WorldWideScience

Sample records for asphalt emulsions

  1. Best practices for full-depth reclamation using asphalt emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements using asphalt emulsions (AEFDR) is a process that recycles and rejuvenates the existing : asphalt pavement surface, base, and, sometimes, the subgrade, providing an improved underlying structure for the new...

  2. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  3. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  4. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  5. Assessing The Durability of Polymer Modified Asphalt Emulsions Slurry Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singgih, C.; Handayani, D.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Slurry Seal is an application of road preservation in the form of impermeable nonstructural thin layer with maximum thickness of 10 mm, which consisting of a cold laid mixture of asphalt emulsion with continuous graded fine aggregate, mineral filler, water and other added ingredients. Road preservation use slurry seal only functioning as a surface layer on the existing pavement structure. This preliminary research was conducted to determine the value of consistency, setting time, and indirect tensile strength of polymer modified slurry seal. The laboratory tests were conducted to determine the optimum residual asphalt content. The results show that the value of the optimum water content by pre-wetting 5% is getting smaller with increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion. The addition of water 0 - 2.5% with 5% water for pre-wetting, the mixture provides a sufficient consistency in accordance with the specifications. The increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion obtained the longer setting time at all slurry seal mixtures, but all of the mixtures still meet the specifications. The use of polymer modified asphalt emulsion on slurry seal was improved durability significantly, based on the value of indirect tensile strength.

  6. Mathematical Approach in Rheological Characterizing of Asphalt Emulsion Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different emulsion residues, such as SS1HP, HFE90, and SS-1VH (trackless, and a base asphalt binder (PG 64-22 are compared to characterize rheological properties by using DSR test. In order to capture the emulsion properties, different frequencies (from 1 to 100 rad/sec at a 10% constant shear rate and temperatures (from −45°C to 75°C with 15°C increments were applied. Then, a master curve for shear modulus was plotted for each emulsion. The transition of the HFE90 emulsion from viscous to elastic behavior occurs at lower temperatures, compared to the other materials. This emulsion is known for performing in a wider temperature range as shown in the results. The trackless emulsion presents an elastic behavior at intermediate temperatures. This product is known as having very fast setting and high resistance to shear stresses. The trackless emulsion presents the highest viscous and elastic modulus, followed by the PG 64-22 binder, SS1HP, and HFE90 emulsion. Shear strength test results show a behavior between trackless emulsion and SS1HP similar to the frequency sweep test results performed by DSR.

  7. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  8. Effect of synthetic surfactants, salinity and alkalinity on the properties of asphalt emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, G.; Martín, J. J.; Alejandre, F. J.; Fortes, J. C.; Prat, F.; Dávila, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of salinity, alkalinity and amount of ionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants in the aqueous emulsifier used to prepare oil-in-water or asphaltic emulsions on the performance of such substances as waterproofing on buildings. The emulsion systems studied here were prepared with Venezuelan extra heavy oil. The findings showed that the four variables modified viscosity, surface tension and mean particle size, physical properties that are instrumental to asphalt em...

  9. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  10. Use of asphalt emulsion selants to contain radon and radium in uranium tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehmstedt, P.L.; Hartley, J.N.; Davis, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    A 6.4-mm thick Armak E-63 cationic asphalt emulsion-Vitro subsoil seal was capable of preventing permeation of RaCl/sub 2/ in 0.5 N HCl solution, radon, and nitrogen under 3.6 kg/cm/sup 2/ (50 psi) overpressure for a 17-day period. (DLC)

  11. Performance Characteristic of Cold Recycled Mixture with Asphalt Emulsion and Chemical Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of chemical additives were used to modify asphalt emulsion recycled mixture. These chemical additives include composite Portland cement (CPC, hydrated lime (HL, and a combination of hydrated lime and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBF. The influence of different additives on the recycled mixture performance was investigated by volumetric and strength tests, moisture susceptibility test, rutting resistance test, and low temperature bending test. To better understand its performance characteristic, the microstructure images of the recycled mixture were observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM. Test results demonstrate that the performance improvement of the emulsion recycled mixture depends on the types and content of chemical additives. Several recommendations are presented for the selection of chemical materials. Based on ESEM image analysis, the interface bonding mechanism is proposed to explain the performance characteristic of the recycled mixture with asphalt emulsion and cementitious materials.

  12. Effect of synthetic surfactants, salinity and alkalinity on the properties of asphalt emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prat, F.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of salinity, alkalinity and amount of ionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants in the aqueous emulsifier used to prepare oil-in-water or asphaltic emulsions on the performance of such substances as waterproofing on buildings. The emulsion systems studied here were prepared with Venezuelan extra heavy oil. The findings showed that the four variables modified viscosity, surface tension and mean particle size, physical properties that are instrumental to asphalt emulsion stability.Este trabajo estudia la influencia de las variables salinidad, alcalinidad y cantidad de surfactantes sintéticos, tanto iónicos como no iónicos, existentes en el emulsivo acuoso empleado para formular emulsiones asfálticas, con vistas a la aplicación de las mismas como recubrimientos impermeabilizantes en edificaciones. Para la preparación de los sistemas emulsionados objeto de estudio, se utilizó como producto bituminoso un crudo extrapesado procedente de Venezuela. En tal sentido, los resultados obtenidos muestran cómo las cuatro variables de formulación anteriormente mencionadas modifican una serie de propiedades físicas (viscosidad, tensión superficial y diámetro promedio de partícula muy determinantes para la estabilidad de las referidas emulsiones asfálticas.

  13. ADDITIVES FOR COLD ASPHALT-CONCRETE MADE FROM EMULSION-MINERAL MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Vavilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the additives use for cold asphalt emulsion mixes. Urgency of the issue consists in the necessity of usage justification and regulation of additive for cold mixes properties adjustment. The article is represented as the general result of analysis of regulatory, literary and other sources related to additive using for CAEM.The main part of the article proposes and justifies the classification of CAEM additives according to their functional purpose (the main purpose of additive: increasing of strength, water resistance, durability, regulating curing and technological modifiers. Depending on the purpose the criteria of technical efficiency of additive using are presented. For each criteria provided the methods determining one or more quality indicators. The quality indicator changing is indicator of additive efficiency. There is provided the formula determining the efficiency of CAEM curing period reduction additives. As an example provided efficiency calculation and evaluation of additives for regulation (acceleration CAEM curing according to the previously published experimental data. The efficiency of curing regulating additives was determined according to the function of temporal changes of CAEM compressing strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity.The article provides the example list of materials that could be or currently used as additives for cold mixes. The conclusion states that proposed classification and criteria give base to purposive regulation of cold asphalt emulsion mixture compositions and their properties.

  14. Physical stability of asphalt emulsion admix seal radon barrier for uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, T.E.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is investigating the use of an asphalt emulsion admix seal to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. A key requirement of any cover system is its long-term stability; the cover must withstand failure over very long periods of time. An important determinant of overall cover system stability is the integrity of the 6.35-cm (2.5-in.) thick asphalt admix seal. Therefore, the physical stability of this seal was examined. The investigation considered the mechanical interaction between the tailings pile and cover. The potential effect of differential settlement of the tailings pile on the integrity of the seal system was also examined. Results indicate that the minimum span length the seal could withstand without failing is 0.34 m (1.1 ft). This assumes a differential settlement of 4.92 cm (1.94 in.) at the center resulting from the application of a 0.76-m (2.5-ft) cover. At spans greater than 0.60 m (1.97 ft), no tensile strain would develop.

  15. Evaluation of the Pavement Quality Indicator (PQI for the on-site density measurement of asphalt emulsion mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Echevarría, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pavement Quality Indicator (PQI is a non-nuclear gauge used for the on-site density measurement of asphalt pavements without the need to extract core samples. Previous studies of hot asphalt mixes found that PQI density readings were very similar to laboratory density measurements of pavement cores. This paper describes the first stage of a research project whose objective is to analyze PQI density measurements of mixes manufactured with an asphalt emulsion binder. The PQI density variability for such mixes was verified and compared with the results obtained with other on-site methods for measuring pavement density.

    El equipo Pavement Quality Indicator es un dispositivo para la determinación de densidad in situ en pavimentos asfálticos sin extracción de testigos. Las experiencias con este equipo en mezclas bituminosas en caliente, recogidas en diferentes fuentes bibliográficas, muestran que las densidades medidas in situ con el PQI son muy similares a las obtenidas mediante la extracción de testigos. En este artículo se expone la primera etapa de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar los resultados de mediciones efectuadas con PQI en mezclas bituminosas donde se utiliza emulsión asfáltica como ligante. Se comprueba la variabilidad de la densidad obtenida con el equipo para este tipo de mezclas, y se comparan los resultados con otros métodos de medida de densidad in situ.

  16. Performance-based analysis of polymer-modified emulsions in asphalt surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Chip seals provide a durable and functional pavement surface and serve as a highly economical highway : maintenance option when constructed properly. Data and literature suggest that chip seal sections constructed with : polymer-modified emulsions (P...

  17. The Preparation of the Quick-Drying Bitumen Emulsion for the Protection of the Road Surface Asphalt Concrete Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria S. Ryabenko; Elena A. Chigorina; Anatoly L. Razinov; Yulia A. Ubaskina; Ivan D. Kovtun

    2016-01-01

    The paper considered getting fast drying bitumen emulsion and study its main operating parameters of the film drying rate and durability of the emulsion. The optimum ratio of the components of the emulsion "binder" – "solvent" – "water".

  18. Cold in-place recycling and full-depth recycling with asphalt products (CIR&FDRwAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    In the 60s, 70s, and 80s, many Illinois local road agencies successfully used conventional asphalt : emulsions for In-Place Recycling to produce Emulsion-Aggregate-Mixtures (EAMs). In more recent years, these : emulsions have not been ...

  19. Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa

    2007-10-01

    Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

  20. Evaluation of dynamic shear rheometer tests for emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    DSR-based rheological tests of 20 different : asphalt emulsion residues were : performed and relationships : with elastic recovery (A : ASHTO : T301) and force ductility (AASHTO T : 300) were investigated. In stra : in sweep test from 2% to 52% : , i...

  1. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  2. Toward a new experimental method for measuring coalescence in bitumen emulsions : A study of two bitumen droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Abdullah; Redelius, Per; Kringos, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Cold mix asphalt (CMA) emulsion technology could become an attractive alternative for the road industry due to low startup and equipment installation costs, diminished energy consumption and reduced environmental impact. The performance of cold asphalt mixtures produced from emulsions is strongly influenced by a good control of the breaking and coalescence process. The wetting of bitumen on the surface of the aggregates is hereby of major importance for the performance of the asphalt. Prematu...

  3. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB, were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2% and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that although an increase dosage of filler and SBR decreased the flow value of the semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, an increase dosage of asphalt emulsion improved the flow value. The indirect tensile strength and liquid immersion residual stability for the condition with greatest Marshall stability were most outstanding with 0.95 MPa and 83.6%, respectively. Evaluation of the recycled cold asphalt abrasion durability revealed that for the case of mixing more than 4% NCB the mass loss rate was lower than 20%. The abrasion durability was found to improve when using modified emulsified asphalt and SBR substitution. From the test results, it was found that the optimal mixing proportion of semiplastic recycled cold asphalt satisfied mechanical properties and durability is NCB with 4%, emulsified asphalt with 3%, and SBR substitution with 20%.

  4. An extensive research on the design methodology and site performance of bitumen emulsion-treated materials

    OpenAIRE

    SERFASS, Jean Pierre; De La Roche, Chantal; Wendling, Louisette; ODIE, Lionel; Gaudefroy, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    In many respects, mixtures manufactured with bitumen emulsion behave in a specific way, differing from that of hot mix asphalt. The tests and design methods developed for hot mixtures, which are now well validated, cannot be applied as they stand to cold or warm emulsion mixtures. In the short and medium term, the specific behaviour of emulsion mixtures is governed by peculiarities, like the presence of water, aggregate-emulsion chemical reactivity, etc. The result is that the mechanical prop...

  5. Asphaltic concrete pavement survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-04-01

    The ever increasing problem of wheel path rutting and excessive desification of asphaltic concrete pavement has been the subject of asphalt technology for quite sometime. It is known that the density of the pavement, which is significant for several ...

  6. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  7. Imaging techniques applied to characterize bitumen and bituminous emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Ramón-Torregrosa, P; Páez-Dueñas, A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of this article is to present some important advances in the imaging techniques currently used in the characterization of bitumen and bituminous emulsions. Bitumen exhibits some properties, such as a black colour and a reflecting surface at rest, which permit the use of optical techniques to study the macroscopic behaviour of asphalt mixes in the cold mix technology based on emulsion use. Imaging techniques allow monitoring in situ the bitumen thermal sensitivity as well as the complex phenomenon of emulsion breaking. Evaporation-driven breaking was evaluated from the shape of evaporating emulsion drops deposited onto non-porous and hydrophobic substrates. To describe the breaking kinetics, top-view images of a drying emulsion drop placed on an aggregate sheet were acquired and processed properly. We can conclude that computer-aided image analysis in road pavement engineering can elucidate the mechanism of breaking and curing of bituminous emulsion.

  8. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  9. POROUS ASPHALT???S CONTRIBUTION ON ROAD SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nur; Ramli, M. Isran; Hustim, Muralia

    2012-01-01

    The porous asphalt properties are different from dense asphalt concrete. Regarding the open structure of its gradation, the porous asphalt can reduce noise level from road traffic, drains water from the road surface, and the thermal conductivity. These behaviors lead to the porous asphalt contribution on road traffic safety and environment. This paper provides a comparison study regarding a literature review based on some developed countries??? experiences in using the porous asphalt related ...

  10. Paver Asphalt Distress Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shahin, M

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in June 1989. It comprises an illustrated asphalt pavement distress manual suitable for use by pavement inspection personnel in the field or in pavement inspection training courses...

  11. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  12. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravský Marián

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic – mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  13. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  14. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A M Rodríguez-Alloza; J Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants...

  15. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  16. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravský Marián; Mandula Ján

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic – mechanical properties decl...

  17. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  18. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  19. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  20. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  1. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  2. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  3. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  5. Long-Term Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Surface Treatments: Product Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    to 1-in.) layers of sealant substances, often asphalt emulsions con- taining fine aggregates, placed on top of existing pavements. Coverings may...include slurry seals, fog seals, micro-surfacing treatments, and thin surface overlays. The coverings are used to protect the pavement from...MTD data will be used to compare the pavement texture after product placement. Sealants are expected to fill surface voids in the pavement. The

  6. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surface layer, is the main damage mechanism of porous asphalt surface wearing courses. In this research, an induction healing approach (namely, activating the healing process of asphalt concrete through ...

  7. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  8. Premature asphalt concrete pavement cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has identified hot mix asphalt concrete : (HMAC) pavements that have displayed top-down cracking within three years of construction. The objective of : the study was to evaluate the top-down cr...

  9. Latest nuclear emulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokujo, Hiroki; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Morishita, Misaki; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Otsuka, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a extremely high-resolution 3D tracking detector. Since the discovery of the pion by C.F. Powell et al. in 1946, experiments with nuclear emulsions have contributed to the development of particle physics. (e.g. the OPERA collaboration reported the discovery of νμ * ντ oscillations in appearance mode in 2015) The technology of nuclear emulsion still keeps making progress. Since 2010, we have introduced a system of nuclear emulsion gel production to our laboratory in Nagoya University, and have started self-development of the new gel, instead of from the photographic film companies. Moreover, a faster automated emulsion scanning system is developed. Its scanning speed reaches 4000 cm2/h, and the load for analyzing becomes more and more lighter. In this presentation, we report the status of nuclear emulsion technologies for cosmic ray experiments.

  10. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  11. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  12. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  13. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  14. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, E.; Liu, Q.

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  15. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  16. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  17. [PAH exposure in asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G

    2010-01-01

    There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental PAH exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of PAH exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that PAH exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that PAH exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating PAH exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.

  18. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.

  19. Evaluation and application of surfactants synthesized from asphalt components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, surface activity and applications of nonionic surfactants derived from the asphalt components (maltenes M are presented. These compounds were synthesized by the sulfonation of (maltene, then the prepared maltene sulfonic acid (MS was reacted with hexadecylamine giving maltene sulfonamide product (A which undergoes an alkali-catalyzed ethoxylation at (135–150 °C. Several surfactants (M-10 to M-40 were formed with different ethylene oxide units (from 10 up to 40 and were characterized by molecular weight determinations, elemental analyses and FTIR analysis. Surface tension, as a function of concentration of the surfactants in the aqueous media, was measured at 25 °C. From these measurements, the critical micelle concentration (CMC, the maximum surface excess concentration (Гmax, Minimum area per molecule (Amin, effectiveness of surface reduction (ПCMC and the efficiency (pC20 were calculated. The prepared surfactants were applied as emulsifying agents for making asphalt emulsions. Storage stability, (Saybolt Furol viscosity, settlement (water content difference %, coating ability and water resistance were measured. The results indicated that M-20 (maltene sulfonamide ethoxylated with 20 units of ethylene oxides gives a maximum stability.

  20. Emulsions inside Gargamelle

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    A feasibility test was made with a 2.5 litre emulsion stack installed within the chamber. The stack was contained in a thermally insulated aluminium alloy pressure vessel (photo). See Annual Report 1978 p. 79 Fig. 5.

  1. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  2. Mechanical performance assessment of half warm recycled asphalt mixes containing up to 100 % RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Lizárraga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Half Warm Mixes with high Reclaimed Asphalt content (HWMRA has the potential to generate significant environmental advantages such as the reduction in consumption of natural resources and the emission of gases into the atmosphere. This paper therefore focuses on demonstrating the viability of using these types of mixes in wearing courses. For this purpose, an HWMRA with 70 % and 100 % Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and emulsion were designed in the laboratory. The performance of the mixes was then assessed and compared with that of conventional Hot Mix Asphalt. In a second stage, the mixes were manufactured in-plant, and laid and compacted in an Accelerated Pavement Test track. The cores were then extracted and tested for stiffness modulus and resistance to fatigue. The results from the tests conducted with both the laboratory specimens and the cores showed that the performance of HWMRA is comparable to that of HMA. These findings encourage greater confidence in promoting the use of these types of sustainable asphalt mixes.

  3. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Muraya, P.M.

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation.

  4. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraya, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation.

  5. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), : recycled concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt : binder to produce a partially stabilized base material. Although widely used, most :...

  6. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modi-fying the asphalt with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a name given to a group of technologies that have the common purpose of reducing the viscosity : of the asphalt binders. This reduction in viscosity offers the advantage of producing asphalt-aggregate mixtures at lower mixin...

  8. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  9. Performance Characteristics of Silane Silica Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present there are many kinds of fillers and modifier used for modified asphalt, but the effect of modifier differs in thousands of ways; most of them can increase the high temperature performance of asphalt, but the modified effect of low-temperature crack resistance, water stability, and antifatigue performance is different. Aiming at the subsistent problems, this paper innovatively puts forward the idea of taking the silane silica (nanosilica modified with silane coupling agent as filler to develop one kind of modified asphalt concrete which has excellent comprehensive performance based on the idea of enhance the whole performance of asphalt concrete and interface consolidation strength between aggregate and asphalt at the same time. The best mixing amount of silane silica and the production process of modified asphalt were conducted by contrasting the test date as penetration, viscosity, and softening point; the aging of asphalt and modified asphalt was analyzed by TG test, the superiority of silane silica modified asphalt is more clearly understandable by chemical analysis results. Meanwhile it is proved that silane silica has positive effect to improve the mixture of high and low temperature performance, water stability, and aging resistance through a series of road performance tests.

  10. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2006-11-01

    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  11. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  12. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  13. Pelletized Asphalt for Airfield Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    14, 2008. Gulf Asphalt Contractor (GAC), Panama City, FL, provided all labor , material (with the exception of pelletized asphalt) and equipment for...produced. Benefits include: reduced transportation, traffic disruption, operating costs, and labor costs, while increased productivity and... Mercado , E. A., A. Epps Martin, E. S. Park, C. Spiegelman, and C. J. Glover, “Factors Affecting Binder Properties between Production and Construction

  14. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of asphalt concrete used for pavement construction in southwest Nigeria was carried out to determine the causes of untimely failure of newly constructed/rehabilitated asphalt roads. Samples of asphalt concrete and bitumen were collected from three asphalt plants selected for the study. Samples from each plant ...

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH USED TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufikayo Aderinlewo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the properties of asphalt mix modified with ground tire. The ground tire was introduced into the asphalt in a melted form at varying percentages of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of the asphalt. The properties of the asphalt mixed with the ground tire were then obtained through penetration, softening point, flash and fire point and ductility tests. These properties were then compared with those of the control asphalt to determine the effectiveness of the ground tire in improving the asphalt properties. The results showed that the ground tire additive improved the asphalt properties considerably.

  16. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  17. Characteristics of Ceramic Fiber Modified Asphalt Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiuming; Wu, Shaopeng; Xiao, Yue; Liu, Quantao; Schlangen, Erik

    2016-09-21

    Ceramic fiber, with a major composition of Al₂O₃ and SiO₂, has advantages of stability at relatively high temperature, big specific surface area and resistance to external mechanical vibration. It has the potential contribution of improving the rutting resistance and temperature sensitivity of modified asphalt binder by proper modification design. In this research, ceramic fiber was introduced into both pen 60/80 and pen 80/100 asphalt binder by different weight ratios. An asphalt penetration test, softening point test, ductility test and dynamic viscoelastic behavior were conducted to characterize and predict the ceramic fiber modified asphalt mortar (CFAM). Research results indicated that the ceramic fiber has a great effect on reinforcement of asphalt, which makes the asphalt stiffer so that the asphalt can only undertake less strain under the same stress. The heat insulation effect of the ceramic fiber will improve the temperature stability. Complex modulus and phase angle results indicate that the ceramic fiber can significantly enhance the high temperature resistance of soft binder.

  18. Holographic DESA emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenkel, Lothar; Eichler, Juergen; Schneeweiss, Claudia; Ackermann, Gerhard

    2005-04-01

    The DESA material is an ultra-fine grained silver bromide emulsion referring to the name of its four inventors (D)uenkel, (E)ichler, (S)chneeweiss, (A)ckermann of the University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, Germany. The thickness of the dried layer is between 5 and 7.5 μm, and the mean grain size is by about 15 nm, as determined by TEM. During manufacturing, emulsion precipitation and coating are separated strictly from spectral and chemical sensitization. Thus, a high performance could be obtained. Resolution is estimated higher than 8000 lp/mm. Sensitivity amounts to 80 up to 120 μJoules/cm2 for maximum diffraction efficiency by recording Denisyuk white-light reflection holograms at 632,8 nm (HeNe laser). The paper provides an insight into fundamentals of the ultra-fine grained silver halide technology together with new challenges for further developments under theoretical and practical aspects.

  19. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  20. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  1. Charm studies in emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinin, Sergey

    Neutrino-nucleon scattering is an effective way to investigate the inner structure of the nucleon, to extract the Standard Model parameters and to explore heavy quarks production dynamics. In the last decades, several experiments have been constructed to study weak interactions of neutrinos with nucleons. One of them was CERN-WA95 experiment operated by the CHORUS collaboration. It is based on a hybrid detector with nuclear emulsion as a target followed by electronic devices. Nuclear emulsion provides three dimensional spatial information with an outstanding resolution of the order of one micron. Therefore, it is ideal to detect short-lived particles. A special technique has been developed to reconstruct events in the emulsion which allows to perform a detailed investigation of events such as charmed hadrons production by neutrinos. As a result, the backround in the selected charm sample is up to six times lower compared to similar experiments. Such a method also permits to make direct measurements of some qu...

  2. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  4. Quantitative characterization of microstructure of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The microstructure of the fine aggregate matrix has a significant influence on the : mechanical properties and evolution of damage in an asphalt mixture. However, very little : work has been done to define and quantitatively characterize the microstr...

  5. Preventive maintenance of asphalt concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Preventive maintenance of asphalt concrete can often extend the pavement life for a number of years at relatively low costs. The types of preventive maintenance that are discussed in this report include rejuvenators, slurry seals, surface treatments,...

  6. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  7. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  8. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value. To accomod...... tests are that the extrapolation from laboratory tests to insitu conditions is facilitated and that the gradual deterioration of the asphalt may be predicted, which is useful for pavement management purposes....

  9. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  11. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  12. Fatigue and rutting performance of conventional asphalt and bitumen-rubber asphalt under accelerated trafficking.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available continuously-graded asphalt overlay was investigated. Secondly, the cracking behaviour of a 75 mm thick continuously-graded overlay was compared with that of a 38 mm thick bitumen-rubber asphalt overlay. A laboratory evaluation of the materials was conducted...

  13. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  14. Programmed emulsions for sodium reduction in emulsion based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Natalie; Hewson, Louise; Fisk, Ian; Wolf, Bettina

    2015-05-01

    In this research a microstructure approach to reduce sodium levels in emulsion based foods is presented. If successful, this strategy will enable reduction of sodium without affecting consumer satisfaction with regard to salty taste. The microstructure approach comprised of entrapment of sodium in the internal aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water emulsions. These were designed to destabilise during oral processing when in contact with the salivary enzyme amylase in combination with the mechanical manipulation of the emulsion between the tongue and palate. Oral destabilisation was achieved through breakdown of the emulsion that was stabilised with a commercially modified octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA)-starch. Microstructure breakdown and salt release was evaluated utilising in vitro, in vivo and sensory methods. For control emulsions, stabilised with orally inert proteins, no loss of structure and no release of sodium from the internal aqueous phase was found. The OSA-starch microstructure breakdown took the initial form of oil droplet coalescence. It is hypothesised that during this coalescence process sodium from the internalised aqueous phase is partially released and is therefore available for perception. Indeed, programmed emulsions showed an enhancement in saltiness perception; a 23.7% reduction in sodium could be achieved without compromise in salty taste (p emulsion based foods.

