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Sample records for asphalt cement

  1. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  2. Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa

    2007-10-01

    Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

  3. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  4. Durable high strength cement concrete topping for asphalt roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrozhemskyi, Valerii; Krayushkina, Kateryna; Bidnenko, Nataliia

    2017-09-01

    Work on improving riding qualities of pavements by means of placing a thin cement layer with high roughness and strength properties on the existing asphalt pavement were conducted in Ukraine for the first time. Such pavement is called HPCM (High Performance Cementitious Material). This is a high-strength thin cement-layer pavement of 8-9 mm thickness reinforced with metal or polymer fiber of less than 5 mm length. Increased grip properties are caused by placement of stone material of 3-5 mm fraction on the concrete surface. As a result of the research, the preparation and placement technology of high-strength cement thin-layer pavement reinforced with fiber was developed to improve friction properties of existing asphalt pavements which ensures their roughness and durability. It must be emphasized that HPCM is a fundamentally new type of thin-layer pavement in which a rigid layer of 10 mm thickness is placed on a non-rigid base thereby improving riding qualities of asphalt pavement at any season of a year.

  5. Evaluation of elevated temperature properties of asphalt cement modified with aluminum oxide and calcium carbonate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrka Ali, Shaban Ismael; Ismail, Amiruddin; AlMansob, Ramez A.; Alhmali, Dhawo Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Higher temperature properties of the asphalt cement have been characterized before and after modification using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and viscosity testing. In this study, calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO3) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3) have been added to the base asphalt cement with concentrations of 3, 5 and 7%.wt by the weight of the asphalt cement. The increase of CaCO3 and Al2O3 content has significant effect on the properties of asphalt cement. The viscosity of the modified asphalt cement increased up to 90 and 108% respectively compared to the base asphalt cement. In addition, the results showed that both modifiers have great storage stability and compatibility at elevated temperature. The evaluation of the rheological properties of asphalt cements revealed that the stiffness of the modified samples improved with additional increase of the modifier concentration of up to 5%, which indicates better resistance to rutting parameter. The enhancement was up to 388.89% for Al2O3 and 74.07% for CaCO3. As a result, the usage of CaCO3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles can be considered as appropriate alternative materials to modify asphalt cement.

  6. Sound absorption characteristics of cenosphere enriched cement and asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vikrant; Shukla, Arun; Bose, Arjit

    2002-05-01

    A detailed experimental study has been conducted to determine the effect of addition of cenospheres on the acoustic properties of cement matrix and asphalt concrete. Cenospheres are hollow ceramic microballoons, being a waste product of thermal power plants, they are relatively inexpensive and their use has the added benefit of decreasing the strain on the environment. Specimens were made with a different volume fraction of cenospheres (0% to 70% in increments of 10) to observe the change in acoustic properties with an increase in the cenosphere content. Specimens of different sizes were tested to study the acoustic characteristics of the materials for a wide range (125 to 4000 Hz) of frequencies. The effect of an increase in the cenosphere content on the dilatational wave velocity in the specimens was also studied with the help of acoustic transducers. It was noted that, although the wave velocity remains relatively unaffected with a change in the cenosphere content, the addition of cenospheres improves the sound absorption characteristics of the cement matrix and asphalt concrete with a considerable decrease (up to 41%) in the density of the material. It has also been noted that the sound absorption of cement increases with the addition of cenosphere up to 40% volume fraction and starts decreasing with the further addition of cenospheres.

  7. Application of polyester derived from biomass in petroleum asphalt cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of the incorporation of a new additive to asphalt cement oil (CAP. A polyol product was obtained through the oxypropylation reaction of sugarcane bagasse. This polyol was polymerised with pyromellitic anhydride in order to obtain a polyester (BCP to test its suitability in terms of the material properties to be applied as additives. FTIR spectra of the polymerised material (BCP confirmed the occurrence of chemical modification due to the appearance of a new band at 1750 cm-1, characteristic of ester groups. The TGA data showed that the BCP product had higher thermal stability than the polyol. According to the softening point and elastic recovery tests, the incorporation of 11% and 16% w/w BCP in conventional CAP met the specifications of regulatory standards.

  8. Partial Replacement of Cement with Bagasse Ash in Hot Mix Asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in this light that a laboratory based investigation for the replacement of cement with BA in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) was conducted. Tests on the suitability of materials used and their performance in terms of known engineering properties was carried out. Bitumen content of 4.5%, 5.5%, 6.5% and 7.5% was adopted.

  9. ANALYSIS INFLUENCE OF CEMENT OF THE ASPHALT PAVEMENT DEMOLITION MATERIAL ON ROADS SEMARANG-DEMAK-INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pratikso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine levels of cement that can be used for the top layer foundation (base course with recycled asphalt materials mixed cement on road rehabilitation Semarang – Demak. T his study uses an experimenta l method in the laboratory with a cylindrical specimen diameter of 7 cm height of 14 cm made of cement content variation 0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6% and 7.5% is use d for testing the uncondifined compressive strength / (UCS at the age of 7 days, 21 days, 14 days and 28 days. The results show that the addition of cement content w ill increase the value of the dry weight insignificantly, but will rise UCS value significantly and utilization of scratching asphalt cement with added material from these lab oratory experiments can increase the carrying capacity CTRB construction. Levels of cement that meets the requirements of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS for the construction of Cement Treated Recycling Base (CTRB is between 6% to 7.5%. Acc ording to the results of research it is economically to used cement content a t average of 6.75% for road rehabilitation works Semara ng - Demak has met the required UCS test.

  10. Investigation on the Effect of Recycled Asphalt Shingle (RAS in Portland Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwoo An

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tear-off roofing shingle, referred to as Reclaimed asphalt shingle (RAS, is the byproduct of construction demolition and it is a major solid waste stream in the U.S. Reuse of this byproduct in road construction sector can contribute to the success of materials sustainability as well as landfill conservation. Ground RAS has similar particle distribution as sand and its major component includes aggregate granules, fibers, and asphalt. To promote the beneficial utilization of RAS, this study evaluates the effect of RAS in cement mortar when used as replacement of sand. In addition, the study investigates how cellulose fibers from RAS behave under high alkaline environment during cement hydration process, which may significantly affect mortar’s strength performance. The laboratory study includes measurements of physical, mechanical, and durability behaviors of cement mortar containing RAS replacing sand up to 30%. It was found that the optimum mixture proportions are 5% and 10% for compressive strength and toughness, respectively.

  11. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Hao Xu; Rong Chen

    2014-01-01

    The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar) is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system...

  12. Short-Term Creep Experiment of Cement Asphalt Mortar and Its Numerical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hao; Wang, Ping; Lin, Hong-song; Yan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the creep performance of cement asphalt mortar (CA mortar), the field sampling of CA mortar cylinder samples was produced, and all samples were tested on WDW series electric universal testing machine by using uniaxial static creep test at 25°C, and the load stress levels were 0.05 MPa, 0.1 MPa, 0.3 MPa, and 0.5 MPa. The greater the load is, the bigger the creep deformation is. The creep performance was simulated by using Burgers model, and the correlation coefficients ...

  13. Impact of Aggregates Size and Fibers on basic Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Emulsion—Cement Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Liu, Zhihong; Liu, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Asphalt Emulsion—Cement Concrete (AECC) is currently considered as a typical semi-flexibility material. One of the disadvantages of this material is brittle fracture and lacking ductility. This study aims at accelerating the basic mechanical properties of AECC using fibers and different aggregates size. The mix of AECC was introduced and the different content of fibers and aggregates size were studied. The results showed that the smaller aggregates size could improve the young’s modulus and compressive strength as well as fiber. The modulus-compressive strength ratio of fiber reinforced AECC is always below 500.

  14. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blend...

  15. Short-Term Creep Experiment of Cement Asphalt Mortar and Its Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the creep performance of cement asphalt mortar (CA mortar, the field sampling of CA mortar cylinder samples was produced, and all samples were tested on WDW series electric universal testing machine by using uniaxial static creep test at 25°C, and the load stress levels were 0.05 MPa, 0.1 MPa, 0.3 MPa, and 0.5 MPa. The greater the load is, the bigger the creep deformation is. The creep performance was simulated by using Burgers model, and the correlation coefficients between fitting results of Burgers model and experimental results are all greater than 0.9. Based on the requirements of finite element software, the Prony series of Burgers model was obtained, and the short-term creep process of CA mortar was simulated by the finite element software ANSYS. The relative error between simulation results and experimental data is not more than 2.5%, which indicates that the short-creep process of CA mortar can be simulated by ANSYS software. The study results can improve the structural design theory of slab track.

  16. Experimental Research on Compression Properties of Cement Asphalt Mortar due to Drying and Wetting Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial compression test of cement asphalt (CA mortar specimens, due to drying and wetting cycle of 0, 2, 4 and 8 times, is carried out by using the electronic universal test machine, with the strain rate ranging from 1 × 10−5 s−1 to 1 × 10−2 s−1. The effects of strain rate and drying and wetting cycle time on the compressive strength, elasticity modulus, and stress-strain full curve are investigated. Experimental results show that the strain-stress full curve of CA mortar is affected obviously by strain rate and drying and wetting cycle time. The compressive strength and elasticity modulus increase with the strain rate under the same drying and wetting cycle time. The compressive strength and elasticity modulus decrease with the increase of drying and wetting cycle time in the same strain rate. The lower the strain rate is, the greater the compressive strength and elasticity modulus of CA mortar decrease. When the strain rate is 1 × 10−5 s−1 and drying and wetting cycle time is 8, the largest reduction of average compressive strength of CA mortar is 40.48%, and the largest reduction of elasticity modulus of CA mortar is 35.51%, and the influence of drying and wetting cycle on the compressive strength of CA mortar is greater than its influence on the elasticity modulus.

  17. Effect of Cement Asphalt Mortar Debonding on Dynamic Properties of CRTS II Slab Ballastless Track

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The debonding of cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar is one of the main damage types in China railway track system II slab ballastless track. In order to analyze the influence of mortar debonding on the dynamic properties of CRTS II slab ballastless track, a vertical coupling vibration model for a vehicle-track-subgrade system was established on the base of wheel/rail coupling dynamics theory. The effects of different debonding lengths on dynamic response of vehicle and track system were analyzed by using the finite element software. The results show that the debonding of CA mortar layer will increase the dynamic response of track. If the length of debonding exceeds 1.95 m, the inflection point will appear on the vertical displacement curve of track. The vertical vibration acceleration of slab increases 4.95 times and the vertical dynamic compressive stress of CA mortar near the debonding region increases 15 times when the debonding length reaches 3.9 m. Considering the durability of ballastless track, once the length of debonding reaches 1.95 m, the mortar debonding should be repaired.

  18. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavement, phase II : field demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as : aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. An initial phase of research demonstrated that concretes with up to 50 percent : o...

  19. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  20. Contact Loss beneath Track Slab Caused by Deteriorated Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar: Dynamic Characteristics of Vehicle-Slab Track System and Prototype Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dan; Liu, Yu-feng; Ren, Juan-juan; Yang, Rong-shan; Liu, Xue-yi

    2016-01-01

    The contact loss beneath track slab caused by deteriorated cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar) has been one of the main diseases occurring in the CRTS- (China Railway Track System-) I Slab Track of high-speed railway in China. Based on the slab track design theory and the vehicle-track coupling vibration theory, a vehicle-track vertical coupling dynamic FEM model was established to analyze the influence of the contact loss length on the dynamic characteristics of vehicle and track su...

  1. Contact Loss beneath Track Slab Caused by Deteriorated Cement Emulsified Asphalt Mortar: Dynamic Characteristics of Vehicle-Slab Track System and Prototype Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact loss beneath track slab caused by deteriorated cement emulsified asphalt mortar (CA mortar has been one of the main diseases occurring in the CRTS- (China Railway Track System- I Slab Track of high-speed railway in China. Based on the slab track design theory and the vehicle-track coupling vibration theory, a vehicle-track vertical coupling dynamic FEM model was established to analyze the influence of the contact loss length on the dynamic characteristics of vehicle and track subsystems at different train speeds. A prototype dynamic characteristic experimental test of CRTS-I Slab Track with CA mortar contact loss was conducted to verify the FEM model results. The train load was generated by the customized ZSS50 excitation car. The results showed that when the operation speed is less than 300 km/h, the contact loss with length smaller than 2.0 m barely affects the running smoothness ride safety of vehicle. The contact loss length effect on the dynamic characteristics of track subsystem is pronounced, especially on the track slab. Once the contact loss beneath the track slab occurs, the vibration displacement and the acceleration of the track slab increase rapidly, while it has little influence on the displacement and acceleration of the concrete roadbed.

  2. Investigation of the use of recycled polymer-modified asphalt in asphaltic concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    This report presents issues associated with recycling polymer modified asphalt cements (PMACs), particularly blending aged PMAC with new PMAC. A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) PMAC was selected and graded using the Superpave Performance Grading (PG)...

  3. Relation of asphalt chemistry to physical properties and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This report constitutes a synthesis of published information concerning the chemical composition and characteristics of asphalt cements used in highway construction. The general relations between chemical composition and physical properties and speci...

  4. PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ASA POLYMER MODIFIED ASPHALT BINDERS AND MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHABAN ISMAEL ALBRKA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is commonly used as a binder in the construction of highways and runways, due to its good viscoelastic properties, natural asphalt cement does not have sufficient strength to resist sudden stresses of excessive loading or stress from low and high temperatures. Therefore, modification of asphalt is necessary in order to improve its material temperature sensitivity, adhesion, durability, oxidation and aging resistance. The property of base asphalt and polymer modified asphalt binders and mixtures has been characterized using the conventional tests and dynamic creep tests. It has been found that, the addition of Acrylate Styrene Acrylonhrtilrei (ASA polymer content has magnificent influence on the properties of the asphalt binders and mixtures. The temperature susceptibility of modified asphalt binders was reduced compared with base asphalt binder as the penetration increase and softening point decrease. The reduction in penetration was up to 69%, while the improvement in softening point was up to 19%. Moreover, it was approved from the storage stability test that, the ASA polymer has a great compatibility with asphalt binder up to 5% ASA. In addition, it was observe reduction in permanent deformation of modified asphalt mixtures with increase of modifier up to 5% ASA, which lead to better resistance to rutting at high temperatures, and the reduction was up to 36%. As a result, the modification of asphalt binder and mixture with ASA polymer can be considered a proper alternative technique to improve the properties of asphalt binder and mixture and 5% ASA was the optimum content of the modifier.

  5. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene; Avaliacao das modificacoes quimicas no cimento asfaltico de petroleo com a adicao de polipropileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S., E-mail: mjsales@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental

    2010-07-01

    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C ({Delta}H = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C ({Delta}H = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  6. The effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yinping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses the top layer SMA-13 asphalt mixture material as the research object. Basalt was selected as pavement material, and modified SBS asphalt was used as a cementing material. Two basalt aggregates with different densities were used to carry out standard Marshall test in the laboratory.Aimed at the volume parameters of the asphalt mixture carry on anaiysis,and obtian the effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture, which is that the density of aggregate has a significant effect on the void ratio, saturation, and the gap rate of the aggregate, thus affecting the pavement performance of the asphalt mixture

  7. Thermal Stress Measurements in Asphalt Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The stiffness of the asphalt cement is then used/- -• with either the Heukelom and Klomp (1964) rela- -o0- • tionship between asphalt and mixture...predicted by either Teperaturc a-rea time qf loading (>2 h Jr) the Heukelom or McLeod estimation methods. S’C) (nm~) (kg) As with the direct tension test...deflection due to dP that the stiffnesses obtained from the creep test or I = moment of inertia. 10 Heukelom Method o McLeod 0) 7 Method .~i 5 0 (I) Creep

  8. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  9. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  11. Modified composite material developed on the basis of no-fines asphalt concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhasek Andrey; Ivanov Boris

    2017-01-01

    Being a composite material, asphalt concrete is widely used in hydraulic engineering and road construction. The paper proves one of asphalt concrete modification, which includes first creating a skeleton of no-fines concrete and then its washing-down with bituminous materials by a hot procedure, can be successfully used in hydraulic structures Modified composite material based on no-fines asphalt concrete has a harder skeleton because of links from cement stone and has a technological advanta...

  12. Asphaltic concrete pavement survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-04-01

    The ever increasing problem of wheel path rutting and excessive desification of asphaltic concrete pavement has been the subject of asphalt technology for quite sometime. It is known that the density of the pavement, which is significant for several ...

  13. A comparative analysis of modified binders : original asphalts and materials extracted from existing pavements : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The initial objective of this research was to develop procedures and standards for applying GPC as an analytical tool to define the percentage amounts of polymer modifiers in polymer modified asphalt cements soluble in eluting GPC solvents. Quantific...

  14. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in asphalt production. This way asphalt production costs as well as the environmental problems that are caused by mineral residue are reduced. Five different asphalt cements, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, and a granite residue were used in this work. The results indicated that the residue strongly absorbs all the CAPs that were studied; particularly CAP A, which is considered the most adequate for the production of asphalt from this residue. Preliminary tests this indicate that asphalt production can use mineral residues instead of mineral aggregates in its composition. (author)

  15. Design and Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Renewable Bioasphalt Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Irfansyah, P. A.; Shidiq, A. M.; Wibisono, I. S.; Fauzy, M. N.; Hadi, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    The needs of petroleum asphalt as materials for pavement is very large, while the petroleum classified as natural resources that cannot be renewable. As a result of petroleum dwindling and prices tend to be more expensive. So that requiring other alternative materials as a substitute for conventional asphalt derived from biomass or often called bioasphalt. This study aims to know the volumetric and Marshall characteristics on Asphalt Cement ( AC ) using the Damar asphalt modification to substitute 60/70 penetration asphalt as a binder. The volumetric and Marshall characteristic are porosity, density, flow, stability, and Marshall quotient. The characteristic of asphalt concrete at optimum bitumen content are compared to the conditions from highway agency 1987 and the general specification of asphalt concrete Bina Marga 2010 the third revision. The research uses experimental method in the laboratory with the samples made using the dasphalt modification as binder and incorporating the aggregate gradation no. VII SNI 03-1737-1989. The research is using 15 samples divided into 5 contents of damar asphalt, they are 5%, 5,5%, 6%, 6,5%, dan 7%. Tests carried out using Marshall test equipment to get the value of flow and stability and then be searched the value of optimum damar asphalt content. The result of asphalt concrete analysis using dasphalt modification as binder gives the value of optimum dasphalt content at 5,242%. The most characteristics already met the requirements and specifications.

  16. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  17. POROUS ASPHALT???S CONTRIBUTION ON ROAD SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nur; Ramli, M. Isran; Hustim, Muralia

    2012-01-01

    The porous asphalt properties are different from dense asphalt concrete. Regarding the open structure of its gradation, the porous asphalt can reduce noise level from road traffic, drains water from the road surface, and the thermal conductivity. These behaviors lead to the porous asphalt contribution on road traffic safety and environment. This paper provides a comparison study regarding a literature review based on some developed countries??? experiences in using the porous asphalt related ...

  18. Performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP is the reclaimed and reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregate. Most RAP is recycled back into pavements, and as a result there is a general lack of data pertaining to the mechanical properties for RAP in other possible applications such as Portland cement concrete. In the present study, some mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete containing RAP as coarse aggregate were investigated in the laboratory. Six concrete mixes of widely differing water/cement ratios and mix proportions were made using RAP as coarse aggregate. The properties tested include the physical properties of the RAP aggregate, the compressive and flexural strengths of the concrete. These properties were compared with those of similar concretes made with natural gravel aggregate. Results of the tests suggest that the strength of concrete made from RAP is dependent on the bond strength of the “asphalt-mortar” (asphalt binder-sand-filler matrix coatings on the aggregates and may not produce concrete with compressive strength above 25 MPa. However, for middle and low strength concrete, the material was found to compare favorably with natural gravel aggregate.

  19. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  20. Laboratory Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Stone Mastic Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Muniandy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Stone mastic asphalt (SMA is a gap-graded mix whereby stiffer asphalt cement is required to bind the stone matrix or arrangement of stones together. Although various asphalt additives are traditionally available, the use of rubber crumbs in SMA is still a new rresearch endeavor. Many countries around the world are facing serious problems on what to do with reject or discarded tires. In the present study, commercial truck tires, containing 70% natural rubber, were ground and pre-blended in 80-100 penetration asphalt for use in SMA mixtures. An assessment was made of the laboratory performance of rubberized SMA in terms of stability, resilent modulus, dynamic creep and tensile strength ratio. It was observed that the performance of SMA with ground tire rubber was for superior as compared to SMA mix with unmodified asphalt. Sulfur and Styrene Butadeline Rubber (SBR were used in rubberized SMA mixes as additives to test the sensitivity of SMA mixtures. As standard practice a 0.3% newly developed cellulose oil palm fiber was used in SMA to minimize the asphalt drain-down effects.

  1. Reinforcement of Recycled Foamed Asphalt Using Short Polypropylene Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of short polypropylene fibers on recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixture. Short polypropylene fibers of 10 mm length with a 0.15% by weight mixing ratio of the fiber to the asphalt binder were used. The Marshall stability test, the indirect tensile strength test, the resilient modulus test, and wheel tracking test of the RFA mixtures were conducted. The test results were compared to find out the reinforcing effects of the inclusion of the fiber and the other mixtures, which included the conventional recycled foamed asphalt (RFA mixtures; the cement reinforced recycled foamed asphalt (CRFA mixtures; the semihot recycled foamed asphalt (SRFA mixtures; and recycled hot-mix asphalt (RHMA mixtures. It is found that the FRFA mixture shows higher Marshall stability than the RFA and SRFA mixtures, higher indirect tensile strength than the RFA mixture, and higher rut resistance than the RFA, SRFA, and RHMA mixtures as seen from the wheel tracking test.

  2. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  3. Paver Asphalt Distress Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shahin, M

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in June 1989. It comprises an illustrated asphalt pavement distress manual suitable for use by pavement inspection personnel in the field or in pavement inspection training courses...

  4. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravský Marián

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic – mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  5. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  6. Evaluation the effect of using polymers on the performance of wearing asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mohammed Jebur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq , the increasing in number of vehicles and trucks with their heavy traffic loading and under high temperature , a variety of pavement distresses continues to develop affecting the performance and economy of pavement construction. Polymer modified asphalt mixtures have been used to resist the distresses that produced and developed from the applied stresses. Several distresses effect on the performance of HMA. The primary forms of distress are fatigue cracking , rutting , moisture damage and thermal cracking. These distresses reduce the services life of HMA and increase the maintenance costs. The main objective of this research is to find the effect of polymers on the performance of asphalt mixtureby using one asphalt cement grade (40-50 from Al-Daurah refinery with two types of locally available polymers (Low-Density Polyethylene LDPE and Styrene Butadiene Styrene SBS with three percentages for each type. These percent are (1, 3 and 6 % for (LDPE & SBS by weight of asphalt cement. Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt cement by using the wet process. The experimental work showed that all polymer-modified mixtures have stability and indirect tensile strength higher than the control mixtures. It can be concluded that the addition of (1% LDPE and (3% SBS to asphalt mixtures showed better improvement on the performance properties of pavement modified with these polymers , in which the referred percent represent the optimum percent of concentration for blending polymers .

  7. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A M Rodríguez-Alloza; J Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants...

  8. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravský Marián; Mandula Ján

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic – mechanical properties decl...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  10. Scrap tire rubber as modifier of asphalt cement for use in road paving Borracha de pneus como modificador de cimentos asfálticos para uso em obras de pavimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Oda

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research on the technical feasibility of the use of asphalt-rubber binder by the asphalt paving industry. In Brazil more than 30 million tires a year are disposed of, mostly in inadequate sites, causing serious health and environmental problems. The effects of the main factors (rubber content, rubber particle size, temperature of mixture, reaction time on the behavior of asphalt-rubber binders are evaluated by traditional and Superpave Method tests, the latter based on certain fundamental properties directly related to field performance. Results of the statistical analysis of the factorial design of laboratory experiments show the most significant effect of rubber contents, or rather, that asphalt-rubber binder may increase the resistance against permanent deformation and fatigue crackingEste trabalho apresenta estudo sobre a incorporação de borracha de pneus em ligantes asfálticos utilizados em obras de pavimentação. Trata-se de uma alternativa para solucionar um grave problema ambiental, pois no Brasil, anualmente, são descartados mais de 30 milhões de pneus, dos quais a maior parte é disposta em locais inadequados, servindo para a procriação de vetores de doenças e representando risco de contaminação do meio-ambiente. Os efeitos dos principais fatores que condicionam o comportamento do ligante asfalto-borracha (teor e granulometria da borracha, temperatura de mistura, tempo de reação são avaliados através de ensaios tradicionais de caracterização de ligantes asfálticos e ensaios do Método Superpave, diretamente relacionadas ao desempenho dos pavimentos no campo. Os resultados da análise estatística evidenciam o efeito preponderante do teor de borracha e, principalmente, que o ligante asfalto-borracha pode aumentar a resistência ao acúmulo de deformação permanente e ao aparecimento de trincas por fadiga do revestimento

  11. The mechanical behavior of two warm-mix asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Rondón-Quintana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results stemming from a comparative experimental analysis of two warm-mix asphalts (WMA and a dense-graded hot-mix asphalt (HMA. In order to evaluate asphalt mixture behavior, physical and rheological tests were conducted, including tests on resilient modulus, resistance to moisture-induced damage, resistance to fatigue and resistance to permanent deformation. Samples studied were subjected to short (STOA and long-term (LTOA aging. As far as asphalt mixture composition is concerned, the same particle size distribution and coarse aggregate were employed for both mixture types. The control HMA mixture was produced with AC 60-70, and the WMAs used the same asphalt cement modified with two chemical additives (Rediset WMX® and Cecabase RT®. The modified mixtures exhibited better resistance to permanent deformation, aging and moisture-induced damage (versus the control mixture. Likewise, WMAs generally saw increased fatigue resistance under controlled-stress loading, which rheological characterization showed is mainly attributable to binder additives and their concomitant modifications.

