. Different groups of the rabbits received twice daily, air puffs, glucose, glucose/apomorphine, Carbopol 971P or Carbopol 971P/apomorphine for 1 week (glucose-treated rabbits) or 1, 2 and 4 weeks (other treatments). Both Carbopol 971P and apomorphine showed both concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on the CBF. The effects on CBF were: apomorphine, 1.0% w/v, irreversible ciliostasis; 0.1 and 0.5% w/v, reversible cilio-inhibition; 0.01%w/v, irreversible cilio-stimulation; and Carbopol 971P, 0.1 and 0.25% w/v, partially-reversible cilio-inhibition. Glucose and glucose/apomorphine physical mixture caused mild inflammation. Carbopol 971P (both with and without apomorphine) caused severe inflammation, which increased with duration of treatment. Necrosis, squamous metaplasia or ciliary degeneration was not observed. Due to the severe inflammation caused by Carbopol 971P with and without apomorphine, we conclude that this polymer is not a suitable carrier for intranasal administration of apomorphine. This is in spite of the reversible effects of Carbopol 971P (0.1 and 0. 25% w/v) and apomorphine (0.1 and 0.5% w/v) on CBF.

  7. CT findings of the chest in adults with aspirated foreign bodies

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    Zissin, R.; Shapiro-Feinberg, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Israel); Rozenman, J.; Apter, S.; Hertz, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Tel Aviv (Israel); Smorjik, J. [Dept. of Pulmonary Medicine, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba (Israel)


    The aim of this study was to assess the imaging findings in adult patients with tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration. Nineteen patients (11 men and 8 women; age range 26-89 years) with foreign-body aspiration were retrospectively reviewed. Nine patients were outpatients with non-specific symptoms and ten were hospitalized with nonresolving pneumonia (n=6), after detection of a dental fragment on a chest radiograph following intubation (n=3), and there was one mentally retarded patient with empyema. An aspirated dental fragment was seen on a chest radiograph in 3 patients and an endobronchial foreign body on CT in 16, appearing as a dense structure within the bronchial lumen. The foreign body was right sided in 14 cases and left sided in 5. Three cases were missed at first interpretation. Associated findings on CT were volume loss, hyperlucency with air trapping and bronchiectasis in the affected lobe. Thirteen patients were managed with bronchoscopy, whereas 2 needed thoracotomy. In 1 patient bronchoscopy failed to detect a foreign body, indicating a false-positive CT diagnosis. One patient expelled an aspirated tablet and two refused invasive procedure. The foreign bodies found mainly were bones and dental fragments. A high clinical suspicion is necessary to diagnose a foreign body. Since CT is often used to evaluate various respiratory problems in adults, it may be the first imaging modality to discover an unsuspected aspirated foreign body in the bronchial tree. (orig.) (orig.)

  8. Endoscopic removal of nasal septum chondrosarcoma in paediatric patient

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    Muhammad Nasri Abu Bakar


    We report a boy with progressive history of nasal obstruction and epistaxis. Nasal endoscopy revealed a mass arising from nasal septum. Endoscopic excision of the tumour was successfully done followed by radiotherapy. Endoscopic excision of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum in its early stage should be considered for better outcome.

  9. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

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    Tiina M. Seppänen


    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects’ reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.

  10. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters. (United States)

    Hox, V; Bobic, S; Callebaux, I; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P W


    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their sinonasal symptoms on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and questionnaires (SNOT-22 and SF-36). Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) measurement, Sniffinatm Sticks (SS) smell test, blood analysis for eosinophilia, total IgE and culture for Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were performed. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated with the SNOT-22 and SF-36 scores, which was not observed for VAS of other symptoms. VAS scores for nasal blockage correlated well with PNIF values as well as VAS scores for smell dysfunction and SS results (both psmell reduction (psmell reduction in NP disease. Nasal blockage is the only symptom that correlates well with NP size and SNOT-22 scores, whereas smell reduction correlates with blood eosinophilia.

  11. Nasal Nosocomial Myiasis Infection Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Following the Septicemia: A Case Report. (United States)

    Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzam; Ramezani Awal Riabi, Hamed; Parsapour, Arezoo


    A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domestic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in remote past, were notable parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radiographic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumonia (HCAP). Despite the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and appropriate supportive care, she had a poor response to the treatment. During the daily visit in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), numerous white larvae were detected in both nostrils. Further investigation of oropharynx and tracheal tube aspiration, showed no more larvae in mentioned parts. An hour later, nasal spontaneous bleeding occurred. Otorhinolaryngology consultation was performed and led to surgical procedure. In ENT examination, there were numerous larvae and massive clot formation in both inferior meatuses and distal nasal septum perforation. Thirty-seven extracted larvae were transferred to Medical Entomology lab by vial 70% ethanol and 5 live larvae for rearing. After precise investigation by aid of light microscopy, the larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Due to discovered 2(nd) larvae stage and duration of hospitalization, this infestation was identified as nasal myiasis.


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    Hamiyet Şahin


    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of solvent Exchange drying utilizing low surface tension force of organic solvents on pit aspiration in Oriental spruce wood. All trees used for experiments were obtained from Maçka-Karahava region. Investigations for pit aspiration was carried out on electron microscope. Prior to the experiments, samples dried with solvent Exchange method. The principle of this method was the replacement of free water in wood with an organic solvent, low in surface tension. The applied organic solvents were acetone, benzene and pentane. For comparison purposes, pit aspiration experiment also were conducted on oven-dried and air-dried wood samples. Result inticated that solvent Exchange drying was observed to be effective on pit aspiration, and the best result was obtained by acetone treatment.

  13. Intraganglionic signaling as a novel nasal-meningeal pathway for TRPA1-dependent trigeminovascular activation by inhaled environmental irritants.

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    Phillip Edward Kunkler

    Full Text Available Headache is the most common symptom associated with air pollution, but little is understood about the underlying mechanism. Nasal administration of environmental irritants activates the trigeminovascular system by a TRPA1-dependent process. This report addresses questions about the anatomical pathway involved and the function of TRP channels in this pathway. TRPV1 and TRPA1 are frequently co-localized and interact to modulate function in sensory neurons. We demonstrate here that resiniferatoxin ablation of TRPV1 expressing neurons significantly reduces meningeal blood flow responses to nasal administration of both TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists. Accordingly resiniferatoxin also significantly reduces TRPV1 and CGRP immunostaining and TRPV1 and TRPA1 message levels in trigeminal ganglia. Sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia innervate the nasal epithelium and the meninges, but the mechanism and anatomical route by which nasal administration evokes meningeal vasodilatation is unclear. Double retrograde labeling from the nose and meninges reveals no co-localization of fluorescent label, however nasal and meningeal labeled cells are located in close proximity to each other within the trigeminal ganglion. Our data demonstrate that TRPV1 expressing neurons are important for TRPA1 responses in the nasal-meningeal pathway. Our data also suggest that the nasal-meningeal pathway is not primarily by axon reflex, but may instead result from intraganglionic transmission.

  14. Implications of Airflow Dynamics and Soft-Tissue Reconstructions for the Heat Exchange Potential of Dinosaur Nasal Passages (United States)

    Bourke, Jason Michael

    This study seeks to restore the internal anatomy within the nasal passages of dinosaurs via the use of comparative anatomical methods along with computational fluid dynamic simulations. Nasal airway descriptions and airflow simulations are described for extant birds, crocodylians, and lizards. These descriptions served as a baseline for airflow within the nasal passages of diapsids. The presence of shared airflow and soft-tissue properties found in the nasal passages of extant diapsids, were used to restore soft tissues within the airways of dinosaurs under the assumption that biologically unfeasible airflow patterns (e.g., lack of air movement in olfactory recess) can serve as signals for missing soft tissues. This methodology was tested on several dinosaur taxa. Restored airways in some taxa revealed the potential presence and likely shape of nasal turbinates. Heat transfer efficiency was tested in two dinosaur species with elaborated nasal passages. Results of that analysis revealed that dinosaur noses were efficient heat exchangers that likely played an integral role in maintaining cephalic thermoregulation. Brain cooling via nasal expansion appears to have been necessary for dinosaurs to have achieved their immense body sizes without overheating their brains.

  15. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W


    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  16. Nasal septum resection due congenital thickness in foalsRessecção de septo nasal devido ao espessamento congênito em potros

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    Antônio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo Wouk


    Full Text Available Nasal obstructions caused by nasal septal diseases are uncommon in horses and the main causes are malformations, mucosal lesions, neoplasias and trauma. The aim of this case report is to describe two cases of nasal obstruction in foals. Clinical signs were progressive with reduction of air flow bilaterally, intense respiratory noise and dyspnea. Endoscopy evaluation was not performed because, in both cases, it was not possible to introduce the probe into the nasal cavity due to bilateral stenosis. Radiographic exam confirmed nasal septum thickness. Both animals were submitted to septum resection surgery. In order to promote a better respiratory condition, tracheotomy was performed in both foals prior the surgery. The surgical technique applied was modified from DOYLE technique described previously (2005. Briefly, nasal bone trephine role was initially done in order to do osteotomy of its caudal portion. For osteotomy a modified osteotomy was used. The dorsal and ventral limits of the nasal bone were removed with a obstetric wire protected by metalical guide. After surgical recovery, in both cases, the clinical exam showed that the air flow was normal and without noise, allowing the foals to breathe normally. Tracheotomy healed by second intention. After eight months both foals breathed comfortably and they were suitable for physical activity. Histopathology evaluation did not show signs of inflammation, neoplasia, and any other histological changes, suggesting the thickness was congenital.Obstruções nasais causadas por doenças do septo nasal são incomuns em cavalos e as principais causas são: malformações, lesões nas mucosas, neoplasias e trauma. O objetivo deste relato é descrever dois casos de obstrução nasal congênita em potros. Os sinais clínicos demonstravam redução progressiva do fluxo de ar bilateral, ruído respiratório e dispnéia intensa. Não foi possível realizar avaliação endoscópica pois em ambos os casos, n

  17. An Aspirational Community Theory of the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    propose an aspirational community theory of the firm (ACT) as a candidate theory by conceptualizing the firm as an aspirational community, the core of which is a group of like-minded people sharing similar or same aspiration/vision. To explain the existence of the firm, we make a distinction between......All of the three major theories of the firm, i.e., the transaction cost theory, knowledge-based theory and the entrepreneurship theory, offer some insightful analyses of the nature of the firm. However, they all have limitations and weaknesses in answering the fundamental question of the existence...... of the firm. In addition, they are all partial due to their particular focus on the multifaceted phenomenon of the firm. We argue that it is necessary and sufficient to develop a comprehensive yet integrative theory of the firm that combines the three competing yet complementary logics. Toward this end, we...

  18. [What is the contribution of aspiration cytology?]. (United States)

    Pluot, M


    Aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules is essentially designed to determine the benign nature of the nodule in order to avoid purely diagnosis surgery. It is reliable in the diagnosis of anaplastic papillary and medullary carcinomas and most lymphomas, but is more problematical for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant nature of Hürthle cell tumours and certain vesicular tumours, in which cytology reveals a suspicious, doubtful or undetermined appearance. However, whether they are unambiguous or doubtful, fine needle aspiration cytology results help the surgeon to define the therapeutic strategy under the best possible conditions. A therapeutic approach is proposed, based on the formulation of aspiration cytology results into benign, malignant, suspicious and inadequate.

  19. Nasalance values for syllables produced by Brazilian Portuguese speakers. (United States)

    Marino, Viviane Cristina de Castro; Cardoso, Vanessa Moraes; Ramos, Renata Giorgetto; Dutka, Jeniffer de Cássia Rillo


    This study aimed to determine nasalance values for syllables produced by Brazilian Portuguese speakers of different ages and gender. Nasalance scores were collected for 14 syllables (10 orals and 4 nasals) using Nasometer II 6400. The participants were 245 Brazilian Portuguese speakers (121 males and 124 females), both genders, divided into four age groups: 57 children, 61 adolescents, 65 young adults and 62 adults. Nasalance scores for nasal syllables were higher than for oral syllables. For both, oral and nasal syllables, nasalance scores were higher for vowel /i/ than for /a/. Across all syllables, the females' nasalance scores were higher than males, with most of this difference attributed to the oldest age group where females mean nasalance was three points higher than males. Values obtained demonstrated nasalance scores variation according to gender, particularly for the adult group and for the syllables tested.

  20. Aspiration Deaths Among Adults in Istanbul

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    Haşim Asil


    Full Text Available Massive aspiration of food is rare, but most common in people under the influence of alcohol or a drug and comatose patients who have impaired functioning of the central nervous system. The finding of small amounts of food material in the airway at autopsy does not indicate the true vital aspiration because of agonal or even early post-mortem overspills. Occlusion of the small airways, mainly the membranous and respiratory bronchioles, partial or total filling of bronchiolar lumen and the alveolar spaces with food or gastric content were typical morphologic findings. In our 10 year retrospective study we presented the data of 21 male and 4 female cases with a final diagnosis of fatal aspiration in age from 23 to 78 years (45.43±14.61 from the records of Morgue Specialization Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine. 13 cases found death at the scene without an eyewitness. All deaths were accidental in manner except one homicide. Toxicological analysis revealed blood alcohol concentration levels between 161 and 339 mg/dL in 7 cases. Morphine metabolites, benzodiazepine and barbituric acid derivatives, toluene and acetone were detected in 5 subjects. Aspirated materials were food in 14 cases, chewing gum in 3 cases, gastric content in 7 cases and a fabric gag in one case. The history, other evidence of external vomit on the clothing or immediate surroundings and toxicological analysis are by no means as significant as autopsy findings especially in cases of aspiration. Key words : adult; aspiration; death; autopsy

  1. [Disturbances of nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum and the rationale for its surgical correction]. (United States)

    Tulebaev, R K; Mustafin, A A; Zholdybaeva, Z T


    Serious disturbances of nasal aerodynamics contribute to the development of diseases of the broncho-pulmonary apparatus. The early recognition of ventilation problems in patients with the curved nasal septum is paramount for the efficacious prevention and treatment of respiratory complications. The authors describe principles of rhinosurgical correction of affected nasal aerodynamics in patients with the curved nasal septum.

  2. Effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction. (United States)

    Dávila, I; Sastre, J; Mullol, J; Montoro, J; Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; del Cuvillo, A; Bartra, J; Valero, A


    H1 antihistamines constitute one of the main references for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Classically, these drugs have been considered effective in controlling sneezing, rhinorrhea and itching, though they have not been regarded as particularly effective in application to nasal obstruction. The most recent studies, involving second-generation H1 antihistamines (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, rupatadine), have shown these drugs to offer effects upon nasal obstruction significantly superior to those of placebo. The present review examines the effect of bilastine, a new, potent and highly specific H1 antihistamine without sedative effects or cardiac toxicity, upon nasal obstruction. The analysis of the data from the different clinical trials indicates that in patients with allergic rhinitis, the effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction is superior to that of placebo and similar to that of other second-generation H1 antihistamines, manifesting within 24 hours after the start of treatment.

  3. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features. (United States)

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A


    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  4. Nasal septal teratoma in a child

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    Akinyemi Oluwole A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teratoma is a rare developmental neoplasm that arises from totipotential tumor stem cells. Head and neck teratomas constitute about 10% of all cases. Only two cases of mature teratoma of the nasal septum have previously been documented in the world literature. Case presentation We present a case of histologically confirmed mature teratoma arising from the nasal septum in an eighteen month old Nigerian female who presented with a history of noisy breathing associated with recurrent rhinorrhea since birth. Physical examination revealed obstruction of the right nasal cavity by a pale fleshy mass. She underwent a total surgical excision and to date, after thirty one months follow-up, she is free from recurrence. Conclusion The prognosis for benign teratoma of the nasal septum is good following total surgical excision.

  5. Anatomy of nasal complex in the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis (Cetacea, Mysticeti). (United States)

    Buono, Mónica R; Fernández, Marta S; Fordyce, R Ewan; Reidenberg, Joy S


    The nasal region of the skull has undergone dramatic changes during the course of cetacean evolution. In particular, mysticetes (baleen whales) conserve the nasal mammalian pattern associated with the secondary function of olfaction, and lack the sound-producing specializations present in odontocetes (toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises). To improve our understanding of the morphology of the nasal region of mysticetes, we investigate the nasal anatomy, osteology and myology of the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis, and make comparisons with other mysticetes. In E. australis external deflection surfaces around the blowholes appear to divert water off the head, and differ in appearance from those observed in balaenopterids, eschrichtiids and cetotherids. In E. australis the blowholes are placed above hypertrophied nasal soft tissues formed by fat and nasal muscles, a pattern also observed in balaenopterids (rorqual mysticetes) and a cetotherid (pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata). Blowhole movements are due to the action of five nasofacial muscles: dilator naris superficialis, dilator naris profundus, depressor alae nasi, constrictor naris, and retractor alae nasi. The dilator naris profundus found in E. australis has not been previously reported in balaenopterids. The other nasofacial muscles have a similar arrangement in balaenopterids, with minor differences. A novel structure, not reported previously in any mysticete, is the presence of a vascular tissue (rete mirabile) covering the lower nasal passage. This vascular tissue could play a role in warming inspired air, or may engorge to accommodate loss of respiratory space volume due to gas compression from increased pressure during diving. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  6. [Inhibitory effect of nasal mucus on the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium]. (United States)

    Hayashi, H


    The absorption of Dibekacin (DKB) through rabbit's tracheal mucosa with and without nasal mucus were examined in vitro. The modified double chamber method was used for the purpose of this study. DKB solution (20 mg/ml) and Hanks' balanced salt solution were put into the donor compartment (DC) and the receiver compartment (RC), respectively. A plate with a hole and the tracheal mucosa were inserted between the compartments in the order of DC, dialytic membrane, the plate, the rabbit tracheal mucosa and RC. The hole of the plate was filled with nasal mucus or Hanks' solution. The latter was used as the control. The chamber was incubated in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 3 hours at 37 degrees C. The absorption rate (AR) was obtained by dividing the concentration of DKB in RC by that in DC. The nasal mucus from patients with chronic sinusitis significantly decreased the AR of DKB compared with that in the control (P less than 0.05). The AR significantly decreased with increments in the thickness of nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis. This decreased AR was improved by the addition of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) to DKB solution in DC. NAC can cleave disulfied bonds of mucus glycoprotein and this results in the decrease of viscoelasticity of nasal mucus. The results indicate that nasal mucus by chronic sinusitis intercept the absorption of drugs through respiratory epithelium in vitro. One of the mechanisms of the intercepter may be due to the high molecular-reticular structure of nasal mucus.

  7. Occurrence of Schistosoma nasale infection in bullocks of Puducherry


    Latchumikanthan, A.; Pothiappan, P.; Ilayabharathi, D.; S. S. Das; D.; Kumar; Ilangovan, C.


    Nasal schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma nasale (S. nasalis) adversely affects the health and production of domestic livestock in various parts of India. The present report describes the occurrence of S. nasale infection in two Hallikar breed bullocks of Union Territory of Puducherry. Eggs of S. nasale were noticed in nasal washings/scrapings of animals and identified as per the standard taxonomical keys.

  8. Primary nasal tuberculosis: A case report


    Stojanović Jasmina; Belić Branislav; Mitrović Slobodanka; Stanković Predrag; Stojanović Stevan; Erdevički Ljiljana; Živić Ljubica; Arsenijević Snežana


    Introduction. During the past two decades, tuberculosis (TBC) both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, has emerged to be a major health problem. Nasal tuberculosis is a specific inflammatory process which is, in most cases, joined by the inflammation of neck lymph nodes. Case report. Thirty-yearold man presented with shortness of breath through the nose and periodical headaches. Clinical examination showed signs of chronic rhinitis, with slight granular changes of nasal septal mucosa. Laborat...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allergy Group Non-Allergy Group. Total Number 22 23. Av. Sneezing Score 6.6 ' 63. Av. Rhinorrhoea Score 6.7 6.5. Av. Nasal itching Score 6.5 5.9. Av. Nasal obstruction score 6.1 6.2. Symptoms Perennial 59% (n=13) 74% (n=l7). Symptoms Seasonal 41% 26%. Keep Pets (Dogs, Cats) 3 1. Flowers/Trees around home 9 8.

  10. [A case report: primary nasal tuberculosis]. (United States)

    Koda, Hiroko; Makino, Nao; Takahashi, Masatoki; Kurata, Natsuko


    A 62-year-old female visited us complaining of lacrimination and the swelling of the left side of the nasal dorsum. Granulation tissues were seen on the anterior-lateral wall of the left nasal cavity, and an imaging study revealed a mass occupying both the left nasal cavity and the anterior ethmoid sinuses invading the face with erosion of the nasal bone. Histological examination showed an epithelioid granuloma without caseous necrosis which mostly suggested sarcoidosis. The affected lesions became larger 11 months after the initial examination, and a biopsy was performed again, which revealed the same pathological findings. Although the biopsy specimen was negative based on the PCR findings, tubercle bacillus was detected in the culture 7 weeks later. The patient was finally diagnosed as having primary tuberculosis of the nose and paranasal sinuses because systemic examination showed no evidence of tuberculosis in other areas. She was treated with antituberculosis medication, and the affected nasal lesions disappeared. It is important to perform a biopsy and tissue culture repeatedly when we encounter an intractable and undiagnosed disease in the nasal cavity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA


    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  12. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

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    Yunchuan Li


    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  13. Spindle cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity

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    Mark D DeLacure


    Full Text Available Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC is a unique variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. SpCC confined to the nasal cavity is extremely rare, with only one case having been previously reported. We present a case report of nasal cavity SpCC and review the literature on this rare entity. A 29-year-old male presented with intermittent epistaxis from the left nasal cavity. On physical examination, the patient had an ulcerated mass in the left nasal vestibule and a biopsy showed a proliferation of spindle and epitheliod cells. The patient underwent wide local excision of the mass via a lateral alotomy approach and reconstruction with a composite conchal bowl skin and cartilage graft. Histologically, the mass had dyplastic squamous epithelium and spindle-shaped cells admixed with epitheliod cells. Immunohistochemistry was only positive for pancytokeratin AE1/AE3 and vimentin. Six months after surgery, the patient continues to have no evidence of disease. On literature review, only one previous case of SpCC confined to the nasal cavity was identified. We present a rare case of nasal cavity SpCC. No definite treatment protocol exists for this unique entity, but we believe that this tumor should primarily be treated with aggressive, wide local excision. Adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy have also been used anecdotally.

  14. Hybrid Mesh for Nasal Airflow Studies

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    Mohammed Zubair


    Full Text Available The accuracy of the numerical result is closely related to mesh density as well as its distribution. Mesh plays a very significant role in the outcome of numerical simulation. Many nasal airflow studies have employed unstructured mesh and more recently hybrid mesh scheme has been utilized considering the complexity of anatomical architecture. The objective of this study is to compare the results of hybrid mesh with unstructured mesh and study its effect on the flow parameters inside the nasal cavity. A three-dimensional nasal cavity model is reconstructed based on computed tomographic images of a healthy Malaysian adult nose. Navier-Stokes equation for steady airflow is solved numerically to examine inspiratory nasal flow. The pressure drop obtained using the unstructured computational grid is about 22.6 Pa for a flow rate of 20 L/min, whereas the hybrid mesh resulted in 17.8 Pa for the same flow rate. The maximum velocity obtained at the nasal valve using unstructured grid is 4.18 m/s and that with hybrid mesh is around 4.76 m/s. Hybrid mesh reported lower grid convergence index (GCI than the unstructured mesh. Significant differences between unstructured mesh and hybrid mesh are determined highlighting the usefulness of hybrid mesh for nasal airflow studies.

  15. Nasal dermoids without intracranial extension in teenagers. (United States)

    Dolzal, P; Hanzelová, J


    Nasal dermoid cysts are benign, cystic midline masses. They contain mature tissues and often pocket hair, fat or sebum. Patients usually present with nasal enlargement or with a wide nasal dorsum with or without a fistula, causing an unacceptable cosmetic appearance. To define a reliable surgical approach and method of removing dermoid with no intracranial extension in adolescent age. We retrospectively present diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in three teenagers ages 15, 17 and 18. All patients underwent prior surgeries at different hospitals. In the first case, the incision and exstirpation of the fistula's opening, followed by the fistula's canal, was performed. In the other two patients, the nasal dermoids were removed via the open approach with the transcollumelar incision. In all patients, we performed rhinoplasty with osteotomies to achieve an improved cosmetic effect. The esthetic results are presented. The diagnosis of nasal swelling requires imaging. Total excision of the cyst is considered the casual treatment. The open rhinoplasty is an adequate method in patients with nasal dermoids without an intracranial extension. Experienced surgeons should manage the functional and esthetical aspects together during the same surgery.

  16. Clinical and histopathological changes of the nasal mucosa induced by occupational exposure to sulphuric acid mists. (United States)

    Grasel, S S; Alves, V A F; da Silva, C S; Cruz, O L M; Almeida, E R; de Oliveira, E


    To assess potential alterations of the nasal mucosa by clinical and histopathological evaluation of workers exposed to sulphuric acid mists at anodising plants, correlating the findings with duration of exposure and sulphuric acid concentrations in the air, and comparing them with a control group. Fifty two workers from five plants underwent a clinical evaluation (standard questionnaire, clinical, and ear, nose, and throat examination including nasal endoscopy). For the histopathological study, 20 of the 52 subjects (study group) were randomly selected, as well as 11 unexposed subjects (control group), matched by sex, age, and smoking habits. Nasal biopsy specimens were obtained from the anterior septum mucosa and the anterior curvature of the middle turbinate in each individual. A total of 56 nasal mucosa specimens (37 in the study group and 19 in the control group) were evaluated with regard to normal respiratory epithelium or metaplastic epithelium, atypia or dysplasia, and alterations of the lamina propria. The histopathological study revealed squamous metaplasia in 29 (79%) and atypia in 13 (35%) of the 37 study group samples. No association was found between exposure duration and the clinical and histopathological variables, but a significant association was found between sulphuric acid concentrations higher than 200 micro g/m(3) and pale mucosal patches and ulcerations in the exposed subjects. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposed subjects had a fivefold risk of developing atypia compared with the unexposed subjects. Workers exposed to sulphuric acid mists presented with a high incidence of nasal symptoms, and macroscopic and microscopic changes of the nasal mucosa, including squamous atypia and dysplasia. The risk for these histopthological lesions increased with higher sulphuric acid concentrations in the air, revealing an exposure-response relation.

  17. Condrossarcoma nasal: relato de caso Nasal chondrosarcoma: a case report

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    Fábio de Rezende Pinna


    Full Text Available O condrossarcoma é uma neoplasia maligna proveniente de tecido cartilaginoso, cuja incidência em região de cabeça e pescoço é rara. É mais freqüente em pacientes do sexo masculino, entre a terceira e quarta décadas, e na face localiza-se no seio e osso maxilar, sendo raro no septo nasal. Esse relato descreve o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, de 13 anos de idade, que apresentava queixa de deformidade facial em região malar direita acompanhada de dores esporádicas. Ao exame físico apresentava um abaulamento de aproximadamente 3 cm de diâmetro em região malar esquerda, não sendo notada nenhuma alteração à rinoscopia anterior. Foram realizadas tomografia computadorizada (TC de seios paranasais, ressonância magnética de face e biópsia da lesão para estudo anatomopatológico, que inicialmente sugeria o diagnóstico de condroma. Após a exérese da massa, a paciente evoluiu com recidiva da lesão em apenas 5 meses. Diante deste fato surpreendente, foi requisitada a revisão da lâmina que evidenciou Condrossarcoma tipo I. Nova cirurgia foi realizada, visando a remoção do tumor, com tratamento radioterápico complementar. Atualmente, a paciente se encontra em acompanhamento ambulatorial, sem queixas álgicas e sem sinas de recidiva. Os condrossarcomas são tumores malignos de crescimento lento, mas localmente agressivos, tendo grande propensão a recidivas. A conduta é preferencialmente cirúrgica, uma vez que são pouco radiossensíveis e a quimioterapia é meramente paliativa. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar um caso de condrossarcoma em seio maxilar, etmóide, esfenóide e septo, discutindo o quadro clínico, diagnóstico, fatores prognósticos e conduta.Chondrosarcoma is a malignous cartilage tumor, which rarely involves Head and Neck. The tumor mainly affects males during the third and fourth decades of life. In the face, it's often situated in the maxillary sinus and bone and rarely found in the nasal septum


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between thoughts or concepts and things), we take a discourse approach which treats language as opaque by engaging in an analysis of both the linguistic practices and the language of enquiry itself. Against this backdrop, we try to deconstruct the meaning of the rhetorical garbs of the campaign discourse of the aspirants ...