  15. An emulsion wash fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Yu.G.; Kasyanenko, N.I.; Nedoseko, L.V.; Yablonovskaya, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The advantage of making a wash fluid at drill wells far from the clay works from concentrates of pastes delivered there is demonstrated. A formula is cited for the EP-1 emulsion paste, developed in the Dnepropetrovsk section of the Institute of Mineral Resources (IMR), along with its production technology. The low clay emulsion wash liquid, EPZh-1, obtained directly from the drill well from the EP-1 paste, after adding one of the polymers of the acrylic series (hydrolized polyacrylamide, hypan, K-4 and so on) to it is a volume of 1 to 2 percent of the total mass is suitable for use in different geological conditions. Based on the results of broad testing in the geological organizations of the Sevukreologiya and Yuzhukrgeologiya PO, it is established that the EPZh-1 wash fluid promotes an increase in the speed of well passage on the average by 13.7 percent and an increase in the technical drilling speed of 17.3 percent and a reduction in downtime due to the absence of the clearing agent by 53 percent and due to complications by 50 percent. More than 100,000 meters of wells have been drilled using EPZh-1 and a savings of 1.37 rubles per meter drilled has been achieved.

  16. Use of porous asphalt on major roads in Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available promising road noise attenuation measure. Porous asphalt is a new generation noise absorbent road surfacing. Research and development were done on this specific noise absorbent asphalt surfacing type by the Division for Roads and Transport Technology...

  17. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  18. Fracture properties and fatigue cracking resistance of asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Several different types of modifiers are increasingly bring used to improve the performance of asphalt binders or to : achieve desired mixture production characteristics (e.g., Warm Mix Asphalt). However, current Superpave : performance specification...

  19. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  20. Fatigue performance of asphalt pavements containing RAS and RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rising oil and gas prices spurs development of methods and technologies for reducing fuel consumption and increased use of : recycled materials. With increased environmental awareness, using reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed asphalt : sh...

  1. Laboratory evaluation of asphalt binder rutting, fracture, and adhesion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders was developed based on the Strategic Highway : Research Program (SHRP) and is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has : proven t...

  2. New experiences with foamed bitumen asphalts in hungarian road building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchard Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of low temperature (LT asphalt products can result in a significant decrease of temperature required for asphalt production. This reduces energy costs and consumption. Moreover, safety during asphalt production and laying improves because the amount of potentially harmful vapours and aerosols decreases. Temperature decrease, in addition to the above, reduces the short-term ageing of bitumen in the asphalt production process, and ultimately has a positive impact on the durability of pavements.

  3. 0-6674 : improving fracture resistance measurement in asphalt binder specification with verification on asphalt mixture cracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has proven that the PG grading system, while good for ensuring overall quality, fails in ...

  4. PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ASA POLYMER MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS AND MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHABAN ISMAEL ALBRKA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is commonly used as a binder in the construction of highways and runways, due to its good viscoelastic properties, natural asphalt cement does not have sufficient strength to resist sudden stresses of excessive loading or stress from low and high temperatures. Therefore, modification of asphalt is necessary in order to improve its material temperature sensitivity, adhesion, durability, oxidation and aging resistance. The property of base asphalt and polymer modified asphalt binders and mixtures has been characterized using the conventional tests and dynamic creep tests. It has been found that, the addition of Acrylate Styrene Acrylonhrtilrei (ASA polymer content has magnificent influence on the properties of the asphalt binders and mixtures. The temperature susceptibility of modified asphalt binders was reduced compared with base asphalt binder as the penetration increase and softening point decrease. The reduction in penetration was up to 69%, while the improvement in softening point was up to 19%. Moreover, it was approved from the storage stability test that, the ASA polymer has a great compatibility with asphalt binder up to 5% ASA. In addition, it was observe reduction in permanent deformation of modified asphalt mixtures with increase of modifier up to 5% ASA, which lead to better resistance to rutting at high temperatures, and the reduction was up to 36%. As a result, the modification of asphalt binder and mixture with ASA polymer can be considered a proper alternative technique to improve the properties of asphalt binder and mixture and 5% ASA was the optimum content of the modifier.

  5. Assessment of The Asphalt Produced in Some Factories of Asphalt in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Karem Abd

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an evaluation of  the properties and characteristics of asphalt concrete of several hot mix asphalt (HMA from five factories in Al-Hilla city. The research is divided into two parts. The first part included the laboratory analysis of samples. The second part is evaluation of results according to standard specifications.      The test results included (Asphalt content percent, stability, creep compliance, voids ratio, density, flow, crushed aggregate percent, Loss Angless abrasion and SO3 percent.The results of laboratorial tests indicated that all properties of asphalt mixes were susceptible and possible to be used in the asphaltic roads. The mixes types prepared and tested according to Marshall method. The values of Marshall stability, creep and density are (9.4, 5.4, 9.8, 9, 8.6, (2.5, 2.7, 2.7, 2.6, 2.3 and (2.334, 2.336, 2.337, 2.333, 2.338 with asphalt content between (4.2 to 4.6 % for all asphalt mixes of different factories.

  6. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  7. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  8. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  9. Analysis of using porous asphalt on the surfaces of bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chmielewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the analysis of the use of modern technology while paving the road bridges. It shall assess the possibility of using porous asphalt paving of road bridges. Based on the results of laboratory tests of selected porous asphalt, such as: determination of free space in the mixture of mineral-asphalt, runoff of the binder, sensitivity to water and frost, the loss of grains in the mixture, the design of porous asphalt mixture has been completed.[b]Keywords[/b]: construction of bridges, road bridges pavements, porous asphalt, dehydration of the bridges

  10. Thermal Stress Measurements in Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The stiffness of the asphalt cement is then used/- -• with either the Heukelom and Klomp (1964) rela- -o0- • tionship between asphalt and mixture...predicted by either Teperaturc a-rea time qf loading (>2 h Jr) the Heukelom or McLeod estimation methods. S’C) (nm~) (kg) As with the direct tension test...deflection due to dP that the stiffnesses obtained from the creep test or I = moment of inertia. 10 Heukelom Method o McLeod 0) 7 Method .~i 5 0 (I) Creep

  11. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  12. State-of-the-art and prospect for self-healing asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of asphalt concrete pavement cracks, this paper summarizes the principle of self-healing asphalt concrete, and describes asphalt concrete self-healing technology in various countries. This paper also analyses the factors of influencing the self-healing ability of asphalt concrete and the evaluation index, and describes the prospect of asphalt concrete self-healing technology.

  13. Investigating In Situ Properties of Recycled Asphalt Pavement with Foamed Asphalt as Base Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Plati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive field experiment for the in situ assessment of in-depth recycled asphalt pavement using foamed asphalt as a stabilization treatment for base works. For this purpose Nondestructive Testing (NDT data collected using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR along a foamed asphalt recycled pavement section was thoroughly analysed. Critical issues including the stabilized material curing and the contribution of the asphalt layers to the structural properties of the in-depth recycled pavement are discussed. In addition, recommendations concerning the improvement of the structural condition of the in-depth recycled pavement are developed based on this practical approach of investigation using NDT.

  14. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  16. Investigation of the use of recycled polymer-modified asphalt in asphaltic concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    This report presents issues associated with recycling polymer modified asphalt cements (PMACs), particularly blending aged PMAC with new PMAC. A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) PMAC was selected and graded using the Superpave Performance Grading (PG)...

  17. Utilization of Recycled Asphalt Concrete with Warm Mix Asphalt and Cost-Benefit Analysis: e116180

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julide Oner; Burak Sengoz

    2015-01-01

      The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials...

  18. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials...

  19. Innovative applications of food-related emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiokias, S; Varzakas, T

    2017-10-13

    Research on oxidative stability of multiple emulsions is very scarce. Given that this is a relevant topic that must be ascertained before the successful application of multiple emulsions in foods (especially when a combination of highly unsaturated oils is used as a lipid phase), this review mainly focuses on various aspects of the multiple emulsions. Fat replacement in meat products using emulsions is critically discussed along with innovative applications of natural antioxidants in food-based emulsions and multiple emulsions based on bioactive compounds/encapsulation as well as confectionery products.

  20. Microstructural Analysis and Rheological Modeling of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Asphalt Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cannone Falchetto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled materials in pavement construction has seen, over the years, a significant increase closely associated with substantial economic and environmental benefits. During the past decades, many transportation agencies have evaluated the effect of adding Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, and, more recently, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS on the performance of asphalt pavement, while limits were proposed on the amount of recycled materials which can be used. In this paper, the effect of adding RAP and RAS on the microstructural and low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated using digital image processing (DIP and modeling of rheological data obtained with the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR. Detailed information on the internal microstructure of asphalt mixtures is acquired based on digital images of small beam specimens and numerical estimations of spatial correlation functions. It is found that RAP increases the autocorrelation length (ACL of the spatial distribution of aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids phases, while an opposite trend is observed when RAS is included. Analogical and semi empirical models are used to back-calculate binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest limited or partial blending between new and aged binder.

  1. Evaluation of asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) using the University of Florida's composite system interface cracking (CSIC) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Since the late 1970s, FDOT : has applied an interlayer : of Asphalt Rubber : Membrane Interlayer : (ARMI) to asphalt roadway : surfaces. ARMI layers are : constructed by spraying : asphalt rubber binder onto : the asphalt, covering the : layer with n...

  2. Evaluation of asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) using the University of Florida's composite system interface cracking (CSIC) test [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, FDOT : has applied an interlayer : of Asphalt Rubber : Membrane Interlayer : (ARMI) to asphalt roadway : surfaces. ARMI layers are : constructed by spraying : asphalt rubber binder onto : the asphalt, covering the : layer with n...

  3. Effects of Short-Term Aging on Asphalt Binders and Hot Mix Asphalt at Elevated Temperatures and Extended Aging Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolly Rubben

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA causes a short term aging (STA to asphalt binder due to the heating of both asphalt binder and aggregates before mixing together. Laboratory protocols are followed to simulate the STA conditions for both asphalt binders and asphalt mixtures. STA protocols expose asphalt binders or asphalt mixtures to specific aging temperature for a specific period of time to produce stiffening that is similar to that of actual production conditions. Successful construction of HMA in cold season/regions may require elevating the production temperature of HAM to achieve proper compaction of HMA layers. Producing HMA mixtures at elevated temperatures may cause further increase in the binder stiffness and negatively affect the future field performance of asphalt pavements. This negative affect can be even worse especially if it is coupled with extended exposer time increase. This study aims to investigate effect of elevated production (mixing and STA temperatures and exposure time on the stiffening of binders and asphalt mixtures. The binder experiment involved aging of two Performance Graded (PG binders (PG 76-16 and PG 64-22 at two different temperatures and aging durations. The asphalt mixture experiment involved the STA of asphalt mixtures produced in the laboratory at mixing and STA temperatures 25°F above standard practice and aging time 2 and 4 hours longer than standard practices. The effect of different aging times and temperatures was investigated by running viscosity tests on binders and dynamic modulus |E*| and Indirect Diametrical Strength (IDT tests on asphalt mixtures. The results showed that increasing the mixing and STA temperatures by 25°F seems to have no significant effect on the asphalt mixture properties while doubling the standard STA time seems to have a significant effect on binder and asphalt mixture properties.

  4. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Wu, S.P.; Zhang, Y.

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  5. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  6. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  7. Microbial life in a liquid asphalt desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; de Sousa Antonio, Marina Resendes; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago is a natural asphalt reservoir nourished by pitch seepage, a form of petroleum that consists of mostly asphaltines, from the surrounding oil-rich region. During upward seepage, pitch mixes with mud and gases under high pressure, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a liquid asphalt residue characterized by low water activity, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and noxious chemical compounds. An active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains (particularly from the new Tar ARC groups), totaling a biomass of up to 10(7) cells per gram, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed diverse, novel, and deeply branching microbial lineages with the potential to mediate anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in different parts of the asphalt column. In addition, we found markers for archaeal methane metabolism and specific gene sequences affiliated with facultative and obligate anaerobic sulfur- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The microbial diversity at Pitch Lake was found to be unique when compared to microbial communities analyzed at other hydrocarbon-rich environments, which included Rancho Le Brea, a natural asphalt environment in California, USA, and an oil well and a mud volcano in Trinidad and Tobago, among other sites. These results open a window into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices and establish the site as a terrestrial analogue for modeling the biotic potential of hydrocarbon lakes such as those found on Saturn's largest moon Titan.

  8. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  9. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this

  10. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  11. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  12. Numerical evaluation of induction heating assisted compaction technology for low temperature asphalt pavement construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, C.; Liu, X.; Apostolidis, P.

    2017-01-01

    Low Temperature Asphalt (LTA) technologies are utilized in asphalt pavement industry to lower energy demands and greenhouse gas emission during mixing and construction processes. Although these technologies are currently available and hope to demonstrate similar performance with Hot Mix Asphalt

  13. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Batyrbayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  14. Some peculiarities of bitumen emulsion modification

    OpenAIRE

    A. Batyrbayev; Sergey Rodivilov; B. Myrzakhmetov

    2013-01-01

    Polymer modification of bitumen emulsions obtained from bitumen of domestic production with the use of several commercial emulsifiers was studied. The influence of the polymer modifier concentration on bitumen emulsion physical-mechanical properties was considered. Possibility of obtaining of modified bitumen emulsion with high impact resistance was shown.

  15. Advances with holographic DESA emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünkel, Lothar; Eichler, Jürgen; Schneeweiss, Claudia; Ackermann, Gerhard

    2006-02-01

    DESA emulsions represent layer systems based on ultra-fine grained silver halide (AgX) technology. The new layers have an excellent performance for holographic application. The technology has been presented repeatedly in recent years, including the emulsion characterization and topics of chemical and spectral sensitization. The paper gives a survey of actual results referring to panchromatic sensitization and other improvements like the application of silver halide sensitized gelatine (SHSG) procedure. These results are embedded into intensive collaborations with small and medium enterprises (SME's) to commercialize DESA layers. Predominant goals are innovative products with holographic components and layers providing as well as cost effectiveness and high quality.

  16. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  17. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  18. Study of asphalt performance impact with ultraviolet aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min

    2017-09-01

    To solve the problem of strong ultraviolet radiation on the road asphalt aging, ultraviolet aging environment box analog wild aging condition to be used to experiment, Through dynamic shear rheometer respectively to study the effect of SBS modified asphalt and asphalt matrix high temperature, low temperature and fatigue performance with the aging time to change. The results show that SBS modified asphalt can produce serious aging under strong ultraviolet light, the Main aspects is fatigue performance and low temperature performance greatly reduced, high temperature performance is further improved, They have a closer relationship with aging time; At the same time, along with the test temperature, aging time on the influence of G*/sinδ, G*sinδ of amplitude decreases. That ultraviolet on SBS modified asphalt aging has temperature sensitivity. The research conclusion can choose the light aging resistance of airport pavement asphalt to provide good technical support.

  19. Increasing the rate of recycled asphalt: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is material that can be recycled. In particular reclaimed asphalt (RA contains aged binder, which limits the reuse of RA. In this study the rate of recycled asphalt was increased by adding a rejuvenator containing paraffin. The authors investigated the effect of the rejuvenator in laboratory and in plant prepared samples of asphalt mixture. In laboratory samples with different percentage of RA (0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and rejuvenator were prepared. In asphalt plant only asphalt mixture with highest amount of RA and rejuvenator and control mixture without RA were prepared. On samples were conducted different tests, e.g. determining softening point, Fraass breaking point, penetration, indirect tensile strength. Results on extracted bitumen showed increase in softening point and decrease in Fraass breaking point with increasing percentage of RA and rejuvenator, meaning that service temperature of binders increased. Asphalt samples prepared in asphalt plant were laid on test field. Asphalt with RA and rejuvenator was built in at lower temperature (round 100 °C. Mixtures with RA and rejuvenator have better low temperature properties confirmed with Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST method, but are less resistant to compaction and less sensitive to water than control mixture. For comparison of long term behaviour wheel tracking test was performed on mixtures built in test field. A week after paving, the control mixture showed better properties, but one year later the results were opposite, asphalt containing RA and rejuvenator was more resistant to rutting. From the results of this experimental study the following was concluded: the amount of RA can be increased by using rejuvenator and the quality of such asphalt mixture is in most cases equal or even better than asphalt mixture made of virgin materials. By using RA we preserve nature, reduce usage of virgin raw materials, but it is cost effective only if recycling degree is high

  20. The Development of Moisture Sensitivity Test for Compacted Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Shamshuddin; M.E. Abdullah; Rhasbudin Shah, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major issues in asphalt distress. It is due to the adhesive and cohesive failure of asphalt mixture and it will shorten pavement life. Moisture-sensitive mixtures need to be identified during the course of the mixture design process which fulfills the specified minimum standard. The laboratory testing procedures currently available for compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) to test the moisture sensitivity were primarily developed to determine the degree ...

  1. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 7 New Hampshire DOT SPR2 Program Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements Co ld...the asphalt concrete layer of a flexible pavement as an effective rehabilitation method to reduce or arrest cracking. The New Hampshire Department...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER CRADA 13-CRL-01 5b

  2. Emulsion Droplet Combustion in Microgravity: Water/Heptane Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedisian, C. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews a series of experiments to further examine parametric effects on sooting processes of droplet flames in microgravity. The particular focus is on a fuel droplet emulsified with water, specifically emulsions of n-heptane as the fuel-phase and water as the dispersed phase. Water was selected as the additive because of its anticipated effect on soot formation, and the heptane fuel phase was chosen to theoretically reduce the likelihood of microexplosions because its boiling point is nearly the same as that of water: 100 C for water and 98 C for heptane. The water content was varied while the initial droplet diameter was kept within a small range. The experiments were carried out in microgravity to reduce the effects of buoyancy and to promote spherical symmetry in the burning process. Spherically symmetric droplet burning is a convenient starting point for analysis, but experimental data are difficult to obtain for this situation as evidenced by the fact that no quantitative data have been reported on unsupported emulsion droplet combustion in a convection-free environment. The present study improves upon past work carried out on emulsion droplet combustion in microgravity which employed emulsion droplets suspended from a fiber. The fiber can be instrusive to the emulsion droplet burning process as it can promote coalescence of the dispersed water phase and heterogeneous nucleation on the fiber. Prior work has shown that the presence of water in liquid hydrocarbons can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the combustion process. Water is known to reduce soot formation and radiation heat transfer to combustor walls Gollahalli (1979) reduce flame temperatures and thereby NOx emissions, and encourage secondary droplet atomization or microexplosion. Water also tends to retard ignition and and promote early extinction. The former effect restricted the range of water volume fractions as discussed below.

  3. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.

  4. The effect of asphalt and wax emulsions on moisture changes in slash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Murphy; Charles W. Philpot; Morris J. Garber

    1969-01-01

    Disposal of logging slash is one of the forest manager's biggest problems. If slash is not disposed of, a serious fire hazard may result, and regeneration may be prevented because of an inadequate seedbed or resistance to planting. Foresters can dispose of slash by burning or by generally more expensive mechanical methods such as chipping. Over much of the West,...

  5. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  6. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  7. Asphalt mix reinforced with vegetable fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The use of a larger share of renewable materials in road construction is a trend that in the long term cannot be avoided. In some cases, due to this pressure, new innovative opportunities are generated. This article attempts to outline and bring one of such opportunity. The article describes selection and the use of special natural fibers from renewable natural resources adapted for use in various types of asphalt mixtures to improve the range of properties. Experimental results showed an improvement in stiffness modulus, indirect tensile strength (ITS) and good resistance to permanent deformation of blends containing vegetable fibers. This is a new topic in the road construction. But the results have so far proven that the used type of fibers can be a perspective way, as simple and in line with the policy of sustainable development, to improve the properties (reinforce) of the asphalt mixtures.

  8. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perez-Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP and warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes.

  9. Studying viscosity of asphalt binders and effect of varied production temperatures on engineering properties of hot mix asphalt mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diab, Aboelkasim

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are studying the viscosity characteristics of asphalt binders containing different additives, ethylene vinyl acetate, polypropylene, and hydrated lime, and the influence...

  10. Porous Asphalt Clogging Performance Under Swedish Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Porous asphalt has gradually gained a lot of popularity in the past ten years for its ability to reduce traffic noise, especially noise generated between tire and road surface. The acoustical absorption properties are mainly due to the pore structure and the texture of the mixture. However, the percentage of these pores decrease during the lifetime. The main reason is that dirt and organic material get stuck in the air void structure and eventually cause clogging. In Nordic countries, particl...

  11. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; Antonio, Marina Resendes de Sousa; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C.; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M.; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    An active microbiota, reaching up to 10 E+7 cells/g, was found to inhabit a naturally occurring asphalt lake characterized by low water activity and elevated temperature. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed novel and deeply branching microbial assemblages mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation, metal respiration and C1 utilization pathways. These results open a window into the origin and adaptive evolution of microbial life within recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices, an...

  12. Emulsion primers, their contribution to bonding

    OpenAIRE

    González Sburlati, Rubén Osmar; Sapei, José

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt irrigation in its various types, performs specific functions in the structure of a road during the construction phase or their service life. In particular, the so-called "Irrigation Primer " is used in underlying layers, in order to generate a transition surface with the new asphalt layer; thus the tack or prime coat will be placed on a surface to ensure a good bond with the overlying layer. For a long time Diluted Asphalts (Cut Back mediums) where used, but have been discontinued for...

  13. Microtexture diagnostics of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florková, Zuzana; Pepucha, L.'ubomír

    2017-09-01

    The microtexture of asphalt pavement surface is an essential parameter from the traffic safety point of view and it closely relates to a geometrical, petrological and physical properties of aggregate particle used in asphalt pavement. Microtexture has a significant influence for assurance basic friction values between tire and pavement in relation to a skid resistance properties. Therefore, the microtexture detecting methods are necessary. The British pendulum tester measurements have been carried out on selected sections of roads with different asphalt surfaces. Individual grains of aggregates were taken from the surface of each section from the sliding path and also from the core sample after the extraction. The laboratory profilometry measurements have been practiced on these aggregate samples and subsequently the surface microtexture was investigated based on commonly used texture characteristics and the filtration approach was applied in calculation process. The results have shown the degradation of microtexture values occurs due to polishing of aggregate under loading from traffic in relation to the type of used aggregate. Some correlation between BPN values and texture characteristics was found.

  14. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  15. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasan, Mohd Rosli; You, Zhanping

    2016-01-01

    Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as f...

  16. Including asphalt cooling and rolling regimes in laboratory compaction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Doree, Andries G.; Kim,

    2014-01-01

    Given the various changes occurring in the asphalt construction industry, improved process and quality control is becoming essential. The significance of appropriate rolling and compaction for the quality of asphalt is widely acknowledged and vital for improved process control. But what constitutes

  17. Occupational Renal Dysfunction Among Asphalt Workers In Sharkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupational exposure to bitumen fumes emitted during hot application of asphalt carries the risk of exposure to significant amount of hydrocarbon compounds that may cause toxic nephropathy. Objectives: Investigation of renal dysfunction among asphalt-exposed workers and identification of some factors that ...

  18. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Wu, S.P.; Wang, J.G.

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  19. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  20. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  1. Estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes using simple tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medani, T.O.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified procedure for estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes is presented. The procedure requires the determination of the so-called master curve (Le. the relationship between the mix stiffness, the loading time and the temperature), the asphalt properties and the mix

  2. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out using a well calibrated Radalert survey meter. Measurements were carried out in four different locations of asphalt processing plants at different strategic points. Measured average values of 0.0223 ± 0.0017 mR/hr, 0.0225 ...

  3. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete or...

  4. Laboratory and Field Asphalt Fatigue Performance, Matching Theory with Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between predicted and observed fatigue life of asphalt. This study also investigates the positive effects of modifying bitumen with Retona, a bitumen modifier produced in Indonesia from natural asphalt rock sources, on pavement performance in terms of

  5. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective technique to overcome road runoff challenges, and to improve efficiency of rainwater utilisation in urban areas. Using porous asphalt pavements with reservoir storage and harvesting facilities is an important consideration for the future. This study monitored ...

  6. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  7. Investigation of stress and heat strain in asphalt workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Beheshti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the harmful factors in workplaces. Asphalt workers are exposed to thermal stress due to the open environment and process. The aim of this study was to assess the heat stress and strain in asphalt workers. This study was conducted on 29 employees of asphalt workstation. The heat stress was measured based on Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT. Also, physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate of asphalt workers were measured. The mean of WBGT index for drivers of asphalt machinery, trowels, shovels people and burner servicemen were 27.77, 27.77 and 29.61°C respectively whereas this value was 29.81, 29.85 and 3.23°C for workers of asphalt workstations respectively. The process of asphalting has significant effect on heat stress and physiological parameters of individuals. The pearson correlation between WBGT and heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was significant. Asphalt workers are exposed to heat stress caused by different sources which may generate a host of heat strains in these people so special attention should be paid to control heat stress.