  12. Precipitation of anionic emulsifier with ordinary Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xing; Winnefeld, Frank; Lura, Pietro

    2016-10-01

    Cement has traditionally been used to accelerate bitumen emulsion breaking in cold mix asphalt and cold recycling asphalt. For cold emulsion mixtures, the mixing stability of bitumen emulsion is a crucial property, because it determines the distribution of bitumen and eventually affects the microstructure and the strength development of asphalt mixtures. Recent studies have proven that the interaction between cement and emulsifiers causes the destabilization of bitumen emulsions. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between cement particles and rosin emulsifiers. For this purpose, the Ca(2+) ions and rosin emulsifier concentration after filtration were measured to identify the interaction between cement and rosin emulsifiers. The consumed emulsifier increases linearly with the amount of added cement or CaCl2 concentration in the case of diluted rosin emulsifier solutions in which the rosin emulsifier concentration is below the CMC (critical micelle concentration). In the case of concentrated rosin emulsifier solutions (above the CMC), the rosin emulsifier concentration shows a sharp decrease when a certain amount of cement or CaCl2 is added. This study indicates that cement destabilizes anionic bitumen emulsion due to the precipitation of rosin emulsifiers caused by Ca(2+) ions which are released by early cement hydration. Further studies on precipitation behavior have shown that micelles of rosin emulsifier can complex Ca(2+) ions but do not precipitate. These findings explain why slow-setting bitumen emulsions, which contain a higher concentration of emulsifier, show better mixing stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  14. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  15. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  16. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  17. Evaluation of steel slag coarse aggregate in hot mix asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedzade, Perviz; Sengoz, Burak

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents the influences of the utilization of steel slag as a coarse aggregate on the properties of hot mix asphalt. Four different asphalt mixtures containing two types of asphalt cement (AC-5; AC-10) and coarse aggregate (limestone; steel slag) were used to prepare Marshall specimens and to determine optimum bitumen content. Mechanical characteristics of all mixtures were evaluated by Marshall stability, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, creep stiffness, and indirect tensile strength tests. The electrical sensitivity of the specimens were also investigated in accordance with ASTM D257-91. It was observed that steel slag used as a coarse aggregate improved the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. Moreover, volume resistivity values demonstrated that the electrical conductivity of steel slag mixtures were better than that of limestone mixtures.

  18. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  19. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  20. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  1. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  2. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C

    2009-11-01

    sector that investigated current and historical use of additives in producing petroleum-derived asphalt cements.

  3. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  5. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surface layer, is the main damage mechanism of porous asphalt surface wearing courses. In this research, an induction healing approach (namely, activating the healing process of asphalt concrete through ...

  6. Performance of Metakaolin as Partial Replacement of Cement in Hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metakaolin is one mineral admixture that appears to have significant potential for the production of high strength and high performance concretes. This work investigates the performance of asphalt concrete containing Metakaolin partially replaced with cement. Oxide composition test on Metakaolin, tests on aggregates and ...

  7. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  8. Evaluation of the effects of crumb rubber and SBR on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chuang-Tsair; Tia, Mang; Ruth, B.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effects of addition of crumb rubber (CR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) on the rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. These two additives were blended with an AC-20 and an AC-30 grade asphalt cements at different levels of concentrations. These modified and unmodified asphalt blends were tested at intermediate and high temperatures to evaluate their rutting resistance characteristics. They were also used to make Florida type S-I structural surface mixtures. These mixtures were made into Marshall-size specimens by using Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM) equipped with air-roller to compact and density to three compaction levels which simulate three different conditions in the pavement. The FDOT`s (Florida Department of Transportation) Loaded Wheel Tester was also used to evaluate the rutting resistance of these asphalt mixtures. The test results indicate that the modified asphalt mixtures show relatively better rutting resistance and shear resistance as compared with the unmodified asphalt mixtures.

  9. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  10. Premature asphalt concrete pavement cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has identified hot mix asphalt concrete : (HMAC) pavements that have displayed top-down cracking within three years of construction. The objective of : the study was to evaluate the top-down cr...

  11. Modified composite material developed on the basis of no-fines asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhasek Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a composite material, asphalt concrete is widely used in hydraulic engineering and road construction. The paper proves one of asphalt concrete modification, which includes first creating a skeleton of no-fines concrete and then its washing-down with bituminous materials by a hot procedure, can be successfully used in hydraulic structures Modified composite material based on no-fines asphalt concrete has a harder skeleton because of links from cement stone and has a technological advantage, as through the proposed technology it allows to reduce the cost of filling porous spaces. This technology allows to conclude that concrete aggregate with size fractions of 120 mm or less and frost resistance of 50 cycles and less can be recommended for fastening of slopes.

  12. The shakeout scenario: Meeting the needs for construction aggregates, asphalt, and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    An Mw 7.8 earthquake as described in the ShakeOut Scenario would cause significantdamage to buildings and infrastructure. Over 6 million tons of newly mined aggregate would be used for emergency repairs and for reconstruction in the five years following the event. This aggregate would be applied mostly in the form of concrete for buildings and bridges, asphalt or concrete for pavement, and unbound gravel for applications such as base course that goes under highway pavement and backfilling for foundations and pipelines. There are over 450 aggregate, concrete, and asphalt plants in the affected area, some of which would be heavily damaged. Meeting the increased demand for construction materials would require readily available permitted reserves, functioning production facilities, a supply of cement and asphalt, a source of water, gas, and electricity, and a trained workforce. Prudent advance preparations would facilitate a timely emergency response and reconstruction following such an earthquake. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  14. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  15. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  16. Experimental Study on Modification of Concrete with Asphalt Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bołtryk, Michał; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Pawluczuk, Edyta

    2017-10-01

    Durability of engineering structures made of cement concrete with high compressive strength is a very vital issue, especially when they are exposed to different aggressive environments and dynamic loads. Concrete resistance to weathering actions and chemical attack can be improved by combined chemical and mechanical modification of concrete microstructure. Asphalt admixture in the form of asphalt paste (AP) was used for chemical modification of cement composite microstructure. Concrete structure was formed using special technology of compaction. A stand for vibro-vibropressing with regulated vibrator force and pressing force was developed. The following properties of the modified concrete were tested: compressive strength, water absorption, freeze-thaw resistance, scaling resistance in the presence of de-icing agents, chloride migration, resistance to CO2 and corrosion in aggressive solutions. Corrosion resistance was tested alternately in 1.8% solutions of NH4Cl, MgSO4, (NH2)2CO and CaCl2, which were altered every 7 days; the experiment lasted 9.5 months. Optimum compaction parameters in semi-industrial conditions were determined: ratio between piston stress (Qp ) and external top vibrator force (Po ) in the range 0.4÷-0.5 external top vibrator force 4 kN. High strength concretes with compressive strength fcm = 60÷70 MPa, very low water absorption (engineering constructions.

  17. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  18. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, E.; Liu, Q.

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  19. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  20. Low heat cement; Teihatsunetsu cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Igarashi, H. [Ube Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the result of studies on low heat (low hydration heat) cement intended to prevent cracking. Good compositional proportions of alite and belite as components of Portland cement are belite at 63% and alite at 37% when hydration heat, strength, and concrete durability are taken into account. Mixing the blast furnace slag into cement fills the voids at low hydration heat, and raises the strength without increasing the hydration heat. However, the voids remain in a long-term material age. The strength of the belite-based cement is improved when the higher the temperature within a range from 20 to 60{degree}C. In the case of a mixed cement of belite-based cement and blast furnace slag, using the blast furnace slag at 60% maintains the strength and reduces the hydration heat. The strength decreases at a curing temperature of 60{degree}C or higher. Hardened mortar with a material age of three days has its voids disappear at 40{degree}C. More void disappearance cannot be recognized even if the material age gets older. Hydration heat decreases largely in the belite-based cement and flyash mixed cement. The strength also decreases, but it increases conversely when the material age gets as old as one year. Flyash causes the temperature to rise more moderately than blast furnace slag. 21 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. [PAH exposure in asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G

    2010-01-01

    There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental PAH exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of PAH exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that PAH exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that PAH exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating PAH exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.

  2. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.

  3. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  4. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  5. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Muraya, P.M.

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation.

  6. Permanent deformation of asphalt mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraya, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a research that was conducted on the permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures. Central to this research was the separate characterization of the contribution of the aggregate skeleton and the bituminous mortar towards resistance to permanent deformation.

  7. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), : recycled concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt : binder to produce a partially stabilized base material. Although widely used, most :...

  8. Best practices for full-depth reclamation using asphalt emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements using asphalt emulsions (AEFDR) is a process that recycles and rejuvenates the existing : asphalt pavement surface, base, and, sometimes, the subgrade, providing an improved underlying structure for the new...

  9. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modi-fying the asphalt with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a name given to a group of technologies that have the common purpose of reducing the viscosity : of the asphalt binders. This reduction in viscosity offers the advantage of producing asphalt-aggregate mixtures at lower mixin...

  11. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  12. In Situ Evaluation of Unsurfaced Portland Cement-Stabilized Soil Airfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    13 Figure 7. Flexural strength testing using third-point loading...cement concrete and asphalt concrete surfaces, while providing increased bearing capacity and durability compared with untreated aggregate surfaces...accomplished using the SSG (Parsons and Milburn 2003). Portable falling-weight deflectometer The PFWD is a portable lightweight configuration of the

  13. Performance Characteristics of Silane Silica Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present there are many kinds of fillers and modifier used for modified asphalt, but the effect of modifier differs in thousands of ways; most of them can increase the high temperature performance of asphalt, but the modified effect of low-temperature crack resistance, water stability, and antifatigue performance is different. Aiming at the subsistent problems, this paper innovatively puts forward the idea of taking the silane silica (nanosilica modified with silane coupling agent as filler to develop one kind of modified asphalt concrete which has excellent comprehensive performance based on the idea of enhance the whole performance of asphalt concrete and interface consolidation strength between aggregate and asphalt at the same time. The best mixing amount of silane silica and the production process of modified asphalt were conducted by contrasting the test date as penetration, viscosity, and softening point; the aging of asphalt and modified asphalt was analyzed by TG test, the superiority of silane silica modified asphalt is more clearly understandable by chemical analysis results. Meanwhile it is proved that silane silica has positive effect to improve the mixture of high and low temperature performance, water stability, and aging resistance through a series of road performance tests.

  14. Development of the Asphalt Multi-Integrated Roller Field and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Halim Omar Abd El Halim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt pavements have been compacted using steel drum rollers for a century. However, the problems that are observed today on these pavements are universal with no solution in sight. Intensive research work has been invested to identify the mechanisms that cause these problems. A recent development was the introduction of SuperPave mix design, GP asphalt cements, and the use of reinforcing elements ranging from polymer to steel bars. Yet it seems that none of these solutions have succeeded in eliminating any of the old problems. The pavements suffer from serious distresses regardless of the geographic location of the pavements and its design, materials, traffic loads, and climate condition. This paper presents a new approach to deal with the problems facing the asphalt pavements. While the research efforts to date concentrated on materials-related solutions, this paper identifies conventional compaction equipment as the cause of many problems observed on the pavements. The paper provides the development of the new Asphalt Multi-Integrated Roller, AMIR, and discusses new developments leading to a number of commercial field trials on several Ontario highways. The paper concludes that current compactors must be replaced with soft flat plates in order to achieve the required specifications for long term performance.

  15. Aging of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohammadafzali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important concern that limits the RAP content in asphalt mixtures is the fact that the aged binder that is present in the RAP can cause premature cracking. Rejuvenators are frequently added to high RAP mixtures to enhance the properties of the binder. There is no existing method to predict the longevity of a rejuvenated asphalt. This study investigated the aging of rejuvenated binders and compared their durability with that of virgin asphalt. Various samples with different types and proportions of RAP, virgin binder, and rejuvenator were aged by RTFO and three cycles of PAV. DSR and BBR tests were conducted to examine the high-temperature and low-temperature rheological properties of binders. Results indicated that the type and dosage of the rejuvenator have a great influence on the aging rate and durability of the binder. Some rejuvenators make the binder age slower, while others accelerate aging. These observations confirm the importance of evaluating the long-term aging of recycled binders. For this purpose, critical PAV time was proposed as a measure of binder’s longevity.

  16. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  17. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  18. Pelletized Asphalt for Airfield Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    14, 2008. Gulf Asphalt Contractor (GAC), Panama City, FL, provided all labor , material (with the exception of pelletized asphalt) and equipment for...produced. Benefits include: reduced transportation, traffic disruption, operating costs, and labor costs, while increased productivity and... Mercado , E. A., A. Epps Martin, E. S. Park, C. Spiegelman, and C. J. Glover, “Factors Affecting Binder Properties between Production and Construction

  19. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of asphalt concrete used for pavement construction in southwest Nigeria was carried out to determine the causes of untimely failure of newly constructed/rehabilitated asphalt roads. Samples of asphalt concrete and bitumen were collected from three asphalt plants selected for the study. Samples from each plant ...

  20. Performance Characteristic of Cold Recycled Mixture with Asphalt Emulsion and Chemical Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of chemical additives were used to modify asphalt emulsion recycled mixture. These chemical additives include composite Portland cement (CPC, hydrated lime (HL, and a combination of hydrated lime and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBF. The influence of different additives on the recycled mixture performance was investigated by volumetric and strength tests, moisture susceptibility test, rutting resistance test, and low temperature bending test. To better understand its performance characteristic, the microstructure images of the recycled mixture were observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM. Test results demonstrate that the performance improvement of the emulsion recycled mixture depends on the types and content of chemical additives. Several recommendations are presented for the selection of chemical materials. Based on ESEM image analysis, the interface bonding mechanism is proposed to explain the performance characteristic of the recycled mixture with asphalt emulsion and cementitious materials.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH USED TIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufikayo Aderinlewo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the properties of asphalt mix modified with ground tire. The ground tire was introduced into the asphalt in a melted form at varying percentages of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by weight of the asphalt. The properties of the asphalt mixed with the ground tire were then obtained through penetration, softening point, flash and fire point and ductility tests. These properties were then compared with those of the control asphalt to determine the effectiveness of the ground tire in improving the asphalt properties. The results showed that the ground tire additive improved the asphalt properties considerably.

  2. Investigation of the Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement Material on Permeability and Bearing Capacity in the Base Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Güneş Seferoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP and cement content on the permeability and bearing capacity characteristics of aggregate base courses. Mixtures containing untreated RAP ranging between 0 and 100 percent and 1, 2, and 3% cement-treated RAP were subjected to laboratory tests (bitumen content, sieve analysis, modified proctor, soaked California bearing ratio (CBR, and constant-level permeability tests. The results showed that, as the RAP percentage in the mixture increased, CBR values decreased considerably. Moreover, there is a linear increase in the CBR values with cement treatment. Optimum moisture contents (OMC and maximum dry densities (MDD showed a decreasing trend. Increasing the cement percentages in 100% RAP blend increases the OMC and MDD values. The permeability of RAP showed a decrease as the percentage of RAP and cement increased in blends. The study showed that the CBR value of the 20% RAP blend is also obtained in the 100% RAP/3% cement-treated blend. Thus, it has been understood that cement is a suitable material in order to increase the use of RAP. In addition, the increase in the percentage of RAP and cement made the base course more impermeable.

  3. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  4. Characteristics of Ceramic Fiber Modified Asphalt Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiuming; Wu, Shaopeng; Xiao, Yue; Liu, Quantao; Schlangen, Erik

    2016-09-21

    Ceramic fiber, with a major composition of Al₂O₃ and SiO₂, has advantages of stability at relatively high temperature, big specific surface area and resistance to external mechanical vibration. It has the potential contribution of improving the rutting resistance and temperature sensitivity of modified asphalt binder by proper modification design. In this research, ceramic fiber was introduced into both pen 60/80 and pen 80/100 asphalt binder by different weight ratios. An asphalt penetration test, softening point test, ductility test and dynamic viscoelastic behavior were conducted to characterize and predict the ceramic fiber modified asphalt mortar (CFAM). Research results indicated that the ceramic fiber has a great effect on reinforcement of asphalt, which makes the asphalt stiffer so that the asphalt can only undertake less strain under the same stress. The heat insulation effect of the ceramic fiber will improve the temperature stability. Complex modulus and phase angle results indicate that the ceramic fiber can significantly enhance the high temperature resistance of soft binder.

  5. Electrical and mechanical properties of asphalt concrete containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Jun; Liao, Hui; Chen, Xianhua

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has the potential to satisfy multifunctional applications. Designing such asphalt concrete needs to balance the electrical and mechanical performance of asphalt concrete. The objective of this study is to design electrically conductive asphalt concrete

  6. Problems experiences with the construction of cement and lime stabilized layers and working solutions for these problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, PB

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized layers are used extensively in South-Africa in the construction of roads. The layers are usually stabilized with hydrated road lime, cement, slag, fly-ash, bitumen emulsion, foamed asphalt or a combination of several of these agents...

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOAMING BEHAVIOR AND SURFACE ENERGY OF ASPHALT BINDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of insufficiency in microscopic performance of foamed asphalt binder, surface energy theory was utilized to analyze the foaming behavior and wettability of asphalt binder. Based on the surface energy theory, the Wilhelmy plate method and universal sorption device method were employed to measure the surface energy components of asphalt binders and aggregates, respectively. Combined with the traditional evaluation indictor for foamed asphalt, the relationship between the foaming property and surface energy of asphalt binder was analyzed. According to the surface energy components, the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregate was calculated to verify the performance of foamed asphalt mixture. Results indicate that the foaming behavior of asphalt will be influenced by surface energy, which will increase with the decline of surface energy. In addition, the surface energy of asphalt binder significantly influences the wettability of asphalt binder to aggregates. Meanwhile, there is an inversely proportional relationship between surface energy of asphalt binder and wettability. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that surface energy is a good indictor which can be used to evaluate the foaming behavior of the asphalt binder. And it is suggested to choose the asphalt binder with lower surface energy in the process of design of foamed asphalt mixture.

  8. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  9. Quantitative characterization of microstructure of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The microstructure of the fine aggregate matrix has a significant influence on the : mechanical properties and evolution of damage in an asphalt mixture. However, very little : work has been done to define and quantitatively characterize the microstr...

  10. Preventive maintenance of asphalt concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Preventive maintenance of asphalt concrete can often extend the pavement life for a number of years at relatively low costs. The types of preventive maintenance that are discussed in this report include rejuvenators, slurry seals, surface treatments,...

  11. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  12. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  13. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value. To accomod...... tests are that the extrapolation from laboratory tests to insitu conditions is facilitated and that the gradual deterioration of the asphalt may be predicted, which is useful for pavement management purposes....

  14. Observation of asphalt binder microstructure with ESEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailenko, P; Kadhim, H; Baaj, H; Tighe, S

    2017-09-01

    The observation of asphalt binder with the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has shown the potential to observe asphalt binder microstructure and its evolution with binder aging. A procedure for the induction and identification of the microstructure in asphalt binder was established in this study and included sample preparation and observation parameters. A suitable heat-sampling asphalt binder sample preparation method was determined for the test and several stainless steel and Teflon sample moulds developed, finding that stainless steel was the preferable material. The magnification and ESEM settings conducive to observing the 3D microstructure were determined through a number of observations to be 1000×, although other magnifications could be considered. Both straight run binder (PG 58-28) and an air blown oxidised binder were analysed; their structures being compared for their relative size, abundance and other characteristics, showing a clear evolution in the fibril microstructure. The microstructure took longer to appear for the oxidised binder. It was confirmed that the fibril microstructure corresponded to actual characteristics in the asphalt binder. Additionally, a 'bee' micelle structure was found as a transitional structure in ESEM observation. The test methods in this study will be used for more comprehensive analysis of asphalt binder microstructure. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  16. Asphalt wear and pollution transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Asa [Division of Traffic Engineering, Lulea University of Technology Lulea (Sweden)

    1996-09-06

    Studded tires cause extensive wear of road surfaces during winter producing small particles. Besides transporting different adsorbed pollutants these particles also discharge metal ions by their own natural content. The major part (95%) of the asphalt is composed of stone fractions. The rest consists mainly of bitumen, which contains trace quantities of metals. Laboratory studies in this study have demonstrated different adsorbing properties of metal ions, as well as differences in adsorption when comparing stone materials. Two stone materials, a gabbro and a porphyry, have been tested for their adsorption properties concerning Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd. The gabbro showed better adsorption capacity than the porphyry. Gabbro has coarser grains, it is softer, and also has a higher content of most metals compared to the porphyry. In all tests lead and copper are more adsorbed than zinc and cadmium. All metal ions are released at about the same pH ({approx}4)

  17. Fatigue and rutting performance of conventional asphalt and bitumen-rubber asphalt under accelerated trafficking.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available continuously-graded asphalt overlay was investigated. Secondly, the cracking behaviour of a 75 mm thick continuously-graded overlay was compared with that of a 38 mm thick bitumen-rubber asphalt overlay. A laboratory evaluation of the materials was conducted...

  18. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  19. Stripping in hot mix asphalt produced by aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, I; Pasandín, A R; Gallego, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of water on the durability of hot asphalt mixtures made with recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris. Indirect tensile stress tests were carried out to evaluate stripping behaviour. The mixtures tested were fabricated with 0, 20, 40 and 60% recycled aggregates. Two types of natural aggregates were used: schist and calcite dolomite. An increase in the percentage of recycled aggregates was found to produce a decrease in the tensile stress ratio of the hot asphalt mixtures. To study this phenomenon, two and three factor analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed with indirect tensile stress being used as the dependent variable. The factors studied were the percentage of recycled aggregates (0, 20, 40 and 60%), the moisture state (dry, wet) and the type of natural aggregate (schist, calcite). On the basis of the ANOVA results, it was found that the most important factor affecting resistance was the moisture state (dry, wet) of the specimens. The percentage of recycled aggregate also affected indirect tensile stress, especially in the dry state. The type of natural aggregate did not have a significant effect on indirect tensile stress. The hot asphalt mixture specimens made with different percentages of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition debris and of natural quarry aggregates showed poor stripping behaviour. This stripping behaviour can be related to both the poor adhesion of the recycled aggregates and the high absorption of the mortar of cement adhered to them.

  20. Use of porous asphalt on major roads in Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available promising road noise attenuation measure. Porous asphalt is a new generation noise absorbent road surfacing. Research and development were done on this specific noise absorbent asphalt surfacing type by the Division for Roads and Transport Technology...

  1. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  2. Fracture properties and fatigue cracking resistance of asphalt binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Several different types of modifiers are increasingly bring used to improve the performance of asphalt binders or to : achieve desired mixture production characteristics (e.g., Warm Mix Asphalt). However, current Superpave : performance specification...

  3. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  4. Fatigue performance of asphalt pavements containing RAS and RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rising oil and gas prices spurs development of methods and technologies for reducing fuel consumption and increased use of : recycled materials. With increased environmental awareness, using reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed asphalt : sh...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of asphalt binder rutting, fracture, and adhesion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders was developed based on the Strategic Highway : Research Program (SHRP) and is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has : proven t...

  6. New experiences with foamed bitumen asphalts in hungarian road building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchard Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of low temperature (LT asphalt products can result in a significant decrease of temperature required for asphalt production. This reduces energy costs and consumption. Moreover, safety during asphalt production and laying improves because the amount of potentially harmful vapours and aerosols decreases. Temperature decrease, in addition to the above, reduces the short-term ageing of bitumen in the asphalt production process, and ultimately has a positive impact on the durability of pavements.

  7. 0-6674 : improving fracture resistance measurement in asphalt binder specification with verification on asphalt mixture cracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current performance grading (PG) specification for asphalt binders is based primarily on the study of unmodified asphalt binders. Over the years, experience has proven that the PG grading system, while good for ensuring overall quality, fails in ...

  8. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  9. Assessment of The Asphalt Produced in Some Factories of Asphalt in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Karem Abd

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an evaluation of  the properties and characteristics of asphalt concrete of several hot mix asphalt (HMA from five factories in Al-Hilla city. The research is divided into two parts. The first part included the laboratory analysis of samples. The second part is evaluation of results according to standard specifications.      The test results included (Asphalt content percent, stability, creep compliance, voids ratio, density, flow, crushed aggregate percent, Loss Angless abrasion and SO3 percent.The results of laboratorial tests indicated that all properties of asphalt mixes were susceptible and possible to be used in the asphaltic roads. The mixes types prepared and tested according to Marshall method. The values of Marshall stability, creep and density are (9.4, 5.4, 9.8, 9, 8.6, (2.5, 2.7, 2.7, 2.6, 2.3 and (2.334, 2.336, 2.337, 2.333, 2.338 with asphalt content between (4.2 to 4.6 % for all asphalt mixes of different factories.