  19. Income Aspirations and Cooperation : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.


    This article is the first attempt to study the empirical link between income aspirations and cooperation in a one shot public good game. By combining experimental with survey data, we find evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate with

  20. Gender Differences, Career Aspirations and Career Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study therefore is to explore gender differences in adolescents' career aspirations and career development barriers among secondary school students in Kisumu municipality, Kenya. The study was conducted on 348 form four secondary school students. The major findings of this study show that there ...

  1. Identity talk of aspirational ethical leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Waistell, J.


    This study investigates how business leaders dynamically narrate their aspirational ethical leadership identities. In doing so, it furthers understanding of ethical leadership as a process situated in time and place. The analysis focuses on the discursive strategies used to narrate identity and





    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafia Ozlem Kazanci


    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration (FBA is common under 3 years of age. FBA can cause sudden respiratory failure. Furthermore, it leads to many respiratory system complications. Therefore, FBA is an important cause of mortality and morbidity for this age group. FBA cases are usually followed by diagnoses like pneumonia, bronchitis or bronchial asthma in the late period that history, clinical and laboratory findings suggesting foreign body aspiration can not be detected. We reported a 2-year-old male patient with pneumonia, who were administered various treatments. In thorax CT of this case, an image compatible with foreign body was seen in the right middle lobe-upper lobe separation area. Granulation tissue was detected in the entrance of the right main bronchus by rigid bronchoscopy and marked improvement occured in lung aeration after bronchoscopy. This case was reported to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of foreign body aspiration because of high mortality and morbidity and the necessity of considering the foreign body aspiration in children with recurrent pulmonary infections. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 58-61

  4. Aspirations, Attributions, and Locus of Control. (United States)

    Samuel, William; McNall, Sidne J.

    Self-evaluation is thought to play a major role in personality and motivation. Preliminary experience with success or failure, levels of aspiration, attributions for performance, and locus of control may all be interrelated factors in human motivation. After receiving success, failure, or no feedback on a concept formation task, subjects (N=90)…

  5. Appreciating Aspirations in Australian Higher Education (United States)

    Sellar, Sam; Gale, Trevor; Parker, Stephen


    Aspiration for higher education (HE) is no longer a matter solely for students and their families. With OECD nations seeking to position themselves more competitively in the global knowledge economy, the need for more knowledge workers has led to plans to expand their HE systems to near universal levels. In Australia, this has required the…

  6. Factors Influencing High School Students' Career Aspirations (United States)

    Tang, Mei; Pan, Wei; Newmeyer, Mark D.


    This article explores the factors influencing high school students' career aspirations with a study analyzing 141 high school students. The Social Cognitive Career Development Model was utilized to examine the interactive relationships among learning experiences, career self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interests, and career choices. The…

  7. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams? (United States)

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol


    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  8. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The increasing prevalence of extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis with the HIV scourge is a cause for concern. Objective: To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    INTRODUCTION. Fine needle aspiration cytology. (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of ...

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of cutaneous sporotrichosis diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The cytologic findings had features which included presence of fungal elements compatible with Sporothrix morphology that allowed a correct diagnosis in our case. It is concluded that the FNA cytology of sporotrichosis is ...

  11. [CFD-simulation of the air flows in the maxillary sinus]. (United States)

    Shcherbakov, D A; Krukov, A I; Krasnozhen, V N; Garskova, Yu A; Saushin, I I

    This article summarizes the results of computer simulation of the air flows in the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The objective of the study was to apply the method of computational aerodynamics to simulate the air flows in the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus under the normal conditions and after the surgical interventions on the middle nasal meatus. The normal air space of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was simulated and the computer modeling of the main options for the surgical approach to the maxillary sinus through the middle nasal meatus was performed including balloon sinuplasty, functional endoscopic sinus surgery, and uncinate process mobilization. The study has demonstrated the increase of the air flow velocity in the maxillary sinus after computer-assisted balloon sinuplasty. The computer simulation of functional endoscopic sinus surgery including the removal of the uncinated process revealed the mass exchange between the maxillary sinus and the nasal cavity.

  12. Aspirations and occupational achievements of Dutch fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther


    Purpose - To investigate how work and family aspirations relate to occupational achievements and gender differences herein. Design/methodology/approach - Using data from 2009 we examined the relationship between career and childrearing aspirations and occupational achievements of Dutch parents.

  13. Understanding the Housing Aspirations of People in Scotland


    McKee, Kim; Moore, Tom; Crawford, Joe


    This report explores the elements that make up people’s housing aspirations and the drivers of their aspirations. It develops understanding of these factors and makes policy recommendations based on the findings. Publisher PDF

  14. Gender and leadership aspiration: the impact of organizational identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, C. (Claudia); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan)


    textabstractPurpose: Although nowadays more women occupy leadership roles, they still are a minority. Because aspiration is a precursor of advancement, examining conditions fostering female leadership aspiration is important. A neglected perspective is the impact of organizational identification.

  15. Válvula nasal: anatomia e fisiologia Nasal valve: anatomy and physiology

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    Carlos Eduardo Nazareth Nigro


    Full Text Available A porção anterior das cavidades nasais, da narina à válvula nasal (VN, é a região de maior resistência nasal ao fluxo aerífero, de suma importância para a fisiologia nasal. Na literatura existem terminologias diferentes para se referir às mesmas estruturas anatômicas e, ainda, o mesmo termo se referindo a estruturas anatômicas diferentes. OBJETIVO: Realizamos este trabalho com o objetivo de revisarmos o funcionamento da VN e definirmos com mais clareza estruturas anatômicas da porção anterior das cavidades nasais, principalmente a região da VN. CONCLUSÃO: Existe controvérsia na literatura quanto à nomenclatura das estruturas da VN. Neste trabalho definimos VN como uma estrutura tridimensional compreendida anteriormente pelo ostium internum e posteriormente pelo isthmus nasi.The anterior portion of the nasal cavities, from the nostril to the nasal valve (NV, is the place of highest nasal resistance to airflow, paramount to nasal physiology. There are different terminologies for the same anatomic structures in the literature. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the NV function and define clearly the structures of the anterior portion of the nasal cavities, mainly the region of the NV. CONCLUSION: Internum ostium is the anterior segment and isthmus nasi is the posterior segment of the NV region.

  16. Expression and distribution of epithelial sodium channel in nasal polyp and nasal mucosa. (United States)

    Jiang, Yiming; Xu, Ji; Chen, Yanqing; Shi, Jiali; Zhang, Chun; Li, Jiping


    To evaluate the expression and location of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in human nasal polyp and normal nasal mucosa, and to characterize the relevance of ENaCs to the development of NPs. Nasal polyp tissue from 17 patients and nasal mucosa from ten patients were obtained through endoscopic sinus surgery. The mRNA concentrations of ENaC-α, β, and γ were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of ENaC-α was detected using western blot and immunofluorescence techniques. The distribution of ENaC-α in mucosal tissue was observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. The transcriptional expression of three subunits of ENaC was in the following order: α > β > γ, in both groups. The transcriptional expression of α, β, and γ subunits of ENaC was elevated in nasal polyp compared to nasal mucosa (p distributed in the epithelial cell apical membrane. The expression of ENaC is upregulated in human nasal polyp, which might in turn facilitate the formation and development of nasal polyp.

  17. Rhinoplasty and the nasal SMAS augmentation graft: advantages and indications. (United States)

    Davis, Richard E; Wayne, Ivan


    We evaluated the nasal superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) as an autologous augmentation graft material in the thick-skinned patient undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty using a retrospective review. Representative case reports demonstrated preliminary long-term results after augmentation with the nasal SMAS graft in an academic rhinoplasty practice. En bloc excision of the nasal SMAS in thick-skinned patients produced uniformly favorable improvements in nasal tip definition without adverse sequelae. Moreover, in 10 patients, the harvested material was also used for volume augmentation at various adjacent nasal sites, including the radix, nasal sidewall, and nasal dorsum. Long-term follow-up ranging from 1 to 3 years suggests stable volume augmentation in this initial patient series. No donor morbidity was observed in properly selected patients, and enhancements in nasal tip definition were uniformly favorable. Additional studies are needed to more accurately characterize long-term nasal SMAS graft survival in all patients.

  18. Cayenne aspiration: an unusual type of lower airway foreign-body aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin L


    Full Text Available Lianjun Lin,1 Yuchuan Wang,1 Xiankui Zha,2 Fei Tang,2 Liping Lv,2 Xinmin Liu1 1Geriatric Department, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 2Pulmonary Intervention Department, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Cayenne aspiration is an unusual type of foreign-body aspiration that is usually misdiagnosed. This article analyzes the clinical features of cayenne aspiration in the lower airway.Patients and methods: Clinical data on eight adult patients with cayenne aspiration were retrospectively analyzed. Six were elderly patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2010 and August 2014.Results: The most common symptoms of cayenne aspiration were cough (eight cases, 100% and sputum (five cases, 62.5%. Only one patient (12.5% could supply the history of aspiration on his first visit to doctor and was diagnosed definitely without delay. The other seven cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia and the time to accurate diagnosis was from 1 month to 6 months. The history of aspiration could be recalled after confirmed diagnosis for the other seven cases. The most common presentation shown by chest computed tomography (CT was pneumonic opacity (eight cases, 100%. The existence of cayenne could not be detected by chest CT in any of the patients. All the patients were diagnosed definitively and managed successfully with flexible bronchoscopy. Cayenne was more often lodged in the right bronchus tree (seven cases, 87.5%, especially the right lower bronchus (four cases, 50%. The segment of cayenne was complete in five cases (62.5% and scattered in three cases (37.5%.Conclusion: The clinical features of cayenne aspiration are usually obscure and nonspecific which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management. Keywords: clinical features, flexible bronchoscopy, chest CT, pneumonia

  19. Nasalance scores for normal-speaking Turkish population. (United States)

    Karakoc, Omer; Akcam, Timur; Birkent, Hakan; Arslan, Hasan Huseyin; Gerek, Mustafa


    The aim of this study was to obtain normative nasalance scores for adult and children subjects speaking Turkish language and obtain a reference for normality when nasality is evaluated. Mean nasalance scores were obtained from 35 normal-speaking children aged 7 to 13 years, and 125 adults aged 18 to 69 years during the repetition of 3 nasalance passages that were categorized according to the amount of nasal consonants (oral, oronasal, and nasal passages). The Nasometer (model 6400) was used to obtain nasalance scores for the 3 reading passages. Group mean ± SD nasalance scores of children for oral passage, oronasal passage, and nasal passage were 15.14 ± 4.81, 37.76 ± 4.42, and 49.23 ± 6.95, respectively. Nasalance scores for the adult group were 13.46 ± 6.26, 37.84 ± 6.13, and 50.28 ± 7.77, respectively. There were significant differences in mean nasalance scores for oral versus nasal materials both for children and adult groups. The present study provides normative nasalance scores for Turkish-speaking children and adults. The results indicated acceptable differentiation between oral and nasal materials.

  20. The correlation of the results of the survey SNOT-20 of objective studies of nasal obstruction and the geometry of the nasal cavities. (United States)

    Prus-Ostaszewska, Monika; Wysocki, Jarosław; Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Balcerzak, Jarosław


    In this paper were verified the correlation between the results of the survey SNOT-20 and the results of the objective tests of nasal obstruction which are rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry before and after surgical treatment, such as septoplasty, septoconchoplasty, ethmoidectomy and septoethmoidectomy. The material used in this study was 233 patients diagnosed routinely in the Rhinomanometry Laboratory of the Department of Otolaryngology at the Medical University of Warsaw, reporting rhinological problems. Data were obtained from 70 women (31,4%) ranging in ages from 18 to 81 years of age and 153 men (68,6%) ranging in ages from 16 to 81 years of age. The researches presented in the study were made using the device RhinoMetrics SRE 2100 which combines the Rhinomanometer (RhinoStream) and Acoustic Rhinometer (RhinoScan) Interacoustics AS (Denmark). Survey SNOT-20 (Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20) in Polish was completed by patients before surgery and during the postoperative control visits. The calculated correlations between the objective parameter, which was the resistance to the flow of air through the nasal cavity , and the subjective feelings of respondents expressed in the survey SNOT-20 were generally weak, and statistical significance was achieved with respect to the first question survey (the severity of the nose obstruction) for all components of resistance flow. The feeling of nasal obstruction is the most reproducible and reliable complaint reported by the patient with rhinological problems.

  1. Educational Opportunities and Occupational Aspirations: A Two-Dimensional Approach. (United States)

    Ayalon, Hanna; Yuchtman-Yaar, Ephraim


    Argues against the one-dimensional approach to the study of occupational aspirations, noting that standard scales of aspiration cannot identify those who aim at occupations that generate high income but require low education. Demonstrates a new index of occupational aspirations. Discusses the impact educational tracking may have on the nature of…

  2. Occupational aspirations of female secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational aspirations of female secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. ... The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the level of relationship between the occupational aspirations of boarding and day female students with regard to occupational aspirations at .05 probability level.

  3. Catatonia, gastric hyperacidity, and fatal aspiration: a preventable syndrome. (United States)

    Bort, R F


    Sudden death from aspiration pneumonitis during acute catatonia is a generally recognized but poorly understood occurrence. The author describes a case in which a schizophrenic patient died following aspiration of gastric contents. In view of findings that suggest that the acidity of gastric contents is related to morbidity following aspiration, he recommends that liquid antacid medication be given routinely to catatonic patients.

  4. Gender and Leadership Aspiration : The Impact of the Organizational Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Fritz (Claudia)


    markdownabstractSummary The aim of this dissertation is to examine gender differences in leadership aspiration. Although some important work regarding gender-specific aspiration has been done already, conditions fostering leadership aspiration – particularly among women – are not completely

  5. Nasal Allergy and Otitis Media (United States)

    Passali, Desiderio; Passali, Giulio C.; Lauriello, Maria; Romano, Antonio; Bellussi, Luisa; Passali, Francesco M.


    Objectives: The correlation between middle ear pathology and nasal allergy has been debated for almost 30 years. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between otitis media with effusion (OME) and persistent allergic rhinitis symptoms versus intermittent rhinitis in children. Methods: The study included 100 atopic children (52 boys, 48 girls) aged 5–9 years with otological symptoms who were patients of the University of Siena Hospital, Italy. Ear, nose and throat evaluations, tympanometry, skin prick tests (SPTs), mucociliary transport time (MCTt) and Eustachian tube function tests were performed. Results: The SPTs revealed 50 children sensitised to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 34 to grass pollen and 16 to Parietaria. Of all patients, mild symptoms were intermittent in 19 children and persistent in 18; moderate/severe symptoms were intermittent in 22 and persistent in 41. Tubal dysfunction was present in 25 children, whereas middle ear effusion was present in 45 children undergoing myringotomy. The MCTt was slower in the persistent group (21 ± 2 mins) versus the intermittent group (16 ± 2 mins) with a significant difference (P <0.01). Mean eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) values in the middle ear effusions of children who had undergone myringotomy were 251 ± 175.2 μg/L, and mean ECP blood values were 25.5 ± 16.3 μg/L, with significant differences (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a significant association between OME, delayed MCTt, ECP values in middle ear effusion and persistent symptoms of allergic rhinitis. These results suggest a direct involvement of the middle ear mucosa as a target organ in persistent forms. PMID:24516755

  6. Modern Management of Nasal Hemangiomas. (United States)

    Keller, Robert G; Stevens, Shawn; Hochman, Marcelo


    Current treatment approaches for infantile hemangiomas of the nose include observation, pharmacologic agents, surgery, and/or laser therapy. Because of the known functional, social, and cosmetic effect of nasal deformities, obtaining the best possible result is critical. Optimal timing, type, duration, and extent of therapy remain unclear. Results of a review of 86 patients (64 females and 22 males; mean age, 4.8 months [range, 2 days-23 years]) with infantile hemangiomas of the nose treated from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015, and a review of the literature are presented to gain insight into the preferred approach to the treatment of these lesions. Patients underwent single-modality and multimodality treatment with pulsed-dye laser (n = 73), oral corticosteroids (n = 11), intralesional corticosteroids (n = 2), propranolol hydrochloride (n = 30), and surgery (n = 50). The treatment decision algorithms and outcomes based on tumor phase and infantile hemangioma subtype are reviewed in detail. Nine articles met the criteria to be included in the literature review. Literature from the era before the approval of propranolol advocates for early use of oral or intralesional corticosteroids followed by surgery or pulsed-dye laser in cases of unacceptable outcomes. Literature from the era after the approval of propranolol supports early initiation of oral β-blockers until proliferation ceases or until additional intervention is necessary. Despite a lack of higher levels of evidence, there exists a general consensus between the literature and clinical experience advocating for early multimodality treatment to achieve the best result possible by the time the children reach certain sociodevelopmental milestones.

  7. Experimental determination of the filling coefficient for an aspirated spark-ignition engine (United States)

    Raţiu, S.; Alexa, V.; Kiss, I.; Cioată, V.


    This study aims at determining, by experiment, the filling coefficient of a spark-ignition, normal aspirated engine, with carburettor. For this purpose, a pilot plant was designed for measuring the pressure at various points on the route, simulating a stationary air flow regime by means of a vacuum pump. Measurements were made for various lifting heights of the intake valve and various opening positions of the throttle body, thus highlighting how their influence on the pressure loss and on the filling coefficient.

  8. [Closed automatic programmed aspiration-irrigation method in the treatment of abdominal abscesses]. (United States)

    Kanshin, N N; Bystritskiĭ, A L


    Treatment of 124 patients with abdominal abscesses is analysed. Sixty-four patients (a test group) were treated by air-tight drainage of the abscess cavity with double-tube silicone drains and automatic fraction irrigation of the purulent cavity in the postoperative period. Other methods of intraabdominal abscess drainage were used in 60 patients (a control group). The advantages of closed programmed aspiration-irrigation treatment are shown.

  9. Nasal tip sutures: Techniques and indications. (United States)

    Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Söken, Hakan; Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Şahin, Ethem; Ada, Servet


    The surgical anatomy of the nasal tip is determined by intrinsic factors, such as the nasal tip volume, shape, definition, and symmetry. These factors are intimately related to the morphology of the lower lateral cartilages. Tip sutures reduce the need for grafts and allow the surgeon to manipulate the tip with a high degree of precision and better long-term clinical outcomes. In this review, we evaluated common nasal tip suture techniques to clarify the similarities and differences among them. The following nasal tip suture techniques were investigated: medial crural fixation suture, middle crura suture, transdomal (dome creating, dome binding, domal definition) suture, interdomal suture, lateral crural mattress suture, columella septal suture, intercrural suture, tip rotation suture, craniocaudal transdomal suture, lateral crural spanning suture, suspension suture, tongue-in-groove technique, and lateral crural steal. Tip sutures increase tip projection, narrow the tip, provide stabilization, and provide tip rotation. The sutures may be used separately or together. Nasal tip sutures have long been used as noninvasive suture techniques. Each suture technique has unique benefits, and various key points must be considered when using these techniques.

  10. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming


    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  11. Osseous-Cartilaginous Spreader Graft and Nasal Framework Reconstruction. (United States)

    Ors, Safvet


    Revision rhinoplasties and saddle nose deformities usually require grafting for reconstruction. Between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2017, autologous rib grafts were used in 127 secondary and tertiary rhinoplasty patients [(57/127 females) and (70/127 males)]. Osseous-cartilaginous rib grafts (OCRGs) were divided into three parts (i.e., 1/3 upper peripheral, 1/3 central, and 1/3 lower peripheral). The harvested OCRGs were also shaped as vertical strips using a number 11 scalpel blade. These OCRGs were shaped to form the L-strut cartilaginous graft (LSCGs), osseous-cartilaginous spreader grafts (OCSGs), osseous-cartilaginous onlay grafts, nasal valve grafts (NVGs), and lower lateral cartilaginous grafts (LLCGs). The upper peripheral portion of the rib was usually used as an onlay graft for dorsal reshaping. The shape of this part was minimally convex after being cut from the main graft, and the convex shape was very appropriate for use as an onlay graft. The middle portion of the graft that consisted of the osseous and cartilaginous structure was used for the OCSGs. The middle portion of the graft that contained only cartilage was used for the LSCGs, NVGs, and LLCGs. OCRGs were used for the dorsal, alar, septal, upper lateral, and columellar struts for all patients. OCSGs were used for all of the septal grafts to provide further stability. In the nasal valve failure patients, the rib cartilage was fixed onto the lower lateral and upper lateral cartilage and was sutured using polyglactin to improve nasal valve function. One edge of the graft was sutured over the septum, and the other edge was positioned against the maxillary crest to allow for air flow at the nasal valve. After an OCSG was sutured to the septum, a flat and smooth dorsum was shaped before the dorsal onlay graft was placed and fixed. The bone fragments of the grafts that consisted of spreader and onlay grafts were tied to the radix nasi bone without any space. After 6 months of follow-up, a

  12. Nasal highflow improves ventilation in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bräunlich J


    Full Text Available Jens Bräunlich,* Marcus Köhler,* Hubert WirtzDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Nasal highflow (NHF provides a warmed and humidified air stream up to 60 L/min. Recent data demonstrated a positive effect in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, especially when caused by pneumonia. Preliminary data show a decrease in hypercapnia in patients with COPD. Therefore, NHF should be evaluated as a new ventilatory support device. This study was conducted to assess the impact of different flow rates on ventilatory parameters in patients with COPD.Materials and methods: This interventional clinical study was performed with patients suffering from severe COPD. The aim was to characterize flow-dependent changes in mean airway pressure, breathing volumes, breathing frequency, and decrease in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Mean airway pressure was measured in the nasopharyngeal space (19 patients. To evaluate breathing volumes, we used a polysomnographic device (18 patients. All patients received 20 L/min, 30 L/min, 40 L/min, and 50 L/min and – to illustrate the effects – nasal continuous positive airway pressure and nasal bilevel positive airway pressure. Capillary blood gas analyses were performed in 54 patients with hypercapnic COPD before and two hours after the use of NHF. We compared the extent of decrease in pCO2 when using 20 L/min and 30 L/min. Additionally, comfort and dyspnea during the use of NHF were surveyed.Results: NHF resulted in a minor flow dependent increase in mean airway pressure. Tidal volume increased, and breathing rate decreased. The calculated minute volume decreased under NHF breathing. In spite of this fact, hypercapnia decreased with increasing flow (20 L/min vs 30 L/min. Additionally, an improvement in dyspnea was observed. The rapid shallow breathing index shows a decrease when using NHF.Conclusion: NHF

  13. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing. (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A


    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  14. Intranasal Drainage for Pediatric Nasal Abscesses. (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey; Smith, Lee P


    Nasal abscesses of the tip or soft tissues are uncommon in children. We describe an endonasal surgical approach for nasal abscesses based on our experience with 3 children at our tertiary care, academic children's hospital. All presented with significant nasal pain out of proportion to the physical examination findings, along with edema, induration, and some intermittent bleeding and discharge of sebaceous and/or keratinous debris. Parenteral antibiotics were administered for an initial period of at least 24 hours in all cases, without any significant improvement in the patients' symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast was diagnostic in all cases. Symptomatic relief was achieved immediately postoperatively. No child required a second drainage procedure, and all children had an uneventful recovery. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  15. Nasal and oral masses in a dog. (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Psychogios, Vassilios; Koutinas, Alexander F


    A 5-year-old, intact male, stray dog was presented in poor body condition, with pallor, muzzle deformity, multiple oozing fistulas with grass awns, bilateral sanguinopurulent nasal discharge and a fleshy friable mass occupying part of the hard palate. A friable mass occupying both nasal cavities was found on rhinoscopy. The dog had moderate nonregenerative normochromic-microcytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Cytologic preparations of the nasal and oral masses contained a neoplastic population of round cells with intracytoplasmic and extracellular vacuoles. Leishmania amastigotes also were observed, in the cytoplasm of macrophages and, occasionally, within neoplastic cells. A diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumor and concurrent leishmaniosis was made. Treatment with vincristine and allopurinol resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs and disappearance of the masses. The presence of amastigotes in neoplastic TVT cells may suggest an alternative mode of transmission of canine leishmaniosis where these diseases co-exist.

  16. Chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and aspiration: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheeren, Betina; Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), RS (Brazil); Gomes, Erissandra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre (Brazil); Alves, Giordano; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)


    The objective of this systematic review was to characterize chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and pulmonary aspiration, identifying the characteristics and the methods used. The studies were selected from among those indexed in the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health, LILACS, Indice Bibliografico Espanol de Ciencias de la Salud, Medline, Cochrane Library, SciELO, and PubMed databases. The search was carried out between June and July of 2016. Five articles were included and reviewed, all of them carried out in the last five years, published in English, and coming from different countries. The sample size in the selected studies ranged from 43 to 56 patients, with a predominance of adult and elderly subjects. The tomographic findings in patients with dysphagia-related aspiration were varied, including bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, pulmonary nodules, consolidations, pleural effusion, ground-glass attenuation, atelectasis, septal thickening, fibrosis, and air trapping. Evidence suggests that chest CT findings in patients with aspiration are diverse. In this review, it was not possible to establish a consensus that could characterize a pattern of pulmonary aspiration in patients with dysphagia, further studies of the topic being needed. (author)

  17. Extramedullary plasmacytoma. Fine needle aspiration findings. (United States)

    Kumar, P V; Owji, S M; Talei, A R; Malekhusseini, S A


    To determine the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of extramedullary plasmacytoma. The study group consisted of 13 patients with palpable masses at various sites. The tumors were aspirated for cytologic study. The smears revealed groups of mature and immature plasma cells at various stages of maturation. Mature plasma cells showed an eccentric nucleus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with a paranuclear halo. Plasmablasts (immature plasma cells) showed a prominent, eccentric nucleus with single, large nucleolus and abundant, deep, basophilic cytoplasm with no paranuclear halo. Binucleate and multinucleate forms were also seen quite often. The tumors were excised, and the histologic sections confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. All the patients received radiotherapy. One patient (18 years old) developed recurrence and died due to extensive infiltration into the maxilla and mandible. Two patients (57 and 62 years) developed multiple myeloma one to two years after the excision of tumors, and both died two to three months later. The remaining 10 patients were alive and well at this writing. The smears from all 13 patients were diagnosed as extramedullary plasmacytomas by fine needle aspiration cytology.

  18. Plasmocitoma extramedular nasal en un perro


    Carlos Giraldo M.; Catalina López V.; Jorge U. Carmona


    Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ) del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una...

  19. Plasmocitoma extramedular nasal en un perro


    Giraldo M, Carlos; López V, Catalina


    RESUMENSe describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ) del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada eviden...

  20. [Nasal glial heterotopia: Clinical and morphological characteristics]. (United States)

    Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A


    The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.

  1. [Full thickness reconstruction of the nasal pyramid]. (United States)

    Darsonval, V; Arnaud, D; Duron, J-B; Bardot, J; Rousseau, P


    Nasal lesions, which are often carcinomas, require a histological control of the excision sometimes forcing to postpone the reconstruction source of nasal mutilation disfiguring. Reconstructive procedures have made steady progress and the notion of reconstruction in three planes advocated by Tiersch has been improved in a major way by Millard, Burget and Menick, who added an essential aesthetic dimension. We present our experience in this field by selecting procedures that seem most appropriate and describing the key points of the operating process, which remain the guarantee of both therapeutic and aesthetic success. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.