  8. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  9. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  10. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  11. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  12. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  13. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  14. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  15. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  16. Changing Emulsion Dynamics with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Peichun Amy; Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Li, Jiang; Lammertink, Rob; Chen, Haosheng

    2015-11-01

    We elucidate the effect of heterogeneous surface wettability on the morphology and dynamics of microfluidic emulsions, generated by a co-flowing device. We first design a useful methodology of modifying a micro-capillary with desired heterogeneous wettability, such as alternating hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Subsequently, the effects of flow rates and heterogeneous wettability on the emulsion morphology and motion in the micro-capillary are investigated. Our experimental data reveal a universal critical time scale of advective emulsions, above which the microfluidic emulsions remain intact, whereas below this time-scale emulsions become adhesive or inverse. A simple model based on a force balance can be used to explain this critical transition. These results show a control of emulsion dynamics by tuning the droplet size and the Capillary number, the ratio of viscous to surface effects, with heterogeneous surface wettability.

  17. Experiment S009: Nuclear Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, F. W.; Shapiro, M. M.; Silberberg, R.; Stiller, B.; Tsao, C. H.; Durgaprasad, N.; Fichtel, C. E.; Guss, D. E.; Reames, D. V.

    1971-01-01

    The first exposure on a spacecraft of a nuclear emulsion apparatus designed to collect 1000 high quality tracks of heavy nuclei under a negligible thickness of matter (0.07 g/sq cm) is described. The cosmic ray detector consisted of a stack of nuclear emulsions that were designed to register at least 400 heavy nuclei tracks for each 10 hours of useful exposure. The spacecraft had to be oriented in a heads-up attitude during the 10-hour period to eliminate atmospheric albedo particles. The results are as follows: (1) a definite odd-even effect, with low abundances for elements of atomic number 7, 9, and 11; (2) a ratio O/C approximately 0.9; (3) Ne/C, Mg/C, and Si/C ratios between 0.2 and 0.3; (4) an abundance gap in the region 15 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 19; and (5) a ratio (20 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28)/C 0.2, with a large concentration at Z = 26. These results are indicative that successful exposures of nuclear emulsions were obtained on the Gemini 11 mission.

  18. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of asphalt rejuvenating agent on aged reclaimed asphalt pavement and binder properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahfar, Nassim

    Hot in-place recycling (HIR) preserves distressed asphalt pavements while minimizing use of virgin binder and aggregates. The final quality of an HIR mixture depends on characteristics of the original binder, aging of the pavement surface during service, and whether or not new binder or rejuvenator was added to the mixture. An HIR mixture should maintain desired properties for additional service periods, making asphalt binder modification inevitable. Asphalt binder modifications in HIR are commonly done by adding an asphalt rejuvenating agent (ARA). However, ARA may adversely affect the qualities of new HIR and potentially fail to improve the quality of the final surface. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of rejuvenation on HIR performance characteristics by assessing critical performance indicators such as stiffness, permanent deformation, moisture susceptibility, and cracking resistance. A two-step experimental program was designed that included mechanical property measurements of the HIR mixture and rheological properties of the extracted binder. The level of mixing occurring between new and aged binder with ARA was also investigated. HIR Samples were obtained from three Kansas Department of Transportation projects, and Hamburg wheel-tracking device, dynamic modulus, flow number, Texas overlay, thermal stress restrained specimen, and moisture susceptibility tests were conducted on mixtures with and without ARA. Rheological studies on the extracted binder included dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer tests. The miscibility of new and aged binder was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and the exudation droplet test (EDT). Study results showed significant variability in the mechanical performance of HIR mixtures, which was attributed to the variability of binders as observed in EDT, SEM and EDXS studies. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) showed that HIR

  20. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  1. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road: How is it performing?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surface layer, is the main damage mechanism of porous asphalt surface wearing courses. In this research, an induction healing approach (namely, activating the healing process of asphalt concrete through ...

  2. INFLUENCE OF SEA WATER ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POROUS ASPHALT CONTAINING LIQUID ASBUTON

    OpenAIRE

    N, Ali; L, Samang; Tjaronge, M.W.; A.Rahman, Djamaluddin

    2011-01-01

    The Buton Asphalt or Asbuton is natural rock asphalt that deposited on South Buton Island in southeast Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The refining process reduces the mineral content to produce the liquid Asbuton. Porous asphalt is an asphalt pavement that has enough voids within to allow water to pass freely through it. This paper reports on experimental investigation conducted to determine the influence of sea water on the mechanical properties of porous asphalt containing liqui...

  3. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Antonio, Marina Resendes de Sousa; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    An active microbiota, reaching up to 10 E+7 cells/g, was found to inhabit a naturally occurring asphalt lake characterized by low water activity and elevated temperature. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed novel and deeply branching microbial assemblages mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation, metal respiration and C1 utilization pathways. These results open a window into the origin and adaptive evolution of microbial life within recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices, and establish the site as a useful analog for the liquid hydrocarbon environments on Saturn's moon Titan.

  4. Comparison between asphaltenes fractions extracted from different asphaltic residue; Comparacao de fracoes de asfaltenos obtidas a partir de residuos asfalticos distintos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Fabio R.; Lucas, Elizabete F., E-mail: fabiorbarreira@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, Silas R. [Clariant S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated in terms of characterization and stability. In this study, asphaltene subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02), characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (CHN), X-ray fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS-TOF), and compared to previous results obtained for another asphaltic residue. The precipitation onset of (sub)fractions was assessed by optical microscopy. The results obtained indicate there are more differences than similarities between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN), presence and content of hetero elements and average molar mass. On the matter of stability, it seems that small differences in molecules polarity provoke great differences on phase behavior of every isolated asphaltenes fractions. (author)

  5. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  6. Voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete containing coconut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Hannani Madzaili, Amirah; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Yaacob, Haryati; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Asphalt durability is often linked to the thickness of the asphalt coating on the aggregate particles. In order to have adequate film thickness in asphaltic concrete, there must be sufficient space between the aggregate particles in the compacted pavement. This void space is referred to as voids in total mix (VTM), voids with filled bitumen (VFB), and voids in mineral aggregate (VMA). Hence, this study investigates the performance of coconut shell (CS) as coarse aggregate replacement on voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete. Four CS were used as coarse aggregates replacement in asphalt mixture namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (by weight volume). The voids properties of asphalt mixture were determined based on Marshall Mix design test. Test results show that VTM and VMA values were decrease with the increasing bitumen content where VFB was increase with increasing bitumen content. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of coconut shell in asphalt mixture was found to increases the voids value up to a peak level and then decreases with further additions of CS.

  7. Numerical simulation of asphalt mixtures fracture using continuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Cezary; Górski, Jarosław; Stienss, Marcin; Smakosz, Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers numerical models of fracture processes of semi-circular asphalt mixture specimens subjected to three-point bending. Parameter calibration of the asphalt mixture constitutive models requires advanced, complex experimental test procedures. The highly non-homogeneous material is numerically modelled by a quasi-continuum model. The computational parameters are averaged data of the components, i.e. asphalt, aggregate and the air voids composing the material. The model directly captures random nature of material parameters and aggregate distribution in specimens. Initial results of the analysis are presented here.

  8. Characterization of Water in Diesel Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim Z. A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Water in diesel emulsion, as an option fuel, has potential to simultaneously reduce the formation of both nitrogen oxides and particulate matters in diesel engine. However, the capability of this fuel strongly dependent on the type of emulsion, stability of the emulsified fuel and the physio-chemical properties. In this study, water in diesel emulsion fuels of 5%, 10%, 20%, water by volume was prepared by a mechanical homogenizer. Physical and chemical properties of the emulsion were examined as these properties could influence the spray characteristics of the emulsions which significantly affect the ignition delay and flame propagation. Density and viscosity was found to be higher for all of the water in diesel emulsion than pure diesel at all measured temperatures whereas the carbon contents for water in diesel emulsion with 10% and 20% water were low. Droplet size of the emulsion was found to be less than 2μm. The actual water content in the emulsified fuel was found to be lesser than the mixed amount.

  9. HEAVY-OIL PRODUCTION USING EMULSION FLOODING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Several researchers have found it difficult to achieve oil in-water (O/W) emulsion stability status. In an effort to minimize the viscosity, heavy crude needs modification. The morphology and stability of oil-in-water emulsions were studied as a function of aqueous phase salinity. In reducing the viscosity of the heavy-oil, brine.

  10. Suppression of Ostwald ripening in active emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Hyman, Anthony A; Jülicher, Frank

    2015-07-01

    Emulsions consisting of droplets immersed in a fluid are typically unstable since they coarsen over time. One important coarsening process is Ostwald ripening, which is driven by the surface tension of the droplets. Stability of emulsions is relevant not only in complex fluids but also in biological cells, which contain liquidlike compartments, e.g., germ granules, Cajal bodies, and centrosomes. Such cellular systems are driven away from equilibrium, e.g., by chemical reactions, and thus can be called active emulsions. In this paper, we study such active emulsions by developing a coarse-grained description of the droplet dynamics, which we analyze for two different chemical reaction schemes. We first consider the simple case of first-order reactions, which leads to stable, monodisperse emulsions in which Ostwald ripening is suppressed within a range of chemical reaction rates. We then consider autocatalytic droplets, which catalyze the production of their own droplet material. Spontaneous nucleation of autocatalytic droplets is strongly suppressed and their emulsions are typically unstable. We show that autocatalytic droplets can be nucleated reliably and their emulsions stabilized by the help of chemically active cores, which catalyze the production of droplet material. In summary, different reaction schemes and catalytic cores can be used to stabilize emulsions and to control their properties.

  11. Metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Medforth, Craig J

    2013-10-29

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  12. Design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Granular Emulsion Mixes (GEMS) are used in a wide range or road applications, ranging from low volume roads in developing areas to freeways in developing urban areas. In this paper a dual design approach for granular emulsion mixes (GEMS...

  13. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  14. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume....... In addition, preliminary investigation of the oxidative and hydrolytic stability was carried out through determination of Peroxide Value and Free Fatty Acids Value after 32 days storage at room temperature and 2ºC, respectively. Oxidative stability of MPL emulsions were also investigated through measurement...

  15. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  16. Three-Dimensional Surface Texture of Asphalt Pavements Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingfan; Esfandiarpour, Saman; Shalaby, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The type, shape, and gradation of aggregate have significant influence upon surface texture and its durability. The properties of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) are different from virgin aggregate. Previous research found that the presence of RAP influenced negatively the pavement surface terminal friction value and surface polishing rate. The objective of this research is to assess the impact of high content of RAP on pavement surface texture after five years of environmental and traffic l...

  17. [On bitumen emulsions in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Hercilio; Gutierrez, Xiomara; Silva, Felix; Chirinos, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The most important factors, controlling the process of emulsification of highly viscous hydrocarbons in water, which are responsible for keeping the stability and other properties of these systems, are discused in this article. The effect of non-ionic surfactants, such as nonil phenol ethoxilated compounds on the interfacial behavior of bitumen/water systems is analyzed. The effect of the natural surfactants in presence or in absence of electrolytes is also analyzed. The procedures followed in order to obtain the optimal conditions of formulation and formation of bitumen in water emulsions, are discussed and the effect of some parameters on the mean droplet diameter and distribution are also considered. It was found that keeping constant mixing speed and time of mixing, the mean droplet diameter decreases as the bitumen concentration increases. Emulsion stability, which can be monitored by following the changes in mean droplet diameters and viscosity as a function of the storage time, is deeply affected by the type and concentration of surfactant.

  18. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  19. Relation of asphalt chemistry to physical properties and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This report constitutes a synthesis of published information concerning the chemical composition and characteristics of asphalt cements used in highway construction. The general relations between chemical composition and physical properties and speci...

  20. Bettis Asphalt and Construction, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Bettis Asphalt and Construction, Inc. for alleged violations at its facility located at 2350 Northwest Water Works Drive, Topeka, KS 66606.

  1. Developing model asphalt systems using molecular simulation : final model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Computer based molecular simulations have been used towards developing simple mixture compositions whose : physical properties resemble those of real asphalts. First, Monte Carlo simulations with the OPLS all-atom force : field were used to predict t...

  2. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    . ABSTRACT. Porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective technique to overcome road runoff challenges, and to improve efficiency of ...... FIELD R, MASTERS H and SINGER M (1982) An overview of porous.

  3. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  4. Development of bio-based polymers for use in asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Asphalt binder is typically modified with poly type (styrene-butadiene-styrene or SBS) polymers to improve its rheological properties and performance grade. The elastic and principal component of SBS polymers is butadiene. For the last decade, butadi...

  5. Towards analytical mix design for large-stone asphalt mixes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an analytically based design procedure for large-aggregate asphalt and its application in thirteen trial sections. The physical and engineering properties of the various materials are discussed and related...

  6. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  7. Predicting low-temperature cracking in asphalt pavements : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In Wisconsin's winter climate, low temperatures can cause asphalt pavements to contract and crack, reducing their ride quality and service lives. To help engineers more accurately determine how well certain pavement designs will fare in such conditio...

  8. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt - final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using : specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several districts have had placement issues : and premature failures at the beginning of 2010....

  9. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  10. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  11. Evaluation of tack coating practices for asphalt overlays in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The strength of the bond between asphalt layers affects the lifespan of pavement structures. It is also a key factor in preventing major pavement distresses, such as slippage cracking and delamination. This research project evaluates and compares the...

  12. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  13. Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract emulsion for skin rejuvenation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standard ascorbic acid. Preparation of emulsions. Water in oil (W/O) emulsion was used. Initially, the base (a simple W/O emulsion) was formulated using a mechanical homogenizer. Paraffin oil was used as oil phase and ABIL EM. 90® as emulsifying agent to form an emulsion. All ingredients were carefully weighed in.

  14. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Satoru; Group, for the Emulsion Gamma-ray Telescope

    2010-01-01

    By detecting the beginning of electron pairs with nuclear emulsion, precise gamma-ray direction and gamma-ray polarization can be detected. With recent advancement in emulsion scanning system, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming powerful. Now we are developing the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion. Overview and status of our telescope is described.

  15. The research about microscopic structure of emulsion membrane in O/W emulsion by NMR and its influence to emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiqiao; Chen, Jisheng; Zhang, Shu; Fan, Kaiyan; Chen, Gang; Zhuang, Zerong; Zeng, Mingying; Chen, De; Lu, Longgui; Yang, Linlin; Yang, Fan

    2016-03-16

    This paper discussed the influence of microstructure of emulsion membrane on O/W emulsion stability. O/W emulsions were emulsified with equal dosage of egg yolk lecithin and increasing dosage of co-emulsifier (oleic acid or HS15). The average particle size and centrifugal stability constant of emulsion, as well as interfacial tension between oil and water phase were determined. The microstructure of emulsion membrane had been studied by (1)H/(13)C NMR, meanwhile the emulsion droplets were visually presented with TEM and IFM. With increasing dosage of co-emulsifier, emulsions showed two stable states, under which the signal intensity of characteristic group (orient to lipophilic core) of egg yolk lecithin disappeared in NMR of emulsions, but that (orient to aqueous phase) of co-emulsifiers only had some reduction at the second stable state. At the two stable states, the emulsion membranes were neater in TEM and emulsion droplets were rounder in IFM. Furthermore, the average particle size of emulsions at the second stable state was bigger than that at the first stable state. Egg yolk lecithin and co-emulsifier respectively arranged into monolayer and bilayer emulsion membrane at the two stable states. The microstructure of emulsion membrane was related to the stability of emulsion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclic elasto-viscoplastic model for asphalt concrete materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, DT; Nedjar, B.; P. Tamagny

    2007-01-01

    These last few years, many interests have been devoted to the study of rutting problems. In fact, under high traffic loadings together with the extreme environmental conditions, permanent deformations of asphalt pavements appear and become more and more severe demanding more efforts on developing suitable predictive models. In this paper, a three-dimensional elasto-viscoplasticity model is developed and applied to describe the behaviour of asphalt concrete materials under cyclic loadings. The...

  17. Impulse radar evaluation of concrete, asphalt and waterproofing membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.; Masliwec, T.; Manning, D. G.

    1994-04-01

    Impulse radar has proved to be effective in the nondestructive testing of bridge decks composed of layers of dielectric materials such as asphalt, waterproofing membrane, and reinforced concrete. In this work, the waveforms reflected from these materials are modeled and analyzed theoretically. The relative dielectric constants are measured using sample blocks, and the reflected radar waveforms are related to the actual physical structures. It is found that asphalt thickness and cover over reinforcement can be accurately determined.

  18. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ludfi Djakfar; Hendi Bowoputro; Bangun Prawiro; Nugraha Tarigan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential...

  19. Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Khasawneh

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing inte...

  20. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  1. Airfield Repairs in Austere Locations Using Pelletized Asphalt Technology (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    and on demand to create DGA or SMA paving HMA.       FIGURE 1 Pelletized asphalt consists of asphalt binder, fine aggregate and filler materials...the SMA mixtures. The selected aggregate was limestone due to its availability for the Tyndall AFB field testing. Table 1 includes the aggregate...on the existing concrete runway at the Silver Flag training field at Tyndall AFB, FL. One section was built with the DGA mixture with conventional

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  3. Performance of macro clay on the porous asphalt mixture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, C. M.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Haryati, Y.; Norhidayah, A. H.; Abdullah, M. E.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt pavement already well known as one type of pavement since many decades, however due to lack in strength it is not been widely used in road construction especially in high stresses areas. Many research had been conducted by researchers in order to improve the durability and increase the service life of the road. One of the methods that commonly used is through asphalt modification. Objectives of this study are to discuss influence of macro-clay in terms of physical and rheological properties and their effect on performance of porous asphalt mixture. Various percentage of macro-clay (starting from 2% to 8%) was blended in an asphalt binder and compacted using the Marshall compactor. The blended asphalt was characterized using penetration, softening point test and penetration index compared with unmodified binder. Performance tests of asphalt mixture were carried out such as Los Angeles Abrasion Value (LAAV) and Stability and Flow test in order to determine the strength and durability. The results show that the addition of macro-clay would increase in softening point but decrease in binder penetration. Based on the results, while macro-clay changes physical and rheological properties of bitumen and increase stiffness, it also improves strength and durability resistance, as well. Generally, the best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 4% of macro-clay.

  4. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  5. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  6. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  7. Emulsions on demand using microsturctured devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahe, Christian; Tranchant, Jean Francois; Tromeur, Melanie; Schwesinger, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Emulsions are very common in the field of cosmetics. Unfortunately, most emulsions contain ineffective substances to increase the stability of the products for a long time. These stabilizers can cause some severe healthy problems in several cases. One possible solution is the production of emulsions on demand to prevent the use of stabilizers. Stable emulsion can be achieved if the diameters of the droplets of one solution surrounded by a second solution are smaller than 1μm. Microstructured devices are suited in principle to generate such droplet distributions. Basic task of the development was a micro emulsifier that can be integrated into cosmetic flacons and that can deliver emulsions on demand by pressing a human fingertip onto a part of the flacon. Standardized cosmetic flacons have been used as basic devices. They consist of two separate glass bottles for two different liquid phases and two mechanical pumps integrated in a multifunctional cap. Regarding the viscosity ranges of the two liquids different microemulsifier structures have been developed. External dimensions and connections of the device have been chosen in a way that allows an integration of the devices into the cap. The second design conists of several streaming paths in parallel that allow a reduction of the pressure drop. Furthermore, it consists of three structured silicon chips bonded together. Emulsions with a stability of about 15-30 min have been achieved without any stabilizers. External forces of less than 10N were sufficient to generate emulsions on demand.

  8. Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, A C

    1999-09-01

    Microfluidized squalene or squalane emulsions are efficient adjuvants, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. Microfluidization stabilizes the emulsions and allows sterilization by terminal filtration. The emulsions are stable for years at ambient temperature and can be frozen. Antigens are added after emulsification so that conformational epitopes are not lost by denaturation and to facilitate manufacture. A Pluronic block copolymer can be added to the squalane or squalene emulsion. Soluble antigens administered in such emulsions generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes able to lyse target cells expressing the antigen in a genetically restricted fashion. Optionally a relatively nontoxic analog of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or another immunomodulator can be added; however, the dose of MDP must be restricted to avoid systemic side effects in humans. Squalene or squalane emulsions without copolymers or MDP have very little toxicity and elicit potent antibody responses to several antigens in nonhuman primates. They could be used to improve a wide range of vaccines. Squalene or squalane emulsions have been administered in human cancer vaccines, with mild side effects and evidence of efficacy, in terms of both immune responses and antitumor activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Influence of emulsion interfacial membrane characteristics on Ostwald ripening in a model emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Won; Song, Ha Youn; Moon, Tae Wha; Choi, Seung Jun

    2018-03-01

    Ostwald ripening is a major destabilization mechanism for emulsions containing flavor oils with relatively high water solubilities. Emulsions with different oil phase compositions were prepared that were stabilized by polyoxyethylene alkyl ether-type emulsifiers with differently sized hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Emulsions prepared using only orange oil were highly unstable to Ostwlad ripening during storage. When emulsifier concentration was increased, Ostawald ripening in emulsions containing emulsifiers with small hydrophilic groups was inhibited, while size increment of droplets in emulsions containing emulsifiers with large hydrophilic groups was not. Droplet enlargement was effectively inhibited by incorporating corn oil into the oil phase prior to homogenization. However, the concentration of corn oil required to inhibit Ostwald ripening varied depending on the structural characteristics and concentrations of the emulsifiers present. These results could have important implications for the selection of emulsifiers to improve the physical stability of orange oil emulsions for use in the food and beverage industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Destabilization of Emulsions in Porous Media

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Ann Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Oil and water can form emulsions with different stability conditions while flowing through the porous systems in an oil reservoir. The stability of different oil-in-water (o/w), water-in-oil (w/o), and oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) emulsion systems during filtration through porous media were studied in this project. Emulsions were stabilized using different surface active components, such as surfactants, particles, and natural indigenous crude oil components. The influence of surface active...

  11. Use of olive oil-in-water gelled emulsions in model turkey breast emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, M.; Öztürk, B.

    2017-09-01

    Today, gelled emulsion systems offer a novel possibility in lipid modification of meat products. In this study, we aimed to investigate the quality characteristics of model turkey emulsions that were prepared with olive oil-in-water gelled emulsion (GE) as partial or total beef fat replacer. The results indicated that while most of the GE treatments showed equivalent emulsion characteristics in terms of emulsion stability, water-holding capacity and cook yield, utilization of 100% GE as the lipid source could increase total expressible fluid of the model turkey emulsion and thus negatively affect the quality. Utilization of GE was effective in total fat reduction, as the model turkey emulsions formulated with more than 50% GE had significantly lower fat content compared to full-beef fat control model emulsion. However, beef fat replacement with GE produced considerable changes in colour parameters. Finally, it was concluded that utilization of GE as a partial beef fat replacer has good potential to enhance stability and reduce total fat in turkey meat emulsion products.

  12. Professionalising the asphalt construction process: aligning information technologies, operators' knowledge and laboratory practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the need to professionalise the asphalt construction process. A distinctive action research strategy is designed and carried out to progressively improve operational strategies of asphalt teams from technological, human (operator) and laboratory perspectives. Using

  13. Experimental placement of stone matrix asphalt : project STP-8724 (00) X South Portland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In September 2003 the Maine Department of Transportation used stone matrix asphalt and Superpave to : renovate two intersections in South Portland, Maine. The experimental placement of stone matrix asphalt : (SMA) and Superpave with modified binder w...

  14. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blend...

  15. Enhanced road functionality with porous asphalt on the Ben Schoeman Highway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Kock, TJ

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available of highly trafficked urban roads. Porous asphalt offers definitive advantages in wet weather in respect of minimization of backsplash, better overall visibility, retention of skid resistance and road noise reduction. A need for porous asphalt surface courses...

  16. Impact of low asphalt binder for coarse HMA mixes : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Asphalt mixtures are commonly specified using volumetric controls in combination with aggregate gradation limits, like most transportation agencies, MnDOT also uses this approach. Since 2010 onward, several asphalt paving projects for MnDOT have been...

  17. Simulation of Permanent Deformation in High-Modulus Asphalt Pavement with Sloped and Horizontally Curved Alignment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulian Zheng; Lili Han; Chongtao Wang; Zhanlei Xu; Hongyin Li; Qinglei Ma

    2017-01-01

    .... Based on the creep test, the Prony series representation of Burgers model parameters for different asphalt mixtures were obtained and used in the deformation simulation of a high-modulus asphalt...

  18. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modified with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  19. A Review of the Application of Zeolite Materials in Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woszuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies, asphalt foaming techniques offer high potential in terms of decreasing production temperature. Reluctance of manufacturers to introduce this technology is connected with the concerns of a large investment costs. However, there are known additives which, through asphalt foaming, allow a decrease in temperatures by approximately 30 °C; the use of these additives do not involve expensive investment in order to change the asphalt mix production method. These additives are zeolites, that is, minerals of the aluminosilicate group, the crystalline structure of which contains water bound in a specific way. Its release, at mix asphalt production temperatures, causes asphalt foaming. It is currently known that zeolites can be used in WMA, including natural and synthetic zeolites obtained using chemical reagents and waste. This review presents the results of studies of WMA technology, including the effects of zeolite addition on asphalt properties and mix asphalt, as well as related environmental, economic, and technological benefits.

  20. Evaluation of Georgia asphalt mixture properties using a Hamburg wheel-tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study used a Hamburg Wheel-Tracking Device (HWTD) to evaluate the resistance of Georgia asphalt mixtures to rutting and stripping. It aimed to develop an HWTD test procedure and criteria aligned with GDOTs asphalt materials and mixture design...