  10. International State-of-the-Art Colloquium on Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Cracking Held in Hanover, New Hampshire on 6-8 May 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    provided by Heukelom and Klomp. as great as the stresses developed in the laboratory It was found that the fracture temperature of an as- testing setup...penetration mixes, it should be borne in mind that the relevant bitu- of the asphalt cement. In addition, the Heukelom nomo- -f the bitumen recovered...presented data showing the relationship 6. Heukelom , W. (1966) Observations on the rheology of bending strength to the stiffness modulus of the and

  11. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  12. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  13. Laboratory evaluation of cement treated aggregate containing crushed clay brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste clay bricks from debris of buildings were evaluated through lab tests as environmental friendly materials for pavement sub-base in the research. Five sets of coarse aggregates which contained 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% crushed bricks, respectively, were blended with sand and treated by 5% cement. The test results indicated that cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay brick aggregate had a lower maximum dry density (MDD and a higher optimum moisture content (OMC. Moreover, the unconfined compressive strength (UCS, resilience modulus, splitting strength, and frost resistance performance of the specimens decreased with increase of the amount of crushed clay brick aggregate. On the other hand, it can be observed that the use of crushed clay brick in the mixture decreased the dry shrinkage strain of the specimens. Compared with the asphalt pavement design specifications of China, the results imply that the substitution rate of natural aggregate with crushed clay brick aggregate in the cement treated aggregate sub-base material should be less than 50% (5% cement content in the mixture. Furthermore, it needs to be noted that the cement treated aggregate which contains crushed clay bricks should be cautiously used in the cold region due to its insufficient frost resistance performance.

  14. Performance Test for Open Grade Bitumen and Cement Mixture OGBC-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. L.; Li, C. M.; Gan, X. Z.; Xiong, X. J.

    For effective prevention of urban road intersection special sections for nit diseases and improving the pavement durability, an open grade bitumen and cement (OGBC-20) mixture is proposed. In organic hydraulic cement mixture design, mix proportion designs of cement mortar and matrix open-graded bitumen were done. The matrix mixture gradation was adjusted .It has greater void of air volume than that of ATPB-25. A variety of tests in laboratory for OGBC-20 were performed. The experimental results show that: The void of air volume of adjusted gradation matrix asphalt mixture is up to 23%. and binder drainage loss is ≤ 0.3%. Cement mortar filling is fuller and better water stability and low temperature crack resistance compared to ordinary bitumen mixture. It has the absolute advantage on high temperature stability and shows the superiority of the new pavement materials.

  15. Analysis of using porous asphalt on the surfaces of bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chmielewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the analysis of the use of modern technology while paving the road bridges. It shall assess the possibility of using porous asphalt paving of road bridges. Based on the results of laboratory tests of selected porous asphalt, such as: determination of free space in the mixture of mineral-asphalt, runoff of the binder, sensitivity to water and frost, the loss of grains in the mixture, the design of porous asphalt mixture has been completed.[b]Keywords[/b]: construction of bridges, road bridges pavements, porous asphalt, dehydration of the bridges

  16. CHH Cement Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwirzen, A.; Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.; Nasibulina, L. I.; Shandakov, S. D.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.; Mudimela, P. R.; Penttala, V.

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity for hardened pastes produced from nanomodified Portland SR cement (CHH- Carbon Hedge Hog cement) were studied. The nanomodification included growing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having water to binder ratio of 0.5 were produced. The obtained hardened material was characterized by increased compressive strength in comparison with the reference specimens made from pristine SR cement, which was attributed to reinforcing action of the CNTs and CNFs. The electrical resistivity of CHH composite was lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with reference Portland cement paste.

  17. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  18. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-04-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

  19. State-of-the-art and prospect for self-healing asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of asphalt concrete pavement cracks, this paper summarizes the principle of self-healing asphalt concrete, and describes asphalt concrete self-healing technology in various countries. This paper also analyses the factors of influencing the self-healing ability of asphalt concrete and the evaluation index, and describes the prospect of asphalt concrete self-healing technology.

  20. Investigating In Situ Properties of Recycled Asphalt Pavement with Foamed Asphalt as Base Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Plati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive field experiment for the in situ assessment of in-depth recycled asphalt pavement using foamed asphalt as a stabilization treatment for base works. For this purpose Nondestructive Testing (NDT data collected using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR along a foamed asphalt recycled pavement section was thoroughly analysed. Critical issues including the stabilized material curing and the contribution of the asphalt layers to the structural properties of the in-depth recycled pavement are discussed. In addition, recommendations concerning the improvement of the structural condition of the in-depth recycled pavement are developed based on this practical approach of investigation using NDT.

  1. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rodríguez-Alloza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants. These benefits, combined with the effective reuse of a solid waste product, make asphalt rubber (AR mixtures with WMA additives an excellent environmentally-friendly material for road construction. The effect of WMA additives on rubberized mixtures has not yet been established in detail and the lower mixing/compaction temperatures of these mixtures may result in insufficient compaction. In this sense, the present study uses a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the volumetric characteristics and compactability of AR mixtures with organic additives when production/compaction temperatures are decreased. The results of this study indicate that the additives selected can decrease the mixing/compaction temperatures without compromising the volumetric characteristics and compactability.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Stone Mastic Asphalt and Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Concrete Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and economic considerations have encouraged civil engineers to find ways to reuse recycled materials in new constructions. The current paper presents an experimental research on the possibility of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates (RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA and hot mix asphalt (HMA mixtures. Three categories of RCA in various percentages were mixed with virgin granite aggregates to produce SMA and HMA specimens. The obtained results indicated that, regardless of the RCA particular sizes, the use of RCA to replace virgin aggregates increased the needed binder content in the asphalt mixtures. Moreover, it was found that even though the volumetric and mechanical properties of the asphalt mixtures are highly affected by the sizes and percentages of the RCA but, based on the demands of the project and traffic volume, utilizing specific amounts of RCA in both types of mixtures could easily satisfy the standard requirements.

  3. Utilization of Recycled Asphalt Concrete with Warm Mix Asphalt and Cost-Benefit Analysis: e116180

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Julide Oner; Burak Sengoz

    2015-01-01

      The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials...

  4. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials...

  5. Microstructural Analysis and Rheological Modeling of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Asphalt Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cannone Falchetto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled materials in pavement construction has seen, over the years, a significant increase closely associated with substantial economic and environmental benefits. During the past decades, many transportation agencies have evaluated the effect of adding Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, and, more recently, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS on the performance of asphalt pavement, while limits were proposed on the amount of recycled materials which can be used. In this paper, the effect of adding RAP and RAS on the microstructural and low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated using digital image processing (DIP and modeling of rheological data obtained with the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR. Detailed information on the internal microstructure of asphalt mixtures is acquired based on digital images of small beam specimens and numerical estimations of spatial correlation functions. It is found that RAP increases the autocorrelation length (ACL of the spatial distribution of aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids phases, while an opposite trend is observed when RAS is included. Analogical and semi empirical models are used to back-calculate binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest limited or partial blending between new and aged binder.

  6. Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    with Imported Class 'G' Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. ... to compare the physical properties of locally manufactured cement in Ghana with the class G cement. 2 Materials and Methods. 2.1 Materials. Three brands of .... Rheology of cement slurries is of great importance.

  7. Evaluation of asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) using the University of Florida's composite system interface cracking (CSIC) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Since the late 1970s, FDOT : has applied an interlayer : of Asphalt Rubber : Membrane Interlayer : (ARMI) to asphalt roadway : surfaces. ARMI layers are : constructed by spraying : asphalt rubber binder onto : the asphalt, covering the : layer with n...

  8. Evaluation of asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) using the University of Florida's composite system interface cracking (CSIC) test [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, FDOT : has applied an interlayer : of Asphalt Rubber : Membrane Interlayer : (ARMI) to asphalt roadway : surfaces. ARMI layers are : constructed by spraying : asphalt rubber binder onto : the asphalt, covering the : layer with n...

  9. Effects of Short-Term Aging on Asphalt Binders and Hot Mix Asphalt at Elevated Temperatures and Extended Aging Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolly Rubben

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA causes a short term aging (STA to asphalt binder due to the heating of both asphalt binder and aggregates before mixing together. Laboratory protocols are followed to simulate the STA conditions for both asphalt binders and asphalt mixtures. STA protocols expose asphalt binders or asphalt mixtures to specific aging temperature for a specific period of time to produce stiffening that is similar to that of actual production conditions. Successful construction of HMA in cold season/regions may require elevating the production temperature of HAM to achieve proper compaction of HMA layers. Producing HMA mixtures at elevated temperatures may cause further increase in the binder stiffness and negatively affect the future field performance of asphalt pavements. This negative affect can be even worse especially if it is coupled with extended exposer time increase. This study aims to investigate effect of elevated production (mixing and STA temperatures and exposure time on the stiffening of binders and asphalt mixtures. The binder experiment involved aging of two Performance Graded (PG binders (PG 76-16 and PG 64-22 at two different temperatures and aging durations. The asphalt mixture experiment involved the STA of asphalt mixtures produced in the laboratory at mixing and STA temperatures 25°F above standard practice and aging time 2 and 4 hours longer than standard practices. The effect of different aging times and temperatures was investigated by running viscosity tests on binders and dynamic modulus |E*| and Indirect Diametrical Strength (IDT tests on asphalt mixtures. The results showed that increasing the mixing and STA temperatures by 25°F seems to have no significant effect on the asphalt mixture properties while doubling the standard STA time seems to have a significant effect on binder and asphalt mixture properties.

  10. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Wu, S.P.; Zhang, Y.

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  11. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  12. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  13. Microbial life in a liquid asphalt desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; de Sousa Antonio, Marina Resendes; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2011-04-01

    Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago is a natural asphalt reservoir nourished by pitch seepage, a form of petroleum that consists of mostly asphaltines, from the surrounding oil-rich region. During upward seepage, pitch mixes with mud and gases under high pressure, and the lighter portion evaporates or is volatilized, which produces a liquid asphalt residue characterized by low water activity, recalcitrant carbon substrates, and noxious chemical compounds. An active microbial community of archaea and bacteria, many of them novel strains (particularly from the new Tar ARC groups), totaling a biomass of up to 10(7) cells per gram, was found to inhabit the liquid hydrocarbon matrix of Pitch Lake. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed diverse, novel, and deeply branching microbial lineages with the potential to mediate anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in different parts of the asphalt column. In addition, we found markers for archaeal methane metabolism and specific gene sequences affiliated with facultative and obligate anaerobic sulfur- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The microbial diversity at Pitch Lake was found to be unique when compared to microbial communities analyzed at other hydrocarbon-rich environments, which included Rancho Le Brea, a natural asphalt environment in California, USA, and an oil well and a mud volcano in Trinidad and Tobago, among other sites. These results open a window into the microbial ecology and biogeochemistry of recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices and establish the site as a terrestrial analogue for modeling the biotic potential of hydrocarbon lakes such as those found on Saturn's largest moon Titan.

  14. Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying

  15. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this

  16. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project.

  17. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  18. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  19. Numerical evaluation of induction heating assisted compaction technology for low temperature asphalt pavement construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, C.; Liu, X.; Apostolidis, P.

    2017-01-01

    Low Temperature Asphalt (LTA) technologies are utilized in asphalt pavement industry to lower energy demands and greenhouse gas emission during mixing and construction processes. Although these technologies are currently available and hope to demonstrate similar performance with Hot Mix Asphalt

  20. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  1. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludfi Djakfar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential use as aggregate in the hot mix asphalt, particularly on porous hot mix asphalt. Adding Gilsonite at ranges 8–10% improves the Marshall characteristic of the mix, particularly its stability, without decreasing significantly the permeability capability of the mix. The use of recycled materials tends to increase the asphalt content of the mix at about 1 to 2% higher. With stability reaching 750 kg, the hot mix recycled porous asphalt may be suitable for use in the local roads with medium vehicle load.

  2. Study of asphalt performance impact with ultraviolet aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min

    2017-09-01

    To solve the problem of strong ultraviolet radiation on the road asphalt aging, ultraviolet aging environment box analog wild aging condition to be used to experiment, Through dynamic shear rheometer respectively to study the effect of SBS modified asphalt and asphalt matrix high temperature, low temperature and fatigue performance with the aging time to change. The results show that SBS modified asphalt can produce serious aging under strong ultraviolet light, the Main aspects is fatigue performance and low temperature performance greatly reduced, high temperature performance is further improved, They have a closer relationship with aging time; At the same time, along with the test temperature, aging time on the influence of G*/sinδ, G*sinδ of amplitude decreases. That ultraviolet on SBS modified asphalt aging has temperature sensitivity. The research conclusion can choose the light aging resistance of airport pavement asphalt to provide good technical support.

  3. Increasing the rate of recycled asphalt: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is material that can be recycled. In particular reclaimed asphalt (RA contains aged binder, which limits the reuse of RA. In this study the rate of recycled asphalt was increased by adding a rejuvenator containing paraffin. The authors investigated the effect of the rejuvenator in laboratory and in plant prepared samples of asphalt mixture. In laboratory samples with different percentage of RA (0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and rejuvenator were prepared. In asphalt plant only asphalt mixture with highest amount of RA and rejuvenator and control mixture without RA were prepared. On samples were conducted different tests, e.g. determining softening point, Fraass breaking point, penetration, indirect tensile strength. Results on extracted bitumen showed increase in softening point and decrease in Fraass breaking point with increasing percentage of RA and rejuvenator, meaning that service temperature of binders increased. Asphalt samples prepared in asphalt plant were laid on test field. Asphalt with RA and rejuvenator was built in at lower temperature (round 100 °C. Mixtures with RA and rejuvenator have better low temperature properties confirmed with Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST method, but are less resistant to compaction and less sensitive to water than control mixture. For comparison of long term behaviour wheel tracking test was performed on mixtures built in test field. A week after paving, the control mixture showed better properties, but one year later the results were opposite, asphalt containing RA and rejuvenator was more resistant to rutting. From the results of this experimental study the following was concluded: the amount of RA can be increased by using rejuvenator and the quality of such asphalt mixture is in most cases equal or even better than asphalt mixture made of virgin materials. By using RA we preserve nature, reduce usage of virgin raw materials, but it is cost effective only if recycling degree is high

  4. The Development of Moisture Sensitivity Test for Compacted Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Shamshuddin; M.E. Abdullah; Rhasbudin Shah, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major issues in asphalt distress. It is due to the adhesive and cohesive failure of asphalt mixture and it will shorten pavement life. Moisture-sensitive mixtures need to be identified during the course of the mixture design process which fulfills the specified minimum standard. The laboratory testing procedures currently available for compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) to test the moisture sensitivity were primarily developed to determine the degree ...

  5. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 7 New Hampshire DOT SPR2 Program Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements Co ld...the asphalt concrete layer of a flexible pavement as an effective rehabilitation method to reduce or arrest cracking. The New Hampshire Department...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER CRADA 13-CRL-01 5b

  6. Mortality among unionized construction plasterers and cement masons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, F; Lehman, E; Ruder, A

    2001-04-01

    Plasterers perform a variety of duties including interior and exterior plastering of drywall, cement, stucco, and stone imitation; the preparation, installation, and repair of all interior and exterior insulation systems; and the fireproofing of steel beams and columns. Some of the current potential toxic exposures among plasterers include plaster of Paris, silica, fiberglass, talc, and 1,1,1-trichloroethylene; asbestos had been used by the plasterers in the past. Cement masons, on the other hand, are involved in concrete construction of buildings, bridges, curbs and gutters, sidewalks, highways, streets and roads, floors and pavements and the finishing of same, when necessary, by sandblasting or any other method. Exposures include cement dust, silica, asphalt, and various solvents. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs) were calculated for 99 causes of death among 12,873 members of the Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' International Association who died between 1972 and 1996 using United States age-, race-, and calender-specific death rates. Statistical significance (P value) of results was based upon the Poisson distribution. Among plasterers, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for asbestosis, where the PMR reached 1,657 (P risk for lung cancer among plasterers was still elevated among those entering the union after 1970 as was the risk for stomach cancer among cement masons who entered the union after 1950. The present study suggests that plasterers and cement masons still have elevated risks for certain diseases, especially lung and stomach cancer. Therefore, union members currently living should be screened for asbestos-related diseases and educated about the future risks for these diseases.

  7. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Semiplastic Recycled Cold Asphalt Using Noncement Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Jae Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal mixing conditions for semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, which recycled waste asphalt and used noncement binders (NCB, were assessed through verification of the performance. The NCB of 6% desulfurization gypsum mixing was found to have the most outstanding properties. For the Marshall stability, 4% (NCB filler mixing brought about a 1.92-time strength increase effect compared to OPC (2% and was improved when using modified asphalt and SBR. The flow test results showed that although an increase dosage of filler and SBR decreased the flow value of the semiplastic recycled cold asphalt, an increase dosage of asphalt emulsion improved the flow value. The indirect tensile strength and liquid immersion residual stability for the condition with greatest Marshall stability were most outstanding with 0.95 MPa and 83.6%, respectively. Evaluation of the recycled cold asphalt abrasion durability revealed that for the case of mixing more than 4% NCB the mass loss rate was lower than 20%. The abrasion durability was found to improve when using modified emulsified asphalt and SBR substitution. From the test results, it was found that the optimal mixing proportion of semiplastic recycled cold asphalt satisfied mechanical properties and durability is NCB with 4%, emulsified asphalt with 3%, and SBR substitution with 20%.

  9. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  10. Carbon nanotubes cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Musso; Jean-Marc Tulliani; Giuseppe Ferro

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reviews the current state of the art of carbon nanotubes cement-based composites and the possible applications. The influence of carbon nanotubes additions onto cement paste mechanical and electrical properties are discussed in detail. Though promising, several challenges have still to be solved before the introduction of these new materials into the public sphere through civil infrastructures.

  11. Asphalt mix reinforced with vegetable fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The use of a larger share of renewable materials in road construction is a trend that in the long term cannot be avoided. In some cases, due to this pressure, new innovative opportunities are generated. This article attempts to outline and bring one of such opportunity. The article describes selection and the use of special natural fibers from renewable natural resources adapted for use in various types of asphalt mixtures to improve the range of properties. Experimental results showed an improvement in stiffness modulus, indirect tensile strength (ITS) and good resistance to permanent deformation of blends containing vegetable fibers. This is a new topic in the road construction. But the results have so far proven that the used type of fibers can be a perspective way, as simple and in line with the policy of sustainable development, to improve the properties (reinforce) of the asphalt mixtures.

  12. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perez-Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP and warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

  14. Studying viscosity of asphalt binders and effect of varied production temperatures on engineering properties of hot mix asphalt mixtures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diab, Aboelkasim

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are studying the viscosity characteristics of asphalt binders containing different additives, ethylene vinyl acetate, polypropylene, and hydrated lime, and the influence...

  15. Porous Asphalt Clogging Performance Under Swedish Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Porous asphalt has gradually gained a lot of popularity in the past ten years for its ability to reduce traffic noise, especially noise generated between tire and road surface. The acoustical absorption properties are mainly due to the pore structure and the texture of the mixture. However, the percentage of these pores decrease during the lifetime. The main reason is that dirt and organic material get stuck in the air void structure and eventually cause clogging. In Nordic countries, particl...

  16. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Haque, Shirin; Antonio, Marina Resendes de Sousa; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C.; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M.; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    An active microbiota, reaching up to 10 E+7 cells/g, was found to inhabit a naturally occurring asphalt lake characterized by low water activity and elevated temperature. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed novel and deeply branching microbial assemblages mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation, metal respiration and C1 utilization pathways. These results open a window into the origin and adaptive evolution of microbial life within recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices, an...

  17. Microtexture diagnostics of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florková, Zuzana; Pepucha, L.'ubomír

    2017-09-01

    The microtexture of asphalt pavement surface is an essential parameter from the traffic safety point of view and it closely relates to a geometrical, petrological and physical properties of aggregate particle used in asphalt pavement. Microtexture has a significant influence for assurance basic friction values between tire and pavement in relation to a skid resistance properties. Therefore, the microtexture detecting methods are necessary. The British pendulum tester measurements have been carried out on selected sections of roads with different asphalt surfaces. Individual grains of aggregates were taken from the surface of each section from the sliding path and also from the core sample after the extraction. The laboratory profilometry measurements have been practiced on these aggregate samples and subsequently the surface microtexture was investigated based on commonly used texture characteristics and the filtration approach was applied in calculation process. The results have shown the degradation of microtexture values occurs due to polishing of aggregate under loading from traffic in relation to the type of used aggregate. Some correlation between BPN values and texture characteristics was found.

  18. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  19. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hasan, Mohd Rosli; You, Zhanping

    2016-01-01

    Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as f...

  20. Investigation of strength characteristics of cement stabilized courses made from mine refuse materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Ján

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation and analysis of strength characteristics development of cement stabilized courses made from mine refuse materials from Rudnany. Cement stabilized courses made from the material from the dump Patoraka (graphite - Rudnany B and the dump Zimna (diabases - Rudnany C underwent a long-term investigation by destructive and non-destructive methods. Long-term investigation were carried out on testing beams (10x10x40 cm3 in laboratory conditions.From the reported results follows that the investigated materials are suitable for the pavement foundation of roads. It is also obvious that for the investigated cement stabilized courses, for which the mixture composition is known and which were treated in the same way, it is possible to determine working characteristics with required accuracy and as a consequence to predict the development of strength characteristics of these mine refuse materials. When the cement stabilized courses are built in the pavement foundation of roads and highways, the asphalt layer are laid upon them after some time and the roads are opened to traffic. This raises the question about the way in which the strength increasing in time influences the service life of roads and whether this process results in the formation of shrinking cracks in the cement stabilized courses which are copied in the wearing course. At the implementation of cement stabilized course in the pavement foundation of a road it is therefore necessary to include in the technological process of road construction also treatment of these courses until the asphalt layers are laid upon them.

  1. Including asphalt cooling and rolling regimes in laboratory compaction procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Doree, Andries G.; Kim,

    2014-01-01

    Given the various changes occurring in the asphalt construction industry, improved process and quality control is becoming essential. The significance of appropriate rolling and compaction for the quality of asphalt is widely acknowledged and vital for improved process control. But what constitutes

  2. Occupational Renal Dysfunction Among Asphalt Workers In Sharkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupational exposure to bitumen fumes emitted during hot application of asphalt carries the risk of exposure to significant amount of hydrocarbon compounds that may cause toxic nephropathy. Objectives: Investigation of renal dysfunction among asphalt-exposed workers and identification of some factors that ...

  3. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Wu, S.P.; Wang, J.G.

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  4. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  5. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  6. Estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes using simple tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medani, T.O.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified procedure for estimation of fatigue characteristics of asphaltic mixes is presented. The procedure requires the determination of the so-called master curve (Le. the relationship between the mix stiffness, the loading time and the temperature), the asphalt properties and the mix

  7. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out using a well calibrated Radalert survey meter. Measurements were carried out in four different locations of asphalt processing plants at different strategic points. Measured average values of 0.0223 ± 0.0017 mR/hr, 0.0225 ...

  8. 7 CFR 2902.36 - Concrete and asphalt release fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete and asphalt release fluids. 2902.36 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.36 Concrete and asphalt release fluids. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to provide a lubricating barrier between the composite surface materials (e.g., concrete or...

  9. Laboratory and Field Asphalt Fatigue Performance, Matching Theory with Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between predicted and observed fatigue life of asphalt. This study also investigates the positive effects of modifying bitumen with Retona, a bitumen modifier produced in Indonesia from natural asphalt rock sources, on pavement performance in terms of

  10. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective technique to overcome road runoff challenges, and to improve efficiency of rainwater utilisation in urban areas. Using porous asphalt pavements with reservoir storage and harvesting facilities is an important consideration for the future. This study monitored ...

  11. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  12. Investigation of stress and heat strain in asphalt workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Beheshti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the harmful factors in workplaces. Asphalt workers are exposed to thermal stress due to the open environment and process. The aim of this study was to assess the heat stress and strain in asphalt workers. This study was conducted on 29 employees of asphalt workstation. The heat stress was measured based on Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT. Also, physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate of asphalt workers were measured. The mean of WBGT index for drivers of asphalt machinery, trowels, shovels people and burner servicemen were 27.77, 27.77 and 29.61°C respectively whereas this value was 29.81, 29.85 and 3.23°C for workers of asphalt workstations respectively. The process of asphalting has significant effect on heat stress and physiological parameters of individuals. The pearson correlation between WBGT and heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure was significant. Asphalt workers are exposed to heat stress caused by different sources which may generate a host of heat strains in these people so special attention should be paid to control heat stress.

  13. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  14. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  15. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    with isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those...... of > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy...