    Castillo D,Paulo; Yagnam D,Mathias; Troncoso R,Antonio; Fuentes F,Patricio; Feres W,Marcelo; Coronel F,David


    Objetivo: La nariz es el área corporal con mayor incidencia de epiteliomas basocelulares y la reparación de los defectos secundarios a su resección, puede ser un desafío. El objetivo es presentar nuestra experiencia en la reparación de defectos nasales, empleando colgajos bilobulados. Material y Método: Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de 10 pacientes con epiteliomas basocelulares nasales en que empleamos este colgajo. Resultados: En todos los pacientes el colgajo bilobulado permitió la ...

  3. Nasal birth trauma: a review of appropriate treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C


    The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  4. Nanoparticles for nasal delivery of vaccines : monitoring adaptive immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.


    The continuous emergence of new pathogens and growing drug resistance of microorganisms asks for innovative vaccination strategies. An alternative to conventional multiple injection vaccines is the nasal route of vaccine delivery. The immune response induced following nasal antigen delivery depends


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Yang


    Full Text Available This paper presented phonetic evidence to resolve the transcription disagreement concerning the syllable-final nasal shift in the variety of Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. Although three judges agreed that the rhyme /iŋ/ underwent a sound change, they perceived the nasal coda shift differently. Two of them transcribed it as a modification from /iŋ/ to /in/, whereas the other asserted that the velar nasal disappears with its preceding vowel nasalized. In order to resolve this transcription conflict, this study analyzed the acoustic attributes of the speculative sound alterations in question, including /in/, /iŋ/, /i/ and /ĩ/. The phonetic analysis indicated that the Taiwanese participants did not nasalize the preceding vowel deleting the nasal coda but tended to pronounce the post-vocalic velar nasal as its dental counterpart. This study concluded by discussing the implications of the synchronic variation for the theories of the nasal coda shift in Chinese dialects.

  6. [Ketotifen and nasal steroids in the therapy of pollinosis]. (United States)

    Cvitanović, S; Grbić, D; Zekan, L; Petrović, S; Vrdoljak, E; Parpura, V; Boban, M


    Thirty-five patients with seasonal pollen rhinitis due to hypersensitivity to Parietaria officinalis pollen were randomized and treated with ketotifen and with a combination of ketotifen and beclomethason diproprionate, a nasal steroid. The study was timed to cover the Parietaria off. pollination period (4 months), which was documented by the determination of air concentration of the pollen. Respiratory symptoms and additional medications were scored according to a defined control. During the peak pollen period, both groups suffered from intensified pollinosis symptoms which prompted additional medication. The increases, however, were less significant in the group treated with the combination of the two drugs, i.e. better results were obtained with the ketotifen-beclomethasone diproprionate combination than with ketotifen alone.

  7. Anthropometric Study of Nasal Index of the Kosovo Albanian Population


    Gloria Staka; Fatmir Dragidella; Metush Disha


    Human nose occurs in many shapes and sizes and ethnic influences my results in different appearances of the nose. Nasal index is an ethnic sensitive anthropometric index. It is an important athropometric parameter for classifying the race and sex of the individual whose identity is unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the nasal index of the Kosovo Albanian population. The study sample comprised 204 subjects (101 males and 103 females) aged 18-25 years. Nasal height and nasal width ...

  8. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults


    Lee, Alice S.; Browne, Una


    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between–within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure conson...

  9. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children. (United States)

    Park, Mikyong; Baek, William S; Lee, Eunkyung; Koh, Kyung S; Kim, Baek-Kyu; Baek, Rongmin


    There are numerous nasometric studies to date, including normative nasalance scores for various languages as well as nasometric differences in age, gender, race and region except the Korean language. In this regard, we sought to establish normative nasalance scores for Koreans. We created speech samples based on the everyday use of phonemes in the Korean language which were syntactically simple for children. In addition, we analysed nasometric features based on age and gender and confirmed test-retest reliability. The study included 108 children (54 girls and 54 boys, aged 7-11 years) and 108 adults (54 women and 54 men, aged 18-29 years) with normal articulation, resonance, voice and hearing. Nasometer II 6400 was used to measure the nasalance scores. The subjects read or repeated three speech stimuli, each consisting of 33, 36 and 24 syllables: (1) an oral passage devoid of nasal consonants, (2) an oro-nasal passage and (3) nasal sentences. For each stimulus, mean nasalance scores were obtained and gender or age dependence was analysed, using two-way analyses of variance. The mean nasalance scores for the oral passage, oro-nasal passage and nasal sentences were 11.69% (standard deviation (SD) 3.68), 34.04% (SD 4.88) and 63.72% (SD 6.07), respectively. Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the oro-nasal passage (p = 0.000) and nasal sentences (p = 0.004). Children exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than adults on nasal sentences (p = 0.000). The nasalance scores in children and females were a little higher. Korean normative data will provide reference information in the evaluation and treatment of resonance problems. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Sneezing as a mechanical defence - a numerical simulation and analysis of the nasal flow]. (United States)

    Sommer, F; Scheithauer, M; Kröger, R; Rettinger, G; Lindemann, J


    The nose is responsible for humidification, heating and cleaning of the inhaled air. The sneeze reflex leads to a shock-like cleaning of the nose in strong particle exposure. The aim of this study was the simulation of intranasal air flow of sneezing in a realistic computer model. Based on the CT scan of a 40 year old man a three-dimensional computer model of the nasal cavity and the ethmoid sinuses was created. Flow simulations were performed for different inspiratory and expiratory velocities (± 2 m/s to ± 45 m/s) in order to simulate sneezing. RESULTS were visualized and analyzed by video simulation. During inspiration the main airflow takes place along the middle turbinate. During expiration, the flow is located more cranially. This effect is caused by the shape of the nasopharynx and the posterior portions of the nasal turbinates. During very high speeds (sneezing) also adjacent ethmoid sinuses and the olfactory region are covered by the shock-like expiratory flow. A large vortex formation in the nasopharynx is responsible for a uniform distribution of the airflow also on lower nasal areas. Sneezing is a protective reflex that provides for cleaning of the nose. From a flow rate of 10 m/s, the cranial nasal areas as well as adjacent ethmoid sinuses are covered by the -airflow. Compared to the inspiratory airflow the exhalation is not just vice versa. Particles that deposed in the cranial nasal areas during quiet breathing are removed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Dosimetry of nasal uptake of soluble and reactive gases: A first study of inter-human variability (Journal Article) (United States)

    Anatomically accurate human child and adult nasal tract models will be used in concert with computationally simulated air flow information to investigate the influence of age-related differences in anatomy on inhalation dosimetry in the upper and lower airways. The findings of t...

  12. Investigation of association of Helicobacter pylori and simple nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate a possible contribution of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) in the etiopathogenesis of simple nasal polyps. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial. Methods: Twenty five patients with simple nasal polyps underwent nasal polypectomy were studied. Helicobacter pylori DNA was investigated for ...

  13. Underlying Phoneme Velar Nasal with Lip Rounding in Hueyapan Nahuatl (United States)

    Campbell, R. Joe


    Reasons are given for the idea that Hueyapan (Morelos) Nahuatl has an underlying velar nasal with lip rounding phoneme which never has the surface reflex of a rounded velar nasal allophone, but occurs phonetically as a velar nasal allophone or a labial dental voiced allophone or disappears. (SCC)

  14. Letter to the editor: Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal S.aureus was detected in 16/20 patients (80%) and 5/20 (25%) in healthy subjects with highly significant statistical difference p<0.01. Correlation of nasal staph.aureus count and different systemic and local immune markers revealed highly significant positive correlation between nasal S.aureus count and serum total ...

  15. Nasal carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers. Methods: Nasal specimens of healthy volunteers in ...

  16. Surgical versus medical interventions for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimmer, Joanne; Fokkens, Wytske; Chong, Lee Yee; Hopkins, Claire


    Background Nasal polyps cause nasal obstruction, discharge and reduction in or loss of sense of smell, but their aetiology is unknown. The management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, aimed at improving these symptoms, includes both surgical and medical treatments, but there is no

  17. Nasal mophormetric pattern of the Abakaliki ethnic group of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subjects cover a selection of 669 males and 331 females between 12 and 45 years of age. The nasal length and nasal breadth were measured directly with ... This could be useful in forensic investigation as well as in plastic and reconstructive surgery of the nose. Keywords: Nasal Length, Breadth, Morphormetric, Index, ...

  18. Assessment of nasal resistance using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Jan


    Full Text Available Anterior rhinomanometry is the current gold standard for the objective assessment of nasal breathing by determining the nasal resistance. However, computational fluid dynamics would allow spatially and temporally well- resolved investigation of additional flow parameters. In this study, measured values of nasal resistance are compared with measured values. An unclear discrepancy between the two methods was found, suggesting further investigation.

  19. Periapical Infection Masquerading as a Nasal Pustule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on adjacent structures like facial skin, maxillary sinus, orbit, nostril and distance structures like cavernous ... excisions and biopsies, long‑term antibiotic therapy, radiation therapy, electrodesiccation ... is a need for examination of the maxillary incisors in patients presenting with nasal pustule. Keywords: Endodontic treatment ...

  20. Fracture of nasal bones: an epidemiologic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common diseases in the otorhinolaryngology emergency room is the nasal bones fracture. The peak of incidence is between 15 and 25 years of age. Generally men are more affected. Objective: To analyze the age, gender and the most frequent causes of nasal fractures evaluated in the otorhinolaryngology service of a tertiary hospital. Method: Retrospective study of records of the patients with nasal fracture diagnosis treated between July 1st, 2003 and July 1st, 2007. Results: 167 patients with nasal bones fracture were included in the study, including 134 men and 33 women. Violence was the most frequent cause, with 55 cases (32.9%, followed by fall from their own height, with 33 cases (19.7%, and motorcycle accident, 14 cases (8.4%. The most common age was between 21 and 39 years (46.1%. Conclusion: Male, age between 21 and 39 years and violence are the most common characteristics found in our service. Motorcycle accidents also play an important role in this affection.

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasal Vestibule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E


    From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...

  2. Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  3. Nasal prosthesis rehabilitation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sumeet; Maru, Kavita; Shukla, Jyotsana


    Facial defects resulting from neoplasm, congenital malformation or trauma can be restored with facial prosthesis using different materials and retention methods to achieve life-like look and function. A nasal prosthesis can re-establish esthetic form and anatomic contours for mid-facial defects, ...... a spectacle glass frame without inserting craniofacial implants....

  4. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini


    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  5. Radiological changes and complications associated with nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most worrying complications of sinusitis in- volve the orbit and intracranial cavity". Complications and local extension of paranasal sinus infections most often involve the orbit and periorbital”. In conclusion the nasal polyposis has been found in this study to cause the radiological changes mainly in the mxillary sinus and ...

  6. Nasal carriage of Meticillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired infections. The emergence of methicillin resistant strains of. Staphylococcus aureus in the hospitals and the community is a serious health problem. The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage and ...

  7. Nasalance Changes Following Various Endonasal Surgeries. (United States)

    Amer, Hazem Saeed; Elaassar, Ahmed Shaker; Anany, Ahmad Mohammad; Quriba, Amal Saeed


    Introduction There is change in nasalance post endonasal surgery which is not permanent. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term nasalance changes following different types of endonasal surgeries. Methods We included in this study patients who underwent sinonasal surgery at the Otorhinolaryngology Department in Zagazig University Hospitals from February 2015 until March 2016. We divided the patients into two groups according to the surgeries they underwent: Group (A) was the FESS group and group (B), the septoturbinoplasty group. We checked nasalance using a nasometer before and after the sinonasal surgery. Results Nasalance increased at one month after the operation in both groups. However, it returned to nearly original levels within three months postoperatively. Conclusion FESS, septoplasty, and turbinate surgery may lead to hypernasal speech. This hypernasal speech can be a result of change in the shape and diameter of the resonating vocal tract. Hypernasal speech in these circumstances may be a temporary finding that can decrease with time. Surgeons should inform their patients about the possibility of hypernasality after such types of surgery, especially if they are professional voice users.

  8. Nasal reconstruction with articulated irradiated rib cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.S.; Cook, T.A.; Guida, R.A. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle (USA))


    Nasal structural reconstruction is a formidable task in cases where there is loss of support to both the nasal dorsum and tip. A multitude of surgical approaches and materials have been used for the correction of the saddle-nose deformity with varying degrees of success. Articulated irradiated rib cartilage inserted through an external rhinoplasty approach was used to reconstruct nasal deformities in 18 patients over a 6-year period. Simultaneous use of a midline forehead flap to reconstruct the overlying soft tissue was required in four cases. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 2.8 years). Results were rewarding in most cases with marked improvement in nasal support and airway. Revision and/or replacement secondary to trauma or warping of the graft was required in four cases. None of the patients exhibited infection, extrusion, or noticeable resorption. A description of the surgical technique, review of all the cases, and recommendation for continued use of this graft material are discussed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2004 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 6 June 2004. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS OF COLLECTING NASAL SPECIMENS FOR RESPIRATORY VIRUS ANALYSIS. M.J. Ngama, Clinical Officer, B., Ouma, HND, Microbiology Senior Laboratory Technician, Kenya Medical Research Insitute, Centre ...

  10. Nasal Functional Evaluation Using Nasal Endoscopy, Acoustic Rhinometry, and Rhinomanometry on Nasal Airway-Obstructed Patients after Endoscopic Septoplasty, Corrective Rhinoplasty, and Internal Nasal Valve Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiğit Özer Tiftikcioğlu


    Full Text Available Objective: Rhinoplasty is a very common surgical procedure that is performed throughout the world as well as in our country for aesthetic concerns, nasal obstruction, or both. However, functional results still remain subjective, and compared to the vast number of operations, studies about functional results in the literature are very limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate respiratory functions after corrective rhinoplasty and to find the benefits both numerically and statistically. Material and Methods: Thirty patients who were admitted to our department with nasal obstruction based on the statements of the patients were included in the study. Patients who were admitted only for aesthetic considerations were excluded from the study. These patients were preoperatively evaluated with radiographic and endoscopic imaging; preoperative nasal resistance and nasal airway cross-sectional area values were measured and recorded with acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry devices. Then, patients were operated by open rhinoplasty technique, and measurements were repeated at three months and one year postoperative follow-ups. Results: As a result of measurements made with rhinomanometry one year after the surgery, a decrease in resistance value was observed in 20 patients, and an increase in minimal cross-sectional area measured with acoustic rhinometry was observed in 24 patients. The values measured by both methods were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: As a result of our study, we advocate performing both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty operations instead of functional or aesthetic purposes alone.

  11. Nasalance and nasality in children with cochlear implants and children with hearing aids. (United States)

    Baudonck, N; Van Lierde, K; D'haeseleer, E; Dhooge, I


    In prelingually deaf children, many speech production aspects including resonance, are known to be problematic. This study aimed to investigate nasality and nasalance in two groups of prelingually hearing impaired children, namely deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) and moderate-to-severely hearing impaired hearing aid (HA) users. The results of both groups are compared with the results of normal hearing children. Besides, the impact of the degree of hearing loss was determined. 36 CI children (mean age: 9;0y), 25 HA children (mean age: 9;1y) and 26 NH children (mean age: 9;3y) were assessed using objective assessment techniques and perceptual evaluations in order to investigate the nasal resonance of the three groups. Ten HA children had thresholds above 70dB (range: 91dB-105dB) and fifteen below 70dB (range: 58dB-68dB). The Nasometer was used for registration of the nasalance values and nasality was perceptually evaluated by two experienced speech therapists using a nominal rating scale (consensus evaluation). For nasal stimuli, both CI children and HA children showed lower nasalance values in comparison with NH children. The opposite was observed for the oral stimuli. In both hearing impaired groups, cul-de-sac-resonance was observed on a significantly larger scale than in the NH group, and the HA children were judged to be significantly more hypernasal in comparison with NH children. Despite the fact that a substantial number of the CI and HA children demonstrate normal (nasal) resonance quality, this aspect of speech production is still at risk for hearing impaired children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental investigations into the nature of airflows near Bluff bodies with aspiration, with implications to aerosol sampling (United States)

    Sreenath, Avula; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Vincent, James H.

    The research described in this paper was stimulated by the need to understand better the nature of air flow around aerosol samplers of the type widely used in environmental and industrial hygiene. It deals with the application of visualisation techniques to determine the location of stagnation points for air flow about simple two- and three-dimensional bluff bodies (cylinder and sphere, respectively) for the case where there is aspiration of air (i.e. suction) from a point on the body surface. The effect of orientation of the sampling orifice (or sink) with respect to the free stream on the location of stagnation points was compared with theoretical predictions using potential flow models. Good agreement was obtained, even for large angles with respect to the wind. For the two-dimensional cylindrical body, we also experimentally investigated the frequency of the vortex shedding in its near wake and how that is influenced by the aspiration. As represented by the dimensionless Strouhal number, this was found to be strongly dependent on the aspiration flow rate and the slot orientation. The results may be explained qualitatively in terms of the effect of aspiration on the development of the boundary layer over the cylinder surface.

  13. Airflow in the Human Nasal Passage and Sinuses of Chronic Rhinosinusitis Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribalan Kumar

    Full Text Available Endoscopic surgery is performed on patients with chronic inflammatory disease of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation. Little is known about how sinus surgery affects sinonasal airflow. In this study nasal passage geometry was reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging from healthy normal, pre-operative, and post-operative subjects. Transient air flow through the nasal passage during calm breathing was simulated. Subject-specific differences in ventilation of the nasal passage were observed. Velocity magnitude at ostium was different between left and right airway. In FESS, airflow in post-surgical subjects, airflow at the maxillary sinus ostium was upto ten times higher during inspiration. In a Lothrop procedure, airflow at the frontal sinus ostium can be upto four times higher during inspiration. In both post-operative subjects, airflow at ostium was not quasi-steady. The subject-specific effect (of surgery on sinonasal interaction evaluated through airflow simulations may have important consequences for pre- and post-surgical assessment and surgical planning, and design for improvement of the delivery efficiency of nasal therapeutics.

  14. Nasal surgery in patients with systemic disorders. (United States)

    Sachse, Florian; Stoll, Wolfgang


    Multisystemic disorders represent a heterogenous group of diseases which can primarily manifest at the nose and paranasal sinuses as limited disease or secondarily as part of systemic involvement. Rhinologists therefore play an important role in the diagnostic but also therapeutic process. Although therapy of multisystemic disorders is primary systemic, additional rhinosurgery may become necessary. The spectrum of procedures consists of sinus surgery, surgery of the orbit and lacrimal duct, septorhinoplasty and closure of nasal septal perforation. Since the prevalence of most systemic diseases is very rare, recommendations are based on the analysis of single case reports and case series with a limited number of patients only. Although data is still limited, experiences published so far have shown that autologous cartilage or bone grafts can be used in nasal reconstruction of deformities caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidosis and relapsing polychondritis. Experiences gained from these diseases support the concept that well-established techniques of septorhinoplasty can be used in systemic diseases as well. However, a state of remission is an essential condition before considering any rhinosurgery in these patients. Even under these circumstances revision surgery has to be expected more frequently compared to the typical collective of patients undergoing septorhinoplasty. In addition, experiences gained from saddle nose reconstruction may in part be of value for the treatment of nasal septal perforations since implantation of cartilage grafts often represents an essential step in multilayer techniques of closure of nasal septal perforations. Aside from the treatment of orbital complications sinus surgery has been proven beneficial in reducing nasal symptoms and increasing quality of life in patients refractory to systemic treatment.

  15. New CFD tools to evaluate nasal airflow. (United States)

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Del Pino, C; Sevilla-García, M A; Esteban-Ortega, F


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND® only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow. In addition, the user-friendly environment NOSELAND® helps the medical assessment significantly in the post-processing phase with dynamic reports using a 3D endoscopic view. Specialists in Rhinology have been asked for a more intuitive, simple, powerful CFD software to offer more quality and precision in their work to evaluate the nasal airflow. We present MECOMLAND® and NOSELAND® which have all the expected characteristics to fulfil this demand and offer a proper assessment with the maximum of quality plus safety for the patient. These programs represent a non-invasive, low-cost (as the CT scan is already performed in every patient) alternative for the functional study of the difficult rhinologic case. To validate the software, we studied two groups of patients from the Ear Nose Throat clinic, a first group with normal noses and a second group presenting septal deviations. Wall shear stresses are lower in the cases of normal noses in comparison with those for septal deviation. Besides, velocity field distributions, pressure drop between nasopharynx and the ambient, and flow rates in each nostril were different among the nasal cavities in the two groups. These software modules open up a promising future to simulate the nasal airflow behaviour in virtual surgery intervention scenarios under different pressure or temperature

  16. Fluid dynamic design and experimental study of an aspirated temperature measurement platform used in climate observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing 210044 (China); School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Liu, Qingquan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information Processing, Nanjing 210044 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center on Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Dai, Wei [School of Atmospheric Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Ding, Renhui [Jiangsu Meteorological Observation Center, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    Due to the solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a thermometer screen or radiation shield may produce measurement errors that are 0.8 °C or higher. To improve the observation accuracy, an aspirated temperature measurement platform is designed. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to analyze and calculate the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using a genetic algorithm (GA) method. In order to verify the performance of the temperature sensor, the aspirated temperature measurement platform, temperature sensors with a naturally ventilated radiation shield, and a thermometer screen are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The average radiation errors of the sensors in the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.44 °C and 0.25 °C, respectively. In contrast, the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform is as low as 0.05 °C. This aspirated temperature sensor allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 88.6% compared to the naturally ventilated radiation shield, and allows the error to be reduced by a percentage of approximately 80% compared to the thermometer screen. The mean absolute error and root mean square error between the correction equation and experimental results are 0.032 °C and 0.036 °C, respectively, which demonstrates the accuracy of the CFD and GA methods proposed in this research.

  17. Acoustic Analysis of Nasal Vowels in Monguor Language (United States)

    Zhang, Hanbin


    The purpose of the study is to analyze the spectrum characteristics and acoustic features for the nasal vowels [ɑ˜] and [ɔ˜] in Monguor language. On the base of acoustic parameter database of the Monguor speech, the study finds out that there are five main zero-pole pairs appearing for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] and two zero-pole pairs appear for the nasal vowel [ɔ˜]. The results of regression analysis demonstrate that the duration of the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] or the nasal vowel [ɔ˜] can be predicted by its F1, F2 and F3 respectively.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A


    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...... colonization? Our study of 46 monozygotic and 43 dizygotic twin pairs revealed that nasal microbiota is an environmentally derived trait, but the host's sex and genetics significantly influence nasal bacterial density. Although specific taxa, including lactic acid bacteria, can determine S. aureus colonization...

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Almotriptan Malate Nasal Drops (United States)

    Pradhan, V.; Gaikwad, R.; Samad, A.; Prabhakar, B.


    Nasal solutions of almotriptan malate were prepared in phosphate buffer containing different proportions of HPMC E15. In vitro permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cell with dialysis membrane and ex vivo permeation studies were carried out using sheep nasal mucosal layer. The formulations were radiolabeled with 99mTc and the nasal residence time was studied in rabbits. Nasal irritation was evaluated in rats. Formulations prepared with HPMC E15 5% w/v did not retard the release of almotriptan. Gamma scintigraphy studies showed increased residence time as compared to plain drug solution. No nasal irritation was observed and the formulations were found stable for 3 months.

  20. Myeloid Sarcoma Presenting as Nasal and Orbital Mass: An Initial Manifestation of an Acute Myeloid Leukaemia. (United States)

    Gupta, Amita Jain; Mandal, Shramana; Gupta, Richa; Khurana, Nita; Gulati, Achal


    Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary manifestation of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and sometimes is the only indicator of the disease. The incidence varies between 3-9.1% of acute leukaemia cases. The blast infiltration is seen most commonly in skin, lymph node, gastrointestinal tract, bone, soft tissue though can involve any body site usually as a solitary lesion and is rarely seen in nasal cavity. We present two cases of myeloid sarcoma presenting as a nasal mass in a six year old girl and other as orbital mass in 32-year-old as an initial manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry clinched the diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma. Examination of bone marrow aspirate revealed blasts which fulfilled the criteria for acute leukaemia. These cases are usually misdiagnosed because often lymphoma and granulocytic sarcoma is not considered in initial list of differential diagnoses. These rare cases are being presented here as early recognition and diagnosis will ensure rapid treatment of the condition and improve the survival.

  1. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students. (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Frye, Margaret; Cruwys, Tegan


    A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85) aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820) aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college) higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  2. When Aspirations Exceed Expectations: Quixotic Hope Increases Depression among Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine H Greenaway

    Full Text Available A paradox exists in modern schooling: students are simultaneously more positive about the future and more depressed than ever. We suggest that these two phenomena may be linked. Two studies demonstrated that students are more likely to be depressed when educational aspirations exceed expectations. In Study 1 (N = 85 aspiring to a thesis grade higher than one expected predicted greater depression at the beginning and end of the academic year. In Study 2 (N = 2820 aspiring to a level of education (e.g., attending college higher than one expected to achieve predicted greater depression cross-sectionally and five years later. In both cases the negative effects of aspiring high while expecting low persisted even after controlling for whether or not students achieved their educational aspirations. These findings highlight the danger of teaching students to aspire higher without also investing time and money to ensure that students can reasonably expect to achieve their educational goals.

  3. Clinical application of nasometry in patients with nasal obstruction. (United States)

    Ziade, Georges; Kasti, Maher; Sarieddine, Doja; Saadeddine, Zein; Hamdan, Abdul-Latif


    The purpose of this case-control study is to report on the clinical application of nasometry as a diagnostic tool in patients with the symptom of nasal obstruction compared with subjects with no history of nasal obstruction. Thirty-eight adult patients (mean age: 28.1 years) complaining of nasal obstruction were enrolled in the study, and another group of 38 adults (mean age: 25.9 years) with no history of nasal obstruction served as controls. Demographic data, including age and sex, were collected. Patients were asked to read three passages; the Zoo passage, the Rainbow passage, and nasal sentences. Nasalance scores were reported on all subjects using a Nasometer II instrument. The control and patient groups each included 22 men and 16 women. No statistically significant difference in nasalance score was found between the study group and the control group in any of the Zoo passage, Rainbow passage and nasal sentences. We conclude that nasometry has limited value in the objective assessment of nasal obstruction as a symptom, which we attribute to nasal obstruction's not always reflecting the volume and pressure in the nasal cavity.

  4. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure influences bottle-feeding in preterm lambs. (United States)

    Samson, Nathalie; Michaud, Audrey; Othman, Rahmeh; Nadeau, Charlène; Nault, Stéphanie; Cantin, Danny; Sage, Michaël; Catelin, Céline; Praud, Jean-Paul


    BackgroundIn preterm infants, the time from initiation to full oral feeding can take weeks, which represents a very worrisome problem in neonatal medicine. Although current knowledge suggests that oral feeding should be introduced early, this is often delayed due to the need for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Indeed, most caregivers fear that nCPAP could disrupt sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination and induce tracheal aspiration. The goal of the present study was to assess the impact of nCPAP delivered by the Infant Flow System on the physiology of sucking-swallowing-breathing coordination during bottle-feeding in preterm lambs over 24 h.MethodsSeventeen lambs (8 control, 9 nCPAP of 6 cmH2O) born 14 days prematurely were instrumented to record sucking, swallowing, respiration, ECG, and oxygenation. They were fed via a nasogastric tube for the first 5 days of life until introduction of bottle-feeding every 4 h for 24 h.ResultsnCPAP increased the feeding efficiency while maintaining higher oxygenation without any deleterious cardiorespiratory events. However, coughs were observed in lambs under nCPAP immediately following bottle-feeding and may be related to the high milk flow in preterm lambs.ConclusionFurther studies documenting tracheal aspirations are needed, especially in preterm lambs under nCPAP for moderate respiratory difficulties, to further inform future clinical studies.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Abraham, Alison G.; Larsen, Lisbeth A.; Christensen, Kaare; Stegger, Marc; Skov, Robert; Andersen, Paal Skytt


    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota—the host or the environment—and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus colonization? Our study of 46 monozygotic and 43 dizygotic twin pairs revealed that nasal microbiota is an environmentally derived trait, but the host’s sex and genetics significantly influence nasal bacterial density. Although specific taxa, including lactic acid bacteria, can determine S. aureus colonization, their negative interactions depend on thresholds of absolute abundance. These findings demonstrate that nasal microbiota is not fixed by host genetics and opens the possibility that nasal microbiota may be manipulated to prevent or eliminate S. aureus colonization. PMID:26601194

  6. Sociological Factors Affecting Career Aspiration Level of High School Seniors


    Hoover, Carole J.