  1. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  2. Development of a non-solvent based test method for evaluating reclaimed asphalt pavement mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The percent of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) used in hot mix asphalt (HMA) is currently established either by arbitrarily setting maximum percent limits, or alternatively, by evaluating both the virgin and recovered binder properties. The first ap...

  3. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  4. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  5. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...... to the interaction between lipid oxidation products with amine group either from phosphatidylethanolamine or residues of amino acids/proteins in marine PL. The study on enrichment of yoghurt with marine PL showed that the oxidative stability and sensory acceptability was highly dependent on the quality...... marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...

  6. AFM-CSLM Microrheology of aggregated emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filip, D.

    2006-01-01

    The work in this thesis describes the structural and mechanical properties of weakly aggregated emulsion networks at a meso- and microscopic level, achieved by using a simultaneous combination of two experimental techniques: atomic force microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy.

  7. The structure of omega3 food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Loussert, C.; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt

    and add product value. Omega-3 PUFAs are rich in double bonds in their fatty acid chains and this attribute renders them highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Omega-3 PUFAs can be added to food products as neat oil or as a delivery system such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this last configuration...... with the prooxidants in the water phase. Hence the structure, thickness and composition of the interface layer is expected to have a great impact on the oxidative stability of the emulsion. These layers are consisting of food grade emulsifiers such as milk phospholipids, casein and whey protein and are estimated......-in-water emulsions. Concerning chemical fixation, we adapted conventional protocols for preserving the emulsions, by developing agar pockets for encapsulation or embedding in capillary tubes (figure 1). Indeed to use chemical fixation with these samples is challenging because we need to minimize alterations...

  8. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  9. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING STYRENE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa; Nasser, A M

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of styrene-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percentages b...

  10. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING VINYL ACETATE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, A M; Abd El-Wahab

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of vinyl acetate-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percent...

  11. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-01-01

    The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fib...

  12. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2015-02-01

    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conditions for equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Daniela J; de Folter, Julius W J; Luigjes, Bob; Castillo, Sonja I R; Sacanna, Stefano; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2010-08-19

    Particular types of solid-stabilized emulsions can be thermodynamically stable as evidenced by their spontaneous formation and monodisperse droplet size, which only depends on system parameters. Here, we investigate the generality of these equilibrium solid-stabilized emulsions with respect to the basic constituents: aqueous phase with ions, oil, and stabilizing particles. From systematic variations of these constituents, we identify general conditions for the spontaneous formation of monodisperse solid-stabilized emulsions droplets. We conclude that emulsion stability is achieved by a combination of solid particles as well as amphiphilic ions adsorbed at the droplet surface, and low interfacial tensions of the bare oil-water interface of order 10 mN/m or below. Furthermore, preferential wetting of the colloidal particles by the oil phase is necessary for thermodynamic stability. We demonstrate the sufficiency of these basic requirements by extending the observed thermodynamic stability to emulsions of different compositions. Our findings point to a new class of colloid-stabilized meso-emulsions with a potentially high impact on industrial emulsification processes due to the associated large energy savings.

  14. Pickering emulsions stabilized by charged nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Laure; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Gilon-Delepine, Nicole; Dugas, Pierre-Yves; Chevalier, Yves

    2016-09-28

    The stabilization of o/w Pickering emulsions in cases of weak adsorption of solid particles at the surface of oil droplets is addressed. Though the adsorption is usually very strong and irreversible when partial wetting conditions are fulfilled, electrostatic repulsions between charged solid particles act against the adsorption. The regime of weak adsorption was reached using charged silica nanoparticles at high pH and low ionic strength. O/w Pickering emulsions of the diisopropyl adipate oil were stabilized by colloidal nanoparticles of Ludox® AS40 consisting of non-aggregated particles of bare silica (hydrophilic). The combination of stability assessment, droplet size and electrokinetic potential measurements at various pH values, adsorption isotherms and cryo-SEM observations of the adsorbed layers disclosed the specificities of the stabilization of Pickering emulsions by adsorption of solid nanoparticles against strong electrostatic repulsions. Not only the long-term stability of emulsions was poor under strong electrostatic repulsions at high pH, but emulsification failed since full dispersion of oil could not be achieved. Emulsion stability was ensured by decreasing electrostatic repulsions by lowering the pH from 9 to 3. Stable emulsions were stabilized by a monolayer of silica particles at 54% coverage of the oil droplet surface at low silica content and an adsorption regime as multilayers was reached at higher concentrations of silica although there was no aggregation of silica in the bulk aqueous phase.

  15. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  16. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  17. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt

  18. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  19. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Aging Behaviour of SBS Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of aging SBS modified asphalt on the performance of asphalt pavement, aging at various times and temperatures was conducted with thin film oven, and then tests were made about the penetration, softening point, ductility, viscosity, toughness, and fluorescence microscopy of modified asphalt with different aging levels. The results show that, with the increasing of aging time, the penetration and ductility of modified asphalt decrease while its softening point and viscosity increase, and the variation trend of the toughness and tenacity is related to the aging temperature; the aging dynamic model with viscosity as parameter can well characterize the aging process of modified asphalt; at microlevel, with the decreasing of SBS particle size, the uniformity of particle size is better. Analysis of macroscopic properties, microscopic characteristics, and significance shows that the SBS particle area ratio has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging temperature changes. When the aging temperature is 163°C, the SBS particle area ratio still has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging time changes.

  1. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  2. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  3. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  4. Tetrapyrroles and associated compounds in Dead Sea asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenshtat, Z. (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel); Dinur, D.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1979-01-01

    Metallo- and free porphyrins (1000 to 1500 ppM) isolated from asphalts occurring as huge blocks floating in the northern part of the Dead Sea, have been analyzed by visible-uv (v-uv) spectrophotometry and by mass spectrometry. The concentration of vanadyl porphyrins in the asphalts exceeds by far that of the Ni-porphyrins, despite the l:3 V/Ni ratio found in the total asphalt sample. The free porphyrins resemble those from the Uinta Basin (USA) gilsonite and contain a mixture of homologous Aetio- and deoxyphyllo-erythroaetioporphyrins (DPEP). The non-porphyrin fraction of the asphalt showed an identical aliphatic, hydrocarbon distribution with that of heavy crude oil from the same area. The more polar fraction associated with the porphyrins was compared with the polar fraction of the previously described ozokerite from the Dead Sea area. From high-resolution MS, IR, v-uv and NMR spectra, combined with hydrolysis and GLC analysis, it is suggested that even-numbered (C/sub 12/, C/sub 16/, C/sub 18/, C/sub 18/ /sub 1/, C/sub 22/) fatty acids are associated with the asphaltic porphyrins, probably in the triglyceride form.

  5. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  6. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  7. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  8. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  9. 40 CFR 467.20 - Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rolling with emulsions subcategory. 467.20 Section 467.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Rolling With Emulsions Subcategory § 467.20 Applicability; description of the rolling with emulsions... the rolling with emulsions subcategory. ...

  10. Palm oil anionic surfactants based emulsion breaker (Case study of emulsions breaker at Semanggi Field production wells)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhpidah; Hambali, E.; Suryani, A.; Kartika, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    The presence of emulsion in oil production process is undesirable. The emulsion will increase the production costs, transportation and costs related to emulsion separation process between water and oil. The development of palm oil-based surfactant as an emulsion breaker needs to be conducted given the availability of abundant raw materials in Indonesia and as an alternative to petroleum-based surfactant. The purpose of this study is to produce palm oil-based emulsion breaker, assessing the effect of additive application to the emulsion breaker and analyze the performance of the emulsion breaker. This research was conducted by formulating palm oil anionic surfactant in water formation with the addition of co-surfactant additive and co-solvent. Palm oil anionic surfactant-based emulsion breaker with 0.5% concentration in water can reduce 50% of emulsions with the interfacial tension (IFT) of 2.33x10-2 dyne/cm. The addition of co-solvent (toluene: xylene) is able to remove the emulsion formed with a lower IFT namely 10-3 dyne / cm. The resulting emulsion breaker is capable to remove the emulsion between water and oil. The performance test of emulsion breaker show that the emulsion is able to maintain its performance at reservoir temperature with no indicate of plugging and the value generated incremental oil recovery values is 13%.

  11. Laboratorium Study of Asphalt Starbit E-55 Polymer Modified Application on Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (Ac-Wc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Kans Pangaraya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional asphalt road has almost been considered fail to serve the transportation needs. It is indicated by the occurrence of premature damage which is caused by vehicle load and climate. Starbit E-55, the polymer modified bitumen, is formulated to meet the requirement of transport development. Considering those needs, it is important to investigate the feasibility level of that modified bitumen as alternate asphalt instead of the conventional one. This research began with the measurement of the properties of hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55, then comparing the result to 60/70 penetration of Pertamina asphalt. The next step is then, to determine the converted value so as to be close to that of Pertamina (60/70 penetration. This step is conducted by applying durability and ITS tests on the mixture. Result of the tests showed that hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55 has better characteristic at 5.7% optimum level asphalt and 6.4% of Pertamina asphalt (60/70 penetration. Starbit E-55 converted level within hard-layered ACWC is 5.6%. The performance test result on immersion with variance of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days shows that durability value of Starbit E-55 AC-WC has better performance. During the process, Starbit E-55 required 15.38% higher energy consumption.

  12. Kinerja Campuran Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) Yang Menggunakan Serat Selulosa Alami Dedak Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) is one of the hot mix asphalt concretes use with open graded and it has high coarse agregate content (70% - 80%) and a high asphalt content. Since the content of the high asphalt needs requires additional material such as cellulosa fiber to stabilize the asphalt. Through with this study, the another try to use rice bran as the additional material. In addition, rice bran is a natural cellulose fiber which cames from the rice milling proces. It was relatifevely cheape...

  13. The effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yinping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses the top layer SMA-13 asphalt mixture material as the research object. Basalt was selected as pavement material, and modified SBS asphalt was used as a cementing material. Two basalt aggregates with different densities were used to carry out standard Marshall test in the laboratory.Aimed at the volume parameters of the asphalt mixture carry on anaiysis,and obtian the effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture, which is that the density of aggregate has a significant effect on the void ratio, saturation, and the gap rate of the aggregate, thus affecting the pavement performance of the asphalt mixture

  14. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  16. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  17. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Wu, Shaopeng; Hu, Xiaodi; Liu, Gang; Li, Bo

    2017-02-23

    Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing-thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  18. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90, and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were established, and the adhesion work was calculated subsequently. The energy ratios were built to evaluate the effect of organic additives and water on the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface. The results indicate that the addition of organic additives can enhance the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry conditions, because organic additives reduced the surface free energy of asphalt. However, the organic additives have hydrophobic characteristics and are sensitive to water. As a result, the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface of the asphalt containing organic additives in wet conditions sharply decreased due to water damage to asphalt and organic additives. Furthermore, the compatibility of asphalt, aggregate with organic additive was noted and discussed.

  19. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  20. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt

  1. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Adam T [Cheyenne, WY; Robertson, Raymond E [Laramie, WY; Branthaver, Jan F [Chatham, IL; Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  2. Vegetable oil based emulsions in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products represent an important part of functional food in the market. Based on their positive health and nutritional benefits, they have gained popularity and their consumption as well as production is on the rise in the last few decades. As a result of this trend, milk-based products are being used for the delivery of bioactive food ingredients. This study is devoted to the formulation of stable emulsions containing grape seed oil dispersed with several emulsifiers (Tween 80, monocaprylin, and lecithin in milk. Photon correlation spectroscopy was used to evaluate the characteristics of the emulsions in terms of mean droplet size, droplet size distribution and polydispersity index. Emulsions were prepared using 2% and 5% w/w grape seed oil, and 3%, 5%, or 8% w/w emulsifier, and these were homogenized at two different rates of 1050 and 13400 rpm. Parameters influencing emulsion particle size and particle size distribution were identified, which included emulsifier type, its HLB value, oil type (virgin, refined, homogenization rate and the fat content in the milk. Homogenization at 13400 rpm for 10 min. produced fine emulsions with small mean particle sizes and monomodal distribution of droplets. Regarding emulsifier type, the smallest droplet sizes were obtained with formulations containing Tween 80 (250-315 nm, whereas lecithin primarily accounted for the monomodal particle size distributions.

  3. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  4. Tracking and vertex reconstruction in modern emulsion experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, S

    2001-01-01

    The analysis procedure of nuclear emulsions has radically changed with the realisation of high speed, fully automated scanning systems. Nuclear emulsion can now be considered as an analog data storage device from which the automated scanning system retrieves the data.

  5. Tracking and vertex reconstruction in modern emulsion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeki

    2001-11-01

    The analysis procedure of nuclear emulsions has radically changed with the realisation of high speed, fully automated scanning systems. Nuclear emulsion can now be considered as an analog data storage device from which the automated scanning system retrieves the data.

  6. Relating emulsion stability to interfacial properties for pharmaceutical emulsions stabilized by Pluronic F68 surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kristin Conrad; Damitz, Robert; Chauhan, Anuj

    2017-04-15

    We explore mechanisms of emulsion stability for several systems using Pluronic F68 and a range of oils commonly used in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. We report measurements of dynamic emulsion drop size, zeta potential, and creaming time, as well as dynamic interfacial tension and interfacial viscoelasticity. Experiments show that with 1wt% Pluronic F68, soybean oil emulsions were the most stable with no creaming over six months, followed by isopropyl myristate, octanoic acid, and then ethyl butyrate. The eventual destabilization occurred due to the rising of large drops which formed through Ostwald ripening and coalescence. While Ostwald ripening is important, it is not the dominant destabilization mechanism for the time scale of interest in pharmaceutical emulsions. The more significant destabilization mechanism, coalescence, is reduced through surfactant adsorption, which decreases surface tension, increases surface elasticity, and adds a stearic hindrance to collisions. Though the measured values of elasticity obtained using a standard oscillatory pendant drop method did not correlate to emulsion stability, this is because the frequencies for the measurements were orders of magnitude below those relevant to coalescence in emulsions. However, we show that the high frequency elasticity obtained by fitting the surface tension data to a Langmuir isotherm has very good correlation with the emulsion stability, indicating that the elasticity of the interface plays a key role in stabilizing these pharmaceutical formulations. Further, this study highlights how these important high frequency elasticity values can be easily estimated from surface isotherms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Breaking Oil-in-water Emulsions Stabilized By Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado; Guilherme F.; Picone; Carolina S. F.; Cuellar; Maria C.; Cunha; Rosiane L.

    2016-01-01

    Several biotechnological processes can show an undesirable formation of emulsions making difficult phase separation and product recovery. The breakup of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by yeast was studied using different physical and chemical methods. These emulsions were composed by deionized water, hexadecane and commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The stability of the emulsions was evaluated varying the yeast concentration from 7.47 to 22.11% (w/w) and the phases obtained after...

  8. Clinical applications of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sam H; Diaz, James H; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE; Intralipid) therapy, a standard treatment in local anesthetic toxicity, has demonstrated therapeutic efficacies for a number of different drug class-mediated toxicities. Some of these varied drug groups include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiarrhythmics, and calcium channel blockers. To meet the objective of describing the growing number of indications for Intralipid therapy and any diverse effects and/or failures of Intralipid therapy in reversing multiple drug toxicities, we queried several Internet search engines with the key words "intravenous lipid emulsion therapy," "Intralipid," "lipid emulsion," and "local anesthetic systemic toxicity," resulting in the identification of 31 case reports for descriptive analysis. These case reports included 49 separate drug overdose cases involving ten separate drug classes which were successfully reversed with Intralipid. The education of clinicians regarding the beneficial and varied roles of Intralipid therapy in different clinical settings is warranted, particularly in terms of the potential for Intralipid therapy to reverse the toxicities of non-local anesthetic drugs.

  9. Emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R. J.

    Emulsion chambers offer several unique features for the study of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions and spectra aboard a permanent manned Space Station. Emulsion-chamber experiments provide the highest acceptance/weight ratio of any current experimental technique, are invulnerable to mechanical shocks and temperature excursions associated with space flight, do not employ volatile or explosive components or materials, and are not dependent upon data communications or recording systems. Space-Station personnel would be employed to replace track-sensitive materials as required by background accumulation. Several emulsion-chamber designs are proposed, including both conventional passive calorimetric detectors and a hybrid superconducting-magnetic-spectrometer system. Results of preliminary simulation studies are presented. Operational logistics are discussed.

  10. Formulation and characterization of a multiple emulsion containing 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to prepare a stable multiple emulsion containing a skin anti-aging agent and using paraffin oil. Vitamin C, was incorporated into the inner aqueous phase of water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) multiple emulsion at a concentration of 1%. Multiple emulsion was prepared by two step method. Stability ...

  11. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.

    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  12. Food emulsions as delivery systems for flavor compounds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Like; Roos, Yrjö H; Biliaderis, Costas G; Miao, Song

    2017-10-13

    Food flavor is an important attribute of quality food, and it largely determines consumer food preference. Many food products exist as emulsions or experience emulsification during processing, and therefore, a good understanding of flavor release from emulsions is essential to design food with desirable flavor characteristics. Emulsions are biphasic systems, where flavor compounds are partitioning into different phases, and the releases can be modulated through different ways. Emulsion ingredients, such as oils, emulsifiers, thickening agents, can interact with flavor compounds, thus modifying the thermodynamic behavior of flavor compounds. Emulsion structures, including droplet size and size distribution, viscosity, interface thickness, etc., can influence flavor component partition and their diffusion in the emulsions, resulting in different release kinetics. When emulsions are consumed in the mouth, both emulsion ingredients and structures undergo significant changes, resulting in different flavor perception. Special design of emulsion structures in the water phase, oil phase, and interface provides emulsions with great potential as delivery systems to control flavor release in wider applications. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of flavor release from emulsions, and how emulsions can behave as delivery systems for flavor compounds to better design novel food products with enhanced sensorial and nutritional attributes.

  13. Lentil and chickpea protein-stabilized emulsions: optimization of emulsion formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Karaca, Asli; Nickerson, Michael T; Low, Nicholas H

    2011-12-28

    Chickpea and lentil protein-stabilized emulsions were optimized with regard to pH (3.0-8.0), protein concentration (1.1-4.1% w/w), and oil content (20-40%) for their ability to form and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions using response surface methodology. Specifically, creaming stability, droplet size, and droplet charge were assessed. Optimum conditions for minimal creaming (no serum separation after 24 h), small droplet size ( 40 mV) were identified as 4.1% protein, 40% oil, and pH 3.0 or 8.0, regardless of the plant protein used for emulsion preparation.

  14. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... but a slightly smaller size was indicated by all methods for Lipidem. Sub-micron resolution was best in the Coulter LS but the fraction of larger particles in the upper nm-range was presumably underestimated. The emulsions could be analyzed in a highly reproducible manner by asymmetrical flow field...

  15. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  16. Warm mix asphalt with natural zeolite for road pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a method to reduce temperature of asphalt mix using the ingredients of natural zeolite. In this article we discuss a proposal of the warm mix asphalt mixtures based on natural zeolite and determine the density, maximum density and sensitivity of asphalt test specimens on water. The results are compared with the reference hot mix asphalt. Розглядається метод зменшення температури асфальтових сумішей з використанням природного цеоліту. Обговорений підбір ск...

  17. Properties of polymer - and fibre-modified porous asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhaeghe, Benoit MJA

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available was defined. This paper addresses the relative performance of modified porous asphalt mixes and aspects relating to the design of such mixes, based on a laboratory study. It was found that polymer-modification of the binder enhances the relevant engineering...

  18. Using critical state theory for modelling of asphalt mix compaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henny L.; van Maarseveen, Martin F.A.M.; Molenaar, Andre A.A.; van de Ven, Martin F.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) material behavior during compaction. During compaction the particle configuration inside the HMA is changing from a relatively loose into a denser one while the bitumen is fluid. Initially particle reorientation is easily possible due to the

  19. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  20. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF COMPACTABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF WARM MIX ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex Eduardo Álvarez Lugo

    Full Text Available Warm mix asphalt (WMA is the term used to describe the set of technologies that allow fabrication of asphalt mixtures at lower temperatures than those specified for conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA. This temperature reduction leads to advantages, compared to construction of HMA, that include energy savings, reduced emissions, and safer working conditions. However, WMA is a relatively new technology and several aspects are still under evaluation. This paper assesses some of these aspects including laboratory compactability and its relation to mixture design, and performance of WMA (i.e., permanent deformation and cracking resistance fabricated with three WMA additives, namely Advera®, Sasobit®, and Evotherm®. Corresponding results showed better or equivalent laboratory compactability for the WMA, as compared to that of the HMA used as reference (or control-HMA, leading to smaller optimum asphalt contents selected based on a specific target density (i.e., 96%. In terms of performance, inclusion of the WMA additives led to decrease the mixture resistance to permanent deformation, although the mixture resistance to cracking can remain similar or even improve as compared to that of the control-HMA.

  1. Thermal segregation of asphalt material in road repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Byzyka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field study of asphaltic pavement patching operations performed by three different contractors working in a total of ten sites. It forms part of an ongoing research programme towards improving the performance of pothole repairs. Thermal imaging technology was used to record temperatures of the patching material throughout the entire exercise, from the stage of material collection, through transportation to repair site, patch forming, and compaction. Practical complications occurring during patch repairs were also identified. It was found that depending on the weather conditions, duration of the travel and poor insulation of the transported hot asphalt mix, its temperature can drop as high as 116.6 °C over the period that the reinstatement team travel to the site and prepare the patch. This impacting is on the durability and performance of the executed repairs. Cold spots on the asphalt mat and temperature differentials between the new hot-fill asphalt mix and existing pavement were also identified as poorly compacted areas that were prone to premature failure. For example, over the five-minute period, the temperature at one point reduced by 33% whereas the temperatures of nearby areas decreased by 65% and 71%. A return visit to the repair sites, three months later, revealed that locations where thermal segregation was noted, during the patching operation, had failed prematurely.

  2. Development of a Mixture Design Procedure for Stone Matrix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) has been used successfully in Europe for over 20 : years to provide better rutting resistance and to resist studded tire wear. : Since 1991, the use of SMA has increased steadily in the United States. At : present, some sta...

  3. The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Vuye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section. The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB and Close-ProXimity (CPX measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A, but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time.

  4. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  5. Modeling of asphalt and experiments with a discrete particles method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, T.J.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Luding, Stefan; Wilson, D.; Costello, S.; Henning, T.; Black, P.; Olsen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt is an important road paving material. Besides an acceptable price, durability, surface conditions (like roughening and evenness), age-, weather- and traffic-induced failures and degradation are relevant aspects. In the professional road-engineering branch empirical models are used to

  6. Characterization of Bitumen Extracted from used Asphalt Pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the research were principally to characterize extracted bitumen from Used Asphalt Pavement (UAP) on twelve selected roads through the determination of engineering properties (penetration and viscosity) and establishment of appropriate mathematical relationship between principal parameters of the ...

  7. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor pavement surface conditions have been recognized to be contributory factors for road accidents. Empirical relationship between accident explanatory variables (traffic flow, road geometry and road features) on link secti-ons of asphalted trunk roads were investigated using 617 test lengths selected from three ...

  8. Direct tensile test to assess healing in asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, T.; Erkens, S.

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest periods, damage present in the material is restored to a certain extent. Healing of the material can be observed in its regaining of strength and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is presented. It was

  9. Material acceptance risk analysis : superpave hot mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study is to review Superpave Hot Mix asphalt used by other state DOTs and make recommendation to Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) in using this product in its roadways and in particular in low-traffic roadways. Based on the...

  10. The adoption of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, M.J.M.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; van der Sijde, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the adoption process of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction and how the level of knowledge as characterised by the level of education in the companies affects this process. The emphasis is on equipment used for transporting

  11. Performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP is the reclaimed and reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregate. Most RAP is recycled back into pavements, and as a result there is a general lack of data pertaining to the mechanical properties for RAP in other possible applications such as Portland cement concrete. In the present study, some mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete containing RAP as coarse aggregate were investigated in the laboratory. Six concrete mixes of widely differing water/cement ratios and mix proportions were made using RAP as coarse aggregate. The properties tested include the physical properties of the RAP aggregate, the compressive and flexural strengths of the concrete. These properties were compared with those of similar concretes made with natural gravel aggregate. Results of the tests suggest that the strength of concrete made from RAP is dependent on the bond strength of the “asphalt-mortar” (asphalt binder-sand-filler matrix coatings on the aggregates and may not produce concrete with compressive strength above 25 MPa. However, for middle and low strength concrete, the material was found to compare favorably with natural gravel aggregate.

  12. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  13. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  14. Influence of the Microwave Heating Time on the Self-Healing Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Norambuena-Contreras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the microwave heating time on the self-healing properties of fibre-reinforced asphalt mixtures. To this purpose, self-healing properties of dense asphalt mixtures with four different percentages of steel wool fibres were evaluated as the three-point bending strength before and after healing via microwave heating at four different heating times. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of asphalt mixtures during microwave heating was also evaluated. With the aim of quantifying the efficiency of the repair process, ten damage-healing cycles were done in the test samples. In addition, self-healing results were compared with the fibre spatial distribution inside asphalt samples evaluated by CT-scans. Crack-size change on asphalt samples during healing cycles was also evaluated through optical microscopy. It was found that the heating time is the most influential variable on the healing level reached by the asphalt mixtures tested by microwave radiation. CT-Scans results proved that fibre spatial distribution into the asphalt mixtures play an important role in the asphalt healing level. Finally, it was concluded that 40 s was the optimum heating time to reach the highest healing levels with the lowest damage on the asphalt samples, and that heating times over 30 s can seal the cracks, thus achieving the self-healing of asphalt mixtures via microwave heating.