  16. 40 CFR 443.10 - Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt emulsion subcategory. 443.10 Section 443.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Emulsion Subcategory § 443.10 Applicability; description of the asphalt emulsion subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  17. 40 CFR 443.20 - Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asphalt concrete subcategory. 443.20 Section 443.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... MATERIALS (TARS AND ASPHALT) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asphalt Concrete Subcategory § 443.20 Applicability; description of the asphalt concrete subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  18. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  19. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  20. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  1. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  2. Investigating the Influence of Waste Basalt Powder on Selected Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiszewska, Magdalena; Beycioğlu, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material in civil engineering applications. The consumption of cement and thus concrete, increases day by day along with the growth of urbanization and industrialization and due to new developments in construction technologies, population growing, increasing of living standard. Concrete production consumes much energy and large amounts of natural resources. It causes environmental, energy and economic losses. The most important material in concrete production is cement. Cement industry contributes to production of about 7% of all CO2 generated in the world. Every ton of cement production releases nearly one ton of CO2 to atmosphere. Thus the concrete and cement industry changes the environment appearance and influences it very much. Therefore, it has become very important for construction industry to focus on minimizing the environmental impact, reducing energy consumption and limiting CO2 emission. The need to meet these challenges has spurred an interest in the development of a blended Portland cement in which the amount of clinker is reduced and partially replaced with mineral additives – supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Many researchers have studied the possibility of using another mineral powder in mortar and concrete production. The addition of marble dust, basalt powder, granite or limestone powder positively affects some properties of cement mortar and concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of cement paste and mortar containing basalt powder. The basalt powder is a waste emerged from the preparation of aggregate used in asphalt mixture production. Previous studies have shown that analysed waste used as a fine aggregate replacement, has a beneficial effect on some properties of mortar and concrete, i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength and freeze resistance also. The present study shows the results of the research concerning the modification of cement

  3. [Allergy towards bone cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Summer, B; Mazoochian, F; Thomsen, M

    2006-09-01

    Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate are typically used for fixation of artificial joints. Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses not explained by infection or mechanical failure may lead to allergological diagnostics, which mostly focuses on metal allergy. However, also bone cement components may provoke hypersensitivity reactions leading to eczema, implant loosening, or fistula formation. Elicitors of such reactions encompass acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, or antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). Upon repeated contact with bone cement components, e.g., acrylate monomers, also in medical personnel occasionally hand eczema or even asthma may develop. Therefore, in the case of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty, the allergological diagnostics should include bone cement components.

  4. EFFECT OF PVA MODIFICATION ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are used for modification of the cement-based composites and others building materials since the thirties of 20th century. Based on the conclusions of recent studies, it is assumed that even water soluble polymers could be used as an admixture for such modification. Currently, there exist and are exploited several possibilities for polymer modification of mortars, wood-based products or bituminous asphalts. Various options differ in the way of modification, which can be basically applied to the entire volume or just a surface, but also in the form of the polymer used – either in the form of solution or fibers. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of volume modification by the water soluble polymers, such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, on the properties of cement paste and find an optimum additive. It turned out that the addition of PVA solution into fresh cement paste results in an increase of porosity and therefore a stiffness and compressive strength reduction. On the other hand, the bending strength of PVA-rich specimens was significantly higher and their water absorption decreased, which may consequently result in enhanced frost resistance.

  5. Effect of asphalt rejuvenating agent on aged reclaimed asphalt pavement and binder properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahfar, Nassim

    Hot in-place recycling (HIR) preserves distressed asphalt pavements while minimizing use of virgin binder and aggregates. The final quality of an HIR mixture depends on characteristics of the original binder, aging of the pavement surface during service, and whether or not new binder or rejuvenator was added to the mixture. An HIR mixture should maintain desired properties for additional service periods, making asphalt binder modification inevitable. Asphalt binder modifications in HIR are commonly done by adding an asphalt rejuvenating agent (ARA). However, ARA may adversely affect the qualities of new HIR and potentially fail to improve the quality of the final surface. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of rejuvenation on HIR performance characteristics by assessing critical performance indicators such as stiffness, permanent deformation, moisture susceptibility, and cracking resistance. A two-step experimental program was designed that included mechanical property measurements of the HIR mixture and rheological properties of the extracted binder. The level of mixing occurring between new and aged binder with ARA was also investigated. HIR Samples were obtained from three Kansas Department of Transportation projects, and Hamburg wheel-tracking device, dynamic modulus, flow number, Texas overlay, thermal stress restrained specimen, and moisture susceptibility tests were conducted on mixtures with and without ARA. Rheological studies on the extracted binder included dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer tests. The miscibility of new and aged binder was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and the exudation droplet test (EDT). Study results showed significant variability in the mechanical performance of HIR mixtures, which was attributed to the variability of binders as observed in EDT, SEM and EDXS studies. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) showed that HIR

  6. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road: How is it performing?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surface layer, is the main damage mechanism of porous asphalt surface wearing courses. In this research, an induction healing approach (namely, activating the healing process of asphalt concrete through ...

  7. INFLUENCE OF SEA WATER ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POROUS ASPHALT CONTAINING LIQUID ASBUTON

    OpenAIRE

    N, Ali; L, Samang; Tjaronge, M.W.; A.Rahman, Djamaluddin

    2011-01-01

    The Buton Asphalt or Asbuton is natural rock asphalt that deposited on South Buton Island in southeast Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The refining process reduces the mineral content to produce the liquid Asbuton. Porous asphalt is an asphalt pavement that has enough voids within to allow water to pass freely through it. This paper reports on experimental investigation conducted to determine the influence of sea water on the mechanical properties of porous asphalt containing liqui...

  8. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  9. Microbial Life in a Liquid Asphalt Desert

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Antonio, Marina Resendes de Sousa; Ali, Denzil; Hosein, Riad; Song, Young C; Yang, Jinshu; Zaikova, Elena; Beckles, Denise M; Guinan, Edward; Lehto, Harry J; Hallam, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    An active microbiota, reaching up to 10 E+7 cells/g, was found to inhabit a naturally occurring asphalt lake characterized by low water activity and elevated temperature. Geochemical and molecular taxonomic approaches revealed novel and deeply branching microbial assemblages mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation, metal respiration and C1 utilization pathways. These results open a window into the origin and adaptive evolution of microbial life within recalcitrant hydrocarbon matrices, and establish the site as a useful analog for the liquid hydrocarbon environments on Saturn's moon Titan.

  10. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  11. Voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete containing coconut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Hannani Madzaili, Amirah; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Yaacob, Haryati; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Asphalt durability is often linked to the thickness of the asphalt coating on the aggregate particles. In order to have adequate film thickness in asphaltic concrete, there must be sufficient space between the aggregate particles in the compacted pavement. This void space is referred to as voids in total mix (VTM), voids with filled bitumen (VFB), and voids in mineral aggregate (VMA). Hence, this study investigates the performance of coconut shell (CS) as coarse aggregate replacement on voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete. Four CS were used as coarse aggregates replacement in asphalt mixture namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (by weight volume). The voids properties of asphalt mixture were determined based on Marshall Mix design test. Test results show that VTM and VMA values were decrease with the increasing bitumen content where VFB was increase with increasing bitumen content. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of coconut shell in asphalt mixture was found to increases the voids value up to a peak level and then decreases with further additions of CS.

  12. Numerical simulation of asphalt mixtures fracture using continuum models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Cezary; Górski, Jarosław; Stienss, Marcin; Smakosz, Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers numerical models of fracture processes of semi-circular asphalt mixture specimens subjected to three-point bending. Parameter calibration of the asphalt mixture constitutive models requires advanced, complex experimental test procedures. The highly non-homogeneous material is numerically modelled by a quasi-continuum model. The computational parameters are averaged data of the components, i.e. asphalt, aggregate and the air voids composing the material. The model directly captures random nature of material parameters and aggregate distribution in specimens. Initial results of the analysis are presented here.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  14. Optical cements for interferometric applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wimperis, J.R.; Johnston, Sean F.

    1984-01-01

    The wave front distortion introduced by optical cements\\ud is important in interferometric applications. We describe\\ud here tests performed to characterize two common cements,\\ud Epo-Tek 301 and Norland Optical Adhesive 61.

  15. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  16. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  17. Three-Dimensional Surface Texture of Asphalt Pavements Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingfan; Esfandiarpour, Saman; Shalaby, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The type, shape, and gradation of aggregate have significant influence upon surface texture and its durability. The properties of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) are different from virgin aggregate. Previous research found that the presence of RAP influenced negatively the pavement surface terminal friction value and surface polishing rate. The objective of this research is to assess the impact of high content of RAP on pavement surface texture after five years of environmental and traffic l...

  18. Cement og politik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    as well as in the public sphere. Most of the extensive job creating measures he carried out as a minister for public works necessarily involved the use of great amounts of cement – the primary produce of F.L. Smidth & Co. Gunnar Larsen thus became an easy target for Communist propaganda, picturing him...... of the Soviet Union (including an F.L. Smidth & Co. cement plant in former Estonia). He spent the last 15 months of the occupation in Sweden and was arrested after having returned to Copenhagen in May, 1945. Although a Copenhagen city court prison sentence for economic collaboration was reversed, he had...

  19. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  20. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  1. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  2. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  3. Bettis Asphalt and Construction, Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Bettis Asphalt and Construction, Inc. for alleged violations at its facility located at 2350 Northwest Water Works Drive, Topeka, KS 66606.

  4. Developing model asphalt systems using molecular simulation : final model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Computer based molecular simulations have been used towards developing simple mixture compositions whose : physical properties resemble those of real asphalts. First, Monte Carlo simulations with the OPLS all-atom force : field were used to predict t...

  5. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    . ABSTRACT. Porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective technique to overcome road runoff challenges, and to improve efficiency of ...... FIELD R, MASTERS H and SINGER M (1982) An overview of porous.

  6. Storm Water General Permit 3 for Rock and Asphalt

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — General permit #3 for storm water discharges associated with industrial activity for Asphalt Plants, Concrete Batch Plants, Rock Crushing Plants and Construction...

  7. Development of bio-based polymers for use in asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Asphalt binder is typically modified with poly type (styrene-butadiene-styrene or SBS) polymers to improve its rheological properties and performance grade. The elastic and principal component of SBS polymers is butadiene. For the last decade, butadi...

  8. Towards analytical mix design for large-stone asphalt mixes.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an analytically based design procedure for large-aggregate asphalt and its application in thirteen trial sections. The physical and engineering properties of the various materials are discussed and related...

  9. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  10. Predicting low-temperature cracking in asphalt pavements : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In Wisconsin's winter climate, low temperatures can cause asphalt pavements to contract and crack, reducing their ride quality and service lives. To help engineers more accurately determine how well certain pavement designs will fare in such conditio...

  11. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt - final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using : specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several districts have had placement issues : and premature failures at the beginning of 2010....

  12. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  13. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  14. Evaluation of tack coating practices for asphalt overlays in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The strength of the bond between asphalt layers affects the lifespan of pavement structures. It is also a key factor in preventing major pavement distresses, such as slippage cracking and delamination. This research project evaluates and compares the...

  15. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  16. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  17. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  18. Investigation on the Combined Effect of Fibers and Cement on the Mechanical Performance of Foamed Bitumen Mixtures Containing 100% RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ashouri Taziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about virgin aggregate sources and increasing demands for construction materials of transport infrastructures as the key parameters in development are the most important reasons, which convinced pavement engineers to develop new methods in order to use higher amount of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP. One of the common methodologies to produce mixtures containing RAP is foamed bitumen mix (FBM. In addition, according to previous research studies, incorporating various types of fibers and hydraulic binders such as cement could significantly improve the mechanical performance of mixtures. The present research study evaluated FBM containing 100% RAP and two types of fiber and Portland cement. Dynamic modulus, unconfined dynamic creep compression, and indirect tensile strength were evaluated in the laboratory at optimum moisture content, which was investigated in this research. Both types of fiber and cement proved to enhance specific properties of mixtures.

  19. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  20. Cyclic elasto-viscoplastic model for asphalt concrete materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, DT; Nedjar, B.; P. Tamagny

    2007-01-01

    These last few years, many interests have been devoted to the study of rutting problems. In fact, under high traffic loadings together with the extreme environmental conditions, permanent deformations of asphalt pavements appear and become more and more severe demanding more efforts on developing suitable predictive models. In this paper, a three-dimensional elasto-viscoplasticity model is developed and applied to describe the behaviour of asphalt concrete materials under cyclic loadings. The...

  1. Impulse radar evaluation of concrete, asphalt and waterproofing membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, T.; Carter, C. R.; Masliwec, T.; Manning, D. G.

    1994-04-01

    Impulse radar has proved to be effective in the nondestructive testing of bridge decks composed of layers of dielectric materials such as asphalt, waterproofing membrane, and reinforced concrete. In this work, the waveforms reflected from these materials are modeled and analyzed theoretically. The relative dielectric constants are measured using sample blocks, and the reflected radar waveforms are related to the actual physical structures. It is found that asphalt thickness and cover over reinforcement can be accurately determined.

  2. Performance of Recycled Porous Hot Mix Asphalt with Gilsonite Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ludfi Djakfar; Hendi Bowoputro; Bangun Prawiro; Nugraha Tarigan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the performance of porous asphalt using waste recycled concrete material and explore the effect of adding Gilsonite to the mixture. As many as 90 Marshall specimens were prepared with varied asphalt content, percentage of Gilsonite as an additive, and proportioned recycled and virgin coarse aggregate. The test includes permeability capability and Marshall characteristics. The results showed that recycled concrete materials seem to have a potential...

  3. Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Khasawneh

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing inte...

  4. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  5. Airfield Repairs in Austere Locations Using Pelletized Asphalt Technology (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    and on demand to create DGA or SMA paving HMA.       FIGURE 1 Pelletized asphalt consists of asphalt binder, fine aggregate and filler materials...the SMA mixtures. The selected aggregate was limestone due to its availability for the Tyndall AFB field testing. Table 1 includes the aggregate...on the existing concrete runway at the Silver Flag training field at Tyndall AFB, FL. One section was built with the DGA mixture with conventional

  6. Performance of macro clay on the porous asphalt mixture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, C. M.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Haryati, Y.; Norhidayah, A. H.; Abdullah, M. E.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt pavement already well known as one type of pavement since many decades, however due to lack in strength it is not been widely used in road construction especially in high stresses areas. Many research had been conducted by researchers in order to improve the durability and increase the service life of the road. One of the methods that commonly used is through asphalt modification. Objectives of this study are to discuss influence of macro-clay in terms of physical and rheological properties and their effect on performance of porous asphalt mixture. Various percentage of macro-clay (starting from 2% to 8%) was blended in an asphalt binder and compacted using the Marshall compactor. The blended asphalt was characterized using penetration, softening point test and penetration index compared with unmodified binder. Performance tests of asphalt mixture were carried out such as Los Angeles Abrasion Value (LAAV) and Stability and Flow test in order to determine the strength and durability. The results show that the addition of macro-clay would increase in softening point but decrease in binder penetration. Based on the results, while macro-clay changes physical and rheological properties of bitumen and increase stiffness, it also improves strength and durability resistance, as well. Generally, the best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 4% of macro-clay.

  7. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  8. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    ting. It is used in industrial floorings, ship decks, railway passenger coach floorings, hospital floors, ammunition factory floors, missile silos and underground armament factories and bunkers. Recently, concrete of high compres- sive and tensile strength prepared with magnesium oxy- chloride cement and recycled rubber ...

  9. Is your cement sheath stressed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBruijn, G. [Schlumberger Well Cementing Services Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wells are cemented for several reasons, most notably to provide zonal isolation; support the casing's axial load; maintain wellbore integrity; protect groundwater; and protect the casing from corrosion. This presentation addressed some of the concerns regarding the development of tensile cracks when drilling in high temperature high pressure wells during steam stimulation. Flexible cement solutions were also provided along with their key technical specifications. Simulations of cement sheath stress have shown that a cement system can operate in a dynamic stress environment if an optimized blend is used. Cement stress simulation enables the evaluation of zonal isolation risks. The paper indicated that of the 6 steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in Canada that have used a flexible and expandable cement solution system developed by Schlumberger Well Cementing Services, none have shown signs of casing gas vent flow at surface. figs.

  10. Microleakage of orthodontic band cement at the cement-enamel and cement-band interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan; Ertas, Huseyin; Ulker, Mustafa

    2010-04-01

    Our objective was to determine and compare microleakage patterns of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin modified GIC (RMGIC), and polyacid-modified composite for band cementation. Sixty freshly extracted third molars were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 teeth each. Microetched molar bands in the 3 groups were cemented to enamel with one of three orthodontic cements: Ketac-Cem (3M ESPE, Gmbh, Seefeld, Germany), Multi-Cure (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), and Transbond Plus (3M Unitek). A dye penetration method was used for microleakage evaluation. Microleakage was determined by a stereomicroscope for the cement-band and cement-enamel interfaces from both the buccal and lingual margins. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The buccal sides had similar microleakage values compared with the lingual sides for the cement-enamel and cement-band interfaces with all cements. Statistical comparisons showed statistically significant differences among the band cements between both interfaces (P <0.001). When the cement systems were compared, conventional GIC showed the highest leakage scores between cement-band (median, 3.50 mm) and cement-enamel (median, 2.88 mm) interfaces. Teeth banded with RMGIC and modified composite showed similar microleakage scores, and both had less leakage (<1 mm) than conventional GIC. Conventional GIC is associated with more microleakage than RMGIC and modified composite at both the cement-band and cement-enamel interfaces. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Professionalising the asphalt construction process: aligning information technologies, operators' knowledge and laboratory practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the need to professionalise the asphalt construction process. A distinctive action research strategy is designed and carried out to progressively improve operational strategies of asphalt teams from technological, human (operator) and laboratory perspectives. Using

  12. Experimental placement of stone matrix asphalt : project STP-8724 (00) X South Portland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In September 2003 the Maine Department of Transportation used stone matrix asphalt and Superpave to : renovate two intersections in South Portland, Maine. The experimental placement of stone matrix asphalt : (SMA) and Superpave with modified binder w...

  13. Enhanced road functionality with porous asphalt on the Ben Schoeman Highway

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Kock, TJ

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available of highly trafficked urban roads. Porous asphalt offers definitive advantages in wet weather in respect of minimization of backsplash, better overall visibility, retention of skid resistance and road noise reduction. A need for porous asphalt surface courses...

  14. Impact of low asphalt binder for coarse HMA mixes : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Asphalt mixtures are commonly specified using volumetric controls in combination with aggregate gradation limits, like most transportation agencies, MnDOT also uses this approach. Since 2010 onward, several asphalt paving projects for MnDOT have been...

  15. Simulation of Permanent Deformation in High-Modulus Asphalt Pavement with Sloped and Horizontally Curved Alignment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulian Zheng; Lili Han; Chongtao Wang; Zhanlei Xu; Hongyin Li; Qinglei Ma

    2017-01-01

    .... Based on the creep test, the Prony series representation of Burgers model parameters for different asphalt mixtures were obtained and used in the deformation simulation of a high-modulus asphalt...

  16. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modified with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  17. A Review of the Application of Zeolite Materials in Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woszuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies, asphalt foaming techniques offer high potential in terms of decreasing production temperature. Reluctance of manufacturers to introduce this technology is connected with the concerns of a large investment costs. However, there are known additives which, through asphalt foaming, allow a decrease in temperatures by approximately 30 °C; the use of these additives do not involve expensive investment in order to change the asphalt mix production method. These additives are zeolites, that is, minerals of the aluminosilicate group, the crystalline structure of which contains water bound in a specific way. Its release, at mix asphalt production temperatures, causes asphalt foaming. It is currently known that zeolites can be used in WMA, including natural and synthetic zeolites obtained using chemical reagents and waste. This review presents the results of studies of WMA technology, including the effects of zeolite addition on asphalt properties and mix asphalt, as well as related environmental, economic, and technological benefits.

  18. Evaluation of Georgia asphalt mixture properties using a Hamburg wheel-tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study used a Hamburg Wheel-Tracking Device (HWTD) to evaluate the resistance of Georgia asphalt mixtures to rutting and stripping. It aimed to develop an HWTD test procedure and criteria aligned with GDOTs asphalt materials and mixture design...

  19. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  20. Development of a non-solvent based test method for evaluating reclaimed asphalt pavement mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The percent of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) used in hot mix asphalt (HMA) is currently established either by arbitrarily setting maximum percent limits, or alternatively, by evaluating both the virgin and recovered binder properties. The first ap...

  1. 0-6686 : improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Limestone rock asphalt (LRA) mixtures have : been produced and placed for several decades : using specification requirements currently listed : under DMS 9210, Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA). : Several Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) distr...

  2. Fatigue and fracture properties of aged binders in the context of reclaimed asphalt mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Evidence in the literature indicates that the stiffness of the asphalt binder increases and ductility of the binder decreases : with oxidative aging. Typically for unmodified asphalt binders, increase in stiffness or decrease in ductility is regarded...

  3. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  4. Evaluation of Cement, Lime, and Asphalt Amended Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    typical lime contents seen in the residues produced from in- cinerators using flue gas cleaning materials (Forrester, 1988). For comparative purposes, the...1987) By-product disposal from MSW incinerator flue gas cleaning systems. Proceedings 80th APCA Meeting, NY Drever, J. (1988) The Geochemistry of...to Congress. EPA/530-SW-87-021a EPA (1987b) Municipal waste combustion study - Flue gas cleaning technology. EPA/530-SW-87-021d EPRI (1984) Chemical

  5. Heating Techniques for Asphalt/Aggregate Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    gravel, and rock, as well as materials that require both crushing and screening, such as limestone and granite. In no case may the aggregate particles...the aggregate surfaces and the cementing action of the bitumen. PLANT-MIX HOT-LAID BITUMINOUS SURFACES Hot-mix bituminous concrete is Composed of...well-graded mineral aggre- gates, mineral filler , and bituminous material (AC or tar, depending on the 4 desired mixture). The hot-mix method of

  6. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, D.; Janssen, D.; Mann, K.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect

  7. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING STYRENE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa; Nasser, A M

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of styrene-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percentages b...

  8. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING VINYL ACETATE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, A M; Abd El-Wahab

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of vinyl acetate-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percent...

  9. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-01-01

    The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fib...

  10. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  11. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    2013-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  12. The first engineered self-healing asphalt road : How is it performing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Bochove, G.

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  13. Visualizing asphalt roller trajectories in context: acquiring, processing, and representing sensor readings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt compaction process relies heavily on the skills and knowledge of roller operators who act alongside other stakeholders involved in asphalt paving. It is essential that these construction specialists: (1) are adequately informed about the initial temperature distribution of the asphalt

  14. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  15. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  16. INORGANIC CEMENT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Clay Rios Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Geopolymeric Cement Concrete (GCC was developed through adequate portions of geopolymer components. Its characteristics were compared with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC, through of the establishment of some parameters of design, as consumption of binders, water/aggregates ratio and mortar content. The concrete mechanical performance was evaluated with emphasis to the fatigue behavior. Were tested the effects of different tensile strength maximum (increasing and decreasing. The results of fatigue tests had shown that GCC presents a better performance when compared to PCC. Its fatigue strength was 15% higher than that of PCC, when 70% of rupture tension of the concrete in static bending (SR, was applied. Tensions of about 80% SR resulted in 96% of increase, when compared to GCC. The SEM microstructural analysis showed that the GCC has a matrix/aggregate bonding very strong, when compared to PCC, probably due to the massive nature of the geopolymeric matrix.

  17. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Aging Behaviour of SBS Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of aging SBS modified asphalt on the performance of asphalt pavement, aging at various times and temperatures was conducted with thin film oven, and then tests were made about the penetration, softening point, ductility, viscosity, toughness, and fluorescence microscopy of modified asphalt with different aging levels. The results show that, with the increasing of aging time, the penetration and ductility of modified asphalt decrease while its softening point and viscosity increase, and the variation trend of the toughness and tenacity is related to the aging temperature; the aging dynamic model with viscosity as parameter can well characterize the aging process of modified asphalt; at microlevel, with the decreasing of SBS particle size, the uniformity of particle size is better. Analysis of macroscopic properties, microscopic characteristics, and significance shows that the SBS particle area ratio has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging temperature changes. When the aging temperature is 163°C, the SBS particle area ratio still has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging time changes.

  20. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  1. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  2. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  3. Assessing The Durability of Polymer Modified Asphalt Emulsions Slurry Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singgih, C.; Handayani, D.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Slurry Seal is an application of road preservation in the form of impermeable nonstructural thin layer with maximum thickness of 10 mm, which consisting of a cold laid mixture of asphalt emulsion with continuous graded fine aggregate, mineral filler, water and other added ingredients. Road preservation use slurry seal only functioning as a surface layer on the existing pavement structure. This preliminary research was conducted to determine the value of consistency, setting time, and indirect tensile strength of polymer modified slurry seal. The laboratory tests were conducted to determine the optimum residual asphalt content. The results show that the value of the optimum water content by pre-wetting 5% is getting smaller with increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion. The addition of water 0 - 2.5% with 5% water for pre-wetting, the mixture provides a sufficient consistency in accordance with the specifications. The increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion obtained the longer setting time at all slurry seal mixtures, but all of the mixtures still meet the specifications. The use of polymer modified asphalt emulsion on slurry seal was improved durability significantly, based on the value of indirect tensile strength.

  4. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  5. Tetrapyrroles and associated compounds in Dead Sea asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizenshtat, Z. (Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel); Dinur, D.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1979-01-01

    Metallo- and free porphyrins (1000 to 1500 ppM) isolated from asphalts occurring as huge blocks floating in the northern part of the Dead Sea, have been analyzed by visible-uv (v-uv) spectrophotometry and by mass spectrometry. The concentration of vanadyl porphyrins in the asphalts exceeds by far that of the Ni-porphyrins, despite the l:3 V/Ni ratio found in the total asphalt sample. The free porphyrins resemble those from the Uinta Basin (USA) gilsonite and contain a mixture of homologous Aetio- and deoxyphyllo-erythroaetioporphyrins (DPEP). The non-porphyrin fraction of the asphalt showed an identical aliphatic, hydrocarbon distribution with that of heavy crude oil from the same area. The more polar fraction associated with the porphyrins was compared with the polar fraction of the previously described ozokerite from the Dead Sea area. From high-resolution MS, IR, v-uv and NMR spectra, combined with hydrolysis and GLC analysis, it is suggested that even-numbered (C/sub 12/, C/sub 16/, C/sub 18/, C/sub 18/ /sub 1/, C/sub 22/) fatty acids are associated with the asphaltic porphyrins, probably in the triglyceride form.