    This study was conducted to determine the significant factors that affected career aspirations for high school seniors in a suburban school. It also analyzed differences in females' and minorities' college plans, diploma type, and changes in career aspirations from 1986 to 1996. The research design was a causal comparative statistical analysis replicating a 1986 study at the same school. In-depth investigations into female and minority aspirations were also expanded in this 1996 study. ...

  7. Aspiration failure: a poverty trap for indigenous children in Peru?


    Laure Pasquier-Doumer; Fiorella Risso Brandon


    (english) This paper aims to contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the complex exclusion process of indigenous people in Peru, by analysing the role played by aspirations in the investment in education of indigenous children. To address these issues, the paper relies on a very rich data set, the Young Lives data, and use an original instrument that allow to cast light on the causal relation between aspiration and educational outcomes. We find that aspiration failure is a channel ...

  8. The effect of aspirations on agricultural innovations in rural Ethiopia


    Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew; Gerber, Nicolas


    This paper identifies the effect of aspirations on the adoption of agricultural innovations in the context of rural Ethiopia. While most studies on agricultural innovations have focused on identifying observable and resource-related deprivations or 'external' constraints, a related stream of literature suggests that 'internal' constraints, such as the lack of aspirations, could reinforce external constraints and lead to self-sustaining poverty traps. Since both aspirations and the adoption of...

  9. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly


    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Nasal Nosocomial Myiasis Infection Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae Following the Septicemia: A Case Report

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    Seyed Farzin MIRCHERAGHI


    Full Text Available A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domes­tic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in remote past, were nota­ble parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radio­graphic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumo­nia (HCAP. Despite the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and ap­propriate supportive care, she had a poor response to the treatment. During the daily visit in Intensive Care Unit (ICU, numerous white larvae were de­tected in both nostrils. Further investigation of oropharynx and tracheal tube aspiration, showed no more larvae in mentioned parts. An hour later, nasal spontaneous bleeding occurred. Otorhinolaryngology consultation was per­formed and led to surgical procedure. In ENT examination, there were nu­merous larvae and massive clot formation in both inferior meatuses and distal nasal septum perforation. Thirty-seven extracted larvae were transferred to Medical Entomology lab by vial 70% ethanol and 5 live larvae for rearing. After pre­cise investigation by aid of light microscopy, the larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Due to discovered 2nd larvae stage and duration of hospitalization, this infestation was identified as nasal myiasis.

  11. Aspiration Levels of Certified Aspiring and Incumbent Female and Male Public School Administrators. (United States)

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson

    To determine if women or men have lower aspiration levels for school administrative positions, male and female administrative certificate holders were asked for their ultimate career goal. The most frequent response was superintendent (36 percent), followed by elementary principal, out of education, and professor (12 percent for each choice). The…

  12. Aspirations langagieres: Negociation et apprentissage du francais (Language Aspirations: Negotiation and Learning French). (United States)

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw


    A survey of 130 beginning French students at the University of Windsor (Canada) focused on their second language aspirations, expectations, and anticipated needs. Interpersonal relations appear to be the primary motivator, with travel and instrumental motivation secondary. (20 references) (Author/MSE)

  13. Influence of pharyngeal flap surgery on nasality and nasalance scores of nasal sounds production in individuals with cleft lip and palate. (United States)

    Fukushiro, Ana Paula; Ferlin, Flávia; Yamashita, Renata Paciello; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle


    To verify the influence of pharyngeal flap surgery on the management of velopharyngeal insufficiency on nasality and speech nasalance on nasal sound production in individuals with cleft lip and palate. Prospective study in 159 individuals with repaired cleft palate ± lip, of both genders, aged 6 to 57 years old. All the participants presented residual velopharyngeal insufficiency and were submitted to pharyngeal flap surgery. Perceptual speech evaluation and nasometric assessment were performed before and after (14 months on average) the pharyngeal flap surgery. Hyponasality was rated as absent or present, and nasalance scores were determined by means of nasometer using nasal stimuli, with a cutoff score of 43% used as the lowest limit of normality. Nasality and nasalance were compared before and after surgery (p < 0.05). On the basis of correlation between both the methods used, perceptual hyponasality was observed in 14% of the individuals, whereas nasalance scores indicating hyponasality (< 43%) were obtained in 25% of the patients after surgery. Pharyngeal flap surgery influenced the production of nasal sounds, causing hyponasality in a significant proportion of individuals. The presence of this speech symptom can also be an indicator of upper airway obstruction caused by pharyngeal flap, which should be investigated objectively and prudently postoperatively.

  14. Aspiration pneumonia after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Xu, Beibei; Boero, Isabel J; Hwang, Lindsay; Le, Quynh-Thu; Moiseenko, Vitali; Sanghvi, Parag R; Cohen, Ezra E W; Mell, Loren K; Murphy, James D


    Aspiration pneumonia represents an under-reported complication of chemoradiotherapy in patient with head and neck cancer. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of aspiration pneumonia in a large cohort of patients with head and neck cancer who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients who had head and neck cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. Aspiration pneumonia was identified from Medicare billing claims. The cumulative incidence, risk factors, and survival after aspiration pneumonia were estimated and compared with a noncancer population. Of 3513 patients with head and neck cancer, 801 developed aspiration pneumonia at a median of 5 months after initiating treatment. The 1-year and 5-year cumulative incidence of aspiration pneumonia was 15.8% and 23.8%, respectively, for patients with head and neck cancer and 3.6% and 8.7%, respectively, for noncancer controls. Among the patients with cancer, multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors (P cancer who experienced aspiration pneumonia, 674 (84%) were hospitalized; and, of these, 301 (45%) were admitted to an intensive care unit. The 30-day mortality rate after hospitalization for aspiration pneumonia was 32.5%. Aspiration pneumonia was associated with a 42% increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.42; P cancer. A better understanding of mitigating factors will help identify patients who are at risk for this potentially lethal complication. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  15. First case of feline leishmaniosis caused by genotype E in a cat with a concurrent nasal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Carla Maia


    Full Text Available Case summary This is the first clinical report of feline viscerocutaneous leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum genotype E associated with an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in a domestic cat from Portugal. Initially, the cat presented a single cutaneous lesion in the right nostril. A fine-needle aspiration was performed and Leishmania amastigotes were observed without the presence of cells compatible with neoplasia. Systemic treatment with allopurinol was started. One year later, the cat presented a crateriform non-encapsulated and badly delineated mass in the nasal planum, with naso-oral fistulation and nasal destruction. Histologically, the skin mass consisted on an ulcerative plaque-like lesion with a nasal SCC. Leishmania infantum MON-1 parasites were detected by histopathology, culture and PCR of the skin mass, submandibular and popliteal lymph nodes, liver and spleen. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed genotype E, previously identified in humans and dogs living in the same region. Relevance and novel information This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first clinical report of feline viscerocutaneous leishmaniosis caused by L infantum genotype E. The detection and isolation of parasites from a cat that are genetically identical to the ones obtained from humans and dogs with visceral leishmaniosis highlights the need to clarify whether cats play a role in the epidemiology of this parasitic zoonosis. From a clinical point of view, this case reinforces the importance of including leishmaniosis in the differential diagnoses of feline pathology, especially in cats with cutaneous lesions.

  16. One-time needle aspiration: a safe and effective treatment for neonatal spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

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    Kamal Nain Rattan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumoperitoneum is a rare surgical emergency to be seen in the neonates, occurring most commonly secondary to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. The term spontaneous or non-surgical pneumoperitoneum is used for cases not associated with a perforated viscus. Recommended treatment options for the former is primary peritoneal drainage (PPD and exploratory laparotomy. Our study evaluates one-time needle aspiration alone through the right hypochondrium for effective management of the pneumoperitoneum in neonates.Material and methods: Twenty neonates presenting to the emergency department with massive pneumoperitoneum and respiratory distress were subjected to one-time needle aspiration of the peritoneal cavity. Effectiveness of the intervention was defined by decompression of abdominal distension, permanent disappearance of free intra-peritoneal air, cessation of non-bilious aspirates and complete haemodynamic stability during the 48-hour period following the procedure.Results: All 20 neonates improved initially with abdominal decompression by virtue of improvement in respiratory function. Of the 20 neonates, 6 neonates with spontaneous pneumoperitoneum (SIP made a rapid recovery and needed no further surgical intervention; thereby the procedure was labeled as “effective”. In the remaining 14 patients (with NEC and perforated bowel, free peritoneal air re-appeared in the next 24-48 hour period and PPD/exploratory laparotomy had to be performed. Feeds were established earlier (approximately 2 days and mean hospital stay was significantly shorter in the group with “effective” procedure (by 3 days. Four neonates expired in postoperative period in the group requiring surgery.Conclusion: One-time needle aspiration can serve as an effective treatment for neonates with spontaneous pneumoperitoneum and can obviate the need for exploratory laparotomy in small sick neonates with SIP who carry poor risk for extensive surgical intervention.

  17. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

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    Jun Wook Lee


    Full Text Available Background Pathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemicinfectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome.However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasalbone fracture.Methods This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasalcarriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken fromboth the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.Results Pathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci(CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci(MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second mostidentified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher thanthat in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effecton the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.Conclusions The prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture inKorea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rateof CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according tospecific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on thepotential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  18. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species. (United States)

    Bourke, Jason M; Porter, W M Ruger; Ridgely, Ryan C; Lyson, Tyler R; Schachner, Emma R; Bell, Phil R; Witmer, Lawrence M


    The nasal region plays a key role in sensory, thermal, and respiratory physiology, but exploring its evolution is hampered by a lack of preservation of soft-tissue structures in extinct vertebrates. As a test case, we investigated members of the "bony-headed" ornithischian dinosaur clade Pachycephalosauridae (particularly Stegoceras validum) because of their small body size (which mitigated allometric concerns) and their tendency to preserve nasal soft tissues within their hypermineralized skulls. Hypermineralization directly preserved portions of the olfactory turbinates along with an internal nasal ridge that we regard as potentially an osteological correlate for respiratory conchae. Fossil specimens were CT-scanned, and nasal cavities were segmented and restored. Soft-tissue reconstruction of the nasal capsule was functionally tested in a virtual environment using computational fluid dynamics by running air through multiple models differing in nasal soft-tissue conformation: a bony-bounded model (i.e., skull without soft tissue) and then models with soft tissues added, such as a paranasal septum, a scrolled concha, a branched concha, and a model combining the paranasal septum with a concha. Deviations in fluid flow in comparison to a phylogenetically constrained sample of extant diapsids were used as indicators of missing soft tissue. Models that restored aspects of airflow found in extant diapsids, such as appreciable airflow in the olfactory chamber, were judged as more likely. The model with a branched concha produced airflow patterns closest to those of extant diapsids. These results from both paleontological observation and airflow modeling indicate that S. validum and other pachycephalosaurids could have had both olfactory and respiratory conchae. Although respiratory conchae have been linked to endothermy, such conclusions require caution in that our re-evaluation of the reptilian nasal apparatus indicates that respiratory conchae may be more widespread

  19. Adenoma pleomórfico de septo nasal: relato de caso Pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal septum: a case report

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    Mauren P. Rocha


    Full Text Available As neoplasias nasais são bastante raras. Os tumores mais observados na cavidade nasal são papilomas epiteliais, angiomas, carcinoma de células transicionais, carcinoma pavimentoso e adenocarcinoma. O adenoma pleomórfico pertence ao grupo de tumores que aparecem com menor freqüência na fossa nasal, e é o tumor benigno glandular mais comum originado na cabeça e pescoço. A apresentação clínica típica dos pacientes com adenoma pleomórfico do septo nasal é de obstrução nasal unilateral, epistaxe e massa indolor na cavidade nasal. Em vista da raridade da apresentação clínica do adenoma pleomórfico nesta localização, os autores descrevem um caso de adenoma pleomórfico nasal em um paciente do sexo masculino, com 69 anos de idade, onde relatam os achados clínicos, critérios diagnósticos, tratamento, prognóstico e revisão da literatura.Nasal tumours are very rare. The neoplasms most frequently seen in the nasal cavity are epithelial papillomas, angiomas, transitional cells carcinoma, pavement carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The pleomorphic adenoma belongs to the group of tumours less commonly observed in the nasal cavity, and is the most common head and neck benign glandular tumour. The typical clinical presentation of the nasal pleomorphic adenoma is of unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis and a painless mass in the nasal cavity. The authors reported an adenoma pleomorphic case that highlights itself by its unusual nasal presentation in the nasal septum of a 45-year-old male patient who was submitted to surgical treatment, and discuss the clinical findings, diagnostic criteria, treatment, prognosis and literature review.

  20. Differential Scaling Patterns in Maxillary Sinus Volume and Nasal Cavity Breadth Among Modern Humans. (United States)

    Butaric, Lauren N


    Among modern humans, nasal cavity size and shape reflect its vital role in air conditioning processes. The ability for the nasal cavity to augment its shape, particularly in inferior breadth, likely relates to the surrounding maxillary sinuses acting as zones of accommodation. However, much is still unknown regarding how nasal and sinus morphology relate to each other and to overall craniofacial form, particularly across diverse populations with varying respiratory demands. As such, this study uses computed tomographic (CT) scans of modern human crania (N = 171) from nine different localities to investigate ecogeographic differences in (1) the interaction between maxillary sinus volume (MSV) and nasal cavity breadth (NCB) and (2) scaling patterns of MSV and NCB in relation to craniofacial size. Reduced major axis (RMA) regression reveals that all samples exhibit an inverse relationship between MSV and NCB, but statistical significance and the strength of that relationship is sample dependent. Individuals from cold-dry climates have larger MSVs with narrower NCBs, while smaller MSVs are associated with wider NCBs in hot-humid climates. MSV and NCB each scale with positive allometry relative to overall craniofacial size. However, sample differences are evident in the both the interaction between MSV and NCB, as well as their correlation with craniofacial size. While these results provide further support that the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity are integrated among populations from opposite ends of the climatic spectrum, additional epigenetic factors are needed to explain variation of these structures among populations from more intermediate climates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The characterization of the human nasal epithelial cell line RPMI 2650 under different culture conditions and their optimization for an appropriate in vitro nasal model. (United States)

    Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Jerman, Urška Dragin; Lasič, Eva; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea; Hevir-Kene, Neli; Peternel, Luka; Kristan, Katja


    The further characterization of the cell line RPMI 2650 and the evaluation of different culture conditions for an in vitro model for nasal mucosa. Cells were cultured in media MEM or A-MEM at air-liquid (A-L) or liquid-liquid (L-L) interfaces for 1 or 3 weeks. Different cryopreservation methods and cell culture techniques were evaluated with immunolabelling of junctional proteins, ultrastructural analysis using electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements, permeation studies with dextran and jacalin, and gene expression profiling of 84 drug transporters. Cell proliferation and differentiation depended on the used medium. The established epithelia expressed occludin, claudin-1, and E-cadherin under all conditions. Cells grown at the A-L interface formed more layers and exhibited a higher TEER and lower dextran and jacalin permeability than at the L-L interface, where cells morphologically exhibited a more differentiated phenotype. The expression of ABC and SLC transporters depended on culture duration and interface. The RPMI 2650 cells form a polarized epithelium resembling nasal mucosa. However, different culture conditions have a significant effect on cell ultrastructure, barrier integrity, and gene expression, and should be considered when using this cell line as an in vitro model for drug permeability studies and screening of nasal drug candidates.

  2. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope

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    P Mahesh Shanmugam


    Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.

  3. Rhinoscleroma causing severe bilateral nasal obstruction

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    Mário Augusto Pinto de Moraes

    Full Text Available Rhinoscleroma is a chronic, infectious and granulomatous disease of the respiratory tract. There is often a delay in diagnosis due to unfamiliarity with the disease and also because culture is not always positive. We report a case in a 26-year-old woman with granular mass obstructing bilateral nasal cavities and causing breathing difficulty. Histopathological examination showed characteristic Mikulicz histiocytes containing numerous Gram-negative intracellular rod-shaped bacilli consistent with the diagnosis of rhinoscleroma. The patient was treated with gemifloxacin and tetracycline and remains asymptomatic over a year follow-up period. It is important to consider rhinoscleroma in cases of chronic nasal obstruction. As culture is not always positive, histopathological examination may be crucial to the diagnosis.

  4. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions (United States)


    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  5. Effect of a high-flow open nasal cannula system on obstructive sleep apnea in children. (United States)

    McGinley, Brian; Halbower, Ann; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Patil, Susheel P; Schneider, Hartmut


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is associated with significant morbidity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treats obstructive apnea in children, but is impeded by low adherence. We, therefore, sought to assess the effect of warm humidified air delivered through an open nasal cannula (treatment with nasal insufflation [TNI]) on obstructive sleep apnea in children with and without adenotonsillectomy. Twelve participants (age: 10 +/- 1 years; BMI: 35 +/- 14 kg/m(2)), with obstructive apnea-hypopnea syndrome ranging from mild to severe (2-36 events per hour) were administered 20 L/min of air through a nasal cannula. Standard sleep architecture, sleep-disordered breathing, and arousal indexes were assessed at baseline, on TNI, and on CPAP. Additional measures of the percentage of time with inspiratory flow limitation, respiratory rate, and inspiratory duty cycle were assessed at baseline and on TNI. TNI reduced the amount of inspiratory flow limitation, which led to a decrease in respiratory rate and inspiratory duty cycle. TNI improved oxygen stores and decreased arousals, which decreased the occurrence of obstructive apnea from 11 +/- 3 to 5 +/- 2 events per hour (P alternative to therapy to CPAP in children with mild-to-severe sleep apnea. Additional studies will be needed to determine the efficacy of this novel form of therapy.

  6. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus. (United States)

    Moshkin, M P; Petrovski, D V; Akulov, A E; Romashchenko, A V; Gerlinskaya, L A; Ganimedov, V L; Muchnaya, M I; Sadovsky, A S; Koptyug, I V; Savelov, A A; Troitsky, S Yu; Moshkn, Y M; Bukhtiyarov, V I; Kolchanov, N A; Sagdeev, R Z; Fomin, V M


    Inhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to nano-aerosols. Quantitative simulation of particle flow has shown that their deposition on the total surface of the nasal cavity is higher in the mole vole than in a terrestrial rodent Mus musculus (mouse), but lower on the olfactory epithelium. In agreement with simulation results, we found a reduced accumulation of manganese in olfactory bulbs of mole voles in comparison with mice after the inhalation of nano-sized MnCl2 aerosols. We ruled out the possibility that this reduction is owing to a lower transportation from epithelium to brain in the mole vole as intranasal instillations of MnCl2 solution and hydrated nanoparticles of manganese oxide MnO · (H2O)x revealed similar uptake rates for both species. Together, we conclude that nasal geometry contributes to the protection of brain and lung from accumulation of air-dispersed particles in mole voles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit. (United States)

    Constantine, Fadi C; Lee, Michael R; Sinno, Sammy; Thornton, James F


    Of all nine subunits, the soft triangle is perhaps the most challenging to recreate. The complexity of soft triangle reconstruction resides in its proximity to such important structures as the nasal tip, nasal ala, and distal columella. If the soft triangle is not properly reconstructed, problems with nasal function and aesthetics often arise. Anatomical asymmetries in the lower third and abnormal shadowing can occur following insufficient restoration. A retrospective review was completed of all patients undergoing reconstruction of the nasal soft triangle subunit at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas, from 1995 to 2010. Defects with only external skin intact were classified as type I. Defects involving both skin and underlying soft tissue with intact mucosa were classified as type II. Finally, transmural defects with violated mucosa were classified as type III. Surgical outcomes were graded on a scale of I to IV. Grades given were based on the complexity of the existing defect and restoration of the soft triangle, with higher grades given when adjacent structures were not distorted. Of the 14 cases reviewed, two (14 percent) were type I defects, nine (64 percent) were type II defects, and three (21 percent) were type III defects. Three patients (21 percent) required revision with subsequent resurfacing and two (14 percent) required resurfacing alone. All but one patient (93 percent) had a grade of 2.0 or better, with the one patient opting not to undergo revision. The authors believe their method of soft triangle reconstruction using the proposed algorithm is an easy approach to soft triangle reconstruction that will yield consistent surgical and clinical success from aesthetic and functional perspectives. Furthermore, the authors were able to achieve excellent aesthetic outcomes without compromise or facing any structural complications. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. Plasmocitoma extramedular nasal en un perro

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    Carlos Giraldo M.


    Full Text Available Se describe un caso de plasmocitoma nasal en un canino, macho entero, de raza Akita de 30 Kg de peso y veintiún meses de edad, con historia de epistaxis unilateral crónica. Se practicó examen clínico y biopsia de la neoplasia visible en la cavidad nasal izquierda. La ubicación y extensión del tumor fue determinada mediante tomografía computarizada de cabeza y cuello. Se realizaron análisis histopatológico e inmunohistoquímico (IHQ del tejido tumoral. La tomografía computarizada evidenció una masa con densidad de tejido blando de 10 cm de longitud x 3.5 cm de diámetro y escasa captación de medio de contraste, que comprometía en su totalidad la cavidad nasal derecha y parte de la porción posterior de la coana izquierda. El análisis histopatológico reveló numerosas células redondas pleomórficas con poco citoplasma, rodeadas por trama escasa de tejido conectivo y bajo índice mitótico. En el examen IHQ la muestra fue negativa a los antígenos CD3 y CD20 para linfocitos T y B, respectivamente. Los hallazgos clínicos y de la tomografía computarizada, así como los resultados del análisis histopatológico del tejido tumoral, fueron compatibles con un plasmocitoma extramedular nasal de bajo grado de malignidad.

  9. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients' Perspective (United States)

    Tiong, William H. C.; Zain, Mohd Ali Mat; Basiron, Normala Hj


    The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (14/16, 87.5%) among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75%) patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. PMID:25254115


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    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  11. Normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children. (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thai; Lehes, Lagle; Truong, Thi Thuy Hang; Hoang, Thi Van Anh; Jagomägi, Triin


    The Nasometer is increasingly being used to complement auditory perceptual assessment of nasality. Nasalance scores which are obtained from the Nasometer vary across languages. Normative nasalance scores have been established for many languages but not for the Vietnamese language. The objective of this study was to obtain the normative nasalance scores for Vietnamese-speaking children. In this study, 102 healthy Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect aged from 7 to 9 years (45 boys, 57 girls; mean age = 7.5 years) at a primary school in Hue, Vietnam participated. Three speech stimuli, which were specific for the Vietnamese language, were designed: oral stimuli (19 words and 18 sentences), oro-nasal stimuli (eight sentences) and nasal stimuli (seven sentences). The children were asked to repeat these stimuli after the examiner. The Nasometer II (model 6450) was used to obtain the nasalance scores. The procedure took about 10 minutes for each child. The mean nasalance scores and the standard deviation of each stimulus were: 13.1 ± 5.8 (oral stimuli), 30.7 ± 6.6 (oro-nasal stimuli) and 56.9 ± 9.2 (nasal stimuli). No significant differences between the genders were found. The normative nasalance scores provide essential reference information for clinicians who deal with nasalance disorders, especially patients with cleft palate. The nasalance scores in this study were established for Vietnamese children speaking in the central regional dialect and can be applied to both genders.

  12. Reduced nasal nitric oxide production in cystic fibrosis patients with elevated systemic inflammation markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth K Michl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO is produced within the respiratory tract and can be detected in exhaled bronchial and nasal air. The concentration varies in specific diseases, being elevated in patients with asthma and bronchiectasis, but decreased in primary ciliary dyskinesia. In cystic fibrosis (CF, conflicting data exist on NO levels, which are reported unexplained as either decreased or normal. Functionally, NO production in the paranasal sinuses is considered as a location-specific first-line defence mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between upper and lower airway NO levels and blood inflammatory parameters, CF-pathogen colonisation, and clinical data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nasal and bronchial NO concentrations from 57 CF patients were determined using an electrochemical analyser and correlated to pathogen colonisation of the upper and lower airways which were microbiologically assessed from nasal lavage and sputum samples. Statistical analyses were performed with respect to clinical parameters (lung function, BMI, laboratory findings (CRP, leucocytes, total-IgG, fibrinogen, and anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy. There were significant correlations between nasal and bronchial NO levels (rho = 0.48, p<0.001, but no correlation between NO levels and specific pathogen colonisation. In patients receiving azithromycin, significantly reduced bronchial NO and a tendency to reduced nasal NO could be found. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation of nasal NO to CRP (rho = -0.28, p = 0.04 and to leucocytes (rho = -0.41, p = 0.003 was observed. In contrast, bronchial NO levels showed no correlation to clinical or inflammatory parameters. CONCLUSION: Given that NO in the paranasal sinuses is part of the first-line defence mechanism against pathogens, our finding of reduced nasal NO in CF patients with elevated systemic inflammatory markers indicates impaired upper airway defence. This

  13. Surgical Nasal Implants: Indications and Risks. (United States)

    Genther, Dane J; Papel, Ira D


    Rhinoplasty often requires the use of grafting material, and the goal of the specific graft dictates the ideal characteristics of the material to be used. An ideal material would be biologically inert, resistant to infection, noncarcinogenic, nondegradable, widely available, cost-effective, readily modifiable, and easily removable, have compatible biomechanical characteristics, retain physical properties over time, and not migrate. Unfortunately, no material currently in existence meets all of these criteria. In modern rhinoplasty, autologous grafts are the gold standard against which all other nasal implants are measured and offer the safest long-term results for most patients. They are easily manipulated, have inherent stability and biomechanical characteristics similar to the native nasal framework, and confer minimal risk of complications. Modern homologous and alloplastic materials have gained considerable support in recent years because they are readily available in endless quantity, do not require a second surgical site for harvest, and are generally considered safe if most circumstances, but they confer additional risk and have biomechanical characteristics different from that of the native nasal framework. To address some of these issues, we provide a contemporary review of autologous, homologous, and alloplastic materials commonly used in rhinoplasty surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Stroke and treatment with nasal CPAP. (United States)

    Palombini, L; Guilleminault, C


    Stroke patients present a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and those with OSA have a higher mortality after 1 year and poorer functional outcome compared with others. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the acceptance of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by recent stroke patients with OSA. Recruitment of non-comatose stroke patients with sufficient consciousness for diagnostic evaluation of OSA was performed and they were treated at home with nasal CPAP after hospital calibration and training on the usage of CPAP. Initial evaluation and regular follow-up of the home trial of auto-CPAP was carried out for a duration of 8 weeks. Of 50 initially recruited patients, 32 (100%) responded to the minimum cognitive criteria but seven patients (22%) only used nasal CPAP for 8 weeks. Subject dropout was related to difficulties with CPAP usage as perceived by patient and family members, facial weakness, motor impairment and increase difficulties and discomfort with usage of full-face mask. The majority of OSA stroke patients rejected CPAP treatment. Better education and support of patients and families, and special training sessions in rehabilitation services, will be needed to improve compliance.

  15. Deformation of Nasal Septal Cartilage During Mastication (United States)

    Dayeh, Ayman A. Al; Rafferty, Katherine L.; Egbert, Mark; Herring, Susan W.


    The cartilaginous nasal septum plays a major role in structural integrity and growth of the face, but its internal location has made physiologic study difficult. By surgically implanting transducers in 10 miniature pigs (Sus scrofa), we recorded in vivo strains generated in the nasal septum during mastication and masseter stimulation. The goals were (1) to determine whether the cartilage should be considered as a vertical strut supporting the nasal cavity and preventing its collapse, or as a damper of stresses generated during mastication and (2) to shed light on the overall pattern of snout deformation during mastication. Strains were recorded simultaneously at the septo-ethmoid junction and nasofrontal suture during mastication. A third location in the anterior part of the cartilage was added during masseter stimulation and manipulation. Contraction of jaw closing muscles during mastication was accompanied by anteroposterior compressive strains (around −1,000 με) in the septo-ethmoid junction. Both the orientation and the magnitude of the strain suggest that the septum does not act as a vertical strut but may act in absorbing loads generated during mastication. The results from masseter stimulation and manipulation further suggest that the masticatory strain pattern arises from a combination of dorsal bending and/or shearing and anteroposterior compression of the snout. J. Morphol. PMID:19434723

  16. Standardization of Malaysian Adult Female Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih Fang Lee


    Full Text Available This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.