  15. The Variation Test and Extraction Equipment to Optimum Asphalt by Using Gasoline Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardi, Fitridawati

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision, the extraction test should be carried out using the specimen from the loose asphalt mixture extracted from the back of the finisher bitumen machine. The purpose of this research is to find out the result of pretest and posttest extraction asphalt content. The Extraction test using two equipment, they are Soklet and Centrifuge. The specimens was used AMP, Asphalt Finisher and Core, which involved gasoline solvent. Based on the asphalt level extraction test results, the appropriate equipment was used centrifuge with the level accuracy as requirement of Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision and the level of ease used as equipment in the field study. The asphalt content obtained for AMP 5,51%, Asphalt Finisher5,46% and Core 5.34%. As for the socket asphalt content obtained is AMP 5.55%, Asphalt Finisher 5.50% and Core core 5. 41%. The extract test value of asphalt content decreased, so it can be formulated KA JMF Asphalt Finisher

  16. Molecular Simulation Study on Modification Mechanism of Red Mud Modified Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, FU; Hui-ming, BAO; xing-xing, Duan

    2017-12-01

    This article used red mud, the aluminum industrial wastes, as modified asphalt material, through the study of the routine test of modified asphalt properties, and the micro test of electron microscope scanning, infrared spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis etc. to discuss its performance and modification mechanism . The test results show that after mixing red mud, asphalt’s penetration index and 15 °C ductility reduced, softening point enhanced, thus the temperature sensitivity and high temperature stability of asphalt improved; Red mud after mixing the matrix asphalt, can form a uniform, stable and matrix asphalt blending system, and improve the asphalt’s thermal stability. Using molecular simulation technology to analyze the asphalt with the temperature change of energy and find in the process of asphalt melting, the largest is the key to influence on bituminous, and van der waals energy is small. It concludes that red mud -modified asphalt material is mainly controlled by bond energy, in order to obtain its favorable property of modification mechanism, red mud of senior activation and molecular bond energy of asphalt is needed to be enhanced.The results of molecular simulation show that the main component of hematite in red mud is the most adsorbed in the asphalt, the asphaltene is the second, the colloid is the worst, but the adsorption capacity of the colloid is the highest.

  17. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  18. Design and Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Renewable Bioasphalt Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Irfansyah, P. A.; Shidiq, A. M.; Wibisono, I. S.; Fauzy, M. N.; Hadi, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    The needs of petroleum asphalt as materials for pavement is very large, while the petroleum classified as natural resources that cannot be renewable. As a result of petroleum dwindling and prices tend to be more expensive. So that requiring other alternative materials as a substitute for conventional asphalt derived from biomass or often called bioasphalt. This study aims to know the volumetric and Marshall characteristics on Asphalt Cement ( AC ) using the Damar asphalt modification to substitute 60/70 penetration asphalt as a binder. The volumetric and Marshall characteristic are porosity, density, flow, stability, and Marshall quotient. The characteristic of asphalt concrete at optimum bitumen content are compared to the conditions from highway agency 1987 and the general specification of asphalt concrete Bina Marga 2010 the third revision. The research uses experimental method in the laboratory with the samples made using the dasphalt modification as binder and incorporating the aggregate gradation no. VII SNI 03-1737-1989. The research is using 15 samples divided into 5 contents of damar asphalt, they are 5%, 5,5%, 6%, 6,5%, dan 7%. Tests carried out using Marshall test equipment to get the value of flow and stability and then be searched the value of optimum damar asphalt content. The result of asphalt concrete analysis using dasphalt modification as binder gives the value of optimum dasphalt content at 5,242%. The most characteristics already met the requirements and specifications.

  19. Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, Rene

    2011-01-01

    and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100......% DAGs. The fat separation decreased from 10.9% to 7.8% when 10% of DAGs were applied and no fat separation was observed for emulsions prepared with 50% and 100% DAGs. Emulsions containing DAGs were more elastic and solid reflected in a significant increase in Young's modulus and the maximum hardness...

  20. Flow of emulsion droplets in 3D porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Shi, Lin; Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2017-11-01

    We study the pore-level behavior of large emulsion droplets in 3D micromodel of porous media using confocal microscopy. We match the index of refraction of the emulsion droplets and the ambient fluid to the porous media. The emulsion droplets are uniform in size and generated using microfluidics. We measure the changes in the fluid velocity as the emulsion droplets flow in the medium using particle image velocimetry. We find that due to the trapping and flow of emulsion the velocities change locally. These changes are particularly beneficial in enhanced oil recovery.

  1. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  2. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  3. Comparing Production and Placement of Warm-Mix Asphalt to Traditional Hot-Mix Asphalt for Constructing Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    25  Figure 29. Sampling asphalt mixture from delivery trucks . ................................................................. 26...46  Table 8. Transport truck data...the material to a uniform 12-in. depth, pulverizing the material with a rotary mixer , adjusting the moisture content, pulverizing the material again

  4. How does oil type determine emulsion characteristics in concentrated Na-caseinate emulsions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Lin; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2013-08-01

    Macroscopic properties and ensemble average diffusion of concentrated (dispersed phase 50-60 wt%) Na-caseinate-stabilised emulsions for three different oils (soybean oil, palm olein and tetradecane) were explored. On a volume fraction basis, pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE)-NMR data show that droplet dynamics for all three systems are similar within a region of the emulsion morphology diagram. The exact limits of the emulsion space depend however on which oil is considered. The reduced solubility of tetradecane in water, and Na-caseinate in tetradecane, result in the stabilisation of flocs during formulation. Floc formation is not observed when soybean oil or palm olein is used under identical emulsion formulation conditions. Linear rheology experiments provide indirect evidence that the local structure and the properties of the thin film interfacial domain of tetradecane emulsions vary from those of soybean oil and palm olein emulsions. Collectively these data indicate that protein/oil interactions within a system dominate over specific oil droplet structure and size distribution, which are similar in the three systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Topical delivery of acetyl hexapeptide-8 from different emulsions: influence of emulsion composition and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppel, Magdalena; Reznicek, Gottfried; Kählig, Hanspeter; Kotisch, Harald; Resch, Günter P; Valenta, Claudia

    2015-02-20

    Acetyl hexapeptide-8 (AH-8) is a well-known component of anti-aging products and was recently explored as a promising topical treatment of blepharospasm. Although AH-8 appears in a variety of cosmetic products, its skin penetration is sparsely studied and controversially discussed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the vehicle type on the AH-8 delivery to the skin. Besides skin permeation experiments with Franz type diffusion cells, the spatial distribution of AH-8 in the stratum corneum after a real in-use application was investigated by in vitro tape stripping on porcine ear skin. By applying LC-MS/MS for quantification of AH-8, we demonstrated that a multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion can significantly increase penetration of AH-8 into porcine skin compared to simple O/W and W/O emulsions. The internal structure of the developed multiple emulsion was confirmed by electron microscopic investigations and NMR self diffusion studies. In general, a clear superiority of water-rich W/O/W and O/W emulsions over an oil-rich W/O emulsion in terms of dermal delivery of AH-8 was found. This enhanced delivery of AH-8 could be explained by an increased absorption of the water-rich emulsions into the skin, confirmed by combined ATR-FTIR and tape stripping experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystals and crystallization in oil-in-water emulsions: implications for emulsion-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2012-06-15

    Many bioactive components intended for oral ingestion (pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals) are hydrophobic molecules with low water-solubilities and high melting points, which poses considerable challenges to the formulation of oral delivery systems. Oil-in-water emulsions are often suitable vehicles for the encapsulation and delivery of this type of bioactive component. The bioactive component is usually dissolved in a carrier lipid phase by either dilution and/or heating prior to homogenization, and then the carrier lipid and water phases are homogenized to form an emulsion consisting of small oil droplets dispersed in water. The successful development of this kind of emulsion-based delivery system depends on a good understanding of the influence of crystals on the formation, stability, and properties of emulsions. This review article addresses the physicochemical phenomena associated with the encapsulation, retention, crystallization, release, and absorption of hydrophobic bioactive components within emulsions. This knowledge will be useful for the rational formulation of effective emulsion-based delivery systems for oral delivery of crystalline hydrophobic bioactive components in the food, health care, and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Stabilizer-Free Emulsion Polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolska, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this thesis has been performed with the goal to understand and develop a method for stabilizer-free emulsion polymerization. In order to develop rules for this method, three main issues had to be understood: colloidal stability, emulsification method and polymerization

  8. Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Calder, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition is the final option for nutritional support of patients with severe intestinal failure. Lipid emulsions constitute the main source of fuel calories and fatty acids (FAs) in parenteral nutrition formulations. However, adverse effects on patient outcomes have been attributed

  9. Altering Emulsion Stability with Heterogeneous Surface Wettability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Qiang; Zhang, Yali; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Chen, Haosheng; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions–liquid droplets dispersed in another immiscible liquid–are widely used in a broad spectrum of applications, including food, personal care, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical products. Emulsions are also commonly present in natural crude oil, hampering the production and quality of petroleum

  10. CMS emulsion pictures during LS1

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Ferdinando, Donato

    2013-01-01

    These images were taken at the CMS experimental cavern during Long Shutdown 1, installing pinhole cameras at different points of the cavern and exposing them for days. The development of the film was done by Donato di Ferdinando from INFN Bologna. A pinhole camera is a light-tight box where a small hole is made (diameter of the order of microns); a light-sensitive material is set in the back of the hole. As sensitive material a nuclear emulsion film from the OPERA experiment was used. It is a special photographic emulsion optimized (silver grains enriched) for the detection of charged particles. A very large amount of nuclear emulsions where used in Opera experiment, at the Gran Sasso Underground Labs; nuclear emulsions must detect the charged tau-leptons emerging from the interaction between the "oscillated" tau-neutrino coming from the pure muon-neutrino beam produced at CERN (the CNGS beam). The oscillations theory of neutrino expects that muon neutrinos oscillate to tau-neutrinos and due to this behavior ...

  11. Towards small scale use of asphalt as a fuel. An application of interest to developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.

    2002-01-01

    This survey deals with the feasibility of the combustion of asphalt instead of firewood. On the seashores of the numerous islands of Indonesia, especially on those of south and southeast Sulawesi, mangrove forests are endangered by extensive logging, lately on an increasing scale by locals for whom firewood is the sole resource of energy. Urged by Yayasan-Sarna, an Indonesian non-governmental organisation of South East Sulawesi, the Dutch foundation Zephyr-Sama has prompted research on the feasibility to use asphalt from deposits on the island of Buton as a domestic fuel. This research was thought to possibly lead to the development of a porous plug stove, or to a stove in which carbonised bamboo containers filled with asphalt are used as fuel elements. This survey consists of a literature review and an overview of possible routes for controlled combustion of asphalt. Attention has been paid to the environmental effects of the combustion as well. The literature mainly shows side effects of combustion of asphalt, which provide some knowledge on the combustion process. No direct studies on the combustion of asphalt were found. To explore the bottlenecks of the combustion process, an asphalt candle was made, because the taper seemed an ideal capillary active carrier for fluid asphalt. However, this experimental candle did not bum, likely due to high viscosity at the base of the taper and clogging of carbonaceous residue at the liquid/gas interface of the taper. An increase of the porosity of asphalt gives a better chance for a propagating combustion. The pores may increase the diffusion rate of volatile components, thus increasing the combustion rate. However, if asphalt is heated it will melt and the fluid will block the pores. Its melting at a relatively low temperature is a big handicap of asphalt. To overcome this handicap, asphalt could be transported by capillary forces into the combustion zone and combust at solid/liquid/gas interfaces - like is happening in a

  12. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  13. Synthetic Polymers at Interfaces: Monodisperse Emulsions Multiple Emulsions and Liquid Marbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guanqing

    The adsorption of polymeric materials at interfaces is an energetically favorable process which is investigated in much diversified fields, such as emulsions, bubbles, foams, liquid marbles. Pickering emulsion, which is emulsion stabilized by solid particles has been investigated for over one century and preparation of Pickering emulsion with narrow size distribution is crucial for both the theoretical study of the stabilization mechanism and practical application, such as templated fabrication of colloidosomes. The precise control over the size and functionality of polymer latices allows the preparation of monodisperse Pickering emulsions with desired sizes through SPG membrane emulsification at rather rapid rate compared to microfludic production. Double or multiple emulsions have long been investigated but its rapid destabilization has always been a major obstacle in applying them into practical applications. The modern living polymerization techniques allow us to prepare polymers with designed structure of block copolymers which makes it possible to prepare ultra-stable multiple emulsions. The precise tuning of the ratio of hydrophobic part over the hydrophilic can unveil the stabilization mechanism. Liquid marble is a new type of materials of which liquid droplets are coated by dry particles. The coating of an outer layer of dry particles renders the liquid droplets non-sticky at solid surface which is useful in transportation of small amount of liquid without leakage at extreme low friction force. The property of liquid marbles relies largely on the stabilizers and the drying condition of polymeric latices is shown to have great influence on the property of liquid marbles. Firstly, an introduction to the interfacial and colloidal science with special attention to topics on emulsions, multiple emulsion and liquid marbles is given in Chapter 1. The unique features of an interface and a discussion on the definition of colloids are introduced prior to the

  14. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  15. The use of foundry sand in the composition of the asphalt mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Brence, Miran

    2016-01-01

    The main components of asphalt mixtures are fractions of stone aggregates, filler and bitumen. The main component in produced asphalt mixture by mass represents stone fractions with about 85% by weight. When stone materials for the production of asphalt mixtures are replaced with secondary raw materials, then problems associated with acquiring suitable stone fractions can be avoided or at least significantly reduced. The study presents the possibility of use of foundry sand as a secondary raw...

  16. Modified composite material developed on the basis of no-fines asphalt concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhasek Andrey; Ivanov Boris

    2017-01-01

    Being a composite material, asphalt concrete is widely used in hydraulic engineering and road construction. The paper proves one of asphalt concrete modification, which includes first creating a skeleton of no-fines concrete and then its washing-down with bituminous materials by a hot procedure, can be successfully used in hydraulic structures Modified composite material based on no-fines asphalt concrete has a harder skeleton because of links from cement stone and has a technological advanta...

  17. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement of asphalt binder by using methylmethacrylate/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, A.A.; Reem K. Farag; Usama F. Kandil; El-Shafie, M.; A.M.M. Saleh; Ahmed F. El-Kafrawy

    2016-01-01

    Various polymer-modified asphalt compositions for paving and roofing applications are known since several years ago. The degree to which a polymer improves the asphalt’s properties depends on the compatibility of the polymer and the asphalt. Highly compatible polymers are more effective in providing property improvements. In this research, the influence of in situ polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomer with asphalt in presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinker on...

  18. The influence of nanoclay on the durability properties of asphalt mixtures for top and base layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johan; De Kinder, Bram; Meeusen, Jannes; Van den bergh, Wim

    2017-09-01

    To avoid traffic congestion, due to road works, a continuous research into asphalt pavement and especially its durability is of great importance. This research focuses on improving the mechanical performance and the durability of asphalt mixtures by nanoclay modified bitumen. This promising technique of introducing nanoclays or nano particles into bitumen could offer an significant improvement on the fatigue properties and rutting performance and thus the durability of the asphalt top layer.

  19. A micromechanical finite element model for linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qingli; Sadd, Martin H.; You, Zhanping

    2006-09-01

    This study presents a finite element (FE) micromechanical modelling approach for the simulation of linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture. Asphalt mixture is a composite material of graded aggregates bound with mastic (asphalt and fine aggregates). The microstructural model of asphalt mixture incorporates an equivalent lattice network structure whereby intergranular load transfer is simulated through an effective asphalt mastic zone. The finite element model integrates the ABAQUS user material subroutine with continuum elements for the effective asphalt mastic and rigid body elements for each aggregate. A unified approach is proposed using Schapery non-linear viscoelastic model for the rate-independent and rate-dependent damage behaviour. A finite element incremental algorithm with a recursive relationship for three-dimensional (3D) linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour is developed. This algorithm is used in a 3D user-defined material model for the asphalt mastic to predict global linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture.For linear viscoelastic study, the creep stiffnesses of mastic and asphalt mixture at different temperatures are measured in laboratory. A regression-fitting method is employed to calibrate generalized Maxwell models with Prony series and generate master stiffness curves for mastic and asphalt mixture. A computational model is developed with image analysis of sectioned surface of a test specimen. The viscoelastic prediction of mixture creep stiffness with the calibrated mastic material parameters is compared with mixture master stiffness curve over a reduced time period.In regard to damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour, cyclic loading responses of linear and rate-independent damage-coupled viscoelastic materials are compared. Effects of particular microstructure parameters on the rate-independent damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour are also investigated with finite element

  20. Development of Energy-based Damage and Plasticity Models for Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Onifade, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the full range of damage and plastic behaviour of asphalt mixtures under varying strain-rates and stress states is a complex and challenging task. One reason for this  is partly due to the strain rate and temperature dependent nature of the material as well as the variation in the properties of the constituent materials that make up the composite asphalt mixture. Existing stress-based models for asphalt concrete materials are developed based on mechanics principles, but these m...

  1. The Influence of Limestone and Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Gunaran Danny; Nasus K. Y; Napitupulu J. P. F; Amelia Makmur

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradation...

  2. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  3. Modelling of Asphalt Concrete Stiffness in the Linear Viscoelastic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Stiffness modulus is a fundamental parameter used in the modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of bituminous mixtures. On the basis of the master curve in the linear viscoelasticity range, the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete at different loading times and temperatures can be predicted. This paper discusses the construction of master curves under rheological mathematical models i.e. the sigmoidal function model (MEPDG), the fractional model, and Bahia and co-workers’ model in comparison to the results from mechanistic rheological models i.e. the generalized Huet-Sayegh model, the generalized Maxwell model and the Burgers model. For the purposes of this analysis, the reference asphalt concrete mix (denoted as AC16W) intended for the binder coarse layer and for traffic category KR3 (5×105 asphalt concrete under steady-state strain was performed using the simple axial compression-tensile test under controlled strain mode. The fixed strain level was set at 25με to guarantee that the stiffness modulus of the asphalt concrete would be tested in a linear viscoelasticity range. The master curve was formed using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The stiffness modulus of asphalt concrete was determined at temperatures 10°C, 20°C and 40°C and at loading times (frequency) of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 Hz. The model parameters were fitted to the rheological models using the original programs based on the nonlinear least squares sum method. All the rheological models under analysis were found to be capable of predicting changes in the stiffness modulus of the reference asphalt concrete to satisfactory accuracy. In the cases of the fractional model and the generalized Maxwell model, their accuracy depends on a number of elements in series. The best fit was registered for Bahia and co-workers model, generalized Maxwell model and fractional model. As for predicting the

  4. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  5. Kinerja Campuran Beraspal Hangat Laston Lapis Pengikat (AC-BC dengan Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Maha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory study of AC-BC asphalt mixture reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP by warm mix method. 30% of RAP is combined with new aggregate in the mixture. Rejuvenating agent Cyclogen L was used to activate RAP asphalt binder. With 3% organic wax Sasobit, temperature of mixing and paving was set at 135°C and 123°C, 30°C lower than conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA with unmodified asphalt binder 60/70 penetration. Three mixtures were set in this research, consisting of hot mix asphalt conventional mixture (identified as HM, warm mix asphalt mixture (identified as SASO and warm mix asphalt with RAP (identified as SASORAP. Marshall design procedure was used to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC. OBC for each mixture was 5,2%, 5,2% and 5,3% for HMA, SASO and SASORAP respectively. From Indirect Tensile Stress test result, all asphalt mixture meet moisture sensitvity requirement where Indirect Tensile Stress Ratio (ITSR is higher than 80%. From resilient modulus and fatigue resistance test result, SASO and SASORAP showed a better performance than conventional mixture (HMA.

  6. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in asphalt production. This way asphalt production costs as well as the environmental problems that are caused by mineral residue are reduced. Five different asphalt cements, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, and a granite residue were used in this work. The results indicated that the residue strongly absorbs all the CAPs that were studied; particularly CAP A, which is considered the most adequate for the production of asphalt from this residue. Preliminary tests this indicate that asphalt production can use mineral residues instead of mineral aggregates in its composition. (author)

  7. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  8. Influence of hot asphalt mixture using asbuton on road composite pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Abdul; Darwis, Muhammad; Imran

    2017-11-01

    Construction and rehabilitation of road infrastructure in Indonesia require about 1.2 million tons of asphalt per year, approximately 100% used of petroleum asphalt. Only a half of asphalt demand can be provided domestically, while about 600 thousand tons have to be imported from abroad. Indonesia has natural asphalt with a quite large deposit but has not been fully utilized. Lack of availability of asphalt and the increasing demand of the domestic market will give effect to an increase in bitumen cost in the domestic market. Somehow, this is not a sufficient condition due to the rising cost of road infrastructure. This study aims to determine the effect of using a layer of asphalt concrete pavement asbuton to rigid pavement (PR-modification). Stressing that occur in rigid pavement, asphalt concrete layer and base course measured by using LVDT and for the subgrade using soil pressure transducer. Using asbuton on asphalt concrete will have more benefit on improving the stability of the marshall. The maximum deflection occurring in the PR-modification at 5.19 mm with a maximum stress of 175.10 kN. Vertical and horizontal tension that occur at the base course at -20 cm row by 0.855 MPa and 0.00282 MPa. Addition of layers of asphalt concrete in rigid pavement using asbuton has increased power by 9.5%.

  9. Double emulsion solvent evaporation techniques used for drug encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2015-12-30

    Double emulsions are complex systems, also called "emulsions of emulsions", in which the droplets of the dispersed phase contain one or more types of smaller dispersed droplets themselves. Double emulsions have the potential for encapsulation of both hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic drugs, cosmetics, foods and other high value products. Techniques based on double emulsions are commonly used for the encapsulation of hydrophilic molecules, which suffer from low encapsulation efficiency because of rapid drug partitioning into the external aqueous phase when using single emulsions. The main issue when using double emulsions is their production in a well-controlled manner, with homogeneous droplet size by optimizing different process variables. In this review special attention has been paid to the application of double emulsion techniques for the encapsulation of various hydrophilic and hydrophobic anticancer drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotic drugs, proteins and amino acids and their applications in theranostics. Moreover, the optimized ratio of the different phases and other process parameters of double emulsions are discussed. Finally, the results published regarding various types of solvents, stabilizers and polymers used for the encapsulation of several active substances via double emulsion processes are reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of fluorocarbon-in-water emulsions with added triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weers, Jeffry G; Arlauskas, Rebecca A; Tarara, Thomas E; Pelura, Timothy J

    2004-08-31

    Fluorocarbon-in-water emulsions are being explored clinically as synthetic oxygen carriers in general surgery. Stabilizing fluorocarbon emulsions against coarsening is critical in maintaining the biocompatibility of the formulation following intravenous administration. It has been purported that the addition of a small percentage of long-chain triglyceride results in stabilization of fluorocarbon emulsions via formation of a three-phase emulsion. In a three-phase emulsion, the triglyceride forms a layer around the dispersed fluorocarbon, thereby improving the adhesion of the phospholipid surfactant to the dispersed phase. In the present study, we examined the effect of triglyceride addition on the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting complex dispersion. In particular, we examined the particle composition and stability of the dispersed particles using a method which first fractionates (classifies) the different particles prior to sizing (i.e., sedimentation field-flow fractionation). It was determined that the addition of a long-chain triglyceride (soybean oil) results in oil demixing and two distinct populations of emulsion droplets. The presence of the two types of emulsion droplets is not observed via light scattering techniques, since the triglyceride droplets dominate the scattering due to a large difference in the refractive index between the particles and the medium as compared to fluorocarbon droplets. The growth of the fractionated fluorocarbon emulsion droplets was followed over time, and it was found that there was no difference in growth rates with and without added triglyceride. In contrast, addition of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT) oils results in a single population of emulsion droplets (i.e., a three-phase emulsion). These emulsions are not stable to droplet coalescence, however, as significant penetration of MCT into the phospholipid lipid interfacial layer results in a negative increment in the monolayer spontaneous curvature, thereby

  11. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  12. Asphalt Mixture Segregation Detection: Digital Image Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadtaqi Baqersad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation determination in the asphalt pavement is an issue causing many disputes between agencies and contractors. The visual inspection method has commonly been used to determine pavement texture and in-place core density test used for verification. Furthermore, laser-based devices, such as the Florida Texture Meter (FTM and the Circular Track Meter (CTM, have recently been developed to evaluate the asphalt mixture texture. In this study, an innovative digital image processing approach is used to determine pavement segregation. In this procedure, the standard deviation of the grayscale image frequency histogram is used to determine segregated regions. Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA is then implemented on the obtained standard deviations from image processing to classify pavements into the segregated and nonsegregated areas. The visual inspection method is utilized to verify this method. The results have demonstrated that this new method is a robust tool to determine segregated areas in newly paved FC9.5 pavement types.