  6. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  7. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  8. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  9. [Haemotoxicity of dental luting cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A; Welker, D

    1989-06-01

    A glass ionomer luting cement (AquaCem) shows a relatively low haemolytic activity in comparison with two zinc phosphate cements. Especially the initial irritation by this cement is smaller. Although it is possible that AquaCem particularly, in unfavourable cases, may damage the pulpa dentin system; this is due to the slowly decrease of the haemolytic activity with increasing of the probes. We found that Adhesor showed in dependence of the batches a varying quality.

  10. Laboratorium Study of Asphalt Starbit E-55 Polymer Modified Application on Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (Ac-Wc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianus Kans Pangaraya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conventional asphalt road has almost been considered fail to serve the transportation needs. It is indicated by the occurrence of premature damage which is caused by vehicle load and climate. Starbit E-55, the polymer modified bitumen, is formulated to meet the requirement of transport development. Considering those needs, it is important to investigate the feasibility level of that modified bitumen as alternate asphalt instead of the conventional one. This research began with the measurement of the properties of hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55, then comparing the result to 60/70 penetration of Pertamina asphalt. The next step is then, to determine the converted value so as to be close to that of Pertamina (60/70 penetration. This step is conducted by applying durability and ITS tests on the mixture. Result of the tests showed that hard layered AC-WC Starbit E-55 has better characteristic at 5.7% optimum level asphalt and 6.4% of Pertamina asphalt (60/70 penetration. Starbit E-55 converted level within hard-layered ACWC is 5.6%. The performance test result on immersion with variance of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days shows that durability value of Starbit E-55 AC-WC has better performance. During the process, Starbit E-55 required 15.38% higher energy consumption.

  11. Kinerja Campuran Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) Yang Menggunakan Serat Selulosa Alami Dedak Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Anas

    2011-01-01

    Split Mastic Asphalt (SMA) is one of the hot mix asphalt concretes use with open graded and it has high coarse agregate content (70% - 80%) and a high asphalt content. Since the content of the high asphalt needs requires additional material such as cellulosa fiber to stabilize the asphalt. Through with this study, the another try to use rice bran as the additional material. In addition, rice bran is a natural cellulose fiber which cames from the rice milling proces. It was relatifevely cheape...

  12. Asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings. 1980 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.; Buelt, J.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Elmore, M.R.

    1981-05-01

    Studies of asphalt emulsion sealants conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory have demonstrated that the sealants are effective in containing radon and other potentially hazardous material within uranium tailings. The laboratory and field studies have further demonstrated that radon exhalation from uranium tailings piles can be reduced by greater than 99% to near background levels. Field tests at the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, confirmed that an 8-cm admix seal containing 22 wt% asphalt could be effectively applied with a cold-mix paver. Other techniques were successfully tested, including a soil stabilizer and a hot, rubberized asphalt seal that was applied with a distributor truck. After the seals were applied and compacted, overburden was applied over the seal to protect the seal from ultraviolet degradation.

  13. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  14. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  15. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  16. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Wu, Shaopeng; Hu, Xiaodi; Liu, Gang; Li, Bo

    2017-02-23

    Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing-thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  17. Adhesion Evaluation of Asphalt-Aggregate Interface Using Surface Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of organic additives (Sasobit and RH and water on the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface was studied according to the surface free energy theory. Two asphalt binders (SK-70 and SK-90, and two aggregate types (limestone and basalt were used in this study. The sessile drop method was employed to test surface free energy components of asphalt, organic additives and aggregates. The adhesion models of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry and wet conditions were established, and the adhesion work was calculated subsequently. The energy ratios were built to evaluate the effect of organic additives and water on the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface. The results indicate that the addition of organic additives can enhance the adhesion of the asphalt-aggregate interface in dry conditions, because organic additives reduced the surface free energy of asphalt. However, the organic additives have hydrophobic characteristics and are sensitive to water. As a result, the adhesiveness of the asphalt-aggregate interface of the asphalt containing organic additives in wet conditions sharply decreased due to water damage to asphalt and organic additives. Furthermore, the compatibility of asphalt, aggregate with organic additive was noted and discussed.

  18. Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Pan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC. This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation.

  19. Automated titration method for use on blended asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Adam T [Cheyenne, WY; Robertson, Raymond E [Laramie, WY; Branthaver, Jan F [Chatham, IL; Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY

    2012-08-07

    A system for determining parameters and compatibility of a substance such as an asphalt or other petroleum substance uses titration to highly accurately determine one or more flocculation occurrences and is especially applicable to the determination or use of Heithaus parameters and optimal mixing of various asphalt stocks. In a preferred embodiment, automated titration in an oxygen gas exclusive system and further using spectrophotometric analysis (2-8) of solution turbidity is presented. A reversible titration technique enabling in-situ titration measurement of various solution concentrations is also presented.

  20. Increase of a Roadway Covering Durability by Using the Cement-Concrete Base Fragmented with the Geogrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sannikov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of in road construction. The paper presents an alternative method of increasing the cracking resistance of the roads asphalt-concrete pavement, constructed on the cement-concrete base, due to its fragmentation with the volumetric plastic geogrid while constructing. Theoretical, laboratory and field experimental studies of this design were conducted, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed solution was proved. The use of this design can improve the durability of the roadway coverings and reduce the costs for the roads repair and maintenance.

  1. [Thermal diffusivity of dental cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroussis, D; Kakaboura, A; Chrysafidis, C; Mauroyiannakis, E

    1990-08-01

    Thermal insulative efficiency, is one of the desirable properties of the dental cements. In this study, the thermal diffusivity of three types of dental cements, were measured. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the following method. Two thermo-couples were used and connected to a chart record, the first was embedded in the cylindrical block of the cement specimen and the other in a mixing of ice and water (reference thermocouple). All them were set in a apparatus consisting of a double cooling bath. Calculation of thermal diffusivity were based on the curve provided of the record during cooling of the cement and a theoretical mathematic model. Values were ranged from 2,985 to 3,934 cm2.sec-1. ZOE cement exhibited the highest value, the glass-ionomers the lowest and the poly-carboxylates were average. The results showed that the thermal diffusivity of the cements is dependent from the type of the cement but the differences between them were not statistically significant. Additionally, the values obtained were about the same as the dentin, so the dental cements may consider as good thermal insulators.

  2. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  3. Warm mix asphalt with natural zeolite for road pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a method to reduce temperature of asphalt mix using the ingredients of natural zeolite. In this article we discuss a proposal of the warm mix asphalt mixtures based on natural zeolite and determine the density, maximum density and sensitivity of asphalt test specimens on water. The results are compared with the reference hot mix asphalt. Розглядається метод зменшення температури асфальтових сумішей з використанням природного цеоліту. Обговорений підбір ск...

  4. Properties of polymer - and fibre-modified porous asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verhaeghe, Benoit MJA

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available was defined. This paper addresses the relative performance of modified porous asphalt mixes and aspects relating to the design of such mixes, based on a laboratory study. It was found that polymer-modification of the binder enhances the relevant engineering...

  5. Using critical state theory for modelling of asphalt mix compaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henny L.; van Maarseveen, Martin F.A.M.; Molenaar, Andre A.A.; van de Ven, Martin F.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) material behavior during compaction. During compaction the particle configuration inside the HMA is changing from a relatively loose into a denser one while the bitumen is fluid. Initially particle reorientation is easily possible due to the

  6. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  7. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF COMPACTABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF WARM MIX ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex Eduardo Álvarez Lugo

    Full Text Available Warm mix asphalt (WMA is the term used to describe the set of technologies that allow fabrication of asphalt mixtures at lower temperatures than those specified for conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA. This temperature reduction leads to advantages, compared to construction of HMA, that include energy savings, reduced emissions, and safer working conditions. However, WMA is a relatively new technology and several aspects are still under evaluation. This paper assesses some of these aspects including laboratory compactability and its relation to mixture design, and performance of WMA (i.e., permanent deformation and cracking resistance fabricated with three WMA additives, namely Advera®, Sasobit®, and Evotherm®. Corresponding results showed better or equivalent laboratory compactability for the WMA, as compared to that of the HMA used as reference (or control-HMA, leading to smaller optimum asphalt contents selected based on a specific target density (i.e., 96%. In terms of performance, inclusion of the WMA additives led to decrease the mixture resistance to permanent deformation, although the mixture resistance to cracking can remain similar or even improve as compared to that of the control-HMA.

  8. Thermal segregation of asphalt material in road repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Byzyka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field study of asphaltic pavement patching operations performed by three different contractors working in a total of ten sites. It forms part of an ongoing research programme towards improving the performance of pothole repairs. Thermal imaging technology was used to record temperatures of the patching material throughout the entire exercise, from the stage of material collection, through transportation to repair site, patch forming, and compaction. Practical complications occurring during patch repairs were also identified. It was found that depending on the weather conditions, duration of the travel and poor insulation of the transported hot asphalt mix, its temperature can drop as high as 116.6 °C over the period that the reinstatement team travel to the site and prepare the patch. This impacting is on the durability and performance of the executed repairs. Cold spots on the asphalt mat and temperature differentials between the new hot-fill asphalt mix and existing pavement were also identified as poorly compacted areas that were prone to premature failure. For example, over the five-minute period, the temperature at one point reduced by 33% whereas the temperatures of nearby areas decreased by 65% and 71%. A return visit to the repair sites, three months later, revealed that locations where thermal segregation was noted, during the patching operation, had failed prematurely.

  9. Development of a Mixture Design Procedure for Stone Matrix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) has been used successfully in Europe for over 20 : years to provide better rutting resistance and to resist studded tire wear. : Since 1991, the use of SMA has increased steadily in the United States. At : present, some sta...

  10. The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Vuye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section. The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB and Close-ProXimity (CPX measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A, but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time.

  11. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  12. Modeling of asphalt and experiments with a discrete particles method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, T.J.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Luding, Stefan; Wilson, D.; Costello, S.; Henning, T.; Black, P.; Olsen, C.

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt is an important road paving material. Besides an acceptable price, durability, surface conditions (like roughening and evenness), age-, weather- and traffic-induced failures and degradation are relevant aspects. In the professional road-engineering branch empirical models are used to

  13. Characterization of Bitumen Extracted from used Asphalt Pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the research were principally to characterize extracted bitumen from Used Asphalt Pavement (UAP) on twelve selected roads through the determination of engineering properties (penetration and viscosity) and establishment of appropriate mathematical relationship between principal parameters of the ...

  14. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor pavement surface conditions have been recognized to be contributory factors for road accidents. Empirical relationship between accident explanatory variables (traffic flow, road geometry and road features) on link secti-ons of asphalted trunk roads were investigated using 617 test lengths selected from three ...

  15. Direct tensile test to assess healing in asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, T.; Erkens, S.

    2016-01-01

    Asphalt concrete has the advantageous ability to heal. During rest periods, damage present in the material is restored to a certain extent. Healing of the material can be observed in its regaining of strength and stiffness after rest periods. In this paper, a new test method is presented. It was

  16. Material acceptance risk analysis : superpave hot mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study is to review Superpave Hot Mix asphalt used by other state DOTs and make recommendation to Idaho Transportation Department (ITD) in using this product in its roadways and in particular in low-traffic roadways. Based on the...

  17. The adoption of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, M.J.M.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; van der Sijde, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the adoption process of innovative asphalt equipment in road construction and how the level of knowledge as characterised by the level of education in the companies affects this process. The emphasis is on equipment used for transporting

  18. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland Cement...

  19. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  20. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  1. Influence of the Microwave Heating Time on the Self-Healing Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Norambuena-Contreras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the microwave heating time on the self-healing properties of fibre-reinforced asphalt mixtures. To this purpose, self-healing properties of dense asphalt mixtures with four different percentages of steel wool fibres were evaluated as the three-point bending strength before and after healing via microwave heating at four different heating times. Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of asphalt mixtures during microwave heating was also evaluated. With the aim of quantifying the efficiency of the repair process, ten damage-healing cycles were done in the test samples. In addition, self-healing results were compared with the fibre spatial distribution inside asphalt samples evaluated by CT-scans. Crack-size change on asphalt samples during healing cycles was also evaluated through optical microscopy. It was found that the heating time is the most influential variable on the healing level reached by the asphalt mixtures tested by microwave radiation. CT-Scans results proved that fibre spatial distribution into the asphalt mixtures play an important role in the asphalt healing level. Finally, it was concluded that 40 s was the optimum heating time to reach the highest healing levels with the lowest damage on the asphalt samples, and that heating times over 30 s can seal the cracks, thus achieving the self-healing of asphalt mixtures via microwave heating.

  2. The Variation Test and Extraction Equipment to Optimum Asphalt by Using Gasoline Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardi, Fitridawati

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision, the extraction test should be carried out using the specimen from the loose asphalt mixture extracted from the back of the finisher bitumen machine. The purpose of this research is to find out the result of pretest and posttest extraction asphalt content. The Extraction test using two equipment, they are Soklet and Centrifuge. The specimens was used AMP, Asphalt Finisher and Core, which involved gasoline solvent. Based on the asphalt level extraction test results, the appropriate equipment was used centrifuge with the level accuracy as requirement of Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision and the level of ease used as equipment in the field study. The asphalt content obtained for AMP 5,51%, Asphalt Finisher5,46% and Core 5.34%. As for the socket asphalt content obtained is AMP 5.55%, Asphalt Finisher 5.50% and Core core 5. 41%. The extract test value of asphalt content decreased, so it can be formulated KA JMF Asphalt Finisher

  3. Molecular Simulation Study on Modification Mechanism of Red Mud Modified Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, FU; Hui-ming, BAO; xing-xing, Duan

    2017-12-01

    This article used red mud, the aluminum industrial wastes, as modified asphalt material, through the study of the routine test of modified asphalt properties, and the micro test of electron microscope scanning, infrared spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis etc. to discuss its performance and modification mechanism . The test results show that after mixing red mud, asphalt’s penetration index and 15 °C ductility reduced, softening point enhanced, thus the temperature sensitivity and high temperature stability of asphalt improved; Red mud after mixing the matrix asphalt, can form a uniform, stable and matrix asphalt blending system, and improve the asphalt’s thermal stability. Using molecular simulation technology to analyze the asphalt with the temperature change of energy and find in the process of asphalt melting, the largest is the key to influence on bituminous, and van der waals energy is small. It concludes that red mud -modified asphalt material is mainly controlled by bond energy, in order to obtain its favorable property of modification mechanism, red mud of senior activation and molecular bond energy of asphalt is needed to be enhanced.The results of molecular simulation show that the main component of hematite in red mud is the most adsorbed in the asphalt, the asphaltene is the second, the colloid is the worst, but the adsorption capacity of the colloid is the highest.

  4. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  5. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027) into...

  6. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  7. Comparative fatigue behavior of different bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, E I; Carter, D R; Harris, W H

    1984-10-01

    Tensile and fatigue studies were performed on four different preparations of acrylic bone cement: (1) surgical Simplex-P inserted into molds in the dough stage, (2) Zimmer Low Viscosity Cement (LVC) inserted in the liquid phase, (3) an experimental cement inserted in the dough phase, and (4) the same experimental cement inserted in the liquid phase. The void characteristics of the cements appeared to dictate their mechanical performance. While tests revealed no difference in the tensile strengths of the four cement preparations, small but statistically significant differences in mean fatigue life were observed. The experimental cement used in the dough stage exhibited superior fatigue characteristics when compared with Simplex and LVC. LVC had the poorest mechanical properties of the four cement groups. Since the specimen preparation procedures can markedly influence the cement void characteristics and, consequently, the mechanical properties, general statements about different cement types are offered with considerable reservations.

  8. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  9. Comparing Production and Placement of Warm-Mix Asphalt to Traditional Hot-Mix Asphalt for Constructing Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    25  Figure 29. Sampling asphalt mixture from delivery trucks . ................................................................. 26...46  Table 8. Transport truck data...the material to a uniform 12-in. depth, pulverizing the material with a rotary mixer , adjusting the moisture content, pulverizing the material again

  10. Towards small scale use of asphalt as a fuel. An application of interest to developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.

    2002-01-01

    This survey deals with the feasibility of the combustion of asphalt instead of firewood. On the seashores of the numerous islands of Indonesia, especially on those of south and southeast Sulawesi, mangrove forests are endangered by extensive logging, lately on an increasing scale by locals for whom firewood is the sole resource of energy. Urged by Yayasan-Sarna, an Indonesian non-governmental organisation of South East Sulawesi, the Dutch foundation Zephyr-Sama has prompted research on the feasibility to use asphalt from deposits on the island of Buton as a domestic fuel. This research was thought to possibly lead to the development of a porous plug stove, or to a stove in which carbonised bamboo containers filled with asphalt are used as fuel elements. This survey consists of a literature review and an overview of possible routes for controlled combustion of asphalt. Attention has been paid to the environmental effects of the combustion as well. The literature mainly shows side effects of combustion of asphalt, which provide some knowledge on the combustion process. No direct studies on the combustion of asphalt were found. To explore the bottlenecks of the combustion process, an asphalt candle was made, because the taper seemed an ideal capillary active carrier for fluid asphalt. However, this experimental candle did not bum, likely due to high viscosity at the base of the taper and clogging of carbonaceous residue at the liquid/gas interface of the taper. An increase of the porosity of asphalt gives a better chance for a propagating combustion. The pores may increase the diffusion rate of volatile components, thus increasing the combustion rate. However, if asphalt is heated it will melt and the fluid will block the pores. Its melting at a relatively low temperature is a big handicap of asphalt. To overcome this handicap, asphalt could be transported by capillary forces into the combustion zone and combust at solid/liquid/gas interfaces - like is happening in a

  11. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  12. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  13. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  14. Research on differences and correlation between tensile, compression and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the differences and conversion relations between the tensile, compressive and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam, in this paper, we develop a new test method for measuring three moduli simultaneously. By using the materials testing system, we test three moduli of the cement stabilized macadam under different loading rates, propose a flexural modulus calculation formula which considers the shearing effect, reveal the change rules of the tensile, compression and flexural moduli with the loading rate and establish the conversion relationships between the three moduli. The results indicate that: three moduli become larger with the increase of the loading rate, showing a power function pattern; with the shear effect considered, the flexural modulus is increased by 47% approximately over that in the current test method; the tensile and compression moduli of cement stabilized macadam are significantly different. Therefore, if only the compression modulus is used as the structural design parameter of asphalt pavement, there will be a great deviation in the analysis of the load response. In order to achieve scientific design and calculation, the appropriate design parameters should be chosen based on the actual stress state at each point inside the pavement structure.

  15. The use of foundry sand in the composition of the asphalt mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Brence, Miran

    2016-01-01

    The main components of asphalt mixtures are fractions of stone aggregates, filler and bitumen. The main component in produced asphalt mixture by mass represents stone fractions with about 85% by weight. When stone materials for the production of asphalt mixtures are replaced with secondary raw materials, then problems associated with acquiring suitable stone fractions can be avoided or at least significantly reduced. The study presents the possibility of use of foundry sand as a secondary raw...

  16. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement of asphalt binder by using methylmethacrylate/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab, A.A.; Reem K. Farag; Usama F. Kandil; El-Shafie, M.; A.M.M. Saleh; Ahmed F. El-Kafrawy

    2016-01-01

    Various polymer-modified asphalt compositions for paving and roofing applications are known since several years ago. The degree to which a polymer improves the asphalt’s properties depends on the compatibility of the polymer and the asphalt. Highly compatible polymers are more effective in providing property improvements. In this research, the influence of in situ polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomer with asphalt in presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) as a crosslinker on...

  17. The influence of nanoclay on the durability properties of asphalt mixtures for top and base layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johan; De Kinder, Bram; Meeusen, Jannes; Van den bergh, Wim

    2017-09-01

    To avoid traffic congestion, due to road works, a continuous research into asphalt pavement and especially its durability is of great importance. This research focuses on improving the mechanical performance and the durability of asphalt mixtures by nanoclay modified bitumen. This promising technique of introducing nanoclays or nano particles into bitumen could offer an significant improvement on the fatigue properties and rutting performance and thus the durability of the asphalt top layer.

  18. A micromechanical finite element model for linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qingli; Sadd, Martin H.; You, Zhanping

    2006-09-01

    This study presents a finite element (FE) micromechanical modelling approach for the simulation of linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture. Asphalt mixture is a composite material of graded aggregates bound with mastic (asphalt and fine aggregates). The microstructural model of asphalt mixture incorporates an equivalent lattice network structure whereby intergranular load transfer is simulated through an effective asphalt mastic zone. The finite element model integrates the ABAQUS user material subroutine with continuum elements for the effective asphalt mastic and rigid body elements for each aggregate. A unified approach is proposed using Schapery non-linear viscoelastic model for the rate-independent and rate-dependent damage behaviour. A finite element incremental algorithm with a recursive relationship for three-dimensional (3D) linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour is developed. This algorithm is used in a 3D user-defined material model for the asphalt mastic to predict global linear and damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixture.For linear viscoelastic study, the creep stiffnesses of mastic and asphalt mixture at different temperatures are measured in laboratory. A regression-fitting method is employed to calibrate generalized Maxwell models with Prony series and generate master stiffness curves for mastic and asphalt mixture. A computational model is developed with image analysis of sectioned surface of a test specimen. The viscoelastic prediction of mixture creep stiffness with the calibrated mastic material parameters is compared with mixture master stiffness curve over a reduced time period.In regard to damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour, cyclic loading responses of linear and rate-independent damage-coupled viscoelastic materials are compared. Effects of particular microstructure parameters on the rate-independent damage-coupled viscoelastic behaviour are also investigated with finite element

  19. Development of Energy-based Damage and Plasticity Models for Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Onifade, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the full range of damage and plastic behaviour of asphalt mixtures under varying strain-rates and stress states is a complex and challenging task. One reason for this  is partly due to the strain rate and temperature dependent nature of the material as well as the variation in the properties of the constituent materials that make up the composite asphalt mixture. Existing stress-based models for asphalt concrete materials are developed based on mechanics principles, but these m...

  20. The Influence of Limestone and Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Gunaran Danny; Nasus K. Y; Napitupulu J. P. F; Amelia Makmur

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradation...

  1. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment on Cement Treated Recycling Base (CTRB Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarno Sudarno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available LCA is one of the few environmental management techniques that are used to perform a risk assessment, environmental performance evaluation, environmental auditing, and environmental impact assessment and must be applied to the construction CTRB. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of energy consumption is used and determine the amount of emissions (CO2 in the implementation of the Foundation Layer Top (base course with the former asphalt pavement aggregate blended cement / Recycling Cement Treated Base (CTRB. This study uses: (i Compilation and data inventory of relevant inputs and outputs of a product system; (ii Evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with the data input and output; (iii Interpret the results of the inventory analysis and impact assessment in relation to the research objectives. The results showed that Energy consumption in the implementation of recycling pavement (CTRB is 225.46 MJ / km of roads and the resulting GHG emissions 17,43Ton CO2 / km of roads. Previous researchers to calculate the energy consumption of road works on the implementation of conventional (hotmix is 383.46 MJ / km of roads and the resulting GHG emissions 28.24 Ton CO2 / km of roads. If the calculated difference between a job and Hotmix CTRB and then a comparison is made CTRB energy consumption is 158 MJ / km of road, this happens 70.07% savings and GHG emissions resulting difference is 10.81 tons of CO2 / km of road, resulting in a decrease in 62,02%.