  17. Bronchus- and nasal-associated lymphoid tissues. (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; McDermott, Mark R


    The bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) constitute organized lymphoid aggregates that are capable of T- and B-cell responses to inhaled antigens. BALT, located mostly at bifurcations of the bronchus in animals and humans, is present in the fetus and develops rapidly following birth, especially in the presence of antigens. Humoral immune responses elicited by BALT are primarily immunoglobulin A secretion both locally and by BALT-derived B cells that have trafficked to distant mucosal sites. Similarly located T-cell responses have been noted. On the basis of these findings, the BALT can be thought of as functionally analogous to mucosal lymphoid aggregates in the intestine and is deemed a member of the common mucosal immunologic system. NALT has been described principally in the rodent nasal passage as two separate lymphoid aggregates. It develops after birth, likely in response to antigen, and B- and T-cell responses parallel those that occur in BALT. It is not known whether NALT cells traffic to distant mucosal sites, although mucosal responses have been detected after nasal immunization. NALT appears from many studies to be a functionally distinct lymphoid aggregate when compared with BALT and Peyer's patches. It may exist, however, in humans as a diffuse collection of isolated lymphoid follicles.

  18. Correlation of high flow nasal cannula outlet area with gas clearance and pressure in adult upper airway replicas. (United States)

    Moore, Charles P; Katz, Ira M; Caillibotte, Georges; Finlay, Warren H; Martin, Andrew R


    Primary benefits of high flow nasal cannula therapy include washout of carbon dioxide rich exhaled gas and increased airway pressures during tidal breathing. This work reports on the influence of high flow nasal cannula outlet area on upper airways gas clearance and tracheal pressures using measurements in five realistic adult nose-throat airway replicas. Two commercial high flow nasal cannulas and one generic nasal cannula of varying size were compared. 100% oxygen was supplied via cannulas at flow rates ranging from 30 to 90l/min to replicas originally filled with air, and oxygen concentrations at the larynx and trachea were compared over time. Additionally, and separately, replicas were connected to a mechanical lung simulator to simulate tidal breathing while undergoing high flow nasal cannula therapy, with tracheal pressure-time waveforms recorded. Faster gas clearance corresponded with higher flow rates (Pflow rates, tracheal positive end expiratory pressures increase was greater with the smallest cannula (∆PPEEP=785SD(185) Pa) compared to the largest cannula (∆PPEEP=380SD(120)Pa). Regression analysis indicates that positive end expiratory pressure is proportional to the square of flow velocities exiting the cannula and nares (R2=0.906). Since increased pressure and clearance rate have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in previous studies, our results suggest that smaller cannula outlet area may be preferable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Minor contributions of the maxillary sinus to the air-conditioning performance in macaque monkeys. (United States)

    Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Teruo; Nishimura, Takeshi D


    The nasal passages mainly adjust the temperature and humidity of inhaled air to reach the alveolar condition required in the lungs. By contrast to most other non-human primates, macaque monkeys are distributed widely among tropical, temperate and subarctic regions, and thus some species need to condition the inhaled air in cool and dry ambient atmospheric areas. The internal nasal anatomy is believed to have undergone adaptive modifications to improve the air-conditioning performance. Furthermore, the maxillary sinus (MS), an accessory hollow communicating with the nasal cavity, is found in macaques, whereas it is absent in most other extant Old World monkeys, including savanna monkeys. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics simulations to simulate the airflow and heat and water exchange over the mucosal surface in the nasal passage. Using the topology models of the nasal cavity with and without the MS, we demonstrated that the MS makes little contribution to the airflow pattern and the air-conditioning performance within the nasal cavity in macaques. Instead, the inhaled air is conditioned well in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity before reaching the MS in both macaques and savanna monkeys. These findings suggest that the evolutionary modifications and coetaneous variations in the nasal anatomy are rather independent of transitions and variations in the climate and atmospheric environment found in the habitats of macaques. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Role of neutrophilic inflammation in ozone-induced epithelial alterations in the nasal airways of rats (United States)

    Cho, Hye Youn

    Ozone is a principal oxidant air pollutant in photochemical smog. Epithelial cells lining the centriacinar region of lung and the proximal aspects of nasal passage are primary target sites for ozone-induced injury in laboratory animals. Acute exposure of rats to high ambient concentrations of ozone (e.g., 0.5 ppm) results in neutrophilic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) in the nasal transitional epithelium (NTE) lining the proximal nasal airways. The principal purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of pre-metaplastic cellular responses, especially neutrophilic inflammation, in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced MCM in rat NTE. For this purpose, three specific hypotheses-based whole-animal inhalation studies were conducted. Male F344/N rats were exposed in whole-body inhalation chambers to 0 (filtered air) or 0.5 ppm ozone for 1-3 days (8 h/day). Histochemical, immunochemical, molecular and morphometric techniques were used to investigate the ozone-induced cellular and molecular events in the NTE. Two in vitro studies were also conducted to examine the effects of ozone-inducible cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF- a, and interleukin-6; IL-6) on mucin gene (rMuc-5AC) expression. Ozone induced a rapid increase of rMuc-5AC mRNA in nasal tissues within hours after the start of exposure. It preceded the appearance of MCM, and persisted with MCM. Ozone-induced neutrophilic inflammation accompanied the mucin gene upregulation, but was resolved when MCM first appeared in the NTE. Antibody-mediated depletion of circulating neutrophils attenuated ozone-induced MCM, although it did not affect the ozone-induced epithelial hyperplasia and mucin mRNA upregulation. In another study, it was found that preexisting neutrophilic rhinitis induced by endotoxin augmented the ozone-induced MCM. However, pre-existing rhinitis did not alter the severity of ozone-induced epithelial hyperplasia and mucin gene upregulation

  1. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lymph nodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 2, 2012 ... of a sample of cells, using a fine needle, from a suspicious mass for diagnostic purposes'. 1 .... for taking FNAs should lie in the hands of individuals who have a sufficient .... If only blood aspirated, remove needle, apply pressure for 1 min, repeat aspirate using new needle and syringe; try smaller needle; ...

  2. Factors that Influence Persistence in Science and Engineering Career Aspirations. (United States)

    Mau, Wei-Cheng


    Investigates students' persistence regarding career aspirations in science and engineering (SE) professional careers as a function of race and sex. In a sample of 8th graders, men were more likely to persist in SE career aspirations. Academic proficiency and math self-efficacy were 2 of the strongest predictors of persistence in SE careers.…

  3. Study of Educational Aspirations of Preparatory School Students in Yemen. (United States)

    Edington, Everett D.

    To identify causes for low enrollment in secondary agricultural schools in Yemen, the United States Agency for International Development and the Yemen Ministry of Education surveyed 990 preparatory (junior high) students, examining their educational aspirations, differences between rural and urban youth, major influences on student aspirations,…

  4. An Unusual Case of Foreign Body Aspiration in an Infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign body aspiration with subsequent airway obstruction typically occurs in children between the ages of six months and five years. Foreign body aspiration may be an ominous emergency in an infant. Commonly encountered foreign bodies are hazelnuts, pistachio nuts, candies, beans, popcorn, grapes, dried grapes ...

  5. Efficiency and Power Consumption of Aspiration Systems at Woodworking Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Diachek


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes present state of the equipment and organization of aspiration at wood-working shops. Proposals pertaining to higher efficiency and reduction of power intensity of aspiration systems are given in the paper. Materials presented at the stage of designing make it possible to select a rational system scheme and reduce power expenditure at woodworking industry.

  6. Cognitive Correlates of Adolescents' Aspirations to Leadership: A Developmental Study. (United States)

    Singer, Ming


    Examined age and gender differences in leadership aspirations among adolescents (N=130) by measuring overall leadership aspirations, valence-instrumentality expectancies for leadership outcomes, self-efficacy perceptions, and attributions of effective leadership. Found significant gender differences in valence scores and age differences in…

  7. Relationships of Teenage Smoking to Educational Aspirations and Parents' Education. (United States)

    Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane

    Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Chávez-Bosquez


    Full Text Available The aspiration criterion is an imperative element in the Tabu Search, with aspiration-by-default and the aspiration-by-objective the mainly used criteria in the literature. In this paper a new aspiration criterion is proposed in order to implement a probabilistic function when evaluating an element classified as tabu which improves the current solution, the proposal is called Tabu Search with Probabilistic Aspiration Criterion (BT- CAP. The test case used to evaluate the performance of the Probabilistic Aspiration Criterion proposed consists on the 20 instances of the problem described in the First International Timetabling Competition. The results are compared with 2 additional variants of the Tabu Search Algorithm: Tabu Search with Default Aspiration Criterion (BT-CAD and Tabu Search with Objective Aspiration Criterion (BT-CAO. Wilcoxon test was applied to the generated results, and it was proved with 99 % confidence that BT-CAP algorithm gets better solutions than the two other variants of the Tabu Search algorithm.

  9. 21 CFR 886.4150 - Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument. 886.4150 Section 886.4150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cutting instrument. (a) Identification. A vitreous aspiration and cutting instrument is an electrically...

  10. Rural Aspirations, Rural Futures: From "Problem" to Possibility (United States)

    Tieken, Mara Casey; San Antonio, Donna M.


    Young people aspire, make choices, and develop within a particular place and historical context. Recently, federal and state governments, policy and research institutes, and advocacy organizations have shown a growing interest in the aspirations and transitions of rural youth--and, in particular, the role that schools play in shaping and…

  11. Life Aspirations, Values and Moral Foundations in Mongolian Youth (United States)

    Bespalov, Alexander; Prudnikova, Marina; Nyamdorj, Bavuu; Vlasov, Mikhail


    Life aspirations have aroused much interest in youth studies. Yet, their psychological correlates remain unclear, especially in countries outside the US. The aim of this study was to explore associations among aspirations, values and moral foundations in 157 Mongolian youth, through questionnaires used widely around the world. Correlational and…

  12. Aumento da aeração nasal após remoção de hábitos de sucção e terapia miofuncional Nasal breathing after removing sucking habit and myofunctional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Veroni Degan


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da associação entre a remoção de hábitos de sucção e a Terapia Miofuncional Orofacial na ampliação da aeração nasal. MÉTODOS: vinte crianças na faixa de etária de quatro anos a quatro anos e oito meses foram distribuídas em dois grupos denominados de: Grupo REM (submetido apenas à remoção de hábitos e Grupo TMF (submetido à remoção de hábitos e posteriormente à Terapia Miofuncional Orofacial. O fluxo de ar expirado pelas narinas foi registrado por meio do espelho nasal milimetrado de Altmann e quantificado em papel milimetrado denominado de Bloco de Referência do Espelho de Altmann. Os exames foram realizados em três momentos (pré-tratamento, 60 e 180 dias após. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística, utilizando-se Test t para duas amostras independentes e para dados pareados, considerando nível de significância valores pPURPOSE: to evaluate the influence of removing pacifier and baby bottle sucking habit and Myofunctional Therapy in increasing nasal airing. METHODS: twenty children aged up to four year, were distributed in two groups according to the treatment, and named: REM Group (only submitted to habits removal and FMT Group (submitted to habits removal and later to Myofunctional Therapy. The data obtained from the air flow expired by the nostrils were obtained by using the millimeter nasal mirror of Altmann and quantified in millimeter paper (reference block. The exams were accomplished in three times (pre-treatment, 60 and 180 days after treatment. The data were submitted to t Test for two independent samples and the paired t Test (p < 0.05. RESULTS: it was observed that the increase of the nasal airing after treatments were significantly superior for the FMT Group than for the REM Group (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSION: Myofunctional Therapy was able to improve increase of nasal airing and consequently enhancement of nasal breathing.

  13. Exhaled and nasal nitric oxide in chronic rhinosinusitis patients with nasal polyps in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendø, M; Håkansson, K; Schwer, S


    BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common inflammatory disorder associated with lower airway disease. However, only few studies of CRSwNP from outside secondary/tertiary care centres have been published. We recently reported an asthma frequency of 44% and 65......% in primary and secondary care patients respectively. Therefore, we hypothesise that inflammation of the lower airways could be present in all CRSwNP patients, even without asthma. Here, we assessed the degree of lower and upper airway inflammation using exhaled and nasal nitric oxide (NO) in primary care...... CRSwNP patients with and without asthma. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients who met the EPOS criteria for CRSwNP were prospectively recruited from primary care ear, nose and throat clinics. Nasal endoscopy was performed by an ear, nose and throat specialist upon enrolment. Additionally, 30 healthy controls...

  14. A new approach to the treatment of nasal bone fracture: radiologic classification of nasal bone fractures and its clinical application. (United States)

    Han, Daniel Seung Youl; Han, Yea Sik; Park, Jin Hyung


    A radiologic examination is required in the treatment of nasal bone fracture to determine the fracture condition. Thus, there is an increasing need for radiologic classification of nasal bone fractures that can be applied to clinical practice. Computed tomography was performed in 125 patients with nasal bone fractures to determine which axial view best showed the entire nasal view. The obtained axial view was then used as a reference for classification. The length from the top to the base of the nasal bone was divided into upper, middle, and lower levels, after which the fracture location was determined. If the fracture spanned the boundaries of these levels, it was classified as the total level. Subsequently, the fracture was subclassified based on the fracture direction and pattern and the concurrent fracture. Radiologic examination of patients with nasal bone fracture showed that nasal bone fracture was frequently found at the total, middle, upper, and lower levels, in that order. Nasal bone fractures at the upper level showed lower frequencies of complication and reoperation than the fractures at the other levels, whereas nasal bone fractures at the total level showed the highest frequencies of complication and reoperation. Radiologic classification can be useful for preoperative and postoperative evaluations of nasal bone fractures and can be helpful in understanding such fractures because it can efficiently predict the prognosis of a fracture. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nasal airflow simulations suggest convergent adaptation in Neanderthals and modern humans. (United States)

    de Azevedo, S; González, M F; Cintas, C; Ramallo, V; Quinto-Sánchez, M; Márquez, F; Hünemeier, T; Paschetta, C; Ruderman, A; Navarro, P; Pazos, B A; Silva de Cerqueira, C C; Velan, O; Ramírez-Rozzi, F; Calvo, N; Castro, H G; Paz, R R; González-José, R


    Both modern humans (MHs) and Neanderthals successfully settled across western Eurasian cold-climate landscapes. Among the many adaptations considered as essential to survival in such landscapes, changes in the nasal morphology and/or function aimed to humidify and warm the air before it reaches the lungs are of key importance. Unfortunately, the lack of soft-tissue evidence in the fossil record turns difficult any comparative study of respiratory performance. Here, we reconstruct the internal nasal cavity of a Neanderthal plus two representatives of climatically divergent MH populations (southwestern Europeans and northeastern Asians). The reconstruction includes mucosa distribution enabling a realistic simulation of the breathing cycle in different climatic conditions via computational fluid dynamics. Striking across-specimens differences in fluid residence times affecting humidification and warming performance at the anterior tract were found under cold/dry climate simulations. Specifically, the Asian model achieves a rapid air conditioning, followed by the Neanderthals, whereas the European model attains a proper conditioning only around the medium-posterior tract. In addition, quantitative-genetic evolutionary analyses of nasal morphology provided signals of stabilizing selection for MH populations, with the removal of Arctic populations turning covariation patterns compatible with evolution by genetic drift. Both results indicate that, departing from important craniofacial differences existing among Neanderthals and MHs, an advantageous species-specific respiratory performance in cold climates may have occurred in both species. Fluid dynamics and evolutionary biology independently provided evidence of nasal evolution, suggesting that adaptive explanations regarding complex functional phenotypes require interdisciplinary approaches aimed to quantify both performance and evolutionary signals on covariation patterns. Published under the PNAS license.

  16. Foreign body aspiration masquerading as difficult asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S


    Full Text Available It is important to assess patients of difficult/therapy resistant asthma carefully in order to identify whether there are any correctable factors that may contribute to their poor control. It is critical to make a diagnosis of asthma and to exclude other airway diseases. A 65-years-old lady presented with repeated acute episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing. She was on regular medication for bronchial asthma for 18 years. There was no history of foreign body aspiration or loss of consciousness. Her chest radiograph was normal. She showed poor response to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB showed intracordal cyst of the left vocal cord and 1cm size irregular piece of betel nut in right main bronchus, which was removed endoscopically with the help of dormia basket, following which her condition improved and asthma was controlled on inhaled bronchodilators.

  17. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis (United States)

    Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet


    Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis. PMID:22438623

  18. [Fine needle aspiration cytology of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvad, B.; Laenkholm, A.V.; Schwartz, Thue W.


    INTRODUCTION: In the year 2000 a quality assurance programme for the preoperative breast diagnostics was introduced in Denmark. The programme was based on the "European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis" where - among other measures - five cytological...... diagnostic classes were introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality assurance programme in a screening population to determine whether fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as first choice remains a useful tool in the preoperative diagnostics, or if needle core biopsy should be the first...... of 66% of the 783 FNACs had a malignant cytology diagnosis, which in 99% of the cases turned out to be the correct diagnosis. Four lesions were false positives all of which represented benign proliferative breast diseases. The surgical procedures in these cases were either excisional biopsy...

  19. Religiosity and Migration Aspirations among Mexican Youth. (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L


    International migration has become an important topic of discussion from a policy and humanitarian perspective. Part of the debate includes a renewed interest in understanding the factors that influence decisions about migration to the US among Mexican youth still residing in their country of origin. The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge specifically about internal and external religiosity and their influence on youths' migration aspirations. The data for this study were collected in 2007 from students enrolled in an alternative high school program located in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico. The findings indicated that as external religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA decreases. Furthermore, as internal religiosity increases, the desire to work or live in the USA and plans to migrate increase. The results are interpreted and discussed in light of previous research on religious and cultural norm adherence.

  20. Aspiration lung disorders in bovines: A case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Shakespeare


    Full Text Available Lung aspiration disorders in bovines are invariably diagnosed as infectious aspiration pneumonias. There is a distinct differentiation between aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis in humans that can be applied to bovines. The nature and quantity of the aspirate can result in differing pathogeneses which can require differing therapeutic approaches. Whilst blood gases were important in detecting and prognosticating lung problems, changes in barometric pressure with altitude have to be considered when interpreting partial pressures of oxygen. Anatomical differences in the lungs of bovines can explain why this species is more prone to certain pneumonic problems. Pulmonary physiotherapy is important in treating lung disorders in humans and should be considered as an adjunct therapy in bovine respiratory conditions. A case work-up was used to highlight some of the points discussed in this article.

  1. Recurrent Aspiration Pneumonia due to Anterior Cervical Osteophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee


    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man presented with recurrent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia in the left lower lobe. He entered the intensive care unit to manage the pneumonia and septic shock. Although a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was implanted for recurrent vomiting, vomiting and aspiration recurred frequently during admission. Subsequently, he complained of neck pain when in an upright position. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study showed compression of the esophagus by cervical osteophytes and tracheal aspiration caused by an abnormality at the laryngeal inlet. Cervical spine X-rays and computed tomography showed anterior cervical osteophytes at the C3-6 levels. Surgical decompression was scheduled, but was cancelled due to his frailty. Unfortunately, further recurrent vomiting and aspiration resulted in respiratory arrest leading to hypoxic brain damage and death. Physicians should consider cervical spine disease, such as diffuse skeletal hyperostosis as an uncommon cause of recurrent aspiration pneumonia.

  2. Transbronchial needle aspiration "by the books"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupeli Elif


    Full Text Available Background : Training for advanced bronchoscopic procedures is acquired during the interventional pulmonology (IP Fellowship. Unfortunately a number of such programs are small, limiting dissemination of formal training. Objective : We studied success of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA in the hands of physicians without formal IP training. Methods : A technique of C-TBNA was learned solely from the literature, videos and practicing on inanimate models at "Hands-On" courses. Conventional TBNA with 21 and/or 19 gauge Smooth Shot Needles (Olympus® , Japan was performed on consecutive patients with undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Results : Thirty-four patients (male 23, mean age 54.9 ± 11.8 years underwent C-TBNA. Twenty-two patients had nodes larger than 20 mms. Suspected diagnoses were malignancy in 20 and nonmalignant conditions in 14. Final diagnoses were malignancy 17, sarcoidosis 4, reactive lymph nodes 12, and tuberculosis 1. Final diagnosis was established by C-TBNA in 14 (11 malignancy, 3 sarcoidosis; yield 41.1%, mediastinoscopy in 14, transthoracic needle aspiration in 3, peripheral lymph node biopsies in 2 and by endobronchial biopsy in 1. Nodal size had an impact on outcome (P = 0.000 while location did not (P = 0.33. C-TBNA was positive in 11/20 when malignancy was suspected (yield 55%, while 3/14 when benign diagnosis was suspected (yield 21.4% (P = 0.05. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy were 66.6%, 100%, 100%, 65%, and 79.4%, respectively. There were no complications or scope damage. Conclusion : Conventional-TBNA can be learned by the books and by practicing on inanimate models without formal training and results similar to those published in the literature could be achieved.

  3. Kartagener's syndrome presented with nasal obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Asilsoy


    Full Text Available The nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. Although it is rare in children, there may be also association with cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia. About 50% of primary ciliary dyskinesia patients develop situs inversus and it is known as Kartagener's syndrome. The Kartagener's sydrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus. Clinically, patients present to the otolaryngologist with nasal obstruction. We as pediatricians, should consider nasal polyposis as a rare cause of nasal obstruction in children. In the presence of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections accompanying nasal polyposis, Kartagener's syndrome must be kept in mind as a rare reason. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 942-945

  4. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil


    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  5. Colds, flu and coughing: a review of over-the-counter nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nasal congestion due to the common cold occurs because of dilation of the blood vessels, leading to swelling of the nasal mucosal epithelium. This narrows nasal passages, which are further blocked by increased mucus production. Nasal sprays and drops are often recommended for the treatment of rhinorrhoea and nasal ...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis centers of Fez, Morocco


    Idrissa Diawara; Khadija Bekhti; Driss Elhabchi; Rachid Saile; Naima Elmdaghri; Mohammed Timinouni; Mohamed Elazhari


    Background and objectives Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) nasal carriage may be responsible for some serious infections in hemodialyzed patients. The main target of this study was to estimate the prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage in hemodialysis outpatients and medical staff in hemodialysis centers specifically in Fez region. The second target is to identify the risks of colonization, resistance pattern of isolates and their virulence toxin genes. Patients and Methods Nasal swab specim...

  7. Treatment of Rhinitis Sicca Anterior with Ectoine Containing Nasal Spray


    Uwe Sonnemann; Olaf Scherner; Nina Werkhäuser


    Objectives. The safety and efficacy of ectoine nasal spray and ectoine nasal spray with dexpanthenol in the treatment of rhinitis sicca were evaluated in two studies. Design and Methods. Two noninterventional observational studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nasal spray containing ectoine (study 1) and ectoine/dexpanthenol (study 2) over a period of two weeks including comparable numbers of patients suffering from rhinitis sicca anterior. Patients and physicians we...

  8. Surface tension examination of various liquid oral, nasal, and ophthalmic dosage forms. (United States)

    Han, Kimberly; Woghiren, Osakpolor E; Priefer, Ronny


    Surface tension at the surface-to-air interface is a physico-chemical property of liquid pharmaceutical formulations that are often overlooked. To determine if a trend between surface tension and route of administration exists, a suite of oral, nasal, and ophthalmic drug formulations were analyzed. The surface tension at the surface-to-air interface of the oral formulations studied were in or above the range of the surface tension of gastric, duodenum, and jejunum fluids. The range of surface tensions for oral formulations were 36.6-64.7 dynes/cm. Nasal formulations had surface tensions below that of the normal mucosal lining fluid with a range of 30.3-44.9 dynes/cm. Ophthalmic OTC formulations had the largest range of surface tensions at the surface-to-air interface of 34.3-70.9 dynes/cm; however, all formulations indicated for treatment of dry eye had surface tensions higher than that of normal tears, while those for treatment of red eye had surface tensions below. Therefore, surface tension at the surface-to-air interface of liquid formulations is dependent on the route of administration, environment at site of introduction, and for ophthalmics, what the formulation is indicated for.

  9. A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Research of nasal methicillin resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and pharyngeal beta-haemolytic Streptococcus carriage in midwifery students in Kahramanmaras, Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey.

  10. Patient experience with mupirocin or povidone-iodine nasal decolonization. (United States)

    Maslow, Jed; Hutzler, Lorraine; Cuff, Germaine; Rosenberg, Andrew; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph


    Led by the federal government, the payers of health care are enacting policies designed to base provider reimbursement on the quality of care they render. This study evaluated and compared patient experiences and satisfaction with nasal decolonization with either nasal povidone-iodine (PI) or nasal mupirocin ointment (MO). A total of 1903 patients were randomized to undergo preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal MO or PI solution. All randomized patients were also given 2% chlorhexidine gluconate topical wipes. Patients were interviewed prior to discharge to assess adverse events and patient experience with their assigned preoperative antiseptic protocol. Of the 1903 randomized patients, 1679 (88.1%) were interviewed prior to discharge. Of patients receiving PI, 3.4% reported an unpleasant or very unpleasant experience, compared with 38.8% of those using nasal MO (P.05). Being recruited as an active participant in surgical site infection prevention was a positive experience for 87.2% of MO patients and 86.3% of PI patients (P=.652). Those assigned to receive PI solution preoperatively reported significantly fewer adverse events than the nasal MO group (P<.01). Preoperative nasal decolonization with either nasal PI or MO was considered somewhat or very helpful by more than two-thirds of patients. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Nasal neuron PET imaging quantifies neuron generation and degeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van de Bittner, Genevieve C; Riley, Misha M; Cao, Luxiang; Ehses, Janina; Herrick, Scott P; Ricq, Emily L; Wey, Hsiao-Ying; O'Neill, Michael J; Ahmed, Zeshan; Murray, Tracey K; Smith, Jaclyn E; Wang, Changning; Schroeder, Frederick A; Albers, Mark W; Hooker, Jacob M


    .... Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality...

  12. Standardization of nasalance scores in normal Saudi speakers. (United States)

    El-Kassabi, Rasha M; Hassan, Sabah; Mesallam, Tamer A; Malki, Khalid H; Farahat, Mohamed; Alfaris, Abdullah


    The aims of this study were to obtain normative nasalance scores for a normal Saudi population with different ages and genders, to develop nasometric Arabic speech materials, and to make cross-linguistic comparison. Participants included 219 normal Saudi native monolingual Arabic speakers of different ages. Subjects were classified into four groups according to age and gender. Subjects did not have any history of oral, nasal, or velopharyngeal abnormality. Arabic speech samples were developed to evaluate nasalance scores, which included syllables repetition, three oral sentences, three oro-nasal sentences, and three nasal sentences. Nasalance data were obtained using Nasometer II-6400. Normative nasalance values were determined. Significant differences between the male and female children groups were noticed in many parameters. Nasalance scores were higher in adults, with significant differences between all groups. Normative nasalance scores for Saudi Arabic speakers have been developed for both adults and children. The Arabic speech materials developed in this study appear to be easy to use and applicable for different age groups.