  13. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of a virgin coconut oil emulsion and commercial food supplement emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Yih Phing; Koh, Soo Peng; Long, Kamariah; Long, Shariah; Ahmad, Sharifah Zarah Syed; Tan, Chin Ping

    2014-07-01

    Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  14. Emulsion characteristics, chemical and textural properties of meat systems produced with double emulsions as beef fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem; Öztürk, Burcu; Urgu, Müge

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, double emulsions are stated to have a promising potential in low-fat food production, however, there are very few studies on their possible applications in meat matrices. We aimed to investigate the quality of beef emulsion systems in which beef fat was totally replaced by double emulsions (W1/O/W2) prepared with olive oil and sodium caseinate (SC) by two-step emulsification procedure. Incorporation of W1/O/W2 emulsion resulted in reduced lipid, increased protein content, and modified fatty acid composition. W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments had lower jelly and fat separation, higher water-holding capacity and higher emulsion stability than control samples with beef fat. Increased concentrations of W1/O/W2 emulsions resulted in significant changes in texture parameters. TBA values were lower in W1/O/W2 emulsion treatments than control treatment after 60days of storage. In conclusion, our study confirms that double emulsions had promising impacts on modifying fatty acid composition and developing both technologically and oxidatively stable beef emulsion systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Physicochemical Properties of a Virgin Coconut Oil Emulsion and Commercial Food Supplement Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Phing Khor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO. In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4. C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 µm. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The G'G'' crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV, which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.

  16. Ultrasonication-assisted preparation and characterization of emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinay K; Behera, Baikuntha; Pramanik, Krishna; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    The current study describes the use of ultrasonication for the preparation of biphasic emulsions and emulsion gels for topical drug delivery. Sorbitan monostearate (SMS) was used as the surfactant for stabilizing the interface of sesame oil (apolar phase) and water (polar phase). Emulsions were formed at lower concentrations of SMS, whereas emulsion gels were formed at higher concentrations of SMS. The formulations were characterized by fluorescent microscopy, X-ray diffraction, viscosity, stress relaxation, spreadability, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Fluorescence microscopy suggested formation of oil-in-water type of formulations. There was an increase in the viscosity, bulk resistance, and firmness of the formulations as the proportions of SMS was increased. The emulsion gels were viscoelastic in nature. Thermal studies suggested higher thermodynamic stability at higher proportions of either SMS or water. Metronidazole, a model antimicrobial drug, was incorporated within the formulations. The release of the drug from the formulations was found to be diffusion mediated. The drug-loaded formulations showed sufficient antimicrobial efficiency to be used as carriers for topical antimicrobial drug delivery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  18. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  19. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  20. Effect of Fibers on Mixture Design of Stone Matrix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Yanping Sheng; Haibin Li; Ping Guo; Guijuan Zhao; Huaxin Chen; Rui Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA), such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA) during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry conditi...

  1. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  2. FUEL CELL POWERED WITH CANOLA OIL EMULSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Piotr Włodarczyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using canola oil as active substance to fuel cell powering. For this purpose a prototype fuel cell was built. Cell was powered with canola oil emulsion. As a detergent Syntanol DS-10 was used. The mesh electrode with Pt catalyst was used as a anode, and mesh electrode with Ni-Co catalyst was used as a cathode. The measurements conducted in the temperature range 293-333K. The maximum current density reached the level of 2 mA/cm2, and maximum power reached the level of 21 mW (at temp. 333K. So, the possibility of delivery of canola oil (in emulsion form directly to the anode was shown. The obtain power is low, but was shown that it is possible to build the fuel cell powered with canola oil.

  3. Evidence for Marginal Stability in Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Jorjadze, Ivane; Pontani, Lea-Laetitia; Wyart, Matthieu; Brujic, Jasna

    2016-11-01

    We report the first measurements of the effect of pressure on vibrational modes in emulsions, which serve as a model for soft frictionless spheres at zero temperature. As a function of the applied pressure, we find that the density of states D (ω ) exhibits a low-frequency cutoff ω*, which scales linearly with the number of extra contacts per particle δ z . Moreover, for ω Urbani, and F. Zamponi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 14539 (2015)]. Finally, the degree of localization of the softest low frequency modes increases with compression, as shown by the participation ratio as well as their spatial configurations. Overall, our observations show that emulsions are marginally stable and display non-plane-wave modes up to vanishing frequencies.

  4. Durable high strength cement concrete topping for asphalt roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrozhemskyi, Valerii; Krayushkina, Kateryna; Bidnenko, Nataliia

    2017-09-01

    Work on improving riding qualities of pavements by means of placing a thin cement layer with high roughness and strength properties on the existing asphalt pavement were conducted in Ukraine for the first time. Such pavement is called HPCM (High Performance Cementitious Material). This is a high-strength thin cement-layer pavement of 8-9 mm thickness reinforced with metal or polymer fiber of less than 5 mm length. Increased grip properties are caused by placement of stone material of 3-5 mm fraction on the concrete surface. As a result of the research, the preparation and placement technology of high-strength cement thin-layer pavement reinforced with fiber was developed to improve friction properties of existing asphalt pavements which ensures their roughness and durability. It must be emphasized that HPCM is a fundamentally new type of thin-layer pavement in which a rigid layer of 10 mm thickness is placed on a non-rigid base thereby improving riding qualities of asphalt pavement at any season of a year.

  5. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  6. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (dfiller. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  7. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  8. Highly condensed aromatics and their connection to hydrogenation asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boente, L.

    1944-11-22

    An attempt is made to account for the structure of asphalts and resins which arose in residues upon hydrogenation of coal. The main assumption is that most of these asphalts consisted of highly condensed aromatics, which are considered as derivatives of the substance coronene, which could be described as having the structure consisting of six benzene rings arranged around a central seventh benzene ring. Part of the discussion is speculative, but evidence is given which had led to that speculation. The asphalts had been very hard to analyze exactly, partly because of their very low solubility in most solvents and their very high boiling points. Possible mechanisms for the formation of such highly condensed aromatics during the hydrogenation process are described along with experimental work aimed in part at hydrogenating these aromatics and in part at producing them by condensation reactions of aluminum chloride on coronene. Some of the products of the condensation reactions even resembled coke or soot, while others were red substances which fluoresced green in phenanthrene solution. It is hypothesized that coronene could be looked upon as the basic nucleus for a whole series of highly condensed aromatic molecules, in the same way that benzene is looked upon as the basic nucleus for a whole series of aromatic compounds.

  9. Submicron Lipid Emulsions: A Versatile Platform for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions have turned out to be a versatile tool for systemic delivery of poorly soluble drugs and cytotoxic drugs. Currently, the majority of marketed or developing drugs are recognized as BCS II and IV ones. How to solve the solubility and systemic administration that enables them access to clinical application is arising a great challenge in drug delivery systems. The key considerations for lipid emulsions are how to enhance the drug load, stability and reproducibility. Formulation and manufacture technique play the leading role in development of lipid emulsions. Understanding the biofate and characterization in vitro/vivo is suggestive to exploit the potential of lipid emulsions. This review discussed the manufacture techniques and in vivo behavior of lipid emulsions. Momentous interests were focused on their applications in drug delivery as well as the future evolution. Finally, we appreciated the methodologies of quality control and systemic risks associated with lipid emulsions.

  10. Omega-3s in food emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of healthy long chain omega-3 oils in foods. Incorporation of omega-3 oils into foods decreases their oxidative stability and therefore precautions need to be taken to avoid lipid oxidation. This review summarises the major factors to take...... into consideration when developing food emulsions enriched with omega-3 oils and examples on how oxidation can be reduced in products such as mayonnaise, spreads, milk, yoghurt are also given....

  11. Application of a bio-binder as a rejuvenator for wet processed asphalt shingles in pavement construction

    OpenAIRE

    OLDHAM, Daniel J.; Ellie H. Fini; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the merits of application of bio-binder to enhance rheological properties of asphalt binder in the presence of wet processed recycled asphalt shingles (RAS). It will further examine the performance and workability of asphalt designed with and without a specified percentage of a bio-binder produced from swine manure and RAS. Bio-binder was introduced to liquid asphalt binder modified with four different percentages of RAS; the high and low temperature properties of each...

  12. Emulsion for hydraulically breaking the gas layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, D.F.; Kendis, M.Sh.; Polkovnichenko, I.T.; Yaroshenko, N.A.; Zhadanova, K.M.

    1981-05-25

    Acid monoesters and diesters of alkyl phosphates based on primary fatty alcohols of the C /sub 12/ -C /sub 16/ fraction are added as emulsifiers to an emulsion for hydraulically breaking the gas layer with a view to increasing its thermal stability. The components have the following ratio: hydrocarbon mixture, 9.8-20.6%; acid monoesters and diesters, 0.3-0.6%; aqueous fraction, 25.7-38.8%, and sand, 40-60%. In preparing the composition, the emulsifier is dissolved in a hydrocarbon liquid at 50/sup 0/C. Then, an aqueous phase is gradually added while stirring at a rate of 8,000-10,000 revolutions per minute for 30 min. Afterwards, sand is added. Tests of the mixtures for hydraulic breakage have been carried out in the laboratory by the KTs-5 consistometer. The plastic viscosity of the emulsions were determined in the absence of sand by the Reotest-2 device. The mixture which is proposed has heightened (up to 130/sup 0/C) thermal stability as compared with the known one (diesel fuel, water, ethanolamide of free fatty acids): the emulsions in a mixture with sand decompose at 70/sup 0/C. The high thermal stability of the mixture makes it possible to use hydraulic breakage in a wider range. The gas yield of the borehole doubles as a result of hydraulically breaking the productive layer by the given mixture.

  13. Open Cell Aerogel Foams via Emulsion Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Nicholas; Jana, Sadhan C

    2017-10-26

    The water-in-oil emulsion-templating method is used in this work for fabrication of open cell aerogel foams from syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS). A surfactant-stabilized emulsion is prepared at 60-100 °C by dispersing water in a solution of sPS in toluene. sPS gel, formed upon cooling of the emulsion to room temperature, locks the water droplets inside the gel. The gel is solvent exchanged in ethanol and then dried under supercritical condition of carbon dioxide to yield the aerogel foams. The aerogel foams show a significant fraction of macropores with a diameter of a few tens of micrometers, defined as macrovoids that originated from the emulsified water droplets. In conjunction, customary macropores of diameter 50-200 nm are derived from sPS gels. The macrovoids add additional openness to the aerogel structures. This paper evaluates the structural characteristics of the macrovoids, such as diameter distribution, macrovoid interconnect density, and skin layer density, in conjunction with the final aerogel foam properties.

  14. Use of Bitumen Emulsion for Flexible Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani Singh Dhriyan; Yogesh Garg

    2017-01-01

    In the present study bitumen is replaced by bitumen emulsion for the construction of flexible pavement. The conventional method of road construction involves the burning of bitumen which produces toxic gases which degrades the environment. In colder region it is difficult to maintain the paving temperature of hot mix. To overcome these problems and conserve the energy bitumen emulsion is considered as good option. Likewise emulsion can be used in the areas having higher rate of rainfall where...

  15. A Study of the behaviour of emulsion explosives

    OpenAIRE

    Allum, J

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the formulation and characterisation of emulsion explosives. This included the manufacture of more than 120kg of emulsion explosive of which around 105kg was used on the explosive ordnance range in over 350 individual firings. For each emulsion composition, an average of eight firings was undertaken with which to substantiate the explosive performance data. The formulation was varied to determine the effects of water content upon the physical characte...

  16. Effect of primary emulsions on microsphere size and protein-loading in the double emulsion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, Y F; Hsu, C C

    1997-01-01

    Incorporation of a protein drug in microspheres made of a hydrophobic polymer is commonly achieved via double liquid-liquid emulsification (w/o/w) or by dispersing a powdered protein in a polymer solution followed by liquid-liquid emulsification (s/o/w). This study focused on the effect of the first operating step in both processes on the size and protein-loading of the microspheres. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the model protein and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used as the model polymer. The w/o emulsion was characterized based on the degree of emulsion fineness which was controlled using rotor/stator homogenization. The s/o emulsion was characterized based on protein powder size and shape. Protein powders of different sizes and shapes were produced using different powder preparation methods. In both emulsification processes, the second operating step which produced the microspheres was conducted in either a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) or a static mixer. The size of the microspheres thus prepared was found to increase with increasing size of the protein powder in the s/o/w system but increase with decreasing size of the liquid emulsion droplets in the w/o/w system. Empirical correlations can accurately predict the size of the microspheres if the size of w/o emulsion droplets and protein powder is 10 x less than the microsphere size. Protein loading in the microspheres decreased with respect to increases in w/o emulsion droplet size or in protein powder size. We propose that these phenomena are attributed to two mechanisms, fragmentation along the weak routes in the w/o/w system and particle redistribution as the result of terminal velocity in the s/o/w system. The role of protein powder shape was not significant until the protein powder size exceeded 5 microns. Irregular-shaped protein powders resulted in lower encapsulation efficiency than spherical-shaped protein powders.

  17. Perflubron emulsion delays blood transfusions in orthopedic surgery. European Perflubron Emulsion Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, D R; van Brempt, R; Theilmeier, G; Reibold, J P; Welte, M; Heinzerling, H; Birck, K M; Keipert, P E; Messmer, K; Heinzerling, H; Birck, K M; Keipert, P E; Messmer, K

    1999-11-01

    Fluorocarbon emulsions have been proposed as temporary artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of perflubron emulsion with the effectiveness of autologous blood or colloid infusion for reversal of physiologic transfusion triggers. A multinational, multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was performed in 147 orthopedic patients. Patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with colloid to a target hemoglobin of 9 g/dl with an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.40. Patients were then randomized into one of four treatment groups after having reached any of the protocol-defined transfusion triggers including tachycardia (heart rate > 125% of posthemodilution rate or > 110 bpm), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 150% of posthemodilution level) or decreased mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PVO2; emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0; and 1.8 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0. The primary endpoint was duration of transfusion-trigger reversal. A secondary end-point was percentage of transfusion-trigger reversal. Perflubron emulsion was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to drug treatment. Duration of reversal was longest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (median, 80 min; 95% confidence interval, 60-100 min; P = 0.014 vs. autologous blood, P emulsion (1.8 g/kg) combined with 100% oxygen ventilation is more effective than autologous blood or colloid infusion in reversing physiologic transfusion triggers.

  18. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

  19. Physical Stability of Whippable Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Merete Bøgelund

    Whippable emulsions based on vegetable fat are increasingly used as replacement for dairy whipping creams. One of the quality criteria of whippable emulsions is that it should be low-viscous prior to whipping, but sudden viscosity increase or even solidification during storage and transport...... despite appliance of shear and temperature changes from 5 to 20 °C. Globule aggregation induced by LACTEM was impeded when used in combination with GMS. On the contrary, GMU induced very dense fat globule networks in emulsions which transformed emulsions into very firm solid-like pastes. This effect...

  20. Performance evaluation of organic emulsion liquid membrane on phenol removal

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    The percentage removal of phenol from aqueous solution by emulsion liquid membrane and emulsion leakage was investigated experimentally for various parameters such as membrane:internal phase ratio, membrane:external phase ratio, emulsification speed, emulsification time, carrier concentration, surfactant concentration and internal agent concentration. These parameters strongly influence the percentage removal of phenol and emulsion leakage. Under optimum membrane properties, the percentage removal of phenol was as high as 98.33%, with emulsion leakage of 1.25%. It was also found that the necessity of carrier for enhancing phenol removal was strongly dependent on the internal agent concentration.

  1. Development of formulation multicomponent protein-fat emulsion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotlyar, Y; Goncharenko, Т; Topchiy, O

    2016-01-01

    .... The samples of protein and fat emulsions using protein drugs and partial replacement of animal fats fortified blend of vegetable oils, determined by their biological value, rheological, functional...

  2. The choice of homogenisation equipment affects lipid oxidation in emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    in emulsions has been shown to be affected by the emulsification conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of homogenisation equipment (microfluidizer vs. two-stage valve homogeniser) on lipid oxidation in 10% fish oil-in-water emulsions prepared with two different milk proteins....... Emulsions were prepared at pH 7 with similar droplet sizes. Results showed that the oxidative stability of emulsions prepared with sodium caseinate was not influenced by the type of homogeniser used. In contrast, the type of homogenisation equipment significantly influenced lipid oxidation when whey protein...

  3. Squalene emulsions for parenteral vaccine and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B

    2009-09-01

    Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are evaluated in the context of parenteral formulations. Historical and current parenteral emulsion products containing squalene or squalane are discussed. The safety of squalene-based products is also addressed. Finally, analytical techniques for characterization of squalene emulsions are examined.

  4. Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Fox

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are evaluated in the context of parenteral formulations. Historical and current parenteral emulsion products containing squalene or squalane are discussed. The safety of squalene-based products is also addressed. Finally, analytica techniques for characterization of squalene emulsions are examined.

  5. Use of NDT equipment for construction quality control of hot mix asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The focus of the study has been to evaluate the utility of seismic methods in the quality management of the hot mix asphalt layers. Procedures are presented to measure the target field moduli of hot mix asphalt (HMA) with laboratory seismic methods, ...

  6. Reintroducing the intrinsic self-healing properties in reclaimed asphalt by rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Shirazi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) is one of the largest fractions of raw materials used in road construction today. Probably over 90% of the total RA in the Netherlands is being reused in new asphalt constructions. RA contains aggregates coated with very hard bitumen (penetration grade of 10-20). During

  7. Toward the Design of an Induction Heating System for Asphalt Pavements with the Finite Element Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Kasbergen, C.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Induction technology was introduced to the paving industry to assist pavement operations by heating asphalt layers efficiently from the surface. Many experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of inductive particles on the heating efficiency of asphalt mixes. However,

  8. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  9. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  10. Monitoring hot mix asphalt temperature to improve homogeneity and pavement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Santagata, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how controlled compaction practices lead to better quality asphalt. Therefore, it is important that during compaction operations the mixture is at a suitable temperature in order to achieve the specified degree of compaction. The University of Twente’s Asphalt Paving Research

  11. Investigation of the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) testing program in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The asphalt pavement analyzer (APA) has been widely used to evaluate hot-mix asphalt (HMA) rutting potential in mix : design and quality control-quality assurance (QC-QA) applications, because the APA testing and its data analyses are : relatively si...

  12. Use of waste crushed glass for the production of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available presents the development and evaluation of a new asphalt concrete mix that utilizes a sustainable crushed glass as a replacement material of a natural aggregate. The ultimate goal is to produce a cost-effective asphalt wearing course with comparative...

  13. Performance characterizations of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating silane additive ZycoTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Hamzah, Meor Othman; Yee, Teh Sek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the properties of asphalt binders and mixtures produced using a relatively new silane additive, named ZycoTherm. In this study, 0.1wt% ZycoTherm was blended with asphalt binder to enable production of asphalt mixture at lower than normal temperatures, as well as improve mix workability and compactability. Asphalt mixture performances towards pavement distresses in tropical climate region were also investigated. The properties of control asphalt binders (60/70 and 80/10 penetration grade) and asphalt binders incorporating 0.1% ZycoTherm were reported based on the penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, complex modulus and phase angle. Subsequently, to compare the performance of asphalt mixture incorporating ZycoTherm with the control asphalt mixture, cylindrical samples were prepared at recommended temperatures and air voids depending on the binder types and test requirements. The samples were tested for indirect tensile strength (ITS), resilient modulus, dynamic creep, Hamburg wheel tracking and moisture induced damage. From compaction data using the Servopak gyratory compactor, specimen prepared using ZycoTherm exhibit higher workability and compactability compared to the conventional mixture. From the mixture performance test results, mixtures prepared with ZycoTherm showed comparable if not better performance than the control sample in terms of the resistance to moisture damage, permanent deformation and cracking.

  14. Modelling absorption in porous asphalt concrete for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Moens, D.; Denayer, H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model to predict the sound absorption of porous asphalt has been developed. The approach is a combination between a microstructural approach and a finite element approach. The model used to describe the viscothermal properties of the air inside the pores of the asphalt is the low reduced

  15. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  16. Modeling of asphalt by means of discrete element method – an initial study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Hededal, Ole; Stang, Henrik

    Asphalt is a viscous material consisting of a matrix of stones, sand and filler glued together by a bituminous binder, which is used in many pavement constructions. Knowledge about asphalt is mainly based on the results of experimental and empirical investigation, which comes at the expense...

  17. Thermodynamics between RAP/RAS and virgin aggregates during asphalt concrete production : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In hot-mix asphalt (HMA) plants, virgin aggregates are heated and dried separately before being mixed with : RAP/RAS and virgin asphalt binder. RAP/RAS materials are not heated or dried directly by a burner to avoid : burning of aged binder coating o...

  18. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez A Al-Mansob

    Full Text Available Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  19. Analyzing the stripping potential of warm mix asphalt using imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq Kakar, Muhammad; Othman Hamzah, Meor; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    In asphalt mixtures, stripping occurs when the bond between the asphalt and the aggregate is broken due to the intrusion of water within the asphalt aggregate interface. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a technology that allows significant reduction in mixing and compaction temperatures of conventional hot mix asphalt. However, WMA is susceptible to moisture damage due to its lower production temperature. This can cause adhesive failure, hence stripping of asphalt binder from the aggregates. In this study, direct tensile strength (DTS) and indirect tensile strength (ITS) tests were applied to fracture the mixture specimen. Imaging technique was applied on the fractured faces of asphalt mixture to quantify the adhesive failure susceptibility due to the destructive effects of moisture. The results showed that adhesive failure increased with the number of freeze and thaw cycles and mixtures prepared with PG-76 binder exhibited lower adhesive failure compared to PG-64 binder. From fractured ITS samples, most of broken aggregates were found located in the vicinity where the indirect tensile load was applied. On the other hand, high adhesive failure was obtained at the center portion where maximum tensile stresses were developed. The image analysis method employed in this work has proven to be very effective to analyze the deterioration of asphalt mixtures subjected to moisture conditioning.

  20. Investigation of self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes using beam on elastic foundation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Self healing of asphalt mixes is known for more than four decades. However, it is a complex phenomenon which depends on the duration of the rest period, temperature, crack size, etc. In order to quantify the self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes, a test setup was proposed in this research using an

  1. Evaluation of recycled hot mix asphalt concrete on Route 220 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the performance of an approximately 8-mi section of roadway on which the rod two layers of asphalt concrete were milled, recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant, and relaid. The recycled mix consisted of about 40% re...

  2. Risk of fatal industrial accidents and death from other external causes among asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burstyn, I.; Boffetta, P.; Jarvholm, B.; Partanen, T.A.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ahrens, W.; Bergdahl, I.A.; Cenee, S.; Hooiveld, M.; Randem, B.G.; Johansen, C.; Ferro, G.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that asphalt workers are at increased risk of mortality from industrial accidents and other external causes was tested. Mortality rates for external and violent causes of death in a cohort of asphalt industry employees from seven European countries and Israel were compared to that of

  3. Evaluation of elevated temperature properties of asphalt cement modified with aluminum oxide and calcium carbonate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrka Ali, Shaban Ismael; Ismail, Amiruddin; AlMansob, Ramez A.; Alhmali, Dhawo Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Higher temperature properties of the asphalt cement have been characterized before and after modification using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and viscosity testing. In this study, calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO3) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3) have been added to the base asphalt cement with concentrations of 3, 5 and 7%.wt by the weight of the asphalt cement. The increase of CaCO3 and Al2O3 content has significant effect on the properties of asphalt cement. The viscosity of the modified asphalt cement increased up to 90 and 108% respectively compared to the base asphalt cement. In addition, the results showed that both modifiers have great storage stability and compatibility at elevated temperature. The evaluation of the rheological properties of asphalt cements revealed that the stiffness of the modified samples improved with additional increase of the modifier concentration of up to 5%, which indicates better resistance to rutting parameter. The enhancement was up to 388.89% for Al2O3 and 74.07% for CaCO3. As a result, the usage of CaCO3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles can be considered as appropriate alternative materials to modify asphalt cement.

  4. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Matching Relationship between Asphalt Particle and Reservoir Pore in Profile Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified sulfonated asphalt particles have a bright application prospect of the profile control of thick reservoirs due to the low cost, extensive sources, and good compatibility with reservoir. Nevertheless, the matching relationship between asphalt particles and reservoir pore has seldom been investigated till now. Oversized particles always block the near-wellbore area, which causes high injection pressures, while undersized particles cannot plug large pores. We designed a core for this experiment which has a high permeability zone in front of it and many pressure measuring points. We could quantitatively assess the matching relationship by measuring the on-way resistance coefficient, residual resistance factor, and relative change of permeability of man-made cores after injecting asphalt. Experimental results indicate that asphalt particles with sizes of 0.02 mm, 0.02–0.06 mm, and 0.08–0.1 mm match with reservoir permeability of 500 mD, 1000 mD, and 2000 mD, respectively. Undersized or oversized particles can reduce the conformance control effect, and the concentration of asphalt particles in the injectant can limit their migration ability. When the concentration of asphalt particles increases to 3000 mg/L, accumulations of asphalt particles can be caused in the formation, in which a scheme with asphalt particles alternative water injection is proposed to avoid the accumulation.

  6. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  7. Change in consistency and composition of trichloroethylene- and trichloroethane-treated asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elgheit, M A; Ijam, M J

    1982-12-01

    Solvent extraction of asphalt from pavement mixtures is a technique used to study the change in asphalt during service. Rheological measurements indicate that asphalts recovered from trichloroethylene or trichloroethane are markedly hardened. Compositional studies on asphaltic fractions reveal a notable decrease in saturates, naphthenes, H, N, Ni and V, and increase in polar aromatics and asphaltenes along with incorporation of Cl in all fractions. These structural changes are responsible for the hardening of the asphalt and are interpreted in terms of cyclization of saturates, aromatization of naphthenes, coupling of free radicals with neutral species to give a high content of asphaltenes, and in terms of loss of the relatively volatile Ni and V porphyrins during the extraction-recovery process.