  3. Modelling of Asphalt Concrete Stiffness in the Linear Viscoelastic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Grzegorz; Iwański, Marek

    2017-10-01

    Stiffness modulus is a fundamental parameter used in the modelling of the viscoelastic behaviour of bituminous mixtures. On the basis of the master curve in the linear viscoelasticity range, the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete at different loading times and temperatures can be predicted. This paper discusses the construction of master curves under rheological mathematical models i.e. the sigmoidal function model (MEPDG), the fractional model, and Bahia and co-workers’ model in comparison to the results from mechanistic rheological models i.e. the generalized Huet-Sayegh model, the generalized Maxwell model and the Burgers model. For the purposes of this analysis, the reference asphalt concrete mix (denoted as AC16W) intended for the binder coarse layer and for traffic category KR3 (5×105 asphalt concrete under steady-state strain was performed using the simple axial compression-tensile test under controlled strain mode. The fixed strain level was set at 25με to guarantee that the stiffness modulus of the asphalt concrete would be tested in a linear viscoelasticity range. The master curve was formed using the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP). The stiffness modulus of asphalt concrete was determined at temperatures 10°C, 20°C and 40°C and at loading times (frequency) of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20 Hz. The model parameters were fitted to the rheological models using the original programs based on the nonlinear least squares sum method. All the rheological models under analysis were found to be capable of predicting changes in the stiffness modulus of the reference asphalt concrete to satisfactory accuracy. In the cases of the fractional model and the generalized Maxwell model, their accuracy depends on a number of elements in series. The best fit was registered for Bahia and co-workers model, generalized Maxwell model and fractional model. As for predicting the

  4. Development of asphaltic mix with waste products use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trend of high growth of the vehicle fleet in Russia along with the positive impact on the socio-economic development of the country has a number of adverse consequences, one of which is the high accident rate on the roads. The paper considers modern way to provide the safe vehicles flow with the use of colored asphalt, which is a kind of hot asphalt and can have a variety of colors, which consists of coloring pigments. The conventional method of coloring the asphalt mix is produced by adding color rubble or pigmenting additives. The task, which was put forward, was the establishment of such road concrete mix, from which, without the use of primary materials and without increasing the consumption of bitumen, asphalt concrete road surfaces of acceptable strength could be obtained. As a pigment the dust of gas purification system of electrical furnace DSP - 60 of «Kamastal» plant, Perm, was used. The composition of the dust waste from the furnace consists of metal oxides and silicates. Dust-gas-cleaning is a fine powder with a high specific surface (1.2…2.5 thousand cm /g and bulk density of 3.7…4.2 g/cm . The powder color is dark brown. The density of the ready colored asphalt samples is 2.47...2.49 g/cm , and water saturation is 3.50…3.55 %. As a result of the research the diagrams of the dependence of road concrete mix’s water saturation from dust percentage and a diagram of dependence of concrete mixes’ durability from dust percentage at t = 20° and 50° C were built. After analyzing the obtained curves it can be concluded that the increase of the percentage of dust leads to increase of water saturation of road concrete mix and reduced strength. Thus, the developed asphalt concrete mix allows visually separating the lanes on the road, it has the relevant regulatory requirements durability and water resistance. This mixture corresponds to the type B mark III and can be used in regions I, II, and partly III of road-climatic zones

  5. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinerja Campuran Beraspal Hangat Laston Lapis Pengikat (AC-BC dengan Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Maha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory study of AC-BC asphalt mixture reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP by warm mix method. 30% of RAP is combined with new aggregate in the mixture. Rejuvenating agent Cyclogen L was used to activate RAP asphalt binder. With 3% organic wax Sasobit, temperature of mixing and paving was set at 135°C and 123°C, 30°C lower than conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA with unmodified asphalt binder 60/70 penetration. Three mixtures were set in this research, consisting of hot mix asphalt conventional mixture (identified as HM, warm mix asphalt mixture (identified as SASO and warm mix asphalt with RAP (identified as SASORAP. Marshall design procedure was used to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC. OBC for each mixture was 5,2%, 5,2% and 5,3% for HMA, SASO and SASORAP respectively. From Indirect Tensile Stress test result, all asphalt mixture meet moisture sensitvity requirement where Indirect Tensile Stress Ratio (ITSR is higher than 80%. From resilient modulus and fatigue resistance test result, SASO and SASORAP showed a better performance than conventional mixture (HMA.

  7. USE OF CRUMB RUBBER FROM USED CAR TIRES IN MINERAL ASPHALT MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Plewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the automotive industry the disposal of used tires is constantly growing problem. Storage of waste rubber is associated with a very long period of decomposition of rubber in the natural conditions. Simultaneously new technologies are developed every year, which in the future may significantly promote recycling of this type of materials. The crumb rubbery modification of the road bitumen is the one of the environmentally safe solutions of rubbery decomposition. Improvement of resistance of the crumb rubbery modification of the road asphalt mixtures is the very important ecological aspect of the future. The article presents the results of research on the fatigue life resistance of asphalt concretes AC16P and AC22P with asphalt-rubber binders. The above analyses have been based on the results of tests of fatigue life of mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes determined by the method of prismatic four-point bending (4PB-PR. Mineral-rubber -asphalt mixes have been diversified according to the amount of the additive of rubber fines in asphalt-rubber binder. On the basis of the test results have been proven improvements functional properties mineral-rubber-asphalt mixes compared with mineral-asphalt mixes with unmodified asphalt.

  8. Influence of hot asphalt mixture using asbuton on road composite pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Abdul; Darwis, Muhammad; Imran

    2017-11-01

    Construction and rehabilitation of road infrastructure in Indonesia require about 1.2 million tons of asphalt per year, approximately 100% used of petroleum asphalt. Only a half of asphalt demand can be provided domestically, while about 600 thousand tons have to be imported from abroad. Indonesia has natural asphalt with a quite large deposit but has not been fully utilized. Lack of availability of asphalt and the increasing demand of the domestic market will give effect to an increase in bitumen cost in the domestic market. Somehow, this is not a sufficient condition due to the rising cost of road infrastructure. This study aims to determine the effect of using a layer of asphalt concrete pavement asbuton to rigid pavement (PR-modification). Stressing that occur in rigid pavement, asphalt concrete layer and base course measured by using LVDT and for the subgrade using soil pressure transducer. Using asbuton on asphalt concrete will have more benefit on improving the stability of the marshall. The maximum deflection occurring in the PR-modification at 5.19 mm with a maximum stress of 175.10 kN. Vertical and horizontal tension that occur at the base course at -20 cm row by 0.855 MPa and 0.00282 MPa. Addition of layers of asphalt concrete in rigid pavement using asbuton has increased power by 9.5%.

  9. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  10. Quieting of Portland cement concrete highway surfaces with texture modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, various types of asphalt surfaces have become identified as ``quiet pavements'' due to their ability to reduce tire/pavement noise and, ultimately, traffic noise. Often lost in this perception is the fact that substantial reductions in tire/pavement noise can also be made by texture modifications to existing Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) or by novel constructions. PCC surfaces have been found to span a range of as much as 16 dB. As a result, there is the potential to achieve large noise reductions depending on the existing and final surfaces. In California, grinding of bridge decks and elevated structures has been found to reduce tire/pavement source levels 3 to 10 dB with comparable reductions in wayside measurements. In Arizona, grinding of PCC has reduced source levels up to 9 dB relative to some transversely tined surfaces. Measurements conducted in Europe using the same measurement methodology indicated a range of 11 dB including more novel porous PCC surfaces. In this paper, measurement results and case histories are reviewed for situations where PCC modifications were successful and unsuccessful in producing quieter pavement.

  11. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  12. Asphalt Mixture Segregation Detection: Digital Image Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadtaqi Baqersad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation determination in the asphalt pavement is an issue causing many disputes between agencies and contractors. The visual inspection method has commonly been used to determine pavement texture and in-place core density test used for verification. Furthermore, laser-based devices, such as the Florida Texture Meter (FTM and the Circular Track Meter (CTM, have recently been developed to evaluate the asphalt mixture texture. In this study, an innovative digital image processing approach is used to determine pavement segregation. In this procedure, the standard deviation of the grayscale image frequency histogram is used to determine segregated regions. Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA is then implemented on the obtained standard deviations from image processing to classify pavements into the segregated and nonsegregated areas. The visual inspection method is utilized to verify this method. The results have demonstrated that this new method is a robust tool to determine segregated areas in newly paved FC9.5 pavement types.

  13. Analysis of stiffness and fatigue resistance of cold recycled asphalt mixtures manufactured with foamed bitumen for their application to airfield pavement design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Lacalle-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold recycled bound materials (CRBMs provide an economic and environmental advantage for pavements since they decrease energy and raw material consumption. However, design methods for airfield pavements do not include key CRBM properties. In this paper an empirical-mechanistic method is used to study airfield pavement design with CRBM in order to develop design guidance. The aim of the paper is to obtain the inputs related to material properties needed for use in this method. For this purpose, CRBM containing reclaimed asphalt, with fly ash, cement and foamed bitumen as stabilising agents, was characterised. The methodology included indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM and indirect tensile fatigue tests (ITFT in strain control mode. The inputs needed for a pavement design analysis with CRBM were then obtained. The results showed the importance of further study on CRBM fatigue to understand the behaviour of these mixes under cyclic loading.

  14. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  15. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  16. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  17. Effect of Fibers on Mixture Design of Stone Matrix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Yanping Sheng; Haibin Li; Ping Guo; Guijuan Zhao; Huaxin Chen; Rui Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Lignin fibers typically influence the mixture performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA), such as strength, stability, durability, noise level, rutting resistance, fatigue life, and water sensitivity. However, limited studies were conducted to analyze the influence of fibers on the percent voids in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixture (VMA) during the mixture design. This study analyzed the effect of different fibers and fiber contents on the VMA in SMA mixture design. A surface-dry conditi...

  18. Evaluation of Different Mineral Filler Aggregates for Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota; Ignatiuk, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Mineral filler aggregates play an important role in asphalt mixtures because they fill voids in paving mix and improve the cohesion of asphalt binder. Limestone powder containing over 90% of CaCO3 is the most frequently used type of filler. Waste material from the production of coarse aggregate can be successfully used as a mineral filler aggregate for hot asphalt concrete mixtures as the limestone powder replacement. This paper presents the experimental results of selected properties of filler aggregates which were obtained from rocks with different mineral composition and origin. Five types of rocks were used as a source of the mineral filler aggregate: granite, gabbro, trachybasalt, quartz sandstone and rocks from postglacial deposits. Limestone filler was used in this study as the reference material. The following tests were performed: grading (air jet sieving), quality of fines according to methylene blue test, water content by drying in a ventilated oven, particle density using pyknometer method, Delta ring and ball test, Bitumen Number, fineness determined as Blaine specific surface area. Mineral filler aggregates showed significant differences when they were mixed with bitumen and stiffening effect in Delta ring and ball test was evaluated. The highest values were achieved when gabbro and granite fillers were used. Additionally, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of grain shape and size was carried out. Significant differences in grain size and shape were observed. The highest non-homogeneity in size was determined for quartz sandstone, gabbro and granite filler. Their Blaine specific surface area was lower than 2800 cm2/g, while for limestone and postglacial fillers with regular and round grains it exceeded 3000 cm2/g. All examined mineral filler aggregates met requirements of Polish National Specification WT-1: 2014 and could be used in asphalt mixtures.

  19. RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA EVALUADA EN EL ENSAYO MARSHALL DE MEZCLAS DENSAS EN CALIENTE ELABORADAS CON ASFALTOS MODIFICADOS CON DESECHOS DE POLICLORURO DE VINILO (PVC, POLIETILENO DE ALTA DENSIDAD (PEAD Y POLIESTIRENO (PS MECHANICAL RESISTANCE OF HOT THICK MIXTURES MADE WITH ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, POLYCLORURE (PVC WASTES, HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (PEAD, AND POLYSTYRENE (PS EVALUATED IN MARSHALL ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscó evaluar en laboratorio el cambio en la resistencia mecánica que experimentan mezclas asfálticas densas en caliente cuando se adicionan, por vía húmeda, al cemento asfáltico aditivos poliméricos producto de desechos industriales del tipo plastómero (policloruro de vinilo, polietileno de alta densidad y poliestireno. Para tal fin se empleó el ensayo Marshall. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de mezclas asfálticas modificadas con desechos del tipo plastómero es mayor en comparación con las convencionales (mezclas que emplean asfaltos sin ningún aditivo.The main objective of this research Project was to evaluate in a laboratory the change in mechanical strength that dense hot asphalt mixtures go through when waste polymeric additives of plastomeric type (polyvinyl chloride, high density polyethylene and polystyrene are added to asphalt cement, by 'wet way'. This change was evaluated using Marshall Test. The general conclusion of the experimental results was that modified hot asphalt mixtures present better mechanical behavior than conventional mixtures (mixtures which use asphalt without additives.

  20. Asphalt Concrete for Cold Regions, A Comparative Laboratory Study and Analysis of Mixtures Containing Soft and Hard Grades of Asphalt Cement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    fatigue curves derived by Kingham 33 from the AASHO Figure 31 ;30, 31 the first, after Heukelom and Klomp20 Road Test are shown in Figure 32. The...to Failure I A4A 10~1 40 0 Tensile Stress (lb/-n2) Approximote Stress tlb/lr 2 ) a. Provisional laboratory fatigue data, after Heukelom b. Data from...capabilities of conventional pavement s~ stemis. Federal Highway Administration, Report No. I-H WA-RD -lOS. 30. Heukelom , W. and A.I.G. Klomp (1962

  1. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  2. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (dfiller. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  3. Evaluation of Colemanite Waste as Aggregate Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat MOROVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study usability of waste colemanite which is obtained after cutting block colemanite for giving proper shape to blocks as an aggregate in hot mix asphalt. For this aim asphalt concrete samples were prepared with four different aggregate groups and optimum bitumen content was determined. First of all only limestone was used as an aggregate. After that, only colemanite aggregate was used with same aggregate gradation. Then, the next step of the study, Marshall samples were produced by changing coarse and fine aggregate gradation as limestone and colemanite and Marshall test were conducted. When evaluated the results samples which produced with only limestone aggregate gave the maximum Marshall Stability value. When handled other mixture groups (Only colemanite, colemanite as coarse aggregate-limestone as fine aggregate, colemanite as fine aggregate-limestone as coarse aggregate all groups were verified specification limits. As a result, especially in areas where there is widespread colemanite waste, if transportation costs did not exceed the cost of limestone, colemanite stone waste could be used instead of limestone in asphalt concrete mixtures as fine aggregate

  4. Highly condensed aromatics and their connection to hydrogenation asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boente, L.

    1944-11-22

    An attempt is made to account for the structure of asphalts and resins which arose in residues upon hydrogenation of coal. The main assumption is that most of these asphalts consisted of highly condensed aromatics, which are considered as derivatives of the substance coronene, which could be described as having the structure consisting of six benzene rings arranged around a central seventh benzene ring. Part of the discussion is speculative, but evidence is given which had led to that speculation. The asphalts had been very hard to analyze exactly, partly because of their very low solubility in most solvents and their very high boiling points. Possible mechanisms for the formation of such highly condensed aromatics during the hydrogenation process are described along with experimental work aimed in part at hydrogenating these aromatics and in part at producing them by condensation reactions of aluminum chloride on coronene. Some of the products of the condensation reactions even resembled coke or soot, while others were red substances which fluoresced green in phenanthrene solution. It is hypothesized that coronene could be looked upon as the basic nucleus for a whole series of highly condensed aromatic molecules, in the same way that benzene is looked upon as the basic nucleus for a whole series of aromatic compounds.

  5. Application of a bio-binder as a rejuvenator for wet processed asphalt shingles in pavement construction

    OpenAIRE

    OLDHAM, Daniel J.; Ellie H. Fini; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the merits of application of bio-binder to enhance rheological properties of asphalt binder in the presence of wet processed recycled asphalt shingles (RAS). It will further examine the performance and workability of asphalt designed with and without a specified percentage of a bio-binder produced from swine manure and RAS. Bio-binder was introduced to liquid asphalt binder modified with four different percentages of RAS; the high and low temperature properties of each...

  6. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne; Petersheim, Jerry

    2009-11-20

    The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.

  7. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time.

  8. Heterogeneous Glasses and Sustainable Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gado, Emanuela

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main binding agent in cement and concrete. It forms at the beginning of cement hydration, it progressively densifies as cement hardens and is ultimately responsible for the performances of concrete. This hydration product is a cohesive nano-scale heterogeneous glass, whose structure and mechanics are still poorly understood, in spite of its practical importance. I will review some of the open questions for this fascinating material and discuss a statistical physics approach recently developed, which allows us to investigate the structural arrest and solidification under the out-of-equilibrium conditions typical of cement hydration and the role of the nano-scale structure in C-S-H mechanics upon hardening. Our approach unveils how some distinctive features of the kinetics of cement hydration can be related to changes in the morphology of this glassy material and elucidates the role of nano-scale mechanical heterogeneities in the hardened C-S-H.

  9. Evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de una mezcla densa en caliente modificada con asfaltita/Mechanical Properties Evaluation of a hot Asphalt Mixture Modified with Asphaltite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo evaluó en laboratorio la resistencia mecánica bajo carga monotónica, el módulo resiliente y la resistencia a la deformación permanente que experimenta una mezcla asfáltica cuando se modifica con una asfaltita. Adicionalmente, fue evaluada durante dos años, la influencia del medio ambiente de la ciudad de Bogotá D.C., sobre las propiedades mecánicas de la mezcla modificada. Se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de la mezcla asfáltica modificada incrementa en comparación con la convencional. La tendencia general de las mezclas con el tiempo de exposición al medio ambiente de Bogotá D.C., es experimentar un aumento en los valores de rigidez debido principalmente a procesos de endurecimiento por envejecimiento del ligante asfáltico. Sin embargo, para el caso de las mezclas modificadas y fabricadas con CA 60-70 en los primeros cinco meses de exposición, la rigidez disminuye.The strength under monotonic load, resilient modulus and rutting were evaluated on a hot-mix asphalt (HMAmodified with a natural sphaltite. Additionally, the influence of the environmental conditions of BogotáD.C., was evaluated during two years on the mechanical properties of a modified asphalt mixture. The results show that the mechanical properties evaluated were better for the HMA mixes modified in compared with those with neat asphalts. The asphaltite produces higher mechanical resistance in HMA. The general tendency of the mixtures is increase the modulus with time due to aging of the asphalt cement. However, modified mixtures with AC 60- 70, decrease in stiffness during the first months.

  10. Seating load parameters impact on dental ceramic reinforcement conferred by cementation with resin-cements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Cementation of all-ceramic restorations with resin-cements has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of fracture in service. The aim was to investigate the influence of loading force and loading duration applied during cementation on the reinforcement conferred by a resin-cement on a leucite reinforced glass-ceramic.

  11. Bioactive and Hemocompatible Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña-Gutiérrez, Iván Omar; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Saldívar-Ramírez, Mirna María Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Hernández, Perla Janet; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSAC) is an attractive candidate for biomedical applications due to its appropriate mechanical properties and high calcium content. In vitro bioactivity and hemocompatibility of calcium sulphoaluminate cement were assessed. The cement was prepared from a mixture of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) clinker, gypsum and water. Cement samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different periods of time (7, 14 and 21 days). The analyses of these...

  12. Use of NDT equipment for construction quality control of hot mix asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The focus of the study has been to evaluate the utility of seismic methods in the quality management of the hot mix asphalt layers. Procedures are presented to measure the target field moduli of hot mix asphalt (HMA) with laboratory seismic methods, ...

  13. Reintroducing the intrinsic self-healing properties in reclaimed asphalt by rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Shirazi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) is one of the largest fractions of raw materials used in road construction today. Probably over 90% of the total RA in the Netherlands is being reused in new asphalt constructions. RA contains aggregates coated with very hard bitumen (penetration grade of 10-20). During

  14. Toward the Design of an Induction Heating System for Asphalt Pavements with the Finite Element Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Kasbergen, C.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Induction technology was introduced to the paving industry to assist pavement operations by heating asphalt layers efficiently from the surface. Many experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of inductive particles on the heating efficiency of asphalt mixes. However,

  15. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  16. Grade determination of crumb rubber-modified performance graded asphalt binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Due to particulates common in crumb rubber-modified asphalt binders, conventional PG grading using the Dynamic : Shear Rheometer (DSR) with a gap height of 1.0 mm may not be valid and in accordance with current specifications. : Asphalt binder testin...

  17. Monitoring hot mix asphalt temperature to improve homogeneity and pavement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Santagata, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how controlled compaction practices lead to better quality asphalt. Therefore, it is important that during compaction operations the mixture is at a suitable temperature in order to achieve the specified degree of compaction. The University of Twente’s Asphalt Paving Research

  18. Investigation of the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) testing program in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The asphalt pavement analyzer (APA) has been widely used to evaluate hot-mix asphalt (HMA) rutting potential in mix : design and quality control-quality assurance (QC-QA) applications, because the APA testing and its data analyses are : relatively si...

  19. Use of waste crushed glass for the production of hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available presents the development and evaluation of a new asphalt concrete mix that utilizes a sustainable crushed glass as a replacement material of a natural aggregate. The ultimate goal is to produce a cost-effective asphalt wearing course with comparative...

  20. Performance characterizations of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating silane additive ZycoTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Hamzah, Meor Othman; Yee, Teh Sek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the properties of asphalt binders and mixtures produced using a relatively new silane additive, named ZycoTherm. In this study, 0.1wt% ZycoTherm was blended with asphalt binder to enable production of asphalt mixture at lower than normal temperatures, as well as improve mix workability and compactability. Asphalt mixture performances towards pavement distresses in tropical climate region were also investigated. The properties of control asphalt binders (60/70 and 80/10 penetration grade) and asphalt binders incorporating 0.1% ZycoTherm were reported based on the penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, complex modulus and phase angle. Subsequently, to compare the performance of asphalt mixture incorporating ZycoTherm with the control asphalt mixture, cylindrical samples were prepared at recommended temperatures and air voids depending on the binder types and test requirements. The samples were tested for indirect tensile strength (ITS), resilient modulus, dynamic creep, Hamburg wheel tracking and moisture induced damage. From compaction data using the Servopak gyratory compactor, specimen prepared using ZycoTherm exhibit higher workability and compactability compared to the conventional mixture. From the mixture performance test results, mixtures prepared with ZycoTherm showed comparable if not better performance than the control sample in terms of the resistance to moisture damage, permanent deformation and cracking.

  1. Modelling absorption in porous asphalt concrete for oblique incident sound waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Sas, P; Moens, D.; Denayer, H.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model to predict the sound absorption of porous asphalt has been developed. The approach is a combination between a microstructural approach and a finite element approach. The model used to describe the viscothermal properties of the air inside the pores of the asphalt is the low reduced

  2. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  3. Modeling of asphalt by means of discrete element method – an initial study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Hededal, Ole; Stang, Henrik

    Asphalt is a viscous material consisting of a matrix of stones, sand and filler glued together by a bituminous binder, which is used in many pavement constructions. Knowledge about asphalt is mainly based on the results of experimental and empirical investigation, which comes at the expense...

  4. Thermodynamics between RAP/RAS and virgin aggregates during asphalt concrete production : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In hot-mix asphalt (HMA) plants, virgin aggregates are heated and dried separately before being mixed with : RAP/RAS and virgin asphalt binder. RAP/RAS materials are not heated or dried directly by a burner to avoid : burning of aged binder coating o...

  5. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez A Al-Mansob

    Full Text Available Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  6. Analyzing the stripping potential of warm mix asphalt using imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq Kakar, Muhammad; Othman Hamzah, Meor; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    In asphalt mixtures, stripping occurs when the bond between the asphalt and the aggregate is broken due to the intrusion of water within the asphalt aggregate interface. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a technology that allows significant reduction in mixing and compaction temperatures of conventional hot mix asphalt. However, WMA is susceptible to moisture damage due to its lower production temperature. This can cause adhesive failure, hence stripping of asphalt binder from the aggregates. In this study, direct tensile strength (DTS) and indirect tensile strength (ITS) tests were applied to fracture the mixture specimen. Imaging technique was applied on the fractured faces of asphalt mixture to quantify the adhesive failure susceptibility due to the destructive effects of moisture. The results showed that adhesive failure increased with the number of freeze and thaw cycles and mixtures prepared with PG-76 binder exhibited lower adhesive failure compared to PG-64 binder. From fractured ITS samples, most of broken aggregates were found located in the vicinity where the indirect tensile load was applied. On the other hand, high adhesive failure was obtained at the center portion where maximum tensile stresses were developed. The image analysis method employed in this work has proven to be very effective to analyze the deterioration of asphalt mixtures subjected to moisture conditioning.

  7. Investigation of self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes using beam on elastic foundation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Self healing of asphalt mixes is known for more than four decades. However, it is a complex phenomenon which depends on the duration of the rest period, temperature, crack size, etc. In order to quantify the self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes, a test setup was proposed in this research using an

  8. Evaluation of recycled hot mix asphalt concrete on Route 220 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the performance of an approximately 8-mi section of roadway on which the rod two layers of asphalt concrete were milled, recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant, and relaid. The recycled mix consisted of about 40% re...

  9. Risk of fatal industrial accidents and death from other external causes among asphalt workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burstyn, I.; Boffetta, P.; Jarvholm, B.; Partanen, T.A.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ahrens, W.; Bergdahl, I.A.; Cenee, S.; Hooiveld, M.; Randem, B.G.; Johansen, C.; Ferro, G.; Kromhout, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that asphalt workers are at increased risk of mortality from industrial accidents and other external causes was tested. Mortality rates for external and violent causes of death in a cohort of asphalt industry employees from seven European countries and Israel were compared to that of

  10. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Matching Relationship between Asphalt Particle and Reservoir Pore in Profile Control Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified sulfonated asphalt particles have a bright application prospect of the profile control of thick reservoirs due to the low cost, extensive sources, and good compatibility with reservoir. Nevertheless, the matching relationship between asphalt particles and reservoir pore has seldom been investigated till now. Oversized particles always block the near-wellbore area, which causes high injection pressures, while undersized particles cannot plug large pores. We designed a core for this experiment which has a high permeability zone in front of it and many pressure measuring points. We could quantitatively assess the matching relationship by measuring the on-way resistance coefficient, residual resistance factor, and relative change of permeability of man-made cores after injecting asphalt. Experimental results indicate that asphalt particles with sizes of 0.02 mm, 0.02–0.06 mm, and 0.08–0.1 mm match with reservoir permeability of 500 mD, 1000 mD, and 2000 mD, respectively. Undersized or oversized particles can reduce the conformance control effect, and the concentration of asphalt particles in the injectant can limit their migration ability. When the concentration of asphalt particles increases to 3000 mg/L, accumulations of asphalt particles can be caused in the formation, in which a scheme with asphalt particles alternative water injection is proposed to avoid the accumulation.