  13. Nasalance scores for normal-speaking Irish children. (United States)

    Sweeney, Triona; Sell, Debbie; O'Regan, Myra


    To obtain normal nasalance values during the production of a standardized speech sample for Irish children and determine whether significantly different scores exist for different speech stimuli for female and male speakers. Mean nasalance scores were obtained for normal-speaking children during the repetition of 16 test sentences that were categorized according to consonant type within the sentences (high-pressure consonants, low-pressure consonants, nasal consonants). Seventy children (36 girls and 34 boys, aged 4 years 11 months to 13 years) with normal articulation, resonance, and voice were included. Children repeated each of the 16 test sentences individually. The sentences were presented in groups according to consonant type, referred to as sentence categories. Data were collected and analyzed using the Kay nasometer (model 6200.3). Nasalance scores were obtained for the total speech sample and each sentence category. Data were statistically analyzed to investigate the effects of gender, sentence category, and gender by sentence category. Normative nasalance scores were obtained for the total speech sample (26%), high-pressure consonant sentences (14%), low-pressure consonant sentences (16%), and a nasal consonant sentence (51%). There was no significant difference in nasalance scores between male and female speakers. Significant differences were found between each sentence category (p nasalance data for English-speaking Irish children. There was a significant difference between nasalance scores for different speech stimuli.

  14. Effects of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and High-Flow Nasal Cannula on Sucking, Swallowing, and Breathing during Bottle-Feeding in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Samson


    Full Text Available The use of prolonged respiratory support under the form of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC or nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP is frequent in newborn infants. Introduction of oral feeding under such nasal respiratory support is, however, highly controversial among neonatologists, due to the fear that it could disrupt sucking, swallowing, and breathing coordination and in turn induce cardiorespiratory events. The recent observation of tracheal aspirations during bottle-feeding in preterm infants under nCPAP justifies the use of animal models to perform more comprehensive physiological studies on the subject, in order to gain further insights for clinical studies. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the impact of HFNC and nCPAP on bottle-feeding in newborn lambs, in terms of bottle-feeding efficiency and safety as well as sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination. Eight full-term lambs were instrumented to record sucking, swallowing, and respiration as well as electrocardiogram and oxygenation. Lambs were bottle-fed in a standardized manner during three randomly ordered conditions, namely nCPAP 6 cmH2O, HFNC 7 L/min, and no respiratory support. Results revealed that nCPAP decreased feeding duration [25 vs. 31 s (control vs. 57 s (HFNC, p = 0.03] and increased the rate of milk transfer [2.4 vs. 1.9 mL/s (control vs.1.1 mL/s (HFNC, p = 0.03]. No other indices of bottle-feeding safety or sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination were significantly altered by HFNC or nCPAP. In conclusion, our results obtained in full-term newborn lambs suggest that: (i nCPAP 6 cmH2O, but not HFNC 7 L/min, increases bottle-feeding efficiency; (ii bottle-feeding is safe under nCPAP 6 cmH2O and HFNC 7 L/min, with no significant alteration in sucking–swallowing–breathing coordination. The present informative and reassuring data in full-term healthy lambs must be complemented by similar studies in

  15. Absorbable Implant to Treat Nasal Valve Collapse. (United States)

    San Nicoló, Marion; Stelter, Klaus; Sadick, Haneen; Bas, Murat; Berghaus, Alexander


    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of an absorbable implant for lateral cartilage support in subjects with nasal valve collapse (NVC) with 12 months follow-up. Methods Thirty subjects with Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) score ≥ 55 and isolated NVC were treated; 14 cases were performed in an operating suite under general anesthesia and 16 cases were performed in a clinic-based setting under local anesthesia. The implant, a polylactic acid copolymer, was placed with a delivery tool within the nasal wall to provide lateral cartilage support. Subjects were followed up through 12 months postprocedure. Results Fifty-six implants were placed in 30 subjects. The mean preoperative NOSE score was 76.7 ± 14.8, with a range of 55 to 100. At 12 months, the mean score was 35.2 ± 29.2, reflecting an average within-patient reduction of -40.9 ± 31.2 points. The majority (76%) of the subjects were responders defined as having at least one NOSE class improvement or a NOSE score reduction of at least 20%. There were no adverse changes in cosmetic appearance at 12 months postprocedure. Three implants in three subjects required retrieval within 30 days postprocedure and resulted in no clinical sequelae. Conclusion This study demonstrates safety and effectiveness of an absorbable implant for lateral cartilage support in subjects with NVC at 12 months postprocedure. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. The effect of nasal irrigation formulation on the antimicrobial activity of nasal secretions. (United States)

    Woods, Charmaine M; Tan, Sophia; Ullah, Shahid; Frauenfelder, Claire; Ooi, Eng H; Carney, A Simon


    Saline-based irrigation solutions are evidence-based rhinological treatments; however, the formulation of these solutions could theoretically alter the function of innate antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study was to determine if the antimicrobial activity of normal human nasal secretions in vivo is altered by commercially available large volume irrigation solutions. Minimally manipulated sinonasal secretions were collected from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS; n = 10) and normal healthy volunteers (n = 20). In a subset of control patients (n = 10) secretions were collected prior to, and at 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after nasal irrigation with 4 commercial irrigation solutions. Lysozyme and lactoferrin levels were analyzed and the antimicrobial activity of secretions determined using a radial diffusion assay. The antimicrobial activity of nasal secretions was reduced in CRS patients compared to healthy volunteers (p irrigation reduced lysozyme and lactoferrin levels, which returned to baseline levels by 6 hours; in addition to a sustained decrease in antimicrobial activity before returning to baseline at 24 hours. Low-salt solution stimulated peptide secretion by approximately 40% at 6 hours and 24 hours, but produced a transient decrease in antimicrobial activity, returning to baseline levels by 6 hours. Hypertonic solution initially decreased lysozyme and lactoferrin levels but maintained baseline levels of antimicrobial activity and increased peptide secretion by approximately 30% at 24 hours. The formulation of nasal irrigation solutions significantly affects the measured levels and functionality of sinonasal antimicrobial peptides. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  17. Relevance of histamine and tryptase concentrations in nasal secretions after nasal challenges with phosphate buffered saline and allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wang


    Full Text Available In this prospective study, a quantitative determination of histamine and tryptase in nasal secretions after nasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS and allergen challenge was performed in 18 atopic patients who were compared with ten non-allergic healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to determine the normal and pathological concentrations of these important mediators in nasal secretions. The second objective was to test the relevance of these two mast cell secreted mediators after nasal challenge. Results showed that the concentrations of tryptase in almost all samples were under the minimal detection limit (< 0.5 μU/g and only a sigrtificant increase of tryptase (median, 28 μU/g occurred immediately after nasal allergen challenge in the patient group. Histamine concentration significantly increased after every nasal PBS challenge (median, 69 ng/g after first PBS challenge and 165 ng/g after second PBS challenge in the control group, as well as in the patient group after both PBS (median, 69 ng/g and allergen (median, 214 ng/g challenge. On the other hand, a rapid onset of sneezing and increase in nasal airway resistance was experienced only in the patient group after nasal allergen challenge, but did not occur after PBS challenge even though the histamine concentrations significantly increased in both groups. This study suggests that tryptase is a more preferable marker than histamine in quantitative monitoring of mast cell activation especially during the early phase nasal allergic reaction.

  18. A Survey for Transverse Nasal Groove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran


    Full Text Available Out of 3000 consecutive subjects surveyed for the typical lesion of transverse nasal groove, 180 were found to have the characteristic lesions. In LU patients, the floor of the groove was studded with patulous hair follicles, greasy sale and black comedones. The age of the patients varied from 16 to 45 years, the majority belonged to the 20 to 30 age group. Family occurrence of the groove was noted ′in only 7.Seboffhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor and acne vulgaris were the commonly associated diseases.

  19. Toxicology Studies for Inhaled and Nasal Delivery. (United States)

    Wolff, R K


    This review examines issues related to the toxicological testing of pharmaceuticals delivered by the inhalation or nasal route. The purpose of the toxicology studies is to conduct studies in animals that will aid the assessment of the safety of these agents delivered to patients. Inhalation toxicology studies present some unique issues because the dosing method differs from more standard administration methods such as oral or injection administration. Also, dose determination issues are more complex, particularly for inhalation administration since it is often difficult to determine the amount of material delivered to the lung both for patients and in animal toxicology studies.

  20. Nosocomial nasal myiasis in an intubated patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tzu Lee


    Full Text Available We report a case of nasal myiasis caused by Sarcophaga spp., noted during hospitalization. A 74-year-old man was admitted with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The patient underwent coronary arterial bypass surgery and was then mechanically ventilated by means of a nasotracheal tube for the next 8 days. After extubation, a total of seven maggots were retrieved from both nostrils. The larvae were removed and reared to mature flies, which were identified as Sarcophaga peregrina. From the clinical course and the fly’s life cycle, it was concluded that the infestation was hospital-acquired.

  1. Chronic urticaria treated with soft nasal filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J


    Full Text Available A 22-year-old boy having two attacks of urticaria per day for the last 5 years and intermittent attacks of sneezing and rhinorrhoea, and without any clues to the causative agent in spite of a detailed history and follow up, showed almost complete relief on wearing an ordinary cloth mask for 3 days. He was subsequently trained to use the soft nasal filters and obtained almost 80% relief in urticaria and complete relief in rhinitis during the next 1 year. Wearing the mask for 2 days again led to complete relief and further training in the proper use of the filters was helpful.

  2. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A


    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  3. Finite Element Model and Validation of Nasal Tip Deformation. (United States)

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Harb, Rani; Badran, Alan; Ho, David; Wong, Brian J F


    Nasal tip mechanical stability is important for functional and cosmetic nasal airway surgery. Palpation of the nasal tip provides information on tip strength to the surgeon, though it is a purely subjective assessment. Providing a means to simulate nasal tip deformation with a validated model can offer a more objective approach in understanding the mechanics and nuances of the nasal tip support and eventual nasal mechanics as a whole. Herein we present validation of a finite element (FE) model of the nose using physical measurements recorded using an ABS plastic-silicone nasal phantom. Three-dimensional photogrammetry was used to capture the geometry of the phantom at rest and while under steady state load. The silicone used to make the phantom was mechanically tested and characterized using a linear elastic constitutive model. Surface point clouds of the silicone and FE model were compared for both the loaded and unloaded state. The average Hausdorff distance between actual measurements and FE simulations across the nose were 0.39 ± 1.04 mm and deviated up to 2 mm at the outermost boundaries of the model. FE simulation and measurements were in near complete agreement in the immediate vicinity of the nasal tip with millimeter accuracy. We have demonstrated validation of a two-component nasal FE model, which could be used to model more complex modes of deformation where direct measurement may be challenging. This is the first step in developing a nasal model to simulate nasal mechanics and ultimately the interaction between geometry and airflow.

  4. Nasal Floor Mucosa: New Donor Site for Mucous Membrane Grafts. (United States)

    Morgan, Payam V; Suh, Jeffrey D; Hwang, Catherine J


    Mucous membrane grafts are used for various indications in oculoplastics. The authors report the use of nasal floor mucosa as a new donor site for mucous membrane grafts. Following adequate anesthesia and vasoconstriction, the nasal floor is visualized with a 30° endoscope. Next, the interior turbinate is medialized, and the nasolacrimal duct is identified and preserved. Anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral incisions are made through the nasal mucosa to the nasal bone. The mucosa is dissected off the nasal bone with a periosteal elevator. Nasal saline irrigation is used postoperatively to aid healing. Histologic analysis of the harvested graft and mucosa from the inferior and middle turbinates were analyzed histologically for the number of mucin-producing cells per high power field and compared. Nasal floor mucosa provides ample tissue for grafting with little donor site morbidity. The surgery is technically easy to learn and perform. There is less risk for blood loss compared with harvesting tissue from the turbinates and less postoperative discomfort compared with buccal mucosal grafts. The grafts have been used in 9 different patients for a variety of ocular indications. Histologically, the nasal floor mucosa contains statistically more mucin-secreting cells than other nasal site, which can be helpful especially in cases of ocular surface disease. In 1 case, biopsy of the grafted tissue at postoperative year 2 showed survival of the respiratory mucin-secreting cells under histologic examination. Nasal floor mucosa should be considered a donor site when a mucous membrane graft is needed. The surgery is safe, easy to perform, and has less morbidity than either a nasal turbinate graft or a buccal mucosal graft.

  5. A Foreign Body Aspiration Showing Migration and Penetration: Hordeum Murinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Mergan


    Full Text Available Aspiration of foreign bodies is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in the childhood period. Very rarely seen among the tracheobronchial foreign body aspirations is the Hordeum Murinum, which has an atypical clinical presentation. It may cause unavoidable sequelae in the bronchial system requiring surgery, like bronchiectasis and destruction of the lung parenchyma in patients with delayed diagnosis. Hordeum Murinum, which is hard to pull out due to its progressive nature, may cause interesting clinical pictures. In this study, a case of Hordeum Murinum aspiration is reported which has been diagnosed early due to hemopty-sis could be pulled out by thoracotomy after negative bronchoscopy.

  6. Flow modeling of actual human nasal cavity for various breathing conditions (United States)

    Mokhtar, Nur Hazwani; Yaakob, Muhammad Syauki; Osman, Kahar; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Abdullah, Wan Kamil Wan; Haron, Juhara


    Flow in the human nasal cavity varies when the body is under various physical activities. However, in order to visualize the flow pattern, traditional in-vivo technique may disturb the flow patterns. In this study, computational method was used to model the flow in the nasal cavity under various breathing conditions. Image from CT-Scan was used to mimic the actual cavity geometry. The image was computationally constructed and EFD. Lab was used to predict the flow behavior. Steady incompressible flow was considered for all case studies. The result shows that, for all breathing conditions, vortices were observed in the turbinate region which confirms the turbinate functions as a filter before the flow reaches the olfactory area. Larger vortices were detected when the flow rates were higher. In the olfactory region, the flow velocities were shown to be dramatically dropped to the ideal odorant uptake velocity range for all cases studied. This study had successfully produced visual description of air flow pattern in the nasal cavity.

  7. Computed tomographic anatomy of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and tympanic cavity of the koala. (United States)

    Hemsley, S; Palmer, H; Canfield, R B; Stewart, M E B; Krockenberger, M B; Malik, R


    To use cross-sectional imaging (helical computed tomography (CT)) combined with conventional anatomical dissection to define the normal anatomy of the nasal cavity and bony cavitations of the koala skull. Helical CT scans of the heads of nine adult animals were obtained using a multislice scanner acquiring thin slices reconstructed in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. Subsequent anatomical dissection permitted confirmation of correct identification and further delineation of bony and air-filled structures visible in axial and multiplanar reformatted CT images. The nasal cavity was relatively simple, with little scrolling of nasal conchae, but bony cavitations were complex and extensive. A rostral maxillary recess and ventral conchal, caudal maxillary, frontal and sphenoidal paranasal sinuses were identified and characterised. Extensive temporal bone cavitation was shown to be related to a large epitympanic recess. The detailed anatomical data provided are applicable to future functional and comparative anatomical studies, as well as providing a preliminary atlas for clinical investigation of conditions such as cryptococcal rhinosinusitis, a condition more common in the koala than in many other species. © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improves oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis. (United States)

    Schreiber, Silvana; Ronfani, Luca; Ghirardo, Sergio; Minen, Federico; Taddio, Andrea; Jaber, Mohamad; Rizzello, Elisa; Barbi, Egidio


    Published guidelines do not recommend nasal irrigation in bronchiolitis, but it is common practice in Italy, despite a lack of data on its benefits or adverse effects. This single-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial compared nasal irrigation using either isotonic 0.9% sodium chloride or hypertonic 3% sodium chloride with simple supportive care in infants with bronchiolitis. We randomly assigned 133 infants up one year of age, who were admitted to the emergency department with bronchiolitis and an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of between 88 and 94%, to the isotonic (n = 47), hypertonic (n = 44) or standard care (n = 42) groups. Variations in SpO2 and the wheeze, air exchange, respiratory rate, muscle use (WARM) respiratory distress score were recorded at zero, five, 15, 20 and 50 minutes. Five minutes after the intervention, the median SpO2 value (95%) in the isotonic group was higher than both the hypertonic (94%) and the standard care (93%) groups. The differences between the isotonic and standard treatment groups were statistically significant at each time point, while the hypertonic group only reached significantly higher values after 50 minutes. However, the WARM score did not improve. A single nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improved oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. An ex vivo porcine nasal mucosa explants model to study MRSA colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tulinski

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the upper respiratory tract and skin surfaces in mammals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. However, the mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. To study MRSA colonization in pigs, an ex vivo model consisting of porcine nasal mucosa explants cultured at an air-liquid interface was evaluated. In cultured mucosa explants from the surfaces of the ventral turbinates and septum of the pig nose no changes in cell morphology and viability were observed up to 72 h. MRSA colonization on the explants was evaluated followed for three MRSA ST398 isolates for 180 minutes. The explants were incubated with 3×10(8 CFU/ml in PBS for 2 h to allow bacteria to adhere to the explants surface. Next the explants were washed and in the first 30 minutes post adhering time, a decline in the number of CFU was observed for all MRSA. Subsequently, the isolates showed either: bacterial growth, no growth, or a further reduction in bacterial numbers. The MRSA were either localized as clusters between the cilia or as single bacteria on the cilia surface. No morphological changes in the epithelium layer were observed during the incubation with MRSA. We conclude that porcine nasal mucosa explants are a valuable ex vivo model to unravel the interaction of MRSA with nasal tissue.

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS


    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  11. Liver aspirate from a Shar Pei dog. (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Moore, Rebecca R; Wolf, Christina M; Yeomans, Stephen M; Donnell, Robert L; Lane, India F; Fry, Michael M


    A 5-year-old, neutered male, Shar Pei dog was presented with weight loss, anorexia, lethargy, stranguria, and distal limb edema. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included anemia, an inflammatory leukogram, azotemia, icterus, urinary tract infection, and hepatomegaly with a markedly hypoechoic liver. Cytologic findings in a fine-needle aspirate of the liver included large amounts of amorphous, pink, extracellular matrix between hepatocytes. The amorphous material was congophilic using Congo red stain on a hepatic cytology specimen and green birefringent areas were observed under polarized light, confirming the presence of amyloid. The dog was euthanized and a necropsy was done. Histopathologic evaluation using H&E and Congo red staining confirmed amyloid deposits within the liver, kidneys, intestinal vessels, pancreas, and mesenteric ganglia. Immunohistochemical staining of liver and kidney sections using anti-AA amyloid and anti-P component antibodies confirmed the presence of AA amyloid. In this case, we demonstrated that Congo red staining and polarized light microscopy are a useful diagnostic technique in cytologic specimens of suitable thickness for confirming the presence of amyloid.

  12. Nasal polyps - clinical profile and management in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasal polyps are benign mucosal protrusions into the nasal cavity of multifactorial origin and are characterized by chronic mucosal inflammation. They result from the prolapsed lining of the ethmoid sinuses and block the nose to a variable degree depending on their sizes. This study aims to evaluate the clinical ...

  13. The isolation and antibiogram of aerobic nasal bacterial flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings provided the basis for the understanding of normal nasal bacterial flora and the possibility of their involvement in pneumopathies associated with this animal model and it will provided basis for the use of appropriate antibiotics to combat respiratory infections in grasscutter in captivity. Keywords: nasal, microflora ...

  14. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in Kayseri Training and ...

  15. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 30, 2014 ... Aim: This study was to determine the virulence encoding genes, and the antibiotic resistance patterns of the. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were isolated from the nasal samples of chest clinic patients. Materials and Methods: The nasal samples of the in‑patients (431) and out‑patients (1857) in ...

  16. Esthetic rhinoplasty as an adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adham Farouk


    Jan 15, 2016 ... Oncoplastic surgery nose;. Basal cell carcinoma;. Squamous cell carcinoma;. Nonmelanoma skin cancer;. Nasal reconstruction. Abstract Background: The nose is a prime esthetic focus of the human face and it is a common site for nonmelanoma skin cancers. Esthetic reconstruction of nasal skin after tumor ...

  17. The validity of nasal endoscopy in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K. L.; Lange, B.; Darling, P.


    Objectives: Nasal endoscopy is a cornerstone in diagnosing sinonasal disease, but different raters might generate different results using the technique. Our study aims to evaluate the agreement between multiple raters to assess the validity of nasal endoscopy. Design/Participants: Three independe...

  18. Rhinoscintigraphic analysis of nasal mucociliary function in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 2, 2015 ... 9. Englender M, Chamovitz D, Harell M. Nasal transit time in normal subjects and pathologic conditions. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990;103:909‑12. 10. Sun SS, Hsieh JF, Tsai SC, Ho YJ, Kao CH. Evaluation of nasal mucociliary clearance function in allergic rhinitis patients with technetium 99m‑labeled.

  19. Traditional open surgery for advanced benign nasal tumours in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and lamina papyracea (5) (Fig 3). Using the Mackay and Lund5 staging of nasal polyps, all the polyps were stage 3. Caldwel-luc antrostomy surgery. This was done in 17 patients. The indications were 13 polyps, 2 invasive fungal sinusitis and 1 mucocoele. Operative findings were dumb-bell extension into the nasal cavity ...

  20. Carcinome hybride de la fosse nasale | Ben Mhamed | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A second surgery was accomplished by means of Red Denker and a adjuvant radiation therapy is envisaged. We have not enough detachment to speak about actual evolution. It is in our knowledge the second case of hybrid tumor of the nasal cavity described in the literature. Hybrid carcinoma of the nasal cavity is possible ...

  1. Effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow.


    Jones, A S; Lancer, J M; Moir, A A; Stevens, J C


    The effect of aspirin on nasal resistance to airflow was investigated by rhinomanometry in 25 healthy subjects before and after ingestion of aspirin or vitamin C in a double blind crossover trial. Aspirin caused a significant increase in nasal resistance compared with vitamin C. The effect of aspirin may be due to its inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins.

  2. Based Mucoadhesive Gel for Nasal Delivery of Rizatriptan Benzoate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a safe mucoadhesive gel for nasal drug delivery using okra polysaccharide. Methods: Rizatriptan benzoate nasal gel was developed using natural polysaccharide obtained from the Abelmoschus esculentus. The gel formulation was characterized for pH, viscosity, mucoadhesion, and in vitro ...

  3. Nasal Osteogenic Chondrosarcoma: A Case Report | Adeniji | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas are the most common malignancies of the jaw bones. Nasal osteogenic chondrosarcoma is rarely reported. OBJECTIVE: To draw attention to a rare tumour, osteogenic chondrosarcoma. METHODS: A middle-aged woman presented with a three month history of nasal ...

  4. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K


    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...

  5. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3.1 Histology. In all species investigated, the olfactory mucosa is restricted to the dorsal aspects of the nasal capsule and nasal concha (figure 1). The olfactory mucosa is distinguished from the respiratory epithelium by the presence of ..... Anatomy and forebrain projections of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in axolotls ...

  6. Immunological role of nasal staphylococcus aureus carriage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 30, 2008 ... Nasal carriage of staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) exerts immunomodulatory effects in patients with atopic dermatitis and it may contribute to airway inflammation and allergic response in patients with allergic rhinitis. We investigated the frequency of nasal S. aureus carriage in patients with perennial ...


    Nasal efficiency for removing fine particles may be affected by developmental changes in nasal structure associated with age. In healthy Caucasian children (age 6-13, n=17) and adults (age 18-28, n=11) we measured the fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (1 and 2um MMAD)...

  8. [Objective measurement of normal nasality in the Saxony dialect]. (United States)

    Müller, R; Beleites, T; Hloucal, U; Kühn, M


    In the United States of America, the nasometer was developed by Fletcher as an objective method for measuring nasality. There are no accepted normal values for comparable test materials regarding the German language. The aim of this study was the examination of the auditively normal nasality of Saxon-speaking people with the nasometer. The nasalance of 51 healthy Saxon-speaking test persons with auditively normal nasality was measured with a model 6200 nasometer (Kay-Elemetrics, U.S.A.). The text materials used were the vowels "a", "e", "i", "o", and "u", the sentences "Die Schokolade ist sehr lecker" ("The chocolate is very tasty") and "Nenne meine Mama Mimi" ("Name my mama Mimi"), and the texts of "North wind and sun", "A children's birthday", and an arbitrary selection from Strittmatter. The mean nasalance for the vowels was 17.7%, for the sentence containing no nasal sounds 13.0%, and for the sentence containing many nasal sounds 67.2%. The mean value of the texts was 33-41%. The results for the texts agreed well with the results of Reuter (1997), who examined people from the state of Brandenburg. A range from 20% to 55% is suggested as the normal value for nasalance in the German-speaking area.

  9. Dialectical Effects on Nasalance: A Multicenter, Cross-Continental Study (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Bressmann, Tim; Poburka, Bruce; Roy, Nelson; Sharp, Helen; Watts, Christopher


    Purpose: This study investigated nasalance in speakers from six different dialectal regions across North America using recent versions of the Nasometer. It was hypothesized that many of the sound changes observed in regional dialects of North American English would have a significant impact on measures of nasalance. Method: Samples of the Zoo…

  10. Nasality evaluation of Turkish phonemes in vowel-consonant combinations. (United States)

    Sarac, Elif Tugba; Kayikci, Mavis Emel Kulak; Ozkan, Soner


    The purpose of this study is to find average nasalance values of Turkish syllables with the nasometer. This study is done at Hacettepe University Department of Otolaryngology Audiology and Speech Pathology Unit with 50 participating children. The normative nasalance values of Turkish phonemes are determined. It is found that nasalance scores of syllables that is combined with/i/phoneme is statistically have higher nasalance scores than/a/and/e/phonemes (p0.05). Statistical difference between age and nasalance score is found in "iki, şe, eşe, işi, aç, eç, çi, içi, iç, al, yi, iy, iyi, yiy, ana, ne" syllables (p<0.05). These phonemes have positive relation with the age. There is no statistical difference between sex and nasalance scores (p<0.05). Statistical difference is only found in "tat- te- li- lil- aya" syllables (p<0.05). On these phonemes it is found that girls have higher nasalance score than boys. As a result, it is thought that gathered nasalance values of Turkish phonemes will be useful for resonance disorder diagnosis and follow ups on treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others


    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  12. Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out among veterinary students coming for laboratory training. After their wise consent, nasal swabs of the anterior nares were carried out; and S. aureus was isolated by selective chromogenic culture. They were then assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Nasal swabs ...

  13. Xantogranuloma juvenil em cavidade nasal Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa GA Avelino


    Full Text Available Xantogranuloma Juvenil é uma doença benigna e auto-limitada. Pertence à Classe II da Histiocitose. Manifesta-se geralmente por nódulos cutâneos, principalmente em cabeça e pescoço. Inicia-se na infância na maioria dos casos, é raro em adultos. Sua manifestação extracutânea é rara, sendo mais comum a apresentação ocular. Neste trabalho, relata-se um caso de Xantogranuloma Juvenil exclusivamente em cavidade nasal, cuja ocorrência mundial é extremamente rara. Há relato de apenas um caso de XGJ na cavidade nasal¹. Caso Clínico: D.C.S, 12 anos de idade, sexo feminino, com queixa de obstrução nasal progressiva à direita há cerca de 18 meses. Veio encaminhada por outro serviço com o diagnóstico histopatológico de rinoscleroma. Ao exame, foi observada uma massa tumoral em fossa nasal direita com abaulamento de pirâmide nasal e deslocamento de órbita direita. Foi submetida à exérese do tumor pela técnica de Degloving médio-facial. O diagnóstico histopatológico e imunohistoquímico da peça operatória foi de Xantogranuloma Juvenil. Por tratar-se de uma entidade benigna e de regressão espontânea, foi optado pelo seguimento clínico exclusivo no pós-operatório. Hoje encontra-se no quinto mês de pós-operatório, aparentemente sem recidiva avaliada através de nasofibroscopia.Juvenile Xanthogranuloma is a benign disease, classified as Class II histiocytosis, generally characterised by cutaneous nodules, most commonly, in the head and neck region. It often occurs in childhood and it is rare in adults. Extracutaneous lesions are uncommon, and the most common extracutaneous lesion is in the eye. We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma occuring in the nasal cavity, which is extremely rare in literature. We found only one report of xanthogranuloma in nasal cavity in the English Literature¹. Case report: D.C.S., female, 12 years-old was referred with a history of progressive right sided nasal obstruction for 18 months

  14. Clinical evaluation of 30 patients with localized nasal rosacea. (United States)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Jee Ho; Lee, Mi Woo


    The clinical features of localized nasal rosacea have not been described in detail. This study was designed to analyze the subtypes and severity of localized nasal rosacea. Our present study included 30 patients with localized nasal rosacea. The erythematotelangiectatic subtype (13/30, 43.3%) was the most common type, followed by the phymatous subtype (9/30, 30%). The duration of rosacea was shorter and the severity of localized nasal rosacea was lower in the erythematotelangiectatic subtype cases compared with the patients with mixed or phymatous subtypes. Almost all of the papulopustular eruptions or phymatous lesions were associated with erythematotelangiectatic lesions. These findings suggest that the erythematotelangiectatic subtype may be considered the initial phase of localized nasal rosacea. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Nasalance scores for typical Irish English-speaking adults. (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Browne, Una


    The aim was to establish normative nasalance values for Irish English-speaking adults. Thirty men and 30 women with normal resonance read aloud 16 sentences from the Irish nasality assessment protocol, the Zoo passage, and the Rainbow passage. The speech samples were recorded using the Nasometer II 6400. Results of a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA indicated no significant gender effect on nasalance scores. The speakers showed significantly higher nasalance scores for high-pressure consonant sentences than low-pressure consonant sentences, and for the Rainbow passage than total test sentences. There was no significant difference between high-pressure consonant sentences and the Zoo passage. Compared to previous studies, the Irish young adults had lower nasalance scores than Irish children and than young adults with North American dialects.