  8. Drying of Porous Asphalt Concrete Investigated by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjen, I.; Poulikakos, L. D.; Plamondon, M.; Schuetz, Ph.; Luethi, Th.; Flisch, A.

    Porous asphalt concrete is composed of aggregates, a bituminous binder and air voids which can form a complex network. Because rain water can easily drain through this network of voids, porous asphalt concrete is often used for improving the security of highways. However, porous asphalt concrete is often deteriorating fast due to its large contact area with environmental agents. A quantitative determination of the influence of rain water on the aging of porous asphalt concrete requires an understanding of water drainage and evaporation in the material. In this paper, the water evaporation rate in a sample of porous asphalt concrete was investigated by means of X-ray micro computed tomography. Discontinuities in the evaporation rate were observed. A qualitative inspection of the pore network allowed tentatively linking sudden acceleration of evaporation to the disappearance of water lids which were clogging pores.

  9. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent....

  10. Mechanical analysis of asphalt stabilized permeable base to inhibit reflective cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min

    2017-09-01

    Asphalt stabilized drainage base has good drainage performance, can effectively rule out the water in pavement structure, reduce the occurrence of water damage, and maintain good pavement performance. Based on the mechanical analysis of the affect of asphalt stabilized permeable base on the inhibition of reflection crack, using the finite element software to simulate the stress characteristics of the asphalt and to do the mechanical analysis of asphalt pavement cracks at the grass-roots level to the pavement after stretching process, by comparing the pavement crack tip stress intensity factor of original pavement structure and set up the ATPB layer, respectively, to study the effect of asphalt stabilized permeable base on inhibition of reflection cracking.

  11. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Flow and Formation Damage of Asphalt-Paved Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt is a standard asphalt built on aggregate storage bed which allows water to drain through it and reduces stormwater runoff. However, porosity of the porous asphalt and the storage bed may be effectively reduced due to trapping suspended solids from the water or from the asphalt damage. In this paper, we present mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of flow and damage of porous asphalt-paved roads. A mathematical model to describe the fine-particles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium is presented. The buoyancy, capillarity, and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids properties such as water saturation and solid properties such as porosity and permeability due to trapping the fine-particles.

  13. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  14. Lipid emulsion therapy: non-nutritive uses of lipid emulsions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    considers these newer uses of lipid emulsions as drug administration vehicles, for treatment of lipophilic drug toxicity, and as modifiers of ischaemia-reperfusion ..... Interference with laboratory and blood gas analysis despite blood ultracentrifugation has been .... Fick's law of diffusion: V = A.D.(P1−P2) t where V is the rate of ...

  15. Textural perception of liquid emulsions: Role of oil content, oil viscosity and emulsion viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van G.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes a study on the in-mouth textural perception of thickened liquid oil-in-water emulsions. The variables studied are oil content, oil viscosity, and the concentration of polysaccharide thickener. Gum arabic was chosen as the thickener because of the nearly Newtonian behavior of its

  16. Work Management Manual - Blast and Paint General

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Asphalt cut back-asphalt Plus thinner; asphalt soluton; asphalt coatings formed & dissolving aspait. .Asphalt emulsion -asphalt dispersion; not a solution...a water emulsion of asphalt. Asphalt impregnated-containing absorbed asphalt. Atomize-break stream into Aurand Scaler-Properietary small Particles...blocking device. Base-substrats. Binder-resin; film former; vehicle. Bitumen -product of asphalt or coal tar origin. Bituminous coating-coal tar or

  17. Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract emulsion for skin rejuvenation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate stable water in oil (W/O) emulsion containing hydroalcoholic crude extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves for skin rejuvenation. Methods: Placebo (base) without any plant extract and formulation with 4 % Ziziphus mauritiana extract were prepared by mixing. Samples of the emulsions were subjected to ...

  18. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M; Ziomek, M; Żbikowska, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method. Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. The emulsion containing 50 g of oil and being homogenized for 6 min had the highest stability. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer simulation showed that the most stable emulsion should contain from 30 to 50 g of oil and should be homogenized for 2.5-6 min. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems (containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin) in the cosmetic industry. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yapei

    2016-01-01

    Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials. PMID:28774029

  20. Tocopherol isoforms in parenteral lipid emulsions and neutrophil activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Beunk, J.; Naber, A.H.J.; Swinkels, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tocopherol is a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant that exists in several isoforms. Patients on total parenteral nutrition depend on lipid emulsions for their tocopherol intake. In the present study, we analysed the content of tocopherol isoforms in various lipid emulsions. We also

  1. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  2. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.; Workamp, M.; Li, X.; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.; Sprakel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles-induced anisotropic shrinkage of polymer emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B; de Folter, J.W.J.; Möhwald, H.

    2011-01-01

    We here report magnetic nanoparticles (NPs)-induced buckling instability and anisotropic shrinkage behavior of polymer emulsion droplets. The oil-in-water emulsion is stabilized by the surfactant, and NPs are dispersed into the oil phase. The surface ligands (oleic acid and oleylamine) number of the

  4. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanopowders by sol–gel emulsion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydroxyapatite nanopowders were synthesized by a sol–gel emulsion technique by varying the concentration of a non-ionic surfactant in the organic phases (oil phase) of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion. Calcium acetate dissolved in distilled water and phosphorous pentoxide dissolved in 2-butanol were used as starting ...

  5. Nonionic emulsion-mediated synthesis of zeolite beta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeolite beta synthesis was first carried out in a newly developed emulsion system containing nonionic polyoxyethylated alkylphenol surfactant, which showed interesting non-conventional features. Compared to the conventional hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite beta, the reported nonionic emulsion system showed a faster ...

  6. Oilfield solids and water-in-oil emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztukowski, Danuta M; Yarranton, Harvey W

    2005-05-15

    Model water-in-hydrocarbon emulsions consisting of toluene, heptane, water, asphaltenes, and native solids were used to investigate the role of native solids in the stability of oilfield emulsions. The solids were recovered from an oil-sands bitumen, a wellhead emulsion, and a refinery slop oil. The solids were clay platelets and fell into two size categories: (1) fine solids 50 to 500 nm in diameter and (2) coarse solids 1 to 10 microm in diameter. Emulsions stabilized by fine solids and asphaltenes were most stable at a 2:1 fractional area ratio of asphaltenes to solids. It appears that when the asphaltene surface coverage is high, insufficient solids remain to make an effective barrier. When the solids coverage is high, insufficient asphaltenes remain on the interface to immobilize the solids. Treatments that weaken the interface, such as toluene dilution, are recommended for emulsions stabilized by fine solids. Emulsions stabilized by coarse solids were unstable at low solids concentrations but became very stable at solids concentrations greater than 10 kg/m(3). At low concentrations, these solids may act as bridges between water droplets and promote coalescence. At high concentrations, layers of coarse solids may become trapped between water droplets and prevent coalescence. Treatments that flocculate the solids, such as heptane dilution, are recommended for emulsions stabilized by high concentrations of coarse solids. It is possible that emulsions containing both types of solids may require more than one treatment, or even process step, for effective water resolution.

  7. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A.M.; Kim, Shin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core-shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility

  8. The use of alternative lipid emulsions in paediatric and neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid emulsions are an important part of paediatric parenteral nutrition as they provide energy, fat soluble vitamins and are a source of essential fatty acids. Soya bean based oil emulsions have however been identified as one of the major causative factors in the development of PN related cholestasis. The newer lipid.

  9. Ziziphus mauritiana leaf extract emulsion for skin rejuvenation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    change and liquefaction of the emulsion were investigated. The electrical conductivity and pH was measured by Conductivity meter and digital. pH meter respectively. Product evaluation on skin. The prepared emulsion was also evaluated for its effects on the skin of 11 volunteers. All volunteers were healthy non-smoking ...

  10. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate the water in oil (W/O) emulsion of corn silk (CS) extract and to evaluate its stability at various storage conditions. Methods: Ethanol CS extract was prepared using maceration (cold) technique. A 4 % CS emulsion was prepared using varying concentrations of liquid paraffin, ABIL EM90 and water.

  11. Optimization of Finasteride Nano-Emulsion Preparation Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polymeric surfactants based on inulin. Adv. Colloid. Interf. Sci. 2004; 108-109: 207–226. 4. Anton N, Benoit JP, Saulnier P. Design and production of nanoparticles formulated from nano-emulsion templates - A review, J. Control. Release 2008; 128: 185-199. 5. Bouchemal K, Briançon S, Perrier E, Fessi H. Nano- emulsion.

  12. Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian

    2010-01-01

    The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed.

  13. Towards predicting the stability of protein-stabilized emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaije, R.J.B.M.; Gruppen, H.; Giuseppin, M.L.F.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The protein concentration is known to determine the stability against coalescence during formation of emulsions. Recently, it was observed that the protein concentration also influences the stability of formed emulsions against flocculation as a result of changes in the ionic strength. In both

  14. Aqueous polymer emulsions by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions

  15. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haorong [Albuquerque, NM; Song, Yujiang [Albuquerque, NM; Shelnutt, John A [Tijeras, NM; Medforth, Craig J [Winters, CA

    2011-12-13

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  16. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an ongoing research into the stability of oil-field emulsions, model oil samples have been utilized to probe the effects of asphaltene interactions on crude oil/water emulsion stability. Asphaltenes were precipitated from treated Ondo State oil sand bitumen with n-hexane in a 40:1 solvent to bitumen ratio which was ...

  17. Emulsion stabilizing property of Grewia gum in Arachis oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emulsifying property of grewia gum in arachis oil emulsion was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. The gum was used at 0.1 to 0.4% w/v to stabilize arachis oil emulsion containing 7.5% w/v acacia. The globule size, globule number and viscosity of the ...

  18. Experimental examination of ternary fission in nuclear track emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Ambrožová, I.; Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Haiduc, M.; Kakona, M.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Marey, A.; Neagu, A.; Ploc, O.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Turek, K.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    Activities performed in preparation for the search for ternary fission of heavy nuclei and the analysis of fragment angular correlations with nuclear track emulsion and an automated microscope are detailed. Surface irradiation of nuclear emulsion by a Cf source was initiated. Planar events containing nothing but fragment triples were found and studied.

  19. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  20. Pickering Emulsions for Food Applications: Background, Trends, and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are

  1. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  2. Enzymatically Crosslinked Emulsion Gels Using Star-Polymer Stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; An, Zesheng

    2016-10-01

    A novel type of emulsion gel based on star-polymer-stabilized emulsions is highlighted, which contains discrete hydrophobic oil and hydrophilic aqueous solution domains. Well-defined phenol-functionalized core-crosslinked star polymers are synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated dispersion polymerization and are used as stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. Horseradish-peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of the phenol moieties in the presence of H2 O2 enables rapid formation of crosslinked emulsion gels under mild conditions. The crosslinked emulsion gels exhibit enhanced mechanical strength, as well as widely tunable composition. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Use of Bitumen Emulsion for Flexible Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Singh Dhriyan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study bitumen is replaced by bitumen emulsion for the construction of flexible pavement. The conventional method of road construction involves the burning of bitumen which produces toxic gases which degrades the environment. In colder region it is difficult to maintain the paving temperature of hot mix. To overcome these problems and conserve the energy bitumen emulsion is considered as good option. Likewise emulsion can be used in the areas having higher rate of rainfall where the hot mix plant is closed most of the time because of rain. Emulsified bitumen can be used during rainy season and colder regions. To study the suitability of emulsion Marshal Test is carried out to find the stability value, flow value and optimum binder content. Experiments performed shows that bitumen emulsion (Cold Mix have high stability value therefore it can be used as binder.

  4. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  5. Pickering emulsions for food applications: background, trends, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton-Carabin, Claire C; Schroën, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions, also referred to as Pickering emulsions, have garnered exponentially increasing interest in recent years. This has also led to the first food applications, although the number of related publications is still rather low. The involved stabilization mechanisms are fundamentally different as compared to conventional emulsifiers, which can be an asset in terms of emulsion stability. Even though most of the research on Pickering emulsions has been conducted on model systems, with inorganic solid particles, recent progress has been made on the utilization of food-grade or food-compatible organic particles for this purpose. This review reports the latest advances in that respect, including technical challenges, and discusses the potential benefits and drawbacks of using Pickering emulsions for food applications, as an alternative to conventional emulsifier-based systems.

  6. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  7. Mezclas SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) con alto contenido de ligante

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Andrés; Cervantes, Rocío; Loma, Javier; Hidalgo, María Elena; Hergueta, José Antonio; Sánchez, Fernando; Lanchas, Santiago; Núñez, Ruy; Rubio, Baltasar; Jiménez, Rafael; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Botella Nieto, Ramón; Expósito, Santiago; Fernández, Victoriano; Potti, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Las denominadas mezclas bituminosas en caliente SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) están recogidas en la normativa UNE EN 13108-5 y aunque en España apenas se han utilizado, su uso esta extendido por todo el mundo. Un grupo de empresas y algunos centros de investigación españoles, estamos desarrollando un proyecto de investigación denominado: Mezclas SMA de la familia de la norma UNE EN 13108-5 que sean Sostenibles y Medioambientalmente Amigables. Financiado por el Centro Tecnológico para el Desarrol...

  8. Development of multiple W/O/W emulsions as dermal carrier system for oligonucleotides: effect of additives on emulsion stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, T; Dobler, D; Schlupp, P; Nissing, C; Garn, H; Runkel, F

    2010-10-15

    Multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are of major interest as potential skin delivery systems for water-soluble drugs like oligonucleotides due to their distinct encapsulation properties. However, multiple emulsions are highly sensitive in terms of variations of the individual components. The presence of osmotic active ingredients in the inner water phase is crucial for the generation of stable multiple emulsions. In order to stabilize the emulsions the influence of NaCl, MgSO(4), glucose and glycine and two cellulose derivatives was investigated. Briefly, multiple W/O/W emulsions using Span 80 as a lipophilic emulsifier and different hydrophilic emulsifiers (PEG-40/50 stearate, steareth-20 and polysorbate 80) were prepared. Stability of the emulsions was analyzed over a period of time using rheological measurements, droplet size observations and conductivity analysis. In this study we show that additives strongly influence the properties stability of multiple emulsions. By increasing the concentration of the osmotic active ingredients, smaller multiple droplets are formed and the viscosity is significantly increased. The thickening agents resulted in a slightly improved stability. The most promising emulsions were chosen and further evaluated for their suitability and compatibility to incorporate a DNAzyme oligonucleotide as active pharmaceutical ingredient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions : II. Measurements of the linear viscoelastic behavior of emulsions in the kilohertz range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, M.; Mellema, J.; Lopulissa, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Linear viscoelasticity of emulsions in shear deformation in the kilohertz range is demonstrated experimentally. In order to avoid complications due to inertia effects, emulsions with small droplet sizes are studied. The preliminary measurements are interpreted as being the result of droplet

  10. LABORATORY SIMULATION OF POROUS ASPHALT PARKING LOT SYSTEM AND MIX DESIGN FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. HAMZAH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt pavement was initially developed for the purpose of improving road safety, best candidate material for quiet pavement and to avoid aquaplaning and skidding in wet weather. However, from previous studies, porous asphalt is able to mitigate surface runoff. Porous asphalt parking lots with underlying reservoir course perform as additional temporary water storage matrix that enables reduction of flash flood. This paper elaborates the development of a new porous asphalt aggregate grading design for storm water mitigation using the Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS 20 mm. The properties of the mixes were quantified and evaluated in terms of air voids, permeability, abrasion loss and indirect tensile strength. It was found that the proposed gradation has the best permeability and Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS values when compacted at 50 blows per face with a standard Marshal compactor. The porous asphalt slab was prepared using a slab compactor to simulate porous parking lot paving at site. The porous asphalt slab was finally placed inside a locally fabricated water flow simulator to simulate a porous asphalt pavement system for parking lots.

  11. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  12. An Image-Based Finite Element Approach for Simulating Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based micromechanical modeling approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture. An improved image analysis technique based on the OTSU thresholding operation was employed to reduce the beam hardening effect in X-ray CT images. We developed a voxel-based 3D digital reconstruction model of asphalt mixture with the CT images after being processed. In this 3D model, the aggregate phase and air void were considered as elastic materials while the asphalt mastic phase was considered as linear viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic constitutive model of asphalt mastic was implemented in a finite element code using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT. An experimental procedure for determining the parameters of the viscoelastic constitutive model at a given temperature was proposed. To examine the capability of the model and the accuracy of the parameter, comparisons between the numerical predictions and the observed laboratory results of bending and compression tests were conducted. Finally, the verified digital sample of asphalt mixture was used to predict the asphalt mixture viscoelastic behavior under dynamic loading and creep-recovery loading. Simulation results showed that the presented image-based digital sample may be appropriate for predicting the mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture when all the mechanical properties for different phases became available.

  13. Qualitative analysis of SBS modifier in asphalt pavements using field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Fengxia; Liu, Zhifei

    2017-06-01

    Series of tests are implemented to analysis the related characteristics of common asphalt and unknown asphalt mainly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) for chemical compositions and rheological properties of asphalt, respectively. In addition, a series of mechanical properties were performed on asphalt mixtures, including indirect tensile strength test and three point bending test at low temperature. Experimental results indicated that compared with common asphalt, the characteristic absorption peak of the unknown asphalt are appeared at 966cm-1and 699cm-1, which are accordant with the SBS modifier. The results of DSR indicated that the unknown asphalt’s complex modulus is higher and the phase angle is lower. The mechanical tests indicated that some properties of the unknown mixture samples are increased by 24.7%∼41.8% compared with common pavement sample, like the indirect tensile strength, the bending test at low temperature and indirect tensile resilient modulus. Comprehensive analysis indicates that SBS modifier is existed in the unknown asphalt pavement.

  14. A Study of Moisture Damage in Plastomeric Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Using Functionalized AFM Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Tarefder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt binder is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM with chemically functionalized AFM tips. Four different percentages of plastomeric polymers and two antistripping agents such as Kling Beta and Lime are used to modify a base asphalt binder. Chemical functional groups such as -COOH, -CH3, -NH3, and –OH, that are commonly present in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt system, are used to functionalize the AFM tips. The force distance mode of AFM is used to measure the adhesion forces between a modified asphalt sample surface and the functionalized AFM tips. This enables the measurement of adhesion within an asphalt binder system. It is shown that the adhesion force values in dry sample changed substantially from that in wet conditioned samples. It is evident from this study that plastomeric modification does not help reduce moisture damage in asphalt. The percentage change in adhesion forces due to moisture is about 20 nN for the lime modified samples, and about 50 nN for the Kling Beta modified samples. This indicates that lime is more effective than Kling Beta for reducing moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt.

  15. Investigation on Reinforced Mechanism of Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete Based on Micromechanical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short fibers have been widely used to prepare the fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (FRAC. However, internal interactions between fiber and other phases of asphalt concrete are unclear although experimental methods have been used to design the FRAC successfully. In this paper, numerical method was used to investigate the reinforced mechanism of FRAC from microperspective. 2D micromechanical model of FRAC was established based on Monte Carlo theory. Effects of fiber length and content on stress state of asphalt mortar, effective modulus, and viscoelastic deformation of asphalt concrete were investigated. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test and uniaxial creep test were carried out to verify the numerical results. Results show that maximum stress of asphalt mortar is lower compared to the control concrete when the fiber length is longer than 12 mm. Fiber reduces the stress level of asphalt mortar significantly. Fiber length has no significant influence on the effective modulus of asphalt concrete. Fiber length and content both have notable impacts on the viscoelastic performance of FRAC. Fiber length should be given more attention in the future design of FRAC except the content.

  16. Development of high stability hot mix asphalt concrete with hybrid binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hirato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction of public works projects has been desired due to severe financial circumstances. Therefore, asphalt pavement has been requested to extend its life. Semi-flexible pavement or epoxy asphalt pavement, which has high rutting resistance and oil resistance, may be applied to the place where these performances ae demanded. However, special technique is required in manufacturing and construction. In addition, these materials have also raised a problem that they cannot be recycled. Meanwhile, conventional asphalt pavement has several drawbacks. It is vulnerable to rutting caused by traffic load and damage caused by petroleum oils such as gasoline or motor oil. The materials used in asphalt mixtures were studied for improving the durability of asphalt mixture. A high stability asphalt concrete was developed which has equal or superior performance to semi-flexible pavement and epoxy asphalt pavement. In this paper, the process of selecting the substance and the characteristics evaluation of the developed mixtures ae described. Furthermore, an inspection result as well as follow-up survey of the performance of the developed mixtures obtained from trial and actual construction is shown.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  18. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Rean; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra; Mohamed, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB), and TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G (∗) ) and phase angle (δ) were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G (∗) /sinδ values) and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G (∗) sinδ value). The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  19. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Maharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA, Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB, and TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗ and phase angle (δ were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value. The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  20. Modification of local asphalt with epoxy resin to be used in pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Abd El Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The durability of asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the environmental changes during the year. In this paper, we prepared asphalt modified by mixing asphalt 60/70 with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR in different percentages (5, 10 and 15%, which was achieved using preformed peracetic acid (aqueous solution 59% at 60–80 °C, then molten cross-linker maleic anhydride (MA was added to modified asphalt until homogenous blends are achieved. Marshall test was used to evaluate the asphalt pavement performance depending on the curing time and hardener concentration. To measure marshall test, the pervious mixture was stirred with aggregate jop formula mix (JMF and 40% MA at 150–170 °C for 20 h and 1600 rpm. From the obtained data, it was found that asphalt mixed with 15% of ENR + 40% MA achieves a high stability (16,632 Newton, air voids of 2.5%, flow of 2.9 mm and mineral voids of 14.6%. While, the stability of the unmodified asphalt was (11,500 Newton, the flow 3.2 mm, the suitable air void value was 3.7% at 5.5% with the same conditions.

  1. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  2. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  3. Ice melting properties of steel slag asphalt concrete with microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Sun, Yihan; Liu, Quantao; Fang, Hao; Wu, Shaopeng; Tang, Jin; Ye, Qunshan

    2017-03-01

    The ice on the surface of asphalt pavement in winter significantly influences the road transportation safety. This paper aims at the improvement of the ice melting efficiency on the surface of asphalt pavement. The steel slag asphalt concrete was prepared and the high ice melting efficiency was achieved with the microwave heating. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ice melting performance of steel slag asphalt concrete, including the heating test, ice melting test, thermal conductivity test and so on. The results indicated that the microwave heating of steel slag concrete can improve the efficiency of deicing, mainly because the heating rates of steel slag asphalt mixture are much better than traditional limestone asphalt mixture. According to different thickness lever of ice, the final temperatures of each sample were very close to each other at the end of melting test. It is believed the thickness of the ice has a limited impact on the ice melting efficiency. According to the heating tests results, the bonding of ice and asphalt concrete is defined failure at the moment when the surface temperature of the ice reached 3 °C.

  4. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C

    2009-11-01

    This review researched the materials, methods, and practices in the hot mix asphalt industry that might impact future exposure assessments and epidemiologic research on road paving workers. Since World War II, the U.S. interstate highway system, increased traffic volume, transportation speeds, and vehicle axle loads have necessitated an increase in demand for hot mix asphalt for road construction and maintenance, while requiring a consistent road paving product that meets state-specific physical performance specifications. We reviewed typical practices in hot mix asphalt paving in the United States to understand the extent to which materials are and have been added to hot mix asphalt to meet specifications and how changes in practices and technology could affect evaluation of worker exposures for future research. Historical documents were reviewed, and industry experts from 16 states were interviewed to obtain relevant information on industry practices. Participants from all states reported additive use, with most being less than 2% by weight. Crumb rubber and recycled asphalt pavement were added in concentrations approximately 10% per unit weight of the mix. The most frequently added materials included polymers and anti-stripping agents. Crumb rubber, sulfur, asbestos, roofing shingles, slag, or fly ash have been used in limited amounts for short periods of time or in limited geographic areas. No state reported using coal tar as an additive to hot mix asphalt or as a binder alternative in hot mix pavements for high-volume road construction. Coal tar may be present in recycled asphalt pavement from historical use, which would need to be considered in future exposure assessments of pavers. Changes in hot mix asphalt production and laydown emission control equipment have been universally implemented over time as the technology has become available to reduce potential worker exposures. This work is a companion review to a study undertaken in the petroleum refining

  5. The Influence of Limestone And Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaran Danny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradations, filler and liquid asphalt mixed and solidified in a heat state. Limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture is used because both materials included in the most numerous sedimentary rock. Concrete asphalt mixture with the filler combination of limestone and calciumhydroxide is made with optimum asphalt 5.4%, one variation level of limestone (15%, and calcium hydroxide (15%, and three variation levels of fillers (5%, 7.5%, and 15% to get optimum asphalt levels and filler levels that are compatible with flood condition. Based on optimum asphalt 5.4% towards aggregate total weight and combined level of limestone and calcium hydroxide suitable for the conditions, 8.75 % towards fine aggregate weight. The characteristic value of limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture in maximum condition is VIM 4.55%, VMA 18.83%, stability 1031.26 kg and flow 4.93 mm, where the characteristic value meets the established specifications standard by Pekerjaan Umum Bina Marga. From the result, it is showed that the use of the mixture can decrease the value of stability and increase the value of flow, compared with asphalt and filler with normal levels.

  6. Page 1 STUDIES ON LIGHT-SCATTERING IN EMULSIONS. Part I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e.g., oil and water, fairly stable emulsions of oil in water are obtained. Such emulsions are usually termed as dilute simple emulsions since the concen- tration of oil is small and there is no stabilising agent present in the system. Such dilute emulsions which closely correspond to colloidal suspensions, are often called as oil ...