  12. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  13. 76 FR 24519 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and cement clinker from...

  14. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  15. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  16. Shear bond strength of cement to zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentritt, M.; Behr, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the shear bond strength (SBS) of various cements to zirconia ceramic. CoCr-cylinders were bonded to zirconia plates (20 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm; n = 8 per group) using four self-adhesive resin cements (one capsule, three hand-mixed) and four resin cements, partly in combination

  17. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns or...

  18. Multicomponent modelling of Portland cement hydration reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of cement and concrete technologies depends on more in depth understanding of cement hydration reactions. Hydration reaction models simulate the development of the microstructures that can finally be used to estimate the cement based material properties that influence performance and

  19. Burning sewage sludge in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, A.

    1987-03-01

    Full-scale industrial trial burning of sewage sludge in cement kilns in Switzerland is reported. Tests with dried sludge, kiln operation, chimney emissions, clinker and cement are discussed, and possibilities open to Swiss cement industry, and significance within the overall scope of waste disposal are outlined.

  20. Change in consistency and composition of trichloroethylene- and trichloroethane-treated asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elgheit, M A; Ijam, M J

    1982-12-01

    Solvent extraction of asphalt from pavement mixtures is a technique used to study the change in asphalt during service. Rheological measurements indicate that asphalts recovered from trichloroethylene or trichloroethane are markedly hardened. Compositional studies on asphaltic fractions reveal a notable decrease in saturates, naphthenes, H, N, Ni and V, and increase in polar aromatics and asphaltenes along with incorporation of Cl in all fractions. These structural changes are responsible for the hardening of the asphalt and are interpreted in terms of cyclization of saturates, aromatization of naphthenes, coupling of free radicals with neutral species to give a high content of asphaltenes, and in terms of loss of the relatively volatile Ni and V porphyrins during the extraction-recovery process.

  1. Drying of Porous Asphalt Concrete Investigated by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerjen, I.; Poulikakos, L. D.; Plamondon, M.; Schuetz, Ph.; Luethi, Th.; Flisch, A.

    Porous asphalt concrete is composed of aggregates, a bituminous binder and air voids which can form a complex network. Because rain water can easily drain through this network of voids, porous asphalt concrete is often used for improving the security of highways. However, porous asphalt concrete is often deteriorating fast due to its large contact area with environmental agents. A quantitative determination of the influence of rain water on the aging of porous asphalt concrete requires an understanding of water drainage and evaporation in the material. In this paper, the water evaporation rate in a sample of porous asphalt concrete was investigated by means of X-ray micro computed tomography. Discontinuities in the evaporation rate were observed. A qualitative inspection of the pore network allowed tentatively linking sudden acceleration of evaporation to the disappearance of water lids which were clogging pores.

  2. Road safety effects of porous asphalt: a systematic review of evaluation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, R.; Greibe, Poul

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of studies that have evaluated the effects on road safety of porous asphalt. Porous asphalt is widely used on motorways in Europe, mainly in order to reduce traffic noise and increase road capacity. A meta-analysis was made of six studies, containing a total...... of eighteen estimates of the effect of porous asphalt on accident rates. No clear effect on road safety of porous asphalt was found. All summary estimates of effect indicated very small changes in accident rates and very few were statistically significant at conventional levels. Studies that have evaluated...... of these changes in risk factors on accident occurrence cannot be predicted. On the whole, the research that has been reported so far regarding road safety effects of porous asphalt is inconclusive. The studies are not of high quality and the findings are inconsistent....

  3. Mechanical analysis of asphalt stabilized permeable base to inhibit reflective cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min

    2017-09-01

    Asphalt stabilized drainage base has good drainage performance, can effectively rule out the water in pavement structure, reduce the occurrence of water damage, and maintain good pavement performance. Based on the mechanical analysis of the affect of asphalt stabilized permeable base on the inhibition of reflection crack, using the finite element software to simulate the stress characteristics of the asphalt and to do the mechanical analysis of asphalt pavement cracks at the grass-roots level to the pavement after stretching process, by comparing the pavement crack tip stress intensity factor of original pavement structure and set up the ATPB layer, respectively, to study the effect of asphalt stabilized permeable base on inhibition of reflection cracking.

  4. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Flow and Formation Damage of Asphalt-Paved Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Alawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt is a standard asphalt built on aggregate storage bed which allows water to drain through it and reduces stormwater runoff. However, porosity of the porous asphalt and the storage bed may be effectively reduced due to trapping suspended solids from the water or from the asphalt damage. In this paper, we present mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of flow and damage of porous asphalt-paved roads. A mathematical model to describe the fine-particles transport carried by a two-phase flow in a porous medium is presented. The buoyancy, capillarity, and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids properties such as water saturation and solid properties such as porosity and permeability due to trapping the fine-particles.

  6. Rice Husk Ash Cement – An alternative pozzolana cement for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The engineering properties of the cement resulting from a mixture of OPC plus RHA and lime plus RHA were satisfactory with addition of up to 50% RHA. The RHA improved greatly the compressive strength of lime. The cost of producing RHA was considered in pricing the resulting binder and it showed that the use of RHA ...

  7. Development of novel dental cements. II. Cement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, A D; Piddock, V; Combe, E C

    1992-01-01

    Following earlier work, three novel aluminoborate glasses have been studied as potential cement components. Factors studied include the effect of batch size on composition and manipulative characteristics, and the effect of tartaric acid and conditions of storage on mechanical properties. It was concluded that two materials have potential for application as dental luting agents.

  8. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  9. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  10. Fast Setting Cement - Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    viscosity, and adaptability to fillers . This formula- tion provides a 30-mmn compressive strength of 3500 psi and flexural strength of 600 psi. Among other... limestone sand, water, and plastiment showed a compressive strength of approximately 6700 psi at 1 day. 5. Annex C - Very fine cements. a. The

  11. False set in aireated cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aireation on the appearance or elimination of the false setting in industrial portland cements is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy.

    Se estudia por medio de la espectroscopia infrarroja la influencia de la aireación sobre la aparición o eliminación del fraguado, en cemento portland industriales.

  12. Environmental performance and mechanical analysis of concrete containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and waste precast concrete as aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Savaş; Blankson, Marva Angela

    2014-01-15

    The overall objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating 100% recycled aggregates, either waste precast concrete or waste asphalt planning, as replacements for virgin aggregates in structural concrete and to determine the mechanical and environmental performance of concrete containing these aggregates. Four different types of concrete mixtures were designed with the same total water cement ratio (w/c=0.74) either by using natural aggregate as reference or by totally replacing the natural aggregate with recycled material. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a mineral addition (35%) in all mixtures. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain satisfactory performance for strength characteristics of concrete containing recycled aggregates, if these aggregates are sourced from old precast concrete. However, from the perspective of the mechanical properties, the test results indicated that concrete with RAP aggregate cannot be used for structural applications. In terms of leaching, the results also showed that the environmental behaviour of the recycled aggregate concrete is similar to that of the natural aggregate concrete. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding cement mechanical behavior in SAGD wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Zahacy, T. A. [C-FER Technologies (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but it can cause cracks in the cement sheath. These cracks are the result of high steam temperatures and thermal expansion. In order to mitigate this risk, improved well designs are required. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanical behavior of the cement sheath during the heating phase. An analysis of the impact of design and operating parameters was conducted through thermal hydraulic and thermal mechanical analyses to assess cement integrity. These analyses were then performed on an example of an SAGD project in the southern part of the Athabasca oilsands region to assess the performance of the cement sheath. Results showed that potential damage to the cement can be reduced by slow heating and a lower Young's modulus cement blend. This paper makes recommendations for optimizing cement design in thermal recovery wells.

  14. Nano-granular texture of cement hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidou Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the “glue” of cement. The design of high performance and more environmentally friendly cements demands a deeper understanding of the formation of the multiscale structure of cement hydrates, when they precipitate and densify. We investigate the precipitation and setting of nano-grains of cement hydrates using a combination of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations and study their texture from nano up to the micron scale. We characterize the texture of cement hydrates using the local volume fraction distribution, the pore size distribution, the scattering intensity and the chord length distribution and we compare them with experiments. Our nano-granular model provides cement structure with realistic texture and mechanics and can be further used to investigate degradation mechanisms.

  15. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  16. Mezclas SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) con alto contenido de ligante

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Andrés; Cervantes, Rocío; Loma, Javier; Hidalgo, María Elena; Hergueta, José Antonio; Sánchez, Fernando; Lanchas, Santiago; Núñez, Ruy; Rubio, Baltasar; Jiménez, Rafael; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Botella Nieto, Ramón; Expósito, Santiago; Fernández, Victoriano; Potti, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Las denominadas mezclas bituminosas en caliente SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) están recogidas en la normativa UNE EN 13108-5 y aunque en España apenas se han utilizado, su uso esta extendido por todo el mundo. Un grupo de empresas y algunos centros de investigación españoles, estamos desarrollando un proyecto de investigación denominado: Mezclas SMA de la familia de la norma UNE EN 13108-5 que sean Sostenibles y Medioambientalmente Amigables. Financiado por el Centro Tecnológico para el Desarrol...

  17. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-01

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage, or micro cracks, and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered; ‘only creep’, ‘only damage’ or ‘creep and damage’. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

  18. LABORATORY SIMULATION OF POROUS ASPHALT PARKING LOT SYSTEM AND MIX DESIGN FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. HAMZAH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt pavement was initially developed for the purpose of improving road safety, best candidate material for quiet pavement and to avoid aquaplaning and skidding in wet weather. However, from previous studies, porous asphalt is able to mitigate surface runoff. Porous asphalt parking lots with underlying reservoir course perform as additional temporary water storage matrix that enables reduction of flash flood. This paper elaborates the development of a new porous asphalt aggregate grading design for storm water mitigation using the Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS 20 mm. The properties of the mixes were quantified and evaluated in terms of air voids, permeability, abrasion loss and indirect tensile strength. It was found that the proposed gradation has the best permeability and Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS values when compacted at 50 blows per face with a standard Marshal compactor. The porous asphalt slab was prepared using a slab compactor to simulate porous parking lot paving at site. The porous asphalt slab was finally placed inside a locally fabricated water flow simulator to simulate a porous asphalt pavement system for parking lots.

  19. An Image-Based Finite Element Approach for Simulating Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based micromechanical modeling approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture. An improved image analysis technique based on the OTSU thresholding operation was employed to reduce the beam hardening effect in X-ray CT images. We developed a voxel-based 3D digital reconstruction model of asphalt mixture with the CT images after being processed. In this 3D model, the aggregate phase and air void were considered as elastic materials while the asphalt mastic phase was considered as linear viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic constitutive model of asphalt mastic was implemented in a finite element code using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT. An experimental procedure for determining the parameters of the viscoelastic constitutive model at a given temperature was proposed. To examine the capability of the model and the accuracy of the parameter, comparisons between the numerical predictions and the observed laboratory results of bending and compression tests were conducted. Finally, the verified digital sample of asphalt mixture was used to predict the asphalt mixture viscoelastic behavior under dynamic loading and creep-recovery loading. Simulation results showed that the presented image-based digital sample may be appropriate for predicting the mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture when all the mechanical properties for different phases became available.

  20. Qualitative analysis of SBS modifier in asphalt pavements using field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Fengxia; Liu, Zhifei

    2017-06-01

    Series of tests are implemented to analysis the related characteristics of common asphalt and unknown asphalt mainly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) for chemical compositions and rheological properties of asphalt, respectively. In addition, a series of mechanical properties were performed on asphalt mixtures, including indirect tensile strength test and three point bending test at low temperature. Experimental results indicated that compared with common asphalt, the characteristic absorption peak of the unknown asphalt are appeared at 966cm-1and 699cm-1, which are accordant with the SBS modifier. The results of DSR indicated that the unknown asphalt’s complex modulus is higher and the phase angle is lower. The mechanical tests indicated that some properties of the unknown mixture samples are increased by 24.7%∼41.8% compared with common pavement sample, like the indirect tensile strength, the bending test at low temperature and indirect tensile resilient modulus. Comprehensive analysis indicates that SBS modifier is existed in the unknown asphalt pavement.

  1. A Study of Moisture Damage in Plastomeric Polymer Modified Asphalt Binder Using Functionalized AFM Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Tarefder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt binder is investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM with chemically functionalized AFM tips. Four different percentages of plastomeric polymers and two antistripping agents such as Kling Beta and Lime are used to modify a base asphalt binder. Chemical functional groups such as -COOH, -CH3, -NH3, and –OH, that are commonly present in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt system, are used to functionalize the AFM tips. The force distance mode of AFM is used to measure the adhesion forces between a modified asphalt sample surface and the functionalized AFM tips. This enables the measurement of adhesion within an asphalt binder system. It is shown that the adhesion force values in dry sample changed substantially from that in wet conditioned samples. It is evident from this study that plastomeric modification does not help reduce moisture damage in asphalt. The percentage change in adhesion forces due to moisture is about 20 nN for the lime modified samples, and about 50 nN for the Kling Beta modified samples. This indicates that lime is more effective than Kling Beta for reducing moisture damage in plastomeric polymer modified asphalt.

  2. Investigation on Reinforced Mechanism of Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete Based on Micromechanical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Short fibers have been widely used to prepare the fiber reinforced asphalt concrete (FRAC. However, internal interactions between fiber and other phases of asphalt concrete are unclear although experimental methods have been used to design the FRAC successfully. In this paper, numerical method was used to investigate the reinforced mechanism of FRAC from microperspective. 2D micromechanical model of FRAC was established based on Monte Carlo theory. Effects of fiber length and content on stress state of asphalt mortar, effective modulus, and viscoelastic deformation of asphalt concrete were investigated. Indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM test and uniaxial creep test were carried out to verify the numerical results. Results show that maximum stress of asphalt mortar is lower compared to the control concrete when the fiber length is longer than 12 mm. Fiber reduces the stress level of asphalt mortar significantly. Fiber length has no significant influence on the effective modulus of asphalt concrete. Fiber length and content both have notable impacts on the viscoelastic performance of FRAC. Fiber length should be given more attention in the future design of FRAC except the content.

  3. Development of high stability hot mix asphalt concrete with hybrid binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hirato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction of public works projects has been desired due to severe financial circumstances. Therefore, asphalt pavement has been requested to extend its life. Semi-flexible pavement or epoxy asphalt pavement, which has high rutting resistance and oil resistance, may be applied to the place where these performances ae demanded. However, special technique is required in manufacturing and construction. In addition, these materials have also raised a problem that they cannot be recycled. Meanwhile, conventional asphalt pavement has several drawbacks. It is vulnerable to rutting caused by traffic load and damage caused by petroleum oils such as gasoline or motor oil. The materials used in asphalt mixtures were studied for improving the durability of asphalt mixture. A high stability asphalt concrete was developed which has equal or superior performance to semi-flexible pavement and epoxy asphalt pavement. In this paper, the process of selecting the substance and the characteristics evaluation of the developed mixtures ae described. Furthermore, an inspection result as well as follow-up survey of the performance of the developed mixtures obtained from trial and actual construction is shown.

  4. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Rean; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra; Mohamed, Nazim

    2015-01-01

    The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB), and TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G (∗) ) and phase angle (δ) were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G (∗) /sinδ values) and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G (∗) sinδ value). The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50) blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  5. Rutting and Fatigue Cracking Resistance of Waste Cooking Oil Modified Trinidad Asphaltic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Maharaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of waste cooking oil (WCO on the performance characteristics of asphaltic materials indigenous to Trinidad, namely, Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA, Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB, and TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blend, was investigated to deduce the applicability of the WCO as a performance enhancer for the base asphalt. The rheological properties of complex modulus (G∗ and phase angle (δ were measured for modified base asphalt blends containing up to 10% WCO. The results of rheology studies demonstrated that the incremental addition of WCO to the three parent binders resulted in incremental decreases in the rutting resistance (decrease in G∗/sinδ values and increases in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G∗sinδ value. The fatigue cracking resistance and rutting resistance for the TLA : TPB (50 : 50 blends were between those of the blends containing pure TLA and TPB. As operating temperature increased, an increase in the resistance to fatigue cracking and a decrease in the rutting resistance were observed for all of the WCO modified asphaltic blends. This study demonstrated the capability to create customized asphalt-WCO blends to suit special applications and highlights the potential for WCO to be used as an environmentally attractive option for improving the use of Trinidad asphaltic materials.

  6. Modification of local asphalt with epoxy resin to be used in pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Abd El Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The durability of asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the environmental changes during the year. In this paper, we prepared asphalt modified by mixing asphalt 60/70 with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR in different percentages (5, 10 and 15%, which was achieved using preformed peracetic acid (aqueous solution 59% at 60–80 °C, then molten cross-linker maleic anhydride (MA was added to modified asphalt until homogenous blends are achieved. Marshall test was used to evaluate the asphalt pavement performance depending on the curing time and hardener concentration. To measure marshall test, the pervious mixture was stirred with aggregate jop formula mix (JMF and 40% MA at 150–170 °C for 20 h and 1600 rpm. From the obtained data, it was found that asphalt mixed with 15% of ENR + 40% MA achieves a high stability (16,632 Newton, air voids of 2.5%, flow of 2.9 mm and mineral voids of 14.6%. While, the stability of the unmodified asphalt was (11,500 Newton, the flow 3.2 mm, the suitable air void value was 3.7% at 5.5% with the same conditions.

  7. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  8. Ice melting properties of steel slag asphalt concrete with microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Sun, Yihan; Liu, Quantao; Fang, Hao; Wu, Shaopeng; Tang, Jin; Ye, Qunshan

    2017-03-01

    The ice on the surface of asphalt pavement in winter significantly influences the road transportation safety. This paper aims at the improvement of the ice melting efficiency on the surface of asphalt pavement. The steel slag asphalt concrete was prepared and the high ice melting efficiency was achieved with the microwave heating. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ice melting performance of steel slag asphalt concrete, including the heating test, ice melting test, thermal conductivity test and so on. The results indicated that the microwave heating of steel slag concrete can improve the efficiency of deicing, mainly because the heating rates of steel slag asphalt mixture are much better than traditional limestone asphalt mixture. According to different thickness lever of ice, the final temperatures of each sample were very close to each other at the end of melting test. It is believed the thickness of the ice has a limited impact on the ice melting efficiency. According to the heating tests results, the bonding of ice and asphalt concrete is defined failure at the moment when the surface temperature of the ice reached 3 °C.

  9. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  10. The Influence of Limestone And Calcium Hydroxide Addition in Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaran Danny

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As time passes, flood often occurs in the area of Gunung Sahari, Jakarta Utara. The flood damages concrete asphalt mixture and it needs particular improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to know the effects of the added combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide on concrete asphalt mixture as a filler resistant to flood. Concrete asphalt mixture that filled with the combination of limestone and calcium hydroxide is a mixture that is made with non-uniform aggregat gradations, filler and liquid asphalt mixed and solidified in a heat state. Limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture is used because both materials included in the most numerous sedimentary rock. Concrete asphalt mixture with the filler combination of limestone and calciumhydroxide is made with optimum asphalt 5.4%, one variation level of limestone (15%, and calcium hydroxide (15%, and three variation levels of fillers (5%, 7.5%, and 15% to get optimum asphalt levels and filler levels that are compatible with flood condition. Based on optimum asphalt 5.4% towards aggregate total weight and combined level of limestone and calcium hydroxide suitable for the conditions, 8.75 % towards fine aggregate weight. The characteristic value of limestone and calcium hydroxide mixture in maximum condition is VIM 4.55%, VMA 18.83%, stability 1031.26 kg and flow 4.93 mm, where the characteristic value meets the established specifications standard by Pekerjaan Umum Bina Marga. From the result, it is showed that the use of the mixture can decrease the value of stability and increase the value of flow, compared with asphalt and filler with normal levels.

  11. Fatigue Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and analyses the results of an experimental trial on the fatigue resistance of recycled hot mix asphalt for road pavements. Based on the gyratory compaction and the indirect tensile strength test, the mix design procedure has optimized nine different mixes, considering both conventional limestone and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, the latter used at different quantities, up to 40% by weight of the aggregate. A standard bitumen and two polymer modified binders were used for the production of the mixes. The fatigue study was carried out with four-point bending tests, each one performed at 20°C and 10 Hz. The empirical stiffness reduction method, along with the energy ratio approach, based on the dissipated energy concept, was adopted to elaborate the experimental data. Unaged and aged specimens were checked, to analyse the ageing effects on the fatigue performance. In comparison with the control mixes, produced only with limestone, improved fatigue performance was noticed for the mixtures prepared with RAP, especially when made with polymer modified binders, under both aged and unaged conditions. Both the approaches adopted for the experimental data analysis have outlined the same ranking of the mixes.

  12. Performance properties of asphalt mixes for rich bottom layers (RBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Petr; Fiedler, Jiří; Kašpar, Jiří; Sýkora, Michal; Hýzl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The binder content of asphalt mixes has an important influence on the performance properties. Higher binder content improves fatigue resistance. That is why the concept of RBL was developed in USA and applied for “perpetual pavements”. However excessive binder content could lead to the decrease of the mix stiffness and to permanent deformations of asphalt pavement during hot summer. The advantages and limitations of RBL concept have been studied in research project CESTI. Fatigue tests of mixes with road bitumen and polymer modified bitumen and RBL were realised. Deformation behaviour of these mixes was also evaluated. The experience from the test section with RBL laid in 2015 will be presented. The results corresponded to expectations. However, low void content was obtained on one subsection. In spite of it, there were no permanent deformations during summer 2016. The analysis of methods for the prediction of the permanent deformation was also undertaken in research project CESTI. Some information about the results of these analysis related to the use of RBL will be also briefly mentioned.

  13. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  14. Nonlinearly viscoelastic analysis of asphalt mixes subjected to shear loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Masad, Eyad; Muliana, Anastasia H.; Bahia, Hussain

    2007-06-01

    This study presents the characterization of the nonlinearly viscoelastic behavior of hot mix asphalt (HMA) at different temperatures and strain levels using Schapery’s model. A recursive-iterative numerical algorithm is generated for the nonlinearly viscoelastic response and implemented in a displacement-based finite element (FE) code. Then, this model is employed to describe experimental frequency sweep measurements of two asphalt mixes with fine and coarse gradations under several combined temperatures and shear strain levels. The frequency sweep measurements are converted to creep responses in the time domain using a phenomenological model (Prony series). The master curve is created for each strain level using the time temperature superposition principle (TTSP) with a reference temperature of 40°C. The linear time-dependent parameters of the Prony series are first determined by fitting a master curve created at the lowest strain level, which in this case is 0.01%. The measurements at strain levels higher than 0.01% are analyzed and used to determine the nonlinear parameters. These parameters are shown to increase with increasing strain levels, while the time temperature shift function is found to be independent of strain levels. The FE model with the calibrated time-dependent and nonlinear material parameters is used to simulate the creep experimental tests, and reasonable predictions are shown.

  15. Group type analysis of asphalt by column liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Yang, J.; Xue, Y.; Li, Y. [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-07-01

    An improved analysis method for characterization of asphalt was established. The method is based on column chromatography technique. The asphalts were separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, quantitatively. About 0.1 g of sample was required in each analysis. About 20 mL of n-heptanes was used to separate out saturates first. Then about 35 mL of n-heptanes/dichloromethane (.5, v/v) mixture was used to separate out aromatics. About 30 mL of dichloromethane/tetrahydrofuran (1/3, v/v) mixture was used to separate out resin. The quality of the separation was confirmed by infrared spectra (IR) and {sup 1}H NMR analysis. The model compounds, tetracosan for saturates, dibenz(o)anthracen for aromatics, and acetanilide for resins were used for verification. The IR and {sup 1}H NMR analysis of the prepared fractions from the column liquid chromatography were in good agreement that of pure reagents.

  16. Asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomas; Varaus, Michal

    2017-09-01

    A case study of one trial section in the Pilsen region is presented. The pavement in the section was newly constructed in 2015 using one type of an asphalt concrete mixtures with varying RAP content. The constructed surface course comprises of 0% to 50% RAP. In order to restore the aged binder properties and to avoid the embrittlement of the produced mixtures, a rubber-based modifier/rejuvenator was employed. For technological reasons during manufacturing processes, which engage a parallel drying drum, a crude oil-based rejuvenator was also added. This article contains the preliminary data from an on-going project focused on monitoring the properties of bituminous binders contained in asphalt mixtures. The actual bituminous binders were extracted straight after production, after 6 months and after 12 months. The binder characteristics are evaluated using empirical testing as well as functional tests. Low temperature properties are measured by a Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). The preliminary results show, that the bituminous binders properties change significantly in a relatively short period of time. The progress in binder’ characteristics is contradictory to up-to date knowledge. The probability that the phenomenon of diffusion between aged binder and rejuvenator agents occurs exists. Moreover, the data might indicate that the process of rejuvenator evaporation takes place.