  16. Nasal and sleep cycle--possible synchronization during night sleep. (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov; Dimov, Pavel Donchev


    Regular cyclic changes in nostril airflow due to a nasal congestion and decongestion are known in literature as nasal cycle. Registration of breathing from each nostril separately gives possibility to registrate moments of alternative change of airflow of nostrils and periods of nasal cycle. This registration during night sleep shows that the length of these periods are about 1.5h, 3.0 h and 4.5h. The length of these periods are multiple of mean length of sleep cycle--about 1.5h. The alternative change of airflow through nostrils occurs through some of REM stages of the sleep. This shows, that during the night sleep becomes synchronization of nasal and sleep cycles in some of the REM phases of sleep. As a result--length of periods of the nasal cycle are one or more length of sleep cycle.

  17. [Numerical flow simulation : A new method for assessing nasal breathing]. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T; Osman, J; Goubergrits, L


    The current options for objective assessment of nasal breathing are limited. The maximum they can determine is the total nasal resistance. Possibilities to analyze the endonasal airstream are lacking. In contrast, numerical flow simulation is able to provide detailed information of the flow field within the nasal cavity. Thus, it has the potential to analyze the nasal airstream of an individual patient in a comprehensive manner and only a computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses is required. The clinical application is still limited due to the necessary technical and personnel resources. In particular, a statistically based referential characterization of normal nasal breathing does not yet exist in order to be able to compare and classify the simulation results.

  18. The cost-effectiveness of introducing manual vacuum aspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost-effectiveness of introducing manual vacuum aspiration compared with dilatation and curettage for incomplete firsttrimester miscarriages at a tertiary hospital in Manzini, Swaziland. C Maonei, J Miot, S Moodley ...

  19. The role of incentives in nurses' aspirations to management roles. (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Cziraki, Karen


    The objective of this study was to describe findings from a study examining nurses' perceptions of incentives for pursuing management roles. Upcoming retirements of nurse managers and a reported lack of interest in manager roles signal concerns about a leadership shortage. However, there is limited research on nurses' career aspirations and specifically the effect of perceived incentives for pursuing manager roles. Data from a national, cross-sectional survey of Canadian nurses were analyzed (n = 1241) using multiple regression to measure the effect of incentives on nurses' career aspirations. Twenty-four percent of nurses expressed interest in pursuing management roles. Age, education, and incentives explained 43% of the variance in career aspirations. Intrinsically oriented incentives such as new challenges, autonomy, and the opportunity to influence others were the strongest predictors of aspirations to management roles. Ensuring an adequate supply of nurse managers will require proactive investment in the identification, recruitment, and development of nurses with leadership potential.

  20. Career Aspirations and Emotional Adjustment of Chinese International Graduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Cozart


    Full Text Available There are more Chinese student-scholars than any other group of international students studying in the United States. Despite this, there are relatively few studies that have focused on specific educational needs and required career support services for Chinese international students. This exploratory study was conducted to determine the relationship between career aspirations and emotional adjustment of Chinese international students. Results from Chinese students were compared with those of students from the United States. Relationships between the career aspirations and emotional adjustment of Chinese and U.S. students did not reveal statistically significant differences. However, regression analysis indicated that social stress was a statistically significant predictor of career aspirations for U.S. students. Chinese and U.S. students were more alike than different on career aspirations and emotional adjustment, and observed educational similarities appeared to outweigh any cultural differences that existed when determining these outcomes.

  1. Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Aspiration of Pelvic Abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Corsi


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the utility of a less invasive approach to the care of women with a pelvic abscess, we retrospectively reviewed the outcome of women with pelvic abscesses managed by transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration.

  2. Nipple Aspirate Test Is Not An Alternative To Mammography (United States)

    ... Oncology, Nursing, General and Family Practice, Breast Surgery, Acupuncture, Osteopathy, Chiropractic. Product: A nipple aspirate device is ... False positive results may lead to needless patient anxiety, along with unnecessary additional testing and treatment. Recommendations ...

  3. Pulmonary aspiration following Dettol poisoning: the scope for prevention. (United States)

    Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A


    1. After ingestion, Dettol liquid (4.8% chloroxylenol, pine oil, isopropyl, alcohol), a common household disinfectant, can cause central nervous system depression and corrosion of the oral mucosa, larynx and the gastrointestinal tract. The main risk from Dettol poisoning is pulmonary aspiration, leading to pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and/or sudden cardiorespiratory arrest. 2. To determine to what extent pulmonary aspiration in Dettol poisoning could be prevented, 13 patients treated in a general teaching hospital in Hong Kong were studied. Their clinical details were compared with those of control Dettol poisoning cases without pulmonary aspiration in order to identify possible risk factors for this complication. 3. At presentation, evidence of pulmonary aspiration was present in eight of the 13 patients prior to gastric emptying, but the use of gastric lavage without adequate protection of the airways could have aggravated the problem in three. In two other patients, evidence of aspiration was only present after gastric lavage was performed. The consequences of pulmonary aspiration were pneumonia (n = 10), ARDS (n = 2), acute exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive airway disease (n = 2) and sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (n = 1). Three patients with aspiration pneumonia (n = 2), ARDS (n = 1) and/or sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (n = 1) died. 4. Compared with the controls, the median amount of Dettol ingested was considerably larger (400 vs 150 ml), vomiting (100% vs 72.6%) and drowsiness/ confusion (60.2% vs 19.4%) occurred more often. 5. Amongst the 13 patients with Dettol poisoning and pulmonary aspiration, gastric lavage using the nasogastric tube technique without adequate production of the airways had been responsible for the occurrence or worsening of aspiration in two and three patients, respectively. Thus, gastric lavage particularly when using a nasogastric tube appeared to carry more harm than benefits in patients with

  4. Nasal resonance in middle-aged women: a multiparameter approach. (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Depypere, Herman; Claeys, Sofie; Van Lierde, Kristiane M


    Aging influences several speech characteristics in middle-aged women. However, the effect of aging on nasal resonance has not been widely investigated, and findings are contradictory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on nasal resonance by comparing young women (between 20 and 28 years of age) with middle-aged women (between 45 and 55 years of age). Thirty-one middle-aged women with a mean age of 48 years participated in the subject group. The control group consisted of 22 young women with a mean age of 23 years. To investigate nasal resonance, we used a multiparameter approach by means of the Nasal Severity Index (NSI). Objective acoustic (nasal resonance scores of sounds and connected speech measured with the Nasometer) and aerodynamic measurements (maximum duration time of /s/, vital capacity, and mirror fogging test), as well as perceptual evaluations (Gutzmann /a/-i/test), were performed. The results of this study showed no differences in aerodynamic measurements and nasal resonance scores of connected speech and the sounds /i/, /u/, and /m/. Only the mean nasal resonance score of /a/ and the Gutzmann /a/ test were significantly different between the young and middle-aged women. The mean (+/- SD) NSI scores of the young women (12.93 +/- 17.9) and the middle-aged women (-1.49 +/- 14.4) both corresponded to normal nasal resonance. The results of this study indicate that both young and middle-aged women show a normal nasal resonance. Differences in objective and subjective measurements of nasal resonance were only found in isolated vowels, and not in connected speech.

  5. Diagnostic value of ultrasound for identification of nasal fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Farshchian


    Full Text Available Background: Nasal fracture is a common fracture due to trauma. Gold standard method in diagnosis of nasal fracture is clinical examination and radiography is used in legal situation. Recently, ultrasound is recommended as a noninvasive and simple method in diagnosis of nasal fracture. This study investigates the role of ultrasound in diagnosis of nasal fracture.Methods: 126 cases with suspected nasal fracture were evaluated using both ultrasound and nasal radiography in compare with clinical examination as a gold standard and the results were evaluated statistically. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value, negative likelihood ratio and positive likelihood ratio were calculated with confidence interval 95%. Accuracy of both methods was also evaluated.Results: In clinical examination 111 cases (88.1% out of 126 cases, were diagnosed fractured and 15cases (11.9% were unfractured. From these 111 fracture cases, 108 cases in ultrasound and 92 in radiography evaluation were also diagnosed fractured. Ultrasound sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of nasal fracture were; 96.4% (91.1-98.6, 93.3% (70.2-98.8 and 96% respectively. Radiography report showed sensitivity 81.1% (72.8-87.3%, specificity 86.7% (62.1-96.3% and accuracy of 82%. Most sensitivity of both methods was in diagnosis of nasal dorsum fracture (100% in ultrasound and 92.6% in radiography. Most specificity of ultrasound was in diagnosis of lateral wall (100% and in radiography was in diagnosis of nasal dorsum fractures (50%.Conclusion: According to this findings ultrasound can used as a noninvasive method with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnosis of nasal fracture.

  6. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M


    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  7. Nasal allergies hayfever among young adults in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Abramson


    Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research

  8. A Case of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Aspiration Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gerada


    Full Text Available Adults with mental illness are at a higher risk of aspiration pneumonia than the general population. We describe the case of a patient with bipolar affective disorder and two separate episodes of aspiration pneumonia associated with acute mania. We propose that he had multiple predisposing factors, including hyperverbosity, sedative medications, polydipsia (psychogenic and secondary to a comorbidity of diabetes insipidus, and neuroleptic side effects.

  9. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long


    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics. PMID:24598208

  10. Epidemiology of anaemia necesitating bone marrow aspiration cytology in Jos


    O J Egesie; D E Joseph; U G Egesie; O J Ewuga


    Objective: The study aims at investigating, identifying and classifying the various causes of anaemia necessitating bone marrow aspiration cytology in our enviromnent. Methodology:A retrospective review of all bone marrow aspiration cytology reports of patients referred to Haematology and Blood Transfusion department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital between January 1st 2005 and December 31st 2008 on account of anaemia was carried out. Results: The commonest cause of anaemia was...

  11. Cryoextraction: A novel approach to remove aspirated chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Rubio


    Full Text Available The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful "cryoextraction" was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressive approaches.

  12. The effects of uvulopalatal flap operation on speech nasalance and the acoustic parameters of the final nasal consonants. (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyoung; Lee, Yong Soo; Kang, Young Ae; Xu, Jun; Rha, Ki Sang; Kim, Yong Min


    The acoustic characteristics of voice are determined by the source of the sound and shape of the vocal tract. Various anatomical changes after uvulopalatal flap (UPF) operation can change nasalance and/or other voice characteristics. Our aim was to explore the possible effects of UPF creation on speech nasalance and the resonatory features of the final nasal consonants, and thus voice characteristics. A total of 30 patients (26 males, 4 females) with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent UPF operation were recruited. A Nasometer II 3.4 instrument was used to assess nasalance pre- and post-operatively; the patients read standard Korean passages and the readings were recorded in Computer Speech Laboratory for later spectral analysis. Praat software was used to identify frequency bands affecting perioperative nasalance scores. Minima, maxima, and slopes were analyzed. We found no significant correlation between nasalance scores (any passage) and the respiratory distress index or body mass index. No significant perioperative change in any nasalance score. The moment variations in the final consonants /m/ and /n/ did not change significantly postoperatively. However, the postoperative moment variation of the final consonant /ng/ differed significantly in the third formant (F3) and second bandwidth (BW2). Few significant changes in nasal resonance speech quality were apparent after UPF operation. However, a postoperative acoustic change in the final sound /ng/ may be sustained. Patients may be preoperatively advised that the risk of voice change is very low, but not absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lavagem nasal como método de avaliação das cavidades nasais Nasal lavage as a tool to evaluate nasal cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme P. Caminha


    Full Text Available A avaliação das cavidades nasais é extremamente importante nos indivíduos portadores de patologias nasais e nos que estão expostos a substâncias potencialmente nocivas presentes no meio ambiente. Como a histologia da mucosa nasal é similar à das vias respiratórias inferiores, uma resposta inflamatória vista no nariz pode ser um sinal de alerta de inflamação na via aérea inferior. A presença de biomarcadores nas cavidades nasais pode ser facilmente detectada através de inúmeras técnicas. Entretanto, é necessário dispormos de um método para avaliação das alterações encontradas nesta região que seja simples e seguro. A lavagem nasal preenche estes critérios e deve ser considerada sempre que se deseje estudar esta região.The evaluation of the nasal cavities of subjects with nasal pathologies and those exposed to environmental contaminants is very important. Nasal mucosal histology is similar to that in the lower airways. Therefore, an inflammatory response seen in the nasal passages may be a warning signal of inflammation in the lower airways. Biomarkers in the nasal cavities can be easily detected in many ways. However, it is necessary to have a method of quantifying this effects that is safe and simple to perform. Nasal lavage fulfills these criteria and should be considered when studying this area.

  14. [Gastric aspiration therapy is a possible alternative to treatment of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Møller; Jorsal, Tina; Naver, Lars Peter Skat


    Aspiration therapy with AspireAssist is a novel endoscopic obesity treatment. Patients aspirate approximately 30% of an ingested meal through a draining system connected to a percutanous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. AspireAssist was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration...

  15. Cross-Lagged Relationships between Career Aspirations and Goal Orientation in Early Adolescents (United States)

    Creed, Peter; Tilbury, Clare; Buys, Nick; Crawford, Meegan


    We surveyed 217 students (145 girls; average age = 14.6 years) on two occasions, twelve months apart, on measures of career aspirations (job aspirations, job expectations, educational aspirations) and goal orientation (learning, performance-prove, performance-avoid), and tested the causal relationship between goal orientation and aspirations. We…

  16. Through the eyes of children: Exploring Grade 7 career aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Robinson


    Full Text Available Background: The shift in recent years towards the lifespan concept of career development, which views career behaviour as occurring in stages beginning in childhood and continuing throughout life, has meant that it has become increasingly important to assist learners in fulfilling their career goals. There is, however, a scarcity of research on the career aspirations of primary school learners, especially those from low socio-economic backgrounds. Aim: This article describes research conducted on the career aspirations of Grade 7 learners at a community school. Setting: The study is set within an interpretivist paradigm and utilises a generic qualitative research design. Methods: The study involved a purposefully selected group of Grade 7 learners from a local community school. As part of the study, each learner completed a collage and sociogram, and took part in a group interview. Results: Themes that emerged from the data analysis were: career aspirations that seek to fulfil hopes and dreams, the role of the family in shaping career aspirations and counting the ‘cost’ of career aspirations. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that there is a need to explore learners’ career aspirations from an early age in order to expose them to various career choices in the constantly changing world of work.

  17. Quality of canine spermatozoa retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration. (United States)

    Varesi, S; Vernocchi, V; Faustini, M; Luvoni, G C


    To investigate the feasibility of percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration in dogs and whether it might provide a population of epididymal spermatozoa similar to the population that can be obtained by processing isolated epididymis caudae. Concentration and total sperm number, motility, morphology and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration, in vitro aspiration and mincing of the cauda of the epididymis were compared. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration is a feasible procedure to retrieve a population of spermatozoa in dogs. Quality is similar to that of spermatozoa collected in vitro, although a wide variation amongst animals was observed. In case of ejaculation failure due to pathological conditions in dogs, the collection of spermatozoa from the cauda of the epididymis could be an option for providing gametes for assisted reproductive technologies. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration can be used in dogs with compromised reproductive performance, in which orchiectomy cannot be performed for medical or owner reasons. Further studies aimed to investigate whether the percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration technique might be feasible for repeated semen collection and to accurately evaluate side effects are required. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Prevalence ofStaphylococcusspp. nasal colonization among doctors of podiatric medicine and associated risk factors in Spain. (United States)

    de Benito, Sheila; Alou, Luis; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Gómez-Lus, María Luisa; Collado, Luis; Sevillano, David


    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) nasopharyngeal carriage among Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (Podiatrists) and to determine the potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016-2017 among 239 podiatrists in Spain. The presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was determined by microbiological analysis of nasal exudate and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Each podiatrist completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised various parameters such as sex, age, podiatry experience duration, underlying diseases, prior antibiotic treatment, hospitalization during the last year, and use of a protective mask, an aspiration system, or gloves. The prevalence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was 23.0%, 1.3%, and 23.8%, respectively. The MSSA prevalence was higher among podiatrists who did not use an aspiration system (32.3%) compared to those who did (19.3%; p  = 0.0305), and among podiatrists with respiratory diseases (36.8%) compared to those without (20.8%; p  = 0.0272). The MRSE prevalence was higher among men (33.7%) compared to women (8.6%; p  = 0.0089), podiatrists aged ≥50 (38.5%) compared to ≤35 (17.8%; p  = 0.0101), and podiatrists with ≥15 (39.3%) compared to ≤5 years of podiatry experience (12.5%; p  = 0.0015). Among the S. aureus strains, 84.5% were resistant to penicillin, 22.4% to erythromycin, 20.7% to clindamycin, and 12.7% to mupirocin. The MRSE strains were resistant to penicillin (93.0%), erythromycin (78.9%), and mupirocin (73.7%). The prevalence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis nasal carriage is low among Spanish podiatrists compared to other health professionals.

  19. [Study on computed tomography features of nasal septum cellule and its clinical significance]. (United States)

    Huang, Dingqiang; Li, Wanrong; Gao, Liming; Xu, Guanqiang; Ou, Xiaoyi; Tang, Guangcai


    To investigate the features of nasal septum cellule in computed tomographic (CT) images and its clinical significance. CT scans data of nasal septum in 173 patients were randomly obtained from January 2001 to June 2005. Prevalence and clinical features were summarized in the data of 19 patients with nasal septum cellule retrospectively. (1) Nineteen cases with nasal septum cellule were found in 173 patients. (2) All nasal septum cellule of 19 cases located in perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone, in which 8 cases located in upper part of nasal septum and 11 located in middle. (3) There were totally seven patients with nasal diseases related to nasal septum cellule, in which 3 cases with inflammation, 2 cases with bone fracture, 1 case with cholesterol granuloma, 1 case with mucocele. Nasal septum cellule is an anatomic variation of nasal septum bone, and its features can provide further understanding of some diseases related to nasal septum cellule.

  20. [Studies on the nasal epithelium toxicity of adjuvants and recombination hirudin (rHV2) nasal spary]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Hou, Jun-Ling; Ma, Chang-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Ming-Xia; Zhang, Qiang


    To investigate the nasal epithelium toxicity of adjuvants and rHV2 nasal spary(HVS). Ciliary movement were evaluated with in situ toad palate model; The histology assessment of nasal epithelium were carried out after long-lasting and repeated use of HVS. Adjuvants included SDS, Brij 35, azone, lecithin, EDTA, menthol, nipagin and thiomersal were able to significantly inhibited the ciliary movement, while tween80, glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt, benzalkonium bromide, sodium benzoate and adhensive materials investigated had less influence on it. HVS was able to damaged the nasal epithelium, but this effect recovered soon after stopping administration. It was demonstrated that SDS, Brij 35, azone,lecithin, EDTA, menthol, nipagin and thiomersal. It had significant cilitoxity, while tween80, glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt, benzalkonium bromide, sodium benzoate and adhensive materials investigated had no significance; Chitosan co-administration with some adjuvants may make the cillitoxity severer; It is available that rHV2 be administered by nasal spary.

  1. Influence of Altered Auditory Feedback on Oral-Nasal Balance in Speech. (United States)

    de Boer, Gillian; Bressmann, Tim


    This study explored the role of auditory feedback in the regulation of oral-nasal balance in speech. Twenty typical female speakers wore a Nasometer 6450 (KayPentax) headset and headphones while continuously repeating a sentence with oral and nasal sounds. Oral-nasal balance was quantified with nasalance scores. The signals from 2 additional oral and nasal microphones were played back to the participants through the headphones. The relative loudness of the nasal channel in the mix was gradually changed so that the speakers heard themselves as more or less nasal. An additional amplitude control group of 9 female speakers completed the same task while hearing themselves louder or softer in the headphones. A repeated-measures analysis of variance of the mean nasalance scores of the stimulus sentence at baseline, minimum, and maximum nasal feedback conditions demonstrated a significant effect of the nasal feedback condition. Post hoc analyses found that the mean nasalance scores were lowest for the maximum nasal feedback condition. The scores of the minimum nasal feedback condition were significantly higher than 2 of the 3 baseline feedback conditions. The amplitude control group did not show any effects of volume changes on nasalance scores. Increased nasal feedback led to a compensatory adjustment in the opposite direction, confirming that oral-nasal balance is regulated by auditory feedback. However, a lack of nasal feedback did not lead to a consistent compensatory response of similar magnitude.

  2. Asymmetric nasal mucosal thickening in healthy dogs consistent with the nasal cycle as demonstrated by MRI and CT. (United States)

    Friling, Lisa; Nyman, Helena T; Johnson, Victoria


    The nasal cycle is a physiological phenomenon that causes regular cyclical congestion and decongestion of the venous sinusoids lining the nasal mucosa. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) features of the normal nasal cycle in a group of dogs. Five dogs were recruited that met the following criteria: 8 to 15 months old, nonbrachiocephalic breed, no clinical signs or history of nasal disease, and undergoing anesthesia for problems unrelated to the nasal cavity. Nasal MRI (n = 5) and CT scans (pre- and postcontrast, n = 5) were acquired. Images were evaluated subjectively by two board-certified radiologists and objectively by a diagnostic imaging intern using regions of interest placed on each side of the nasal cavity. Findings were compared using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Students t-test on log-transformed data. All dogs showed diffuse unilateral mucosal thickening of the rostral part of the nasal cavity in both MRI and CT studies. This mucosal thickening shifted sides between examinations in three dogs. Changes appeared most marked on T2-weighted scans. No asymmetric mucosal changes were seen in the mucosa of the ethmoturbinates, vomer-nasal septum, hard palate or the frontal sinuses in any patient on MRI or CT. Computed tomographic contrast enhancement of the thickened mucosa was not statistically significant (P-value cycle may cause asymmetrical mucosal changes in the rostral part of the nasal cavity that mimic MRI and CT characteristics previously reported for inflammatory disease in dogs. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Optimal management of nasal congestion caused by allergic rhinitis in children: safety and efficacy of medical treatments. (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis


    Nasal congestion is such a frequent and multifactorial occurrence in young children that parents and medical caregivers often overlook the need for medical intervention. However, children with congestion can suffer quality-of-life detriments resulting from sleep disturbance, learning impairment, and fatigue. Congestion also impairs the normal nasal breathing that is physiologically important for the efficient cleaning and conditioning of inspired air. Further, the most common cause of congestion, allergic rhinitis, is considered a potential risk factor for asthma. Published guidelines on the treatment of allergic rhinitis agree that management strategies in children should follow the same principles as in adults, while recognizing the need for dosage adjustments and being aware of unique safety issues. Intranasal corticosteroids, with robust effects in reducing congestion and good tolerability, remain a treatment of choice. Despite lingering concerns about the potential for growth suppression with these drugs, clinical evidence suggests a very low risk at prescribed dosages, especially with compounds that have a low systemic bioavailability. Oral antihistamines are commonly cited as first-line options for allergic rhinitis, although their effect on nasal congestion is relatively modest. First-generation antihistamines should not be administered to children because of their sedative properties, which can worsen learning problems associated with allergic rhinitis. Second-generation oral antihistamines are preferred, although this class is not completely devoid of adverse effects. Other treatments, such as a nasal antihistamine, decongestants, and immunotherapy, present varying levels of safety and tolerability issues in children.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xide (NO) in the so called 3-way supplies the oxygen for oxidizing almost completely the remaining carbon monoxide (CO) and the different unburned hydro- carbons (CH). The mixture relation provided by a carburetor is given by the mass flow of air through the venturi tube and that of the fuel trough the main jet.

  5. Periapical infection masquerading as a nasal pustule. (United States)

    Oboro-Onuora, Ho; Onuora, Oi; Sede, Ma; Azodo, Cc


    Periapical infections may give rise to intraoral and extraoral complications. Extraoral manifestation of periapical infection without an accompanying dental symptom may lead to presentation first to Medical doctor. This is a case of pulpal necrosis of right maxillary central incisor (tooth #11) with a discharging sinus, in the floor of the right nostril. Failure to associate the discolored tooth #11 and a discharging sinus in the floor of the right nostril, lead to the initial presentation of the patient to the Otorhinolaryngologist. The recurrent discharge from the sinus continued despite prolonged antibiotics administration. This case report showed that extraoral sinus tract of dental origin in the nostril poses a diagnostic challenge. It is expected to raise awareness of clinicians about the unusual presentations of periapical infection. There is a need for examination of the maxillary incisors in patients presenting with nasal pustule.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified as a key pathogen in hospitalised children with aspiration pneumonia and a high aspiration risk. (United States)

    Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Liat; Ari, Anne; Bilavsky, Efraim; Scheuerman, Oded; Amir, Jacob; Prais, Dario


    Data on the causative pathogens and optimal empirical therapy of aspiration pneumonia in children are limited. This study sought to describe the bacteriology of aspiration pneumonia in hospitalised children with a high aspiration risk. Respiratory tract specimens were prospectively collected using the induced sputum technique from children with a high aspiration risk who were hospitalised for aspiration pneumonia in a tertiary paediatric medical centre from 2009 to 2014. Clinical, microbiological and treatment data were recorded and analysed for each admission. The cohort comprised 50 children with 235 hospital admissions. Of the 183 respiratory tract cultures performed, 110 were positive for bacteria, with 169 isolates, mostly Gram-negative. The most common Gram-negative pathogen was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. If patients had Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation, the risk of them having the pathogen again was 81%. The multivariate analysis showed that the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and number of hospitalisations were significantly associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation. Gram-negative bacilli, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were the major causative agents of paediatric aspiration pneumonia in our study. Empiric antipseudomonas treatment should be considered, particularly in patients who are receiving antibiotic prophylaxis, have experienced recurrent hospitalisations or with previous respiratory cultures that showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshie Manabe

    Full Text Available Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly.We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76% who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL, and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16-22.62, p < 0.001, daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39-15.65, feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27-10.48, p < 0.001, and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81-5.91, p < 0.001. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910-5.619, deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948-6.952, dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720-23.643, and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031-2.539.The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia. These results could help improve clinical management for preventing

  8. Functional morphology of the nasal region of a hammerhead shark. (United States)

    Abel, Richard L; Maclaine, James S; Cotton, Ross; Xuan, Viet Bui; Nickels, Timothy B; Clark, Thomas H; Wang, Zhijin; Cox, Jonathan P L


    We describe several novel morphological features in the nasal region of the hammerhead shark Sphyrna tudes. Unlike the open, rounded incurrent nostril of non-hammerhead shark species, the incurrent nostril of S. tudes is a thin keyhole-like aperture. We discovered a groove running anterior and parallel to the incurrent nostril. This groove, dubbed the minor nasal groove to distinguish it from the larger, previously described, (major) nasal groove, is common to all eight hammerhead species. Using life-sized plastic models generated at 200 microm resolution from an X-ray scan, we also investigated flow in the nasal region. Even modest oncoming flow speeds stimulate extensive, but not complete, circulation within the model olfactory chamber, with flow passing through the two main olfactory channels. Flow crossed from one channel to another via a gap in the olfactory array, sometimes guided by the interlamellar channels. Major and minor nasal grooves, as well as directing flow into the olfactory chamber, can, in conjunction with the nasal bridge separating incurrent and excurrent nostrils, limit flow passing into the olfactory chamber, possibly to protect the delicate nasal structures. This is the first simulation of internal flow within the olfactory chamber of a shark.