  7. Fatigue Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and analyses the results of an experimental trial on the fatigue resistance of recycled hot mix asphalt for road pavements. Based on the gyratory compaction and the indirect tensile strength test, the mix design procedure has optimized nine different mixes, considering both conventional limestone and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, the latter used at different quantities, up to 40% by weight of the aggregate. A standard bitumen and two polymer modified binders were used for the production of the mixes. The fatigue study was carried out with four-point bending tests, each one performed at 20°C and 10 Hz. The empirical stiffness reduction method, along with the energy ratio approach, based on the dissipated energy concept, was adopted to elaborate the experimental data. Unaged and aged specimens were checked, to analyse the ageing effects on the fatigue performance. In comparison with the control mixes, produced only with limestone, improved fatigue performance was noticed for the mixtures prepared with RAP, especially when made with polymer modified binders, under both aged and unaged conditions. Both the approaches adopted for the experimental data analysis have outlined the same ranking of the mixes.

  8. Performance properties of asphalt mixes for rich bottom layers (RBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Petr; Fiedler, Jiří; Kašpar, Jiří; Sýkora, Michal; Hýzl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The binder content of asphalt mixes has an important influence on the performance properties. Higher binder content improves fatigue resistance. That is why the concept of RBL was developed in USA and applied for “perpetual pavements”. However excessive binder content could lead to the decrease of the mix stiffness and to permanent deformations of asphalt pavement during hot summer. The advantages and limitations of RBL concept have been studied in research project CESTI. Fatigue tests of mixes with road bitumen and polymer modified bitumen and RBL were realised. Deformation behaviour of these mixes was also evaluated. The experience from the test section with RBL laid in 2015 will be presented. The results corresponded to expectations. However, low void content was obtained on one subsection. In spite of it, there were no permanent deformations during summer 2016. The analysis of methods for the prediction of the permanent deformation was also undertaken in research project CESTI. Some information about the results of these analysis related to the use of RBL will be also briefly mentioned.

  9. Experimental Study on Modification of Concrete with Asphalt Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bołtryk, Michał; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Pawluczuk, Edyta

    2017-10-01

    Durability of engineering structures made of cement concrete with high compressive strength is a very vital issue, especially when they are exposed to different aggressive environments and dynamic loads. Concrete resistance to weathering actions and chemical attack can be improved by combined chemical and mechanical modification of concrete microstructure. Asphalt admixture in the form of asphalt paste (AP) was used for chemical modification of cement composite microstructure. Concrete structure was formed using special technology of compaction. A stand for vibro-vibropressing with regulated vibrator force and pressing force was developed. The following properties of the modified concrete were tested: compressive strength, water absorption, freeze-thaw resistance, scaling resistance in the presence of de-icing agents, chloride migration, resistance to CO2 and corrosion in aggressive solutions. Corrosion resistance was tested alternately in 1.8% solutions of NH4Cl, MgSO4, (NH2)2CO and CaCl2, which were altered every 7 days; the experiment lasted 9.5 months. Optimum compaction parameters in semi-industrial conditions were determined: ratio between piston stress (Qp ) and external top vibrator force (Po ) in the range 0.4÷-0.5 external top vibrator force 4 kN. High strength concretes with compressive strength fcm = 60÷70 MPa, very low water absorption (engineering constructions.

  10. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  11. Sound absorption characteristics of cenosphere enriched cement and asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vikrant; Shukla, Arun; Bose, Arjit

    2002-05-01

    A detailed experimental study has been conducted to determine the effect of addition of cenospheres on the acoustic properties of cement matrix and asphalt concrete. Cenospheres are hollow ceramic microballoons, being a waste product of thermal power plants, they are relatively inexpensive and their use has the added benefit of decreasing the strain on the environment. Specimens were made with a different volume fraction of cenospheres (0% to 70% in increments of 10) to observe the change in acoustic properties with an increase in the cenosphere content. Specimens of different sizes were tested to study the acoustic characteristics of the materials for a wide range (125 to 4000 Hz) of frequencies. The effect of an increase in the cenosphere content on the dilatational wave velocity in the specimens was also studied with the help of acoustic transducers. It was noted that, although the wave velocity remains relatively unaffected with a change in the cenosphere content, the addition of cenospheres improves the sound absorption characteristics of the cement matrix and asphalt concrete with a considerable decrease (up to 41%) in the density of the material. It has also been noted that the sound absorption of cement increases with the addition of cenosphere up to 40% volume fraction and starts decreasing with the further addition of cenospheres.

  12. Nonlinearly viscoelastic analysis of asphalt mixes subjected to shear loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Masad, Eyad; Muliana, Anastasia H.; Bahia, Hussain

    2007-06-01

    This study presents the characterization of the nonlinearly viscoelastic behavior of hot mix asphalt (HMA) at different temperatures and strain levels using Schapery’s model. A recursive-iterative numerical algorithm is generated for the nonlinearly viscoelastic response and implemented in a displacement-based finite element (FE) code. Then, this model is employed to describe experimental frequency sweep measurements of two asphalt mixes with fine and coarse gradations under several combined temperatures and shear strain levels. The frequency sweep measurements are converted to creep responses in the time domain using a phenomenological model (Prony series). The master curve is created for each strain level using the time temperature superposition principle (TTSP) with a reference temperature of 40°C. The linear time-dependent parameters of the Prony series are first determined by fitting a master curve created at the lowest strain level, which in this case is 0.01%. The measurements at strain levels higher than 0.01% are analyzed and used to determine the nonlinear parameters. These parameters are shown to increase with increasing strain levels, while the time temperature shift function is found to be independent of strain levels. The FE model with the calibrated time-dependent and nonlinear material parameters is used to simulate the creep experimental tests, and reasonable predictions are shown.

  13. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  14. Asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomas; Varaus, Michal

    2017-09-01

    A case study of one trial section in the Pilsen region is presented. The pavement in the section was newly constructed in 2015 using one type of an asphalt concrete mixtures with varying RAP content. The constructed surface course comprises of 0% to 50% RAP. In order to restore the aged binder properties and to avoid the embrittlement of the produced mixtures, a rubber-based modifier/rejuvenator was employed. For technological reasons during manufacturing processes, which engage a parallel drying drum, a crude oil-based rejuvenator was also added. This article contains the preliminary data from an on-going project focused on monitoring the properties of bituminous binders contained in asphalt mixtures. The actual bituminous binders were extracted straight after production, after 6 months and after 12 months. The binder characteristics are evaluated using empirical testing as well as functional tests. Low temperature properties are measured by a Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). The preliminary results show, that the bituminous binders properties change significantly in a relatively short period of time. The progress in binder’ characteristics is contradictory to up-to date knowledge. The probability that the phenomenon of diffusion between aged binder and rejuvenator agents occurs exists. Moreover, the data might indicate that the process of rejuvenator evaporation takes place.

  15. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  16. Influence of mixture characteristics on the oxidative aging of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morian, Nathan E.

    The objective of this research effort focused on the evaluation of asphalt mixtures with respect to thermal cracking. Preliminary investigations soon indicated that a fundamental evaluation of thermal cracking was highly dependent upon the more complicated understanding of asphalt binder oxidation. The oxidation of asphalt binders within an asphalt mixture were understood to potentially be influenced by the mixture characteristics (i.e. air void levels, binder content, etc.) and aggregate properties (i.e. aggregate absorption, gradation, etc.). Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate and quantify the effects different aggregate sources and mixture properties may have on the oxidation and thermal cracking performance of asphalt mixtures. The investigation specifically focused on quantifying the oxidation of the asphalt binder alone and as part of the asphalt mixture when subjected to isothermal oven aging. The oxidation parameters of pan-aged asphalt binders were quantified, according to the standard of practice in the industry. These parameters were then compared to extracted and recovered mixture-aged asphalt binders to examine the influence of the main aggregate and mixture factors on the binder oxidation. The study observed differences between the pan-aged and mixture-aged asphalt binders in terms of oxidation kinetics, rheological measures, and the combined effect represented as the hardening susceptibility. Further evaluation of the binder oxidation based upon the dynamic modulus measures indicated marked influences of the mixture characteristics, the individual component materials, and the interactions between the investigated factors. Differentiation of the experimental factors was further identified by the newly developed low-temperature evaluation method, Uniaxial Thermal Stress and Strain Test (UTSST). The UTSST provides a fundamental approach to characterize the thermo-viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures permitting the

  17. Development of an asphalt aging procedure to assess long-term binder performance

    KAUST Repository

    Juristyarini, Pramitha

    2011-09-07

    Nine asphalts, including seven Strategic Highway Research Program asphalts and two Texas asphalts, were aged at several conditions of temperature and oxygen pressure to develop an aging test. Values for a dynamic shear rheometer function, a combination of both elastic and viscous properties that serves as an indicator of susceptibility to age-related pavement cracking, were measured for both aged and unaged samples. Each aging condition was ranked and calibrated against environmental room aging (60°C, 1 atm air), used to simulate road aging. PAV thin-film aging at 90°C, 20 atm air for 32 hr best represented environmental room aging. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. HOW TO OBTAIN ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AUTOMOBILE ROAD AND STREET PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Verenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology for evaluation of technical and economic efficiency of asphalt concrete mixture components. The method allows to perform a directed search for new materials which are used for mixture preparation and it also provides an efficient use of monetary funds. Firstly, it is possible to obtain this result due to optimum price-quality ratio of asphalt mixture which is determined by its service life in a pavement; secondly, it is possible to obtain this result due to  exclusion of errors while selecting components of the asphalt mixture out of the whole range applied presently in the world practice.

  19. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  20. Formulation effects of topical emulsions on transdermal and dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, A; du Plessis, J; Wiechers, J W

    2009-02-01

    It has been recognized that the vehicle in which a permeant is applied to the skin has a distinctive effect on the dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. The cutaneous and percutaneous absorptions can be enhanced, e.g. by an increase in thermodynamic activity, supersaturation and penetration modifiers. Furthermore, dermal and transdermal delivery can be influenced by the interactions that may occur between the vehicle and the skin on the one hand, and interactions between the active ingredient and the skin on the other hand. Emulsions are widely used as cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations because of their excellent solubilizing capacities for lipophilic and hydrophilic active ingredients and application acceptability. This review focuses, in particular, on the effect of emulsions on the dermal and transdermal delivery of active ingredients. It is shown that the type of emulsion (w/o vs. o/w emulsion), the droplet size, the emollient, the emulsifier as well as the surfactant organization (micelles, lyotropic liquid crystals) in the emulsion may affect the cutaneous and percutaneous absorption. Examples substantiate the fact that emulsion constituents such as emollients and emulsifiers should be selected carefully for optimal efficiency of the formulation. Moreover, to understand the influence of emulsion on dermal and transdermal delivery, the physicochemical properties of the formulation after application are considered.

  1. the Stability of Its Associated Water/Oil Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bazaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two steps synthetic method for the preparation of a novel emulsion stabilizer called poly(ricineoleic acid-b-ethyleneglycol-b-ricineoleic acid with average mass molecular weight of 7000 Daltons is investigated. In the first step, oligoricineoleic acid with average mass molecular weight of 1800 Daltons is synthesized (yield 70%. In the second step, the desired copolymer is  synthesized from the reaction of two moles of oligomer with one mole of polyethylene glycol and its stabilizing effect on an water/oil emulsion is investigated. For the formulation of the emulsion, the synthesized copolymer is first dissolved at 45oC in diesel oil while stirring, and then this solution is added dropwise to the solution of saline water (1M. Then the mixture is stressed under ultrasonic waves for 5 s to afford smaller drops, after which the emulsion shows good stability. A thin layer film of emulsion- produced from injection of emulsion (0.1 μL is studied by light microscope equipment. In this study the number of oil droplets and the average diameter of droplets are determined. Also the mole fractions (φ = 0.32 are calculated. This copolymer can be used as a stabilizer in invert emulsion muds, which are used in perforating industry and as a thickener in food and cosmetic industries.

  2. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w....../v) was mixed into an oil-in-water emulsion system (4.4% w/w oil, 0.22% w/w whey protein, pH 4.5). Two separate, identically composed, emulsion systems were prepared by different methods of preparation. The emulsions prepared separately and subsequently mixed with SBP (referred as Mix A) produced significantly...... larger average particle sizes than the emulsions in which the SBP was homogenized into the emulsion system during emulsion preparation (referred as Mix B). Mix B type emulsions were stable. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP helped stabilize the emulsions in Mix A. The kinetics of the enzyme...

  3. Characterize Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures Incorporated Ordinary Portland Cement Filler for Local Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Amoori Kadhim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures have many environmental, logistical, and economic advantages over conventional Hot Mix Asphalt. Nevertheless, their inferior performance and high water sensitivity at early life attract little attentions. Moreover, it is impossible to apply CBEM as a structural surface layer if left without treatment or enhancement. The main aim of this study is to enhance the properties of CBEM for the hope of using it as a structural layer. Thus, a trial has been made to improve CBEM mechanical and durability properties by replacing the Ordinary Portland Cement by the Conventional Mineral Filler with 3 percentages; namely, 0, 50%, and 100%. CBEM mixtures mechanical properties were evaluated in term of Marshall Stability and Flow, Indirect Tensile Strength, and Wheel Track Test. While Moisture damage was evaluated in terms of Retained Marshall Stability. Test results showed that the addition of 100%OPC filler can improve CBEM mechanical and durability properties efficiently. In terms of mechanical properties results, CBEM comprised 100%OPC, can be used as a structural Surface layer based on local Iraqi specifications limits, where mixture enhanced about 1.9, 1.78, 9,4.85, and 2.6  times in term of MS, MF, rutting deformation resistance, resistance to tensile cracking, and moisture damage resistance, respectively as compared to untreated CBEM. Also, CBEM-100%OPC mix seemed comparable (and sometime superior to HMA, e.g., resistance to rutting of CBEM is about 6.2 times higher than that of HMA. It’s worth to say that OPC upgrades CBEM to a significant level that enables it to use as a structural layer in terms of the mechanical and the durability properties.

  4. Investigation of the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures via fatigue and linear contraction and creep test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Conghui; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Bo; Wang, Jingang

    2008-11-01

    Three types of asphalt mixtures, including asphalt concrete (AC), stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and porous asphalt (PA) with a 13mm gradation, are chosen to study the fatigue behavior, linear contraction and creep performance of them. The analysis of the experimental results is summarized as follows. The asphalt mixture exhibits longer fatigue life at low temperature than that at high temperature. But the fatigue life is more sensitive to the loading stress at low temperature. At the same time, the fatigue lives of all the three mixture gradations show decreasing trends with the increasing stress, which implies that restraining over-loading of highways is quite important. The linear contractive quotiety shows great distinction with the types of asphalt mixture gradations and temperature span, which indicates that modified asphalt and lower air voids can benefit to the contractive properties of asphalt mixtures at low temperature. Additionally, the linear contractive quotiety decreases with the falling of the temperature, meanwhile the distinctions between different temperature spans tend to slower. The creep test indicates that lower air voids and larger asphalt content are beneficial to the low temperature performance of asphalt.

  5. High internal phase emulsion with double emulsion morphology and their templated porous polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Shuxian; Zhu, Shiping

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports synthesis of the first high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) system with double emulsion (DE) morphology (HIPE-DE). HIPE is a highly concentrated but highly stable emulsion system, which has a dispersed/internal phase fraction over 74vol%. DE represents an emulsion system that hierarchically encapsulates two immiscible phases. The combination of HIPE and DE provides an efficient method for fabrication of complex structures. In this work, HIPE-DE having a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) morphology has been prepared for the first time via a simple one-step emulsification method with poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDEA) microgel particles as Pickering stabilizer. An oil phase fraction up to 90vol% was achieved by optimizing the microgel concentration in aqueous phase. The mechanism of the DE formation has been elucidated. It was found that while PDEA microgels stabilized the oil droplets in water, small amount protonated DEA monomers acted as surfactant and formed water-containing micelles inside the oil droplets. It was demonstrated that the W/O/W HIPE-DE could be precisely converted into porous polymer structures. With styrene as the oil phase in W/O/W HIPE-DE, porous polystyrene particles were obtained upon polymerization. With dissolved acrylamide as the aqueous phase and toluene as the continuous phase, porous polyacrylamide matrixes were prepared. Elevating temperature required for polymerization did not change the W/O/W HIPE-DE morphologies. This simple approach provides a versatile platform for synthesis of a variety of porous polymer systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors influencing the crystallisation of highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions: A DSC study

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Masalova; Karina Kovalchuk

    2012-01-01

    Highly concentrated emulsions are used in a variety of applications, including the cosmetics, food and liquid explosives industries. The stability of these highly concentrated water-in-oil emulsions was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Crystallisation of the emulsions was initiated by exposing the emulsions to a low temperature. The effects of surfactant type, electrolyte concentration and electrolyte composition in the aqueous phase on emulsion crystallisation temperature were s...

  7. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  8. Simple and Multiple Water Fuel Emulsions Preparation in Helical Flow

    OpenAIRE

    DLUSKA, Ewa; WRONSKI, Robert HUBACZ and Stanislaw; HUBACZ, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method of simple and multiple water fuel emulsions preparation in a liquid-liquid contactor with Couette-Taylor flow (CTF contactor). This method concerns the integration of the CTF contactor with diesel engines for the injection of just-prepared emulsions. Stable simple O/W and multiple O/W/O emulsions, both with quite narrow drop size distribution, have been prepared. The strong influence of operating conditions in the CTF contactor on mean drop size of the d...

  9. Data on the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldana L. Zalazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains experimental data and images for the physical characterization of oil in water emulsions. Mentioned data are related to the research article “Effect of stabilizers, oil level and structure on the growth of Zygosaccharomyces bailii and on physical stability of model systems simulating acid sauces” (A.L. Zalazar, M.F. Gliemmo, C.A. Campos, 2016 [1]. Physical characterization of emulsions was performed through the evaluation of Span and Specific Surface Area (SSA determined by light scattering using a Mastersizer. Furthermore, microscopy images were recorded by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM. The latter are presented to collaborate in the analysis of emulsion microstructure.

  10. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Food Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects in food emulsions are influenced by many different factors, such as the composition of the aqueous phase and interface, the partitioning of the antioxidants between the different phases of the emulsion system, the antioxidant properties, and others....... This chapter will give an overview of the most important factors influencing lipid oxidation in such systems. This will be followed by a summary of the effects of some of these factors including antioxidant addition in real food emulsions such as mayonnaise, dressing, dairy products, margarine, and spreads....

  11. Emulsion chamber observations and interpretation (HE 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results from Emulsion Chamber (EC) experiments at mountain altitudes or at higher levels using flying carriers are examined. The physical interest in this field is concentrated on the strong interaction at the very high energy region exceeding the accelerator energy, also on the primary cosmic ray intensity and its chemical composition. Those experiments which observed cosmic ray secondaries gave information on high energy interaction characteristics through the analyses of secondary spectra, gamma-hadron families and C-jets (direct observation of the particle production occuring at the carbon target). Problems of scaling violation in fragmentation region, interaction cross section, transverse momentum of produced secondaries, and some peculiar features of exotic events are discussed.

  12. Biofilm Formation in Microscopic Double Emulsion Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Connie; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    In natural, medical, and industrial settings, there exist surface-associated communities of bacteria known as biofilms. These highly structured films are composed of bacterial cells embedded within self-produced extracellular matrix, usually composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids; this matrix serves to protect the bacterial community from antibiotics and environmental stressors. Here, we form biofilms encapsulated within monodisperse, microscopically-sized double emulsion droplets using microfluidics. The bacteria self-organize at the inner liquid-liquid droplet interfaces, multiply, and differentiate into extracellular matrix-producing cells, forming manifold three-dimensional shell-within-a-shell structures of biofilms, templated upon the inner core of spherical liquid droplets. By using microfluidics to encapsulate bacterial cells, we have the ability to view individual cells multiplying in microscopically-sized droplets, which allows for high-throughput analysis in studying the genetic program leading to biofilm development, or cell signaling that induces differentiation.

  13. Recent applications of nuclear track emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatkulov K. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of α-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a Cf-252 source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range α-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. NTE samples are calibrated by ions Kr and Xe of energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV. Use of the image recognition program “ImageJ” for obtaining characteristics of individual events and for events from the large scan area is presented.

  14. Characterization of whey protein emulsion films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida C. M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid was incorporated into whey protein through emulsification to produce films. Whey protein films were prepared by dispersing 6.5% protein in distilled water. Glycerol was the plasticizer agent. Stearic acid was added at different levels (0.0 to 1.0% and the films were analyzed at different pHs (5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 9.0. The emulsion films were evaluated for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability and protein solubility. It was observed that water vapor permeability and protein solubility values for the film decreased with increasing fatty acid content in the film, but the mechanical properties also decreased.

  15. Active Emulsions: Synchronization of Chemical Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraden, Seth

    2012-02-01

    We explore the dynamical behavior of emulsions consisting of nanoliter volume droplets of the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction separated by a continuous oil phase. Some of the aqueous BZ reactants partition into the oil leading to chemical coupling of the drops. We use microfluidics to vary the size, composition and topology of the drops in 1D and 2D. Addition of a light sensitive catalyst to the drops and illumination with a computer projector allows each drop to be individually perturbed. A variety of synchronous regimes are found that systematically vary with the coupling strength and whether coupling is dominated by activatory or inhibitory species. In 1D we observe in- and anti-phase oscillations, stationary Turing patterns in which drops stop oscillating, but form spatially periodic patterns of drops in the oxidized and reduced states, and more complex combinations of stationary and oscillatory drops. In 2D, the attractors are more complex and vary with network topology and coupling strength. For hexagonal lattices as a function of increasing coupling strength we observe right and left handed rotating oscillations, mixed oscillatory and Turing states and finally full Turing states. Reaction -- diffusion models based on a simplified description of the BZ chemistry and diffusion of messenger species reproduce a number of the experimental results. For a range of parameters, a simplified phase oscillator model provides an intuitive understanding of the complex synchronization patterns. [4pt] ``Coupled oscillations in a 1D emulsion of Belousov--Zhabotinsky droplets,'' Jorge Delgado, Ning Li, Marcin Leda, Hector O. Gonzalez-Ochoa, Seth Fraden and Irving R. Epstein, Soft Matter, 7, 3155 (2011).

  16. Phytonadione Content in Branded Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Conti, Matteo; Motta, Roberto; Puggioli, Cristina; Bersani, Germana

    2017-03-01

    Intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE) with different fatty acid compositions contain vitamin E as a by-product of vegetable and animal oil during the refining processes. Likewise, other lipid-soluble vitamins may be present in IVFE. No data, however, exist about phytonadione (vitamin K1) concentration in IVFE information leaflets. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the phytonadione content in different IVFE. Analyses were carried out in triplicate on 6 branded IVFE as follows: 30% soybean oil (100%), 20% olive-soybean oil (80%-20%), 20% soybean-medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) coconut oil (50%-50%), 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil (30%-25%-30%-15%), 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil (40%-50%-10%), and 10% pure fish oil (100%). Phytonadione was analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method after its extraction from the IVFE by an isopropyl alcohol-hexane mixture, reverse phase-liquid chromatography, and specific multiple-reaction monitoring for phytonadione and vitamin d3 (as internal standard). This method was validated through specificity, linearity, and accuracy. Average vitamin K1 content was 500, 100, 90, 100, 95, and 70 µg/L in soybean oil, olive-soybean oil, soybean-MCT coconut oil, soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil, soybean-MCT-fish oil, and pure fish oil intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs), respectively. The analytical LC-MS method was extremely effective in terms of specificity, linearity ( r = 0.99), and accuracy (coefficient of variation <5%). Phytonadione is present in IVFE, and its intake varies according to IVFE type and the volume administered. It can contribute to daily requirements and become clinically relevant when simultaneously infused with multivitamins during long-term parenteral nutrition. LC-MS seems adequate in assessing vitamin K1 intake in IVFE.

  17. Preparation of fluidized catalytic cracking slurry oil-in-water emulsion as anti-collapse agent for drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiang Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized catalytic cracking slurry oil-in-water emulsion (FCCSE was prepared by using interfacial complexes generation method that was simple and versatile. The critical factors influencing the sample preparation process were optimized, for instance, the optimum value of the mixed hydrophile-lipophile balance of compound emulsifier was 11.36, the content of compound emulsifier was 4 wt%, the emulsification temperature was 75 °C, the agitation speed was 200 rpm, and the emulsification time was 30–45 min. The performance as a drilling fluid additive was also investigated with respect to rheological properties, filtration loss and inhibition of FCCSE. Experimental results showed that FCCSE was favorable to inhibiting clay expansion and dispersion and reducing fluid loss. Furthermore, it had good compatibility with other additives and did not affect the rheological properties of drilling fluids. FCCSE exhibited better performance than the available emulsified asphalt. It has a promising application as anti-collapse agent in petroleum and natural gas drilling.

  18. Continued field evaluation of precutting for maintaining asphalt concrete pavements with thermal cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In continuation of a previously completed project entitled Evaluate Presawn Transverse Thermal Cracks for Asphalt Concrete Pavement, this project was a further effort to understand important variables in the thermal cracking process through continued...

  19. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  20. Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    TxDOT Project 0-6009 was a comprehensive interdisciplinary research effort that has developed the ability : to predict asphalt oxidative hardening over time and pavement depth, and the impact of this hardening on : mixture durability. The many interr...