  17. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  18. Evaluation and application of surfactants synthesized from asphalt components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, characterization, surface activity and applications of nonionic surfactants derived from the asphalt components (maltenes M are presented. These compounds were synthesized by the sulfonation of (maltene, then the prepared maltene sulfonic acid (MS was reacted with hexadecylamine giving maltene sulfonamide product (A which undergoes an alkali-catalyzed ethoxylation at (135–150 °C. Several surfactants (M-10 to M-40 were formed with different ethylene oxide units (from 10 up to 40 and were characterized by molecular weight determinations, elemental analyses and FTIR analysis. Surface tension, as a function of concentration of the surfactants in the aqueous media, was measured at 25 °C. From these measurements, the critical micelle concentration (CMC, the maximum surface excess concentration (Гmax, Minimum area per molecule (Amin, effectiveness of surface reduction (ПCMC and the efficiency (pC20 were calculated. The prepared surfactants were applied as emulsifying agents for making asphalt emulsions. Storage stability, (Saybolt Furol viscosity, settlement (water content difference %, coating ability and water resistance were measured. The results indicated that M-20 (maltene sulfonamide ethoxylated with 20 units of ethylene oxides gives a maximum stability.

  19. Retention of gold alloy crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Lilliam M; Frey, Gary N; Winkler, Mark M; Tate, William H; Burgess, John O; Powers, John M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure in vitro retention of cast gold crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements. Forty-eight human molars were prepared on a lathe to produce complete crown preparations with a consistent taper and split into six groups, eight crowns in each group. Crowns were cast in a high-gold alloy and then cemented. After 24 hours, the retention force (N) was recorded and mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Fisher post-hoc least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test (a = .05). Failure sites were examined under 3100 magnification and recorded. Mean values (SD) for each group in increasing order of retention force were: Harvard Cement: 43 N (27), TempoCem: 59 N (16), PermaCem Dual: 130 N (42), RelyX Luting Cement: 279 N (26), Contax and PermaCem Dual: 286 N (38), and TempoCem with Contax and PermaCem Dual: 340 N (14). The Fisher PLSD interval (P = .05) for comparing cements was 29 N. Zinc-phosphate cement and provisional resin cements had the lowest retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent and the hybrid-ionomer cement had similar retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent applied after use of a provisional resin cement had a significantly higher retention force than the other cements tested.

  20. Influence of mixture characteristics on the oxidative aging of asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morian, Nathan E.

    The objective of this research effort focused on the evaluation of asphalt mixtures with respect to thermal cracking. Preliminary investigations soon indicated that a fundamental evaluation of thermal cracking was highly dependent upon the more complicated understanding of asphalt binder oxidation. The oxidation of asphalt binders within an asphalt mixture were understood to potentially be influenced by the mixture characteristics (i.e. air void levels, binder content, etc.) and aggregate properties (i.e. aggregate absorption, gradation, etc.). Therefore, this study was conducted in order to investigate and quantify the effects different aggregate sources and mixture properties may have on the oxidation and thermal cracking performance of asphalt mixtures. The investigation specifically focused on quantifying the oxidation of the asphalt binder alone and as part of the asphalt mixture when subjected to isothermal oven aging. The oxidation parameters of pan-aged asphalt binders were quantified, according to the standard of practice in the industry. These parameters were then compared to extracted and recovered mixture-aged asphalt binders to examine the influence of the main aggregate and mixture factors on the binder oxidation. The study observed differences between the pan-aged and mixture-aged asphalt binders in terms of oxidation kinetics, rheological measures, and the combined effect represented as the hardening susceptibility. Further evaluation of the binder oxidation based upon the dynamic modulus measures indicated marked influences of the mixture characteristics, the individual component materials, and the interactions between the investigated factors. Differentiation of the experimental factors was further identified by the newly developed low-temperature evaluation method, Uniaxial Thermal Stress and Strain Test (UTSST). The UTSST provides a fundamental approach to characterize the thermo-viscoelastic properties of asphalt mixtures permitting the

  1. Development of an asphalt aging procedure to assess long-term binder performance

    KAUST Repository

    Juristyarini, Pramitha

    2011-09-07

    Nine asphalts, including seven Strategic Highway Research Program asphalts and two Texas asphalts, were aged at several conditions of temperature and oxygen pressure to develop an aging test. Values for a dynamic shear rheometer function, a combination of both elastic and viscous properties that serves as an indicator of susceptibility to age-related pavement cracking, were measured for both aged and unaged samples. Each aging condition was ranked and calibrated against environmental room aging (60°C, 1 atm air), used to simulate road aging. PAV thin-film aging at 90°C, 20 atm air for 32 hr best represented environmental room aging. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  2. HOW TO OBTAIN ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AUTOMOBILE ROAD AND STREET PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Verenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology for evaluation of technical and economic efficiency of asphalt concrete mixture components. The method allows to perform a directed search for new materials which are used for mixture preparation and it also provides an efficient use of monetary funds. Firstly, it is possible to obtain this result due to optimum price-quality ratio of asphalt mixture which is determined by its service life in a pavement; secondly, it is possible to obtain this result due to  exclusion of errors while selecting components of the asphalt mixture out of the whole range applied presently in the world practice.

  3. Evaluation of the Performance of Local Cements with Imported Class

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portland cement is the most commonly used cement in the oil and gas industry and it accounts for about 99% of all primary cementing operations throughout the world. For Portland cement to qualify as oil well cement, the chemical and physical properties must meet the required standards of the American Petroleum Institute ...

  4. Investigation of the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures via fatigue and linear contraction and creep test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Conghui; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Bo; Wang, Jingang

    2008-11-01

    Three types of asphalt mixtures, including asphalt concrete (AC), stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and porous asphalt (PA) with a 13mm gradation, are chosen to study the fatigue behavior, linear contraction and creep performance of them. The analysis of the experimental results is summarized as follows. The asphalt mixture exhibits longer fatigue life at low temperature than that at high temperature. But the fatigue life is more sensitive to the loading stress at low temperature. At the same time, the fatigue lives of all the three mixture gradations show decreasing trends with the increasing stress, which implies that restraining over-loading of highways is quite important. The linear contractive quotiety shows great distinction with the types of asphalt mixture gradations and temperature span, which indicates that modified asphalt and lower air voids can benefit to the contractive properties of asphalt mixtures at low temperature. Additionally, the linear contractive quotiety decreases with the falling of the temperature, meanwhile the distinctions between different temperature spans tend to slower. The creep test indicates that lower air voids and larger asphalt content are beneficial to the low temperature performance of asphalt.

  5. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-12-15

    To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation.

  6. Influence of the temperature on the cement disintegration in cement-retained implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Vindasiute, Egle; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Svediene, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the average disintegration temperature of three dental cements used for the cementation of the implant-supported prostheses. One hundred and twenty metal frameworks were fabricated and cemented on the prosthetic abutments with different dental cements. After heat treatment in the dental furnace, the samples were set for the separation to test the integration of the cement. Results have shown that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RGIC) exhibited the lowest disintegration temperature (pcement (ZPC) and dual cure resin cement (RC) (p>0.05). Average separation temperatures: RGIC - 306 ± 23 °C, RC - 363 ± 71 °C, it could not be calculated for the ZPC due to the eight unseparated specimens. Within the limitations of the study, it could be concluded that RGIC cement disintegrates at the lowest temperature and ZPC is not prone to break down after exposure to temperature.

  7. Catastrophic cement reaction following cementation for megaprosthesis for proximal femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Muhammad Nouman; Curtin, William; Callaghan, Michael Andrew; Murphy, Colin G

    2017-09-23

    Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is a well-described and potentially fatal complication of orthopaedic surgery involving pressurised bone cement. Although also described for certain spinal procedures, it is most commonly associated with cemented hip and knee arthroplasty and with cemented hemiarthroplasty following neck of femur fracture in particular.Donaldson et alproposed the definition of BCIS as a syndrome "characterized by hypoxia, hypotension or both and/or unexpected loss of consciousness occurring around the time of cementation, prosthesis insertion, reduction of the joint or, occasionally, limb tourniquet deflation in a patient undergoing cemented bone surgery". Other features include increased vascular resistance, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest post cement use.We describe a case of a patient who suffered a catastrophic reaction to cement during surgery for a comminuted proximal femoral fracture. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niethard Fritz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health.

  9. Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Toru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

  10. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  11. Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Riaz; Ercan, Batur; Qiao, Alex; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-02-02

    Zirconia (ZrO(2)) and barium sulfate (BaSO(4)) particles were introduced into a methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) solution with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) beads during polymerization to develop the following novel bone cements: bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) nanoparticles, bone cements with ZrO(2) nanoparticles functionalized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMS), bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) nanoparticles, and bone cements with BaSO(4) nanoparticles functionalized with TMS. Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO(4) ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements. Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles. Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes. Finally, all bone cements containing ceramic particles possessed greater radio-opacity than unmodified bone cements. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated a positive impact on the properties of traditional bone cements for orthopedic applications with the addition of unfunctionalized and TMS functionalized ceramic nanoparticles.

  12. The influence of ultrasound on removal of prefabricated metal post cemented with different resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Feiz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic energy did not decrease the retention of posts cemented with Panavia or Maxcem Elite cements. Furthermore, it seems that there is no significant difference between removal force of self-etch (Panavia and the self-etch self-adhesive (Maxcem Elite resin cements.

  13. Prediction of hydroxyl concentrations in cement pore water using a numerical cement hydration model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D numerical cement hydration model is used for predicting alkali and hydroxyl concentrations in cement pore water. First, this numerical model is calibrated for Dutch cement employing both chemical shrinkage and calorimetric experiments. Secondly, the strength development of some

  14. Evaluation of cement thixotropy for the cement of oil wells in areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster. Keywords: cementing; lost circulation; ...

  15. Early cement damage around a femoral stem is concentrated at the cement/bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A; Ayers, David C; Mann, Kenneth A

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed to improve understanding of the mechanical aspects of cemented implant loosening. After aggressive fatigue loading of stem/cement/femur constructs, micro-cracks and stem/bone micro-motions were quantified to answer three research questions: Are cracks preferentially associated with the stem/cement interface, the cement/bone interface or voids? Is cement damage dependent on axial position? Does cement damage correlate with micro-motion between the stem and the bone? Eight Charnley Cobra stems were implanted in cadaveric femora. Six stem/cement/femur constructs were subjected to "stair-climbing" loads for 300 kcycles at 2Hz. Loads were normalized by construct stiffness to avoid fracture. Two additional constructs were not loaded. Transverse sections were cut at 10mm intervals, stained with a fluorescent dye penetrant and examined using epi-fluorescence stereomicroscopy. Crack lengths and cement areas were recorded for 9 sections per specimen. Crack length-density was calculated by dividing summed crack length by cement mantle area. To isolate the effect of loading, length-density data were offset by the baseline length-density measured in the non-loaded specimens. Significantly more cracks were associated with the interdigitated area (35.1%+/-11.6%) and the cement/bone interface (31.0%+/-6.2%) than with the stem/cement interface (11.0%+/-5.2%) or voids (6.1%+/-4.8%) (psmall, all stems rotated internally. Cement damage did not correlate with micro-motion.

  16. The effect of low dose teicoplanin-loaded acrylic bone cement on biocompatibility of bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztemür, Zekeriya; Sümer, Zeynep; Tunç, Tutku; Pazarcé, Özhan; Bulut, Okay

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) is used to prevent or treat infection in total joint replacement surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the teicoplanin-loaded acrylic bone cement. Cytotoxicity examination of acrylic bone cement balls and 400 mg teicoplanin added acrylic bone cement balls conducted by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) was used to observe adhesion and spreading of cells on surface of the balls. Cytotoxicity examination conducted by MTT assay on acrylic bone cement balls and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement balls revealed no cytotoxicity. SEM analysis put forward that cells started to proliferate and adhere on surface of the samples in both groups as a result of 48-hour incubation and that the cell proliferation over acrylic bone cement and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement was similar. As a consequence, there was no cytotoxicity in acrylic bone cement and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement groups according to results of MTT assay. On the other hand, results of SEM showed that biocompatibility of both groups was similar. In conclusion, teicoplanin-loaded bone cement did not change biocompatibility of bone cement in studied dose.

  17. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  18. Energy use trends in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, L. [Cemex Corporation (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The overheads/viewgraphs give statistics and trace trends on the use of coal in the cement industry in the different regions of the world. Coal is still the dominant fuel in the cement industry in North America, Asia and Europe but in Latin America the choice depends on each country's domestic energy structure. Petcoke is becoming an important fuel in Europe and the US and also Brazil. The differences in the coal and petcoke markets that influence the cement consumer are discussed. Although Cemex has in the last decade favored petcoke, the market for petcoke in the cement industry is expected to remain small.

  19. Continued field evaluation of precutting for maintaining asphalt concrete pavements with thermal cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In continuation of a previously completed project entitled Evaluate Presawn Transverse Thermal Cracks for Asphalt Concrete Pavement, this project was a further effort to understand important variables in the thermal cracking process through continued...

  20. Effects of laboratory heating, cyclic pore pressure, and cyclic loading on fracture properties of asphalt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study involved the identification and evaluation of laboratory conditioning methods and testing protocols considering heat oxidation, moisture, and load that more effectively simulate asphalt mixture aging in the field, and thereby help to prope...

  1. Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    TxDOT Project 0-6009 was a comprehensive interdisciplinary research effort that has developed the ability : to predict asphalt oxidative hardening over time and pavement depth, and the impact of this hardening on : mixture durability. The many interr...

  2. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  3. Improving the sustainability of asphalt pavements through developing a predictive model with fundamental material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This study presents the numerical implementation and validation of general constitutive relationships for describing the : nonlinear behavior of asphalt concrete mixes. These constitutive relationships incorporate nonlinear viscoelasticity and : visc...

  4. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  5. Characterization of HMA mixtures containing high reclaimed asphalt pavement content with crumb rubber additives : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    With the increase in hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures prices continuously climbing, highway agencies and owners are continually : searching for methods to decrease material costs and maximize their benefi ts with no compromise in performance. One su...

  6. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  7. A Case—Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Olsson; Hans Kromhout; Michela Agostini; Johnni Hansen; Christina Funch Lassen; Christoffer Johansen; Kristina Kjaerheim; Sverre Langård; Isabelle Stücker; Wolfgang Ahrens; Thomas Behrens; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Dick Heederik; Lützen Portengen; Judith Shaham; Gilles Ferro; Frank de Vocht; Igor Burstyn; Paolo Boffetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: We conducted a nested case—control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding...

  8. Assessment of non-destructive testing technologies for quality control/quality assurance of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Asphalt pavements suffer various failures due to insufficient quality within their design lives. The American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) has been proposed :...

  9. Quality control/quality assurance testing for joint density and segregation of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Longitudinal joint quality control/assurance is essential to the successful performance of asphalt pavements and it has received considerable amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the level of compaction at the ...

  10. Development of superior asphalt recycling agency: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng; Eckhardt, C.

    1996-04-01

    About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.

  11. PECULIAR FEATURES OF HEAT-HUMIDITY MODE PERTAINING TO POROUS LAYERS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. Verenko; V. Sizov

    2012-01-01

    ... asphalt concrete on compact bedding can cause some deformations and destructions initiated due to humidity migration in large internal material pores and lead to material destruction during warm season...

  12. Effects of Fiber Finish on the Performance of Asphalt Binders and Mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Putman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of finishes applied to polyester fibers on the properties of asphalt binders and mastics. Asphalt binders were mixed with finishes that were extracted from the fibers, and mastics were also made with binder and fibers (with and without finish to isolate the effects of the finish. The results indicated that crude source plays a significant role in how the fiber finish affects the binders and mastics. Additionally different finishes had different effects on binder properties. The major finding of this study is that different polyester fibers, even from the same manufacturer, may not necessarily perform the same in an asphalt mixture. It is important to use fibers that are compatible with the particular asphalt binder that is being used because of the significance of the binder source on the interaction between the finish and the binder.

  13. Laboratory investigation of the performance properties of hot mix asphalt containing waste glass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available CSIR is currently undertaking a study on potential utilization of crushed glass as a substitute material to natural aggregate in asphalt mixes. As part of the study, laboratory investigation is needed to determine the performance characteristics...

  14. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery test for LADOTD asphalt binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research are to characterize the elastic response of various binders used by LADOTD to determine the feasibility of the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test to be included in the LADOTD asphalt binder specification and to...

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  16. Thermo-mechanical properties improvement of asphalt binder by using methylmethacrylate/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ragab, A.A; Farag, Reem K; Kandil, Usama F; El-Shafie, M; Saleh, A.M.M; El-Kafrawy, Ahmed F

    2016-01-01

    .... Highly compatible polymers are more effective in providing property improvements. In this research, the influence of in situ polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomer with asphalt in presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM...

  17. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : final report 564.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies have shown that G*/Sin, the high temperature specification parameter for current Performance Graded (PG) asphalt binder is not adequate to reflect the rutting characteristics of polymer-modified binders. Consequently, many state De...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Conventional Hot Mix and Porous Asphalt Under Accelerated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djakfar Ludfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt and porous hot mix asphalt under accelerated loading. To achieve the objective, a test section was constructed and tested with a loading device previously developed. The pavement material conforms to the Indonesian Directorate General of Highway. While the porous surface conforms to the Australian standard for asphalt porous. The thickness of the test section was prepared to simulate the real condition of the pavement structure. The load, equivalent to the standard 8,160 kg axle load was applied for 1,000 passes. For every 100 passes, stresses and deformation were recorded. The result shows that there is some consistency between theory and field results in terms of stresses and deformation. Conventional surface course seems to perform better in deformation/rutting. Future research should be directed to improve the performance of the device and also the performance of the porous asphalt.

  19. Effects of temperature segregation on the volumetric and mechanistic properties of asphalt mixtures : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Material segregation in asphalt mixtures is a non-uniform distribution of coarse : and fine aggregates through its masses, i.e., concentration of coarse materials : in some area and fine materials in others. During construction, the coarse and : fine...

  20. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  1. Installation report : evaluation of recycled hot mix asphaltic concrete on Route 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a project in which the bituminous pavement on an approximately 8-mi. (13-km) section of roadway was removed, recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant, and relaid. The project was accomplished with little difficulty an...

  2. Development of a semicircular bend (SCB) test method for performance testing of Nebraska asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Granted that most distresses in asphalt (flexible) concrete (AC) pavements are directly related to fracture, it becomes clear : that identifying and characterizing fracture properties of AC mixtures is a critical step towards a better pavement design...

  3. Improving DMS 9210 requirements for limestone rock asphalt : year one interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Limestone Rock Asphalt (LRA) mixtures have been produced and placed for several decades using specification requirements currently listed under DMS 9210. Several Districts have had placement issues and premature failures at the beginning of 2010. The...

  4. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  5. Infrared thermography-driven flaw detection and evaluation of hot mix asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to study more realistic explanations of how variables are created and : dealt with during hot mix asphalt (HMA) paving construction. Several paving projects across the : state of Nebraska have been visited where sensory de...

  6. Compaction of asphalt road pavements : using finite elements and critical state theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate whether it is possible to develop a tool that enables simulation of a compaction process of asphalt for construction of roads, and how this is best done.

  7. The use of natural sand from lampusatu beach, kabupatenmerauke, papua for mixed asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwae, D. D. M.; Parera, L. R.; Alpius; Tanijaya, J.

    2017-05-01

    The natural sand from LampuSatu Beach, KabupatenMerauke, Papua, is often used as building material by local people. This research aims to test the use of this natural sand for mixed asphalt concrete. Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (AC-WC) with bitumen penetration 60/70 and variations of asphalt content 5%, 6%, 7%, 8% and 9% are used in this research. Testing result shows the stability 1372.17 kg, VIM 3.95%, VMA 16.81%, Flow 4.14 mm, and MQ 332.89 kg/mm. It has fulfilled the standard requirements set by Indonesian Director General for Highways. The percentage of Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC) is 7% and the Index of Retained Strength (IRS) is 107.84% (≥ 75%). These indicate that the mixture can fulfill the Stability and Marshall Immersion Test.

  8. Electrical deicing utilizing carbon fiber tape for asphalt approach and crosswalk phase I - literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive literature review of electrical deicing technology for possible application in asphalt approach and crosswalks. A : thorough review of existing and emerging deicing technology for snow/ice melti...

  9. Modeling of hot-mix asphalt compaction : a thermodynamics-based compressible viscoelastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Compaction is the process of reducing the volume of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) by the application of external forces. As a result of compaction, the volume of air voids decreases, aggregate interlock increases, and interparticle friction increases. The qu...

  10. Thin asphalt and double seal rehabilitated lightly cemented pavements: evaluation of structural behaviour and life cycle costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Steyn_1997.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 21 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Steyn_1997.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Enhancing Asphalt Binder's Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Renaldo C.

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact that nano-particles and bio modification have on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binder. As such, the following hypothesis was investigated: Introduction of nano particles to asphalt binder will reduce asphalt oxidation aging by increasing the inter layer spacing of the nano particles. Two nano scale materials were used for this study, nano-clay and bio-char as well as one micro scale material, silica fume. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. Silica Fume is an ultra-fine powder collected as a by-product of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using RV testing (Rotational Viscometer), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Nano-clay is blended at 2% and 4% by weight of dry mass, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass). Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of dry mass. Silica Fume is added to virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 4% and 8% by weight of dry mass. The optimum percent of nano scale material that is added to virgin asphalt binder is expected to reduce aging susceptibility of asphalt binder, extending its service life.

  12. Rutting prediction of asphalt concrete materials using a multi-criteria viscopasticity model

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, DT; Nedjar, B.; P. Tamagny; DE LA ROCHE, C

    2006-01-01

    These last few years, many efforts have been devoted to the study of rutting problems. In fact, under high traffic loadings together with the extreme environmental conditions, permanent deformations of asphalt pavements appear and become more and more severe demanding more efforts on developing suitable predictive models. In this paper, a three-dimensional elasto-viscoplastic model is developed and applied to describe the behaviour of asphalt concrete materials under cyclic loadings. The mode...

  13. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Nuha Salim Mashaan; Asim Hassan Ali; Mohamed Rehan Karim; Mahrez Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in i...

  14. A case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of European asphalt workers.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olsson; Kromhout, H; Agostini, M.; Hansen, J.; Funch Lassen, C.; Johansen, C.; Kjaerheim, K.; Langard, S; Stucker, I; Ahrens, W; Behrens, T.; Lindbohm, M-J.; Heikkila, P.; Heederik, D.; Portengen, L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. METHODS: Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Ge...

  15. Investigating the Effects of Nanoclay and Nylon Fibers on the Mechanical Properties of Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed nylon fibers and addition of nanoclay on some engineering properties of a typical asphalt concrete. The properties of asphalt concrete reinforced by different percentages of 25 mm nylon fibers have been compared with those of the mixtures containing different percentages of nanoclay and those in which both the fibers and nanoclay have been included. Engineering properties, including Marshall stability, resilient modulus...

  16. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Property Analysis of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets Modified Asphalt Model Using Molecular Dynamics (MD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation paper presents a physical property comparison study between exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGNP modified and control asphalt models, including density, glass transition temperature, viscosity and thermal conductivity. The three-component control asphalt model consists of asphaltenes, aromatics, and saturates based on previous references. The xGNP asphalt model was built by incorporating an xGNP and control asphalt model and controlling mass ratios to represent the laboratory prepared samples. The Amber Cornell Extension Force Field (ACEFF was used with assigned molecular electro-static potential (ESP charge from NWChem analysis. After optimization and ensemble relaxation, the properties of the control and xGNP modified asphalt models were computed and analyzed using the MD method. The MD simulated results have a similar trend as the test results. The property analysis showed that: (1 the density of the xGNP modified model is higher than that of the control model; (2 the glass transition temperature of the xGNP modified model is closer to the laboratory data of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP asphalt binders than that of the control model; (3 the viscosities of the xGNP modified model at different temperatures are higher than those of the control model, and it coincides with the trend in the laboratory data; (4 the thermal conductivities of the xGNP modified asphalt model are higher than those of the control asphalt model at different temperatures, and it is consistent with the trend in the laboratory data.

  18. Asphalt-Rubber SAMI (Stress-Absorbing Membrane Interlayers) Field Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    ork Total Cost WI 83-1570 83 Replace 460 SY of 14,500 pavement and subgrade WI 79-0933 81 Seal cracks, apply 58.585 herbicide, fog seal WI 77-0702 77...Bituminous Materials D 3407-76 Joint Sealants , Hot-Poured, for Concrete and Asphalt Pavements 2. DESCRIPTION . This work involves placement of a polymer...SECTION D-5 POLYPROPYLENE PAVEMENT REINFORCING FABRIC 1 . APPLICABLE PUBLICATIONS 2. GENERAL 3. POLYPROPYLENE PAVEMENT REINFORCING FABRIC 4 ASPHALT SEALANT

  19. Characteristics of The Fillers Used for Realizing the Asphalt Mixtures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Mihaela Dămiean

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the lab results for four types of filler used in producing the asphalt mixture in Romania, as well as other physical-chemical characteristics of a new type of filler, derivate of the grinding of the bituminous shists through a ball mill/crusher. Knowing these physical-chemical characteristics is crucial for asphalt mixtures due to the complex purpose of the filler.

  20. Behavior of Concrete Slab Track on Asphalt Trackbed Subjected to Thermal Load

    OpenAIRE

    Woo Young Jung; Seong Hyeok Lee; Jin Wook Lee; Bu Seog Ju

    2013-01-01

    Concrete track slab and asphalt trackbed are being introduced in Korea for providing good bearing capacity, durability to the track and comfortable rideness to passengers. Such a railway system has been designed by the train load so as to ensure stability. But there is lack of research and design for temperature changes which influence the behavior characteristics of concrete and asphalt. Therefore, in this study, the behavior characteristics of concrete track slab subjected to varying temper...