  9. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among healthy adults. (United States)

    Choi, Chong Seng; Yin, Chow Suet; Bakar, Afra Abu; Sakewi, Zamberi; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Jamal, Farida; Othman, Norlijah


    Data on the carriage rate and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Staphylococcus aureus strains prevalent in the community are not available for many developing countries including Malaysia. To estimate the extent of community S. aureus transmission, in particular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the prevalence of S. aureus nasal colonization in a population of healthy adults was determined. Factors associated with S. aureus nasal carriage and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of the isolates were also analyzed. A cross-sectional study involving 346 adults was conducted. Nasal swabs were examined for the presence of S. aureus. Epidemiological information concerning risk factors for nasal carriage was also obtained. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. MRSA strains isolated were further subjected to pulse-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 23.4%. The findings also revealed that ex-smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-6.32, p=0.033) and oral contraceptive users (95% CI 1.12-21.67, p=0.035) were more likely to harbor S. aureus. One person was colonized with MRSA, which was different from the hospital strain. MRSA nasal colonization was found to be low outside of the health care environment. Smokers and oral contraceptive users have high nasal carrier rates.

  10. Congenital Midline Nasal Mass: Four Cases with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambhaji Govind Chintale


    Full Text Available Introduction Congenital midline nasal masses include nasal dermoids, gliomas, encephaloceles. Although rare, these disorders are clinically important because of their potential for connection to the central nervous system. Preoperative knowledge of an intracranial connection is a necessity to allow for neurosurgical consultation and possible planning for craniotomy. This study discusses the clinical presentation of congenital midline nasal mass and the role of imaging modalities like CT scan and MRI in diagnosis and the surgical management. Materials and Methods  This prospective study is carried from March 2014 to March 2016, during which 4 cases presented to the Otorhinolaryngology department. Pre-operative evaluation of the patients included endoscopic evaluation along with haematological investigations, CT Scan and MRI. The masses were removed with nasal endoscopic sinus surgery or by external approaches and neurosurgical intervention. Result The age of the patients ranged from 3 years to 25 years. Three of them were male and one female. There was one case of nasoethmoidal encephalocele and the other three were dermoids (intranasal dermoid cyst, nasal dermoid cyst and nasal dermoid sinus cyst. Conclusion Congenital midline nasal masses are rare. These disorders are clinically important because of their intracranial connection which require proper evaluation with radiological imaging like CT scan and/or MRI before FNAC and any surgical intervention.

  11. [Effects of Le-Fort-I-Osteotomy on nasalance scores]. (United States)

    Zemann, Wolfgang; Feichtinger, Matthias; Santler, Gert; Kärcher, Hans


    Nasalance represents a measure of the relative amount of oral and nasal acoustic energy produced by a speaker. Literature shows changes in nasalance after surgery of the oropharynx. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the outcome of speech and nasalance scores after Le-Fort-I-Osteotomy. A total of 20 individuals with normal speech development were examined preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively with the Nasometer 6200 (Kay-Elemetrics, USA) after bimaxillary surgery. The tone materials used comprised the standardized text passage: "Ein Kindergeburtstag", the vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ and a syllable repetition subtest. All patients showed changes in nasalance scores 6 weeks postoperatively. There were no significant changes reading the standard text. The syllable repetition test showed significant changes for repetition of "ma ma ma" and "na na na" (p=0,003, respectively p=0,033). Intonation of the vowel /a/1 also revealed significant changes regarding the pre- and postoperative values (p=0,006). However, the obtained values had no significant impact on the nasality characteristics of speech. This study confirms that maxillary osteotomies can result in significant changes of nasalance scores. However these changes do not have any impact on normal speech and voice.

  12. Carbopol-based gels for nasal delivery of progesterone. (United States)

    Rathnam, Grace; Narayanan, N; Ilavarasan, R


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nasal absorption of progesterone from carbopol-based nasal gels in rabbits. Progesterone nasal gels were prepared by dispersing carbopol 974 (1%, 1.5%, and 2%) in distilled water followed by addition of progesterone/progesterone-beta cyclodextrin complex dissolved in propylene glycol then neutralization. The potential use of beta cyclodextrin (CD) as nasal absorption enhancer by simple addition, as a physical mixture and as a complex with progesterone was investigated. The absolute bioavailability of progesterone from nasal gels in rabbits was studied by estimating the serum progesterone level by competitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay in comparison to intravenous injection. The carbopol gel formulations produced a significant increase in bioavailability. CD complex promotes the nasal absorption of progesterone from carbopol gels as compared with gels where the CD is added by simple addition and gels which do not contain CD. This method of addition of CD as an inclusion complex in the gels could be considered as a preferred platform in nasal drug administration.

  13. Characterization of the nasal and oral microbiota of detection dogs. (United States)

    Isaiah, Anitha; Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Kelley, Russ; Mundell, Paul; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S


    Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9). To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (Pdogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group. Our initial data also shows that there is a temporal variation in alpha diversity in nasal samples in detection canines.

  14. Does nasal irrigation enter paranasal sinuses in chronic rhinosinusitis? (United States)

    Snidvongs, Kornkiat; Chaowanapanja, Pattraporn; Aeumjaturapat, Songklot; Chusakul, Supinda; Praweswararat, Puangmali


    Nasal irrigation is widely used in treating sinonasal diseases. Not only does it remove static secretions and promote mucociliary clearance, but, in chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal flush is also a potential route for topical drug administration into paranasal sinuses. A clinical study was conducted to investigate how well nasal irrigation could reach paranasal sinuses with the ostiomeatal units blocked in chronic rhinosinusitis. This study was performed to (1) assess the ability of a nasal douche and spray to deliver a solution into the paranasal sinuses in chronic rhinosinusitis and (2) compare the performance of the two techniques. Fourteen patients, with bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis, underwent nasal irrigation with 140 mg/mL of iodinated contrast solution by 40 mL of douching using an irrigation syringe in one side, and 10 mL of spraying in the other side. A computed tomography scan was undertaken for each patient to determine the volume and the distribution of staining in the nose and paranasal sinuses. Only two patients had any staining, with a small amount present in a total of three maxillary sinuses (0.10 mL, 0.04 mL, and 0.13 mL). The mean volumes of paranasal sinus staining by nasal douche and nasal spray were 0.0093 and 0.01 mL, respectively. We found that the two techniques had a similar performance. Both of them delivered only a small amount of the solution, if any, into the sinuses (with a mean difference of -0.0007 mL; 95% CI, -0.02-0.02 mL; p = 0.94). Nasal douche and spray is not effective in delivering a nasal irrigation solution into paranasal sinuses in chronic rhinosinusitis.

  15. Association of Mental Health Status With Perception of Nasal Function. (United States)

    Strazdins, Erika; Nie, Yu Feng; Ramli, Raziqah; Palesy, Tom; Christensen, Jenna M; Marcells, George Nicholas; Harvey, Richard John


    Mental health issues are thought to be overrepresented among patients undergoing rhinoplasty and may be associated with patient presentation prior to surgery. To assess the association of poor mental health with perception of nasal function. A cross-sectional study of patients presenting for airway assessment was performed from December 1, 2011, to October 31, 2015, at 2 tertiary rhinoplasty centers in Sydney, Australia. Mental health was independently defined preoperatively by the Mental Component Summary of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey version 2 (a score of Scale (a score of 11 indicated above-average dysmorphic concerns). Nasal function was assessed with patient-reported outcome measures, including the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation Scale, the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test, a visual analog scale to rate ease of breathing on the left and right sides, and Likert scales to assess overall function and nasal obstruction. Nasal airflow was assessed by nasal peak inspiratory flow, nasal airway resistance, and minimum cross-sectional area. Among 495 patients in the study (302 women and 193 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [13.6] years), compared with patients with good mental health, those with poor mental health had poorer scores in all patient-reported outcome measures, including the visual analog scale for the left side (mean [SD], 51 [25] vs 42 [25]; P = .001), visual analog scale for the right side (mean [SD], 54 [24] vs 45 [26]; P Scale (mean [SD], 2.64 [0.95] vs 1.96 [1.04]; P perception of nasal function compared with those who are mentally healthy with clinically similar nasal airflow. Clinicians should be aware that patients with poor mental health reporting obstructed airflow may in part be representing an extension of their negative emotions rather than true obstruction and may require further assessment prior to surgery. NA.

  16. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu


    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The use ofnatural substances in thetreatment of rhinosinusitis in thelight of the EuropeanPosition Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012


    Małgorzata Pachecka; Ryszard Pachecka; Agnieszka Pławińska


    Rhinosinusitis is a very common condition of the upper respiratory tract. The disease may be caused by viral, bacterial or fungal infections as well as by allergens or air pollution (e.g. tobacco smoke), with viral infections being the most common cause. The first phase of viral rhinosinusitis therapy involves the use of antipyretics, analgesics, anti-oedematous agents as well as nasal decongestants, occasionally, topical glucocorticosteroids, nasal irrigation and adjunct phytotherap...

  18. Career aspirations and pregnancy intentions in pregnant teens. (United States)

    Phipps, Maureen G; Salak, Jessica R; Nunes, Anthony P; Rosengard, Cynthia


    To quantify the association between career aspirations and pregnancy intention in a cohort of pregnant adolescents seeking prenatal care. Pregnant adolescents presenting for their first prenatal visit between March 2002 and February 2005 participated in a 30-minute interview as part of a larger cohort study addressing pregnancy attitudes and outcomes. Pregnancy intention was assessed through direct questioning and career aspirations were assessed by categorizing career goal responses into three categories: those requiring less than a college education, those requiring at least a college education, and undecided. Associations between pregnancy intention and career aspirations were quantified using cross tabulations and multivariable logistic regression. Hospital based prenatal clinic. Women aged 12 to 19 seeking prenatal care. Pregnancy intention. Of the 257 pregnant adolescents included in the study, 20% were 12-15 years old, 39% were 16-17 years old and 41% were 18-19 years old. The majority (85%) of the adolescents reported their pregnancies were unintended; 59% reported a career that requires at least a college education; 28% reported a career that requires less than a college education; and, 13% were undecided. Intended pregnancy was observed in 15% of those with career aspirations not requiring college and 17% of those with career aspirations and requiring college. The majority of adolescents in this study reported their pregnancy was unintended, had career aspirations requiring at least a college education, and reported plans to go back to school after the baby was born. Understanding pregnant adolescents' career aspirations may help inform pregnancy prevention and parenting support programs. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diesel Exhaust Exposure and Nasal Response to Attenuated Influenza in Normal and Allergic Volunteers (United States)

    Zhou, Haibo; Zhang, Hongtao; Horvath, Katie; Robinette, Carole; Kesic, Matthew; Meyer, Megan; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Jaspers, Ilona


    Rationale: Diesel exhaust enhances allergic inflammation, and pollutants are associated with heightened susceptibility to viral respiratory infections. The effects of combined diesel and virus exposure in humans are unknown. Objectives: Test whether acute exposure to diesel modifies inflammatory responses to influenza virus in normal humans and those with allergies. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus in normal volunteers and those with allergic rhinitis exposed to diesel (100 μg/m3) or clean air for 2 hours, followed by standard dose of virus and serial nasal lavages. Endpoints were inflammatory mediators (ELISA) and virus quantity (quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). To test for exposure effect, we used multiple regression with exposure group (diesel vs. air) as the main explanatory variable and allergic status as an additional factor. Measurements and Main Results: Baseline levels of mediators did not differ among groups. For most postvirus nasal cytokine responses, there was no significant diesel effect, and no significant interaction with allergy. However, diesel was associated with significantly increased IFN-γ responses (P = 0.02), with no interaction with allergy in the regression model. Eotaxin-1 (P = 0.01), eosinophil cationic protein (P diesel exposure, linked to allergy. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to diesel exhaust leads to increased eosinophil activation and increased virus quantity after virus inoculation in those with allergic rhinitis. This is consistent with previous literature suggesting a diesel “adjuvant” effect promoting allergic inflammation, and our data further suggest this change may be associated with reduced virus clearance. Clinical trial registered with (NCT00617110). PMID:22071326

  20. Strategy for Nasal Reconstruction in Atypical Facial Clefts

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    Fouad M. Ghareeb, FRCS, MD


    Full Text Available Summary:. It is difficult to put forward a strategy for the treatment of nasal clefts due to the rarity and diversity of anatomical aberrations of these cases contrary to the common nasal affection in cleft lip and palate patients, which differ in severity rather than differing in the morbid anatomy. This simple strategy for correction of these nasal clefts will hopefully help surgeons to achieve better results. In the mean time I intended to describe the morbid anatomy of these cases by choosing examples of each morbid anatomy.

  1. Adenoma pleomorfo del tabique nasal: Caso clínico


    Osorio M,Jaime; Rahal E,Maritza; Cantero C,Daniel; Castillo A,Jorge


    El adenoma pleomorfo es la neoplasia más frecuente de glándulas salivales mayores, pero es poco común en la cavidad nasal. Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 41 años, quien consulta por una masa septal izquierda que determina obstrucción nasal ipsilateral cuyo aspecto clínico e imagenológico sugiere una lesión benigna. Se extirpa la lesión por abordaje transnasal directo, con diagnóstico histopatológico compatible con adenoma pleomorfo del tabique nasal (tumor mixto benigno de tipo s...

  2. Nasal patency and otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial features in children. (United States)

    Milanesi, Jovana de Moura; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Schuch, Luiz Henrique; Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues


    Nasal obstruction is a common symptom in childhood, related to rhinitis and pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy. In the presence of nasal obstruction, nasal patency may be reduced, and nasal breathing is replaced by mouth breathing. Orofacial and otorhinolaryngologic changes are related to this breathing mode. Objective evaluation of upper airways may be obtained through nasal patency measurement. To compare nasal patency and otorhinolaryngologic-orofacial features in children. One hundred and twenty three children, 6-12 year-old, and of both sexes underwent speech therapy evaluation, according to Orofacial Myofunctional Evaluation protocol, clinical and endoscopic otorhinolaryngologic examination and nasal patency measurement, using the absolute and predicted (%) peak nasal inspiratory flow values. Lower values of absolute and estimated peak nasal inspiratory flow values were found in children with restless sleep (p=0.006 and p=0.002), nasal obstruction report (p=0.027 and p=0.023), runny nose (p=0.004 and p=0.012), unsystematic lip closure during mastication (p=0.040 and p=0.026), masticatory speed reduced (p=0.006 and p=0.008) and altered solid food swallowing (p=0.006 and p=0.001). Absolute peak nasal inspiratory flow was lower in children with pale inferior turbinate (p=0.040), reduced hard palate width (p=0.037) and altered speech (p=0.004). Higher absolute values were found in children with increased tongue width (p=0.027) and, higher absolute and predicted (%) in children with mild everted lip (p=0.008 and p=0.000). Nasal patency was lower in children with restless sleep, rhinitis signs and symptoms, hard palate width reduced and with changes in mastication, deglutition and speech functions. It is also emphasized that most of the children presented signs and symptom of allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Nasal Pathologies on Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Murat Enoz


    Full Text Available Increased airway resistance can induce snoring and sleep apnea, and nasal obstruction is a common problem in snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients. Many snoring and OSA patients breathe via the mouth during sleep. Mouth breathing may contribute to increased collapsibility of the upper airways due to decreased contractile efficiency of the upper airway muscles as a result of mouth opening. Increased nasal airway resistance produces turbulent flow in the nasal cavity, induces oral breathing, promotes oscillation of the pharyngeal airway and can cause snoring.

  4. Avoiding irregularities on the nasal dorsum in rhinoplasty


    Fernando Javier Casanueva; Felipe Cardemi


    Las complicaciones de un inadecuado manejo del dorso nasal son frecuentes, destacando entre estas la palpación de irregularidades, debido a que en el manejo de la giba nasal se utilizan técnicas resectivas. Se describe una técnica quirúrgica para el manejo del dorso nasal, con énfasis en evitar irregularidades. Los pasos claves para evitar la palpación de irregularidades son: el uso de raspa diamantada, autoespaciador y lámina de cartílago morcelizado como camuflaje. Posterior a la resección ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Farooq


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fine needle aspiration cytology is a simple, easy and safe procedure. It has been used for the diagnosis of superficial palpable lesions successfully. Deep-seated lesions have also been sampled by fine needle aspiration cytology with the imaging techniques with considerable success. FNAC is a simple, easy and reliable technique for the initial diagnostic evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes. The aim of the study conducted was to compare the two techniques- FNAC and FNNAC for diagnostic adequacy in superficial enlarged lymph nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in 100 patients with superficial enlarged lymph nodes using both the techniques- FNAC and FNNAC. Relevant history and clinical examination were taken. The two techniques were compared for the diagnostic adequacy based on five parameters using Mair et al scoring system. RESULTS In the present study, the cumulative score for FNNAC was more in comparison to that of FNAC (6.82 >6.57. For individual parameters, the average score for parameters like background blood (1.47 >1.41, degree of cellular degeneration (1.37 >1.31, trauma (1.35 >1.26 and retention of architecture (1.25 >1.16 were better in case of FNNAC in comparison to FNAC. However, average score for amount of cellular material was more (1.44 >1.38 in case of FNAC than FNNAC. All these differences observed among various parameters were, however, statistically nonsignificant with P-values of 0.417, 0.425, 0.319, 0.200, 0.160 and 0.1179. CONCLUSION Both FNAC and FNNAC yield good material for diagnostic of evaluation of superficial enlarged lymph nodes. FNNAC provided superior quality smears for the interpretation and diagnosis of superficial enlarged lymph nodes. FNNAC is a good technique that needs to be utilised in the routine cytology practice for sampling of superficial enlarged lymph nodes.

  6. Clinical Question: Nasal saline or intranasal corticosteroids to treat allergic rhinitis in children. (United States)

    Madison, Stefani; Brown, Elizabeth Aubrey; Franklin, Rachel; Wickersham, Elizabeth A; McCarthy, Laine H


    In pediatric populations, is nasal saline irrigation as effective as intranasal corticosteroids at relieving allergic rhinitis symptoms? No. Intranasal steroids are more effective than nasal saline alone to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Combination therapy further improves symptom reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE FOR THE ANSWER: B SEARCH TERMS: Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Saline, Nasal corticosteroids, children younger than age 18. DATE SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED: August and September 2014, October 2015. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort studies, nasal spray, hypertonic saline solution, nasal lavage, rhinitis, intranasal administration, nasal saline, human, English language. Antihistamines, Adults, Articles older than 2008.

  7. Oral or nasal breathing? Real-time effects of switching sampling route onto exhaled VOC concentrations. (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Trefz, Phillip


    There is a need for standardisation in sampling and analysis of breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in order to minimise ubiquitous confounding effects. Physiological factors may mask concentration changes induced by pathophysiological effects. In humans, unconscious switching of oral and nasal breathing can occur during breath sampling, which may affect VOC patterns. Here, we investigated exhaled VOC concentrations in real-time while switching breathing routes. Breath from 15 healthy volunteers was analysed continuously by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry during paced breathing (12 breaths min-1). Every two minutes breathing routes were switched (Setup-1: Oral → Nasal → Oral → Nasal; Setup-2: OralinNasalout → NasalinOralout → OralinNasalout → NasalinOralout). VOCs in inspiratory and alveolar air and respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were monitored quantitatively in parallel. Changing of the breathing routes and patterns immediately affected exhaled VOC concentrations. These changes were reproducible in both setups. In setup-1 cardiac output and acetone concentrations remained constant, while partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (pET-CO2), isoprene and furan concentrations inversely mirrored tidal-volume and minute-ventilation. H2S (hydrogen-sulphide), C4H8S (allyl-methyl-sulphide), C3H8O (isopropanol) and C3H6O2 increased during oral exhalation. C4H10S increased during nasal exhalations. CH2O2 steadily decreased during the whole measurement. In setup-2 pET-CO2, C2H6S (dimethyl-sulphide), isopropanol, limonene and benzene concentrations decreased whereas, minute-ventilation, H2S and acetonitrile increased. Isoprene and furan remained unchanged. Breathing route and patterns induced VOC concentration changes depended on respiratory parameters, oral and nasal cavity exposure and physico-chemical characters of the compounds. Before using breath VOC concentrations as biomarkers it is essential that the breathing

  8. Promoting safe swallowing when puree is swallowed without aspiration but thin liquid is aspirated: nectar is enough. (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Judson, Benjamin L; Sliwinski, Edward; Madson, Lindsay


    The use of thickened liquids is a common compensatory strategy to improve swallow safety. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal liquid viscosity to use to promote successful swallowing in a specific subset of dysphagic patients who swallow puree without aspiration but thin liquid with aspiration. A referral-based sample of 84 consecutive inpatients from a large, urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital who met the study criteria was analyzed prospectively. Inclusion criteria were no preexisting dysphagia, a successful pharyngeal swallow without aspiration with puree consistency but pharyngeal dysphagia with aspiration of thin liquid consistency, and stable medical, surgical, and neurological status at the time of transnasal fiberoptic swallow testing and up to 24 h after recommendations for oral alimentation with a modified diet consisting of nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids. Success with ingesting both nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids and clinically evident aspiration events were recorded. Care providers were blinded to the study's purpose. All 84 patients were successfully ingesting nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids at the time of swallow testing and up to 24 h after testing. A specific subset of dysphagic patients who swallowed puree without aspiration but aspirated thin liquid demonstrated 100 % successful swallowing of both nectar-like and honey-like thickened liquids. Therefore, a nectar-like thickened liquid appears to be adequate to promote safe swallowing in these patients and, because of patient preference for the least thick liquid, may enhance compliance and potentially contribute to maintenance of adequate hydration requirements.

  9. Inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage among school-age children from urban and rural areas in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Clóvis Eduardo Santos Galvão

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Some studies have shown that inflammatory processes in the nasal air passages may reflect or affect those in the lower airways. We decided to indirectly assess the inflammatory status of the nasal airways in two groups of children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens. OBJECTIVE: To compare the inflammatory activity in the nasal airways, through the determination of mediators in nasal lavage fluid in two distinct populations. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two public elementary schools, one in an urban setting and the other in a rural setting of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Two groups of 40 elementary school children with different sensitization rates to aeroallergens were formed. Samples of nasal lavage fluid were assessed for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP and tryptase. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of ECP were observed among students living in the urban area than those in the rural area (p < 0.05. No significant difference in the tryptase levels was observed. Also, the urban children who were sensitized to aeroallergens presented higher levels of ECP in nasal mucosa than the non-sensitized children, while this difference was not observed among the rural children. DISCUSSION: The lack of mast cell activity and increased eosinophil degranulation revealed a chronic inflammatory state in the nasal air passages. The higher eosinophil activity in the urban area, coinciding with higher sensitization to aeroallergens, suggests that there must be some factors in the urban area that can modulate airway inflammation by influencing the activation of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there was no difference in the concentrations of tryptase in nasal lavage fluids between the two studied groups. However, the children from the urban area presented with higher concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein than did those

  10. For Diabetics, Nasal Powder Fixed Severe Low Blood Sugar (United States)

    ... For Diabetics, Nasal Powder Fixed Severe Low Blood Sugar New product much easier to use than rescue ... News) -- For many people with diabetes, low blood sugar levels are a serious health risk, but researchers ...

  11. Nasal Aspergillosis in a Dog: A Case Report

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    Camilo Padilla Peñuela


    Full Text Available Nasal aspergillosis is a major chronic disease affecting the nostrils in dogs. Clinical sinology is typical in every chronic nasal disease. Epistaxis and occasional pain occurs. Rhinoscopic assessment of the area evidences findings associated with the pathology and allows collecting samples for cytology and culture. Systemic therapy with oral antifungals has had variable utility, but now it has been replaced by direct topical medication to the affected area. This article describes the case of a 4-years-old male dog, submitted to consultation by unilateral muco-bloody nasal discharge with a week of evolution. The patient was treated by another vet center with cyclonamine and vitamin K for a possible clotting disorder. After a series of tests that included rhinoscopy and fungal culture, nasal aspergillosis was diagnosed. Intranasal clotrimazole was applied twice and it allowed the resolution of the clinical signs.

  12. Nasal lining mobilization for primary and secondary palatoplasty. (United States)

    Liu, Daniel Z; Latham, Kerry; Gruss, Joseph S


    Repair of wide primary cleft palates and secondary cases are challenging. Much literature is dedicated to technique modifications and useful pearls for approaching these patients. Nasal lining is not often highlighted or addressed as a solution to these challenging cleft palate surgeries. The goal of this article was to describe and demonstrate through case examples the simple dissection and significant mobilization of nasal lining as a tool for cleft palate repair. Retrospective case examples were selected to highlight the technique. The surgical technique is standardly used by the senior author and has not been previously published. This technique for tension-free nasal lining closure is detailed, and case examples are provided. This technique for nasal lining mobilization is easily reproducible and is versatile. It can be used as an adjunct to any palatoplasty technique and is particularly useful in the treatment of wide clefts and revision cases.

  13. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus

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    Young, S.K.; Graves, D.C.; Rohrer, M.D.; Bulard, R.A.


    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  14. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus. (United States)

    Young, S K; Graves, D C; Rohrer, M D; Bulard, R A


    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  15. The impact of menopause and hormone therapy on nasal resonance. (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Depypere, Herman; Claeys, Sofie; Van Lierde, Kristiane


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of menopause and hormone therapy on nasal resonance by comparing premenopausal women and postmenopausal women with and without hormone therapy. A total of 147 middle-aged Flemish (Dutch)-speaking women participated in the study and were divided into three groups: premenopausal women (n =42), and postmenopausal women with (n =63) and without (n =42) hormone therapy. Nasal resonance scores of isolated sounds and connected speech were measured using the Nasometer. For the isolated sounds as well as for the reading texts, no differences were found in nasal resonance scores between the three groups (ANCOVA). The results of this study indicate that menopause and hormone therapy do not have an impact on the nasal resonance in middle-aged women.

  16. Validity of the nasometer measuring the temporal characteristics of nasalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P; Ha, Seunghee


    To examine the validity of the Nasometer (KayPENTAX, Lincoln Park, NJ) in measuring the temporal characteristics of nasalization by comparing the Nasometer measures to the measures from an external criterion procedure...

  17. Nasal septum perforation in patient with pyoderma gangrenosum

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    Maia, Camilla Bezerra da Cruz


    Full Text Available Introduction: The cocaine is obtained from the leaves of the coca (Erythroxylon coca. It can be used in many ways, but the most common is the drug inhalation. The Cocaine also causes vasoconstriction at nasal mucous membrane and its chronic use can cause necrosis and nasal septum perforation. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an uncommon idiopathic disease characterized by ulcerations, usually observed on the legs. Its diagnosis is most common an exclusion of others diseases. So far, there is no specific treatment based on evidence by randomized controlled trials. Objective: Describe the rare association between Pyoderma gangrenosum and cocaine. Case Report: E. A., 27-year-old woman with destruction of nasal septum and palate who has been using a big amount of cocaine, been necessary note the difference from which disease cause de damage. Final Comments: Also there are only three cases of Pyoderma gangrenosum complicated with nasal septum perforation in cocaine users.

  18. Significance of computerized tomography and nasal cytology in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significance of computerized tomography and nasal cytology in the diagnosis of rhinosinusitis among asthmatic children. Karima Abdel Khalik, Laila AG Hegazy, Hassan A Wahba, Laila A Abdurrahman, Sahar SA Zaki ...

  19. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways. (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C


    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  20. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue.

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    Jae H Lim

    Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.