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Sample records for aspergillus usamii induced

  1. Contribution of Disulfide Bridges to the Thermostability of a Type A Feruloyl Esterase from Aspergillus usamii

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Yin; Die Hu; Jian-Fang Li; Yao He; Tian-Di Zhu; Min-Chen Wu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of disulfide bridges to the thermostability of a type A feruloyl esterase (AuFaeA) from Aspergillus usamii E001 was studied by introducing an extra disulfide bridge or eliminating a native one from the enzyme. MODIP and DbD, two computational tools that can predict the possible disulfide bridges in proteins for thermostability improvement, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to design the extra disulfide bridge. One residue pair A126-N152 was chosen, and the res...

  2. Improvement of Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten Using Acid Protease from Aspergillus usamii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingli; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yang, Sheng; Song, Junmei; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysis parameters (temperature, E/S ratio, pH, and time) for acid protease (from Aspergillus usamii) hydrolysis of wheat gluten were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using emulsifying activity index (EAI) as the response factor. A temperature of 48.9°C, E/S ratio of 1.60%, pH 3.0, hydrolysis time of 2.5 h was found to be the optimum condition to obtain wheat gluten hydrolysate with higher EAI. The solubility of wheat gluten was greatly improved by hydrolysis and became independent of pH over the studied range. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in dramatically increase in EAI, water and oil holding capacity. Molecular weight distribution results showed that most of the peptides above 10 kDa have been hydrolyzed into smaller peptides. The results of FTIR spectra and disulfide bond (SS) and sulfhydryl (SH) content suggested that a more extensional conformation was formed after hydrolysis, which could account for the improved functional properties. PMID:27467884

  3. Improvement of Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten Using Acid Protease from Aspergillus usamii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingli; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yang, Sheng; Song, Junmei; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysis parameters (temperature, E/S ratio, pH, and time) for acid protease (from Aspergillus usamii) hydrolysis of wheat gluten were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using emulsifying activity index (EAI) as the response factor. A temperature of 48.9°C, E/S ratio of 1.60%, pH 3.0, hydrolysis time of 2.5 h was found to be the optimum condition to obtain wheat gluten hydrolysate with higher EAI. The solubility of wheat gluten was greatly improved by hydrolysis and became independent of pH over the studied range. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in dramatically increase in EAI, water and oil holding capacity. Molecular weight distribution results showed that most of the peptides above 10 kDa have been hydrolyzed into smaller peptides. The results of FTIR spectra and disulfide bond (SS) and sulfhydryl (SH) content suggested that a more extensional conformation was formed after hydrolysis, which could account for the improved functional properties. PMID:27467884

  4. Improved Production of Aspergillus usamii endo-β-1,4-Xylanase in Pichia pastoris via Combined Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of strategies were applied to improve expression level of recombinant endo-β-1,4-xylanase from Aspergillus usamii (A. usamii in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris. Firstly, the endo-β-1,4-xylanase (xynB gene from A. usamii was optimized for P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum xylanase activity of optimized (xynB-opt gene was 33500 U/mL after methanol induction for 144 h in 50 L bioreactor, which was 59% higher than that by wild-type (xynB gene. To further increase the expression of xynB-opt, the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb gene was transformed to the recombinant strain containing xynB-opt. The results showed that recombinant strain harboring the xynB-opt and VHb (named X33/xynB-opt-VHb displayed higher biomass, cell viability, and xylanase activity. The maximum xylanase activity of X33/xynB-opt-VHb in 50 L bioreactor was 45225 U/mL, which was 35% and 115% higher than that by optimized (xynB-opt gene and wild-type (xynB gene. Finally, the induction temperature of X33/xynB-opt-VHb was optimized in 50 L bioreactor. The maximum xylanase activity of X33/xynB-opt-VHb reached 58792 U/mL when the induction temperature was 22°C. The results presented here will greatly contribute to improving the production of recombinant proteins in P. pastoris.

  5. Replacing a piece of loop-structure in the substrate-binding groove of Aspergillus usamii β-mannanase, AuMan5A, to improve its enzymatic properties by rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yun Hai; Li, Jian Fang; Hu, Die; Yin, Xin; Wang, Chun Juan; Tang, Shi Han; Wu, Min Chen

    2016-05-01

    To perfect the enzymatic properties of AuMan5A, a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 β-mannanase from Aspergillus usamii, its loop-structure substitution was carried out by rational design and followed by megaprimer PCR. Based on the structural analysis and enzymatic property comparison of various β-mannanases, a piece of loop-structure with seven amino acids between two β-strands (βD and βE) in the substrate-binding groove, named "Loop DE," was speculated to be correlative to the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of GH family 5 β-mannanases. Therefore, three AuMan5A's mutants, AuMan5A-Af, AuMan5A-An, and AuMan5A-Th, were designed by substituting a Loop DE sequence ((316)KSPDGGN(322)) of AuMan5A with the corresponding sequences of other three family 5 β-mannanases, respectively. Then, the mutant-encoding genes, Auman5A-Af, Auman5A-An, and Auman5A-Th, were constructed as designed theoretically and then expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The expressed recombinant AuMan5A-Af (re-AuMan5A-Af) displayed the temperature optimum (T opt) of 75 °C, T m value of 76.6 °C and half-life (t 1/2) of 480 min at 70 °C, which were 10 and 12.1 °C higher and 48-fold longer than those of re-AuMan5A, respectively. Its catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) was 12.7-fold that of re-AuMan5A. What is more, the site-directed mutagenesis of D320G in AuMan5A-Af was performed. The T opt and t 1/2 of expressed re-AuMan5A-Af(D320G) decreased to 70 °C and 40 min, respectively, while its k cat/K m was only 35 % of that of re-AuMan5A-Af. These results demonstrated that the mutation of G320 (in AuMan5A) into D320 (in AuMan5A-Af) through Loop DE substitution was mainly responsible for the thermostability and catalytic efficiency improvement of AuMan5A-Af. PMID:26678079

  6. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Truter, M; Bredell, T; Lange, L; Mülders, M S G

    2009-03-01

    A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek) and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy. PMID:19653520

  7. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  8. Characterization of a 5-azacytidine-induced developmental Aspergillus fumigatus variant

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Varga, John; Lewis, Russell E.; May, Gregory S.; William C Nierman; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    The hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5AC) is widely used in patients at risk of invasive mycoses. We sought to determine whether 5AC affects the developmental competence and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. Incubation of A. fumigatus strain 293 with 5AC induced high-frequency conversion to a fluffy-variant (Af293FL). The conidiation defect was bypassed by exposing Af293FL to light during the initial 18 hours of growth on solid media. Transcriptional profiling revealed differential expr...

  9. Aspergillus flavus-Induced Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Nawal; Hussain, Ibrahim; Jumaa, Suleiman; Al-Shail, Essam A.

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aspergillosis is an extremely rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent children and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child who was referred to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in May 2010 after a sudden-onset headache and loss of consciousness. Brain imaging revealed a large right space-occupying occipital lesion and the patient underwent a craniotomy and resection. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotising granulomatous fungal encephalitis with many hyphae engulfed by multinucleated giant histiocytes. Two days later, a computed tomography scan showed debulking of the fungal mass and the patient was discharged on oral voriconazole. However, imaging at a six-week follow-up showed progression of the abnormality. A residual or persistent fungal brain lesion was suspected. Further neurosurgical resection of the lesion was performed and cultures showed growth of Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated successfully with antifungal therapy over the following two years. PMID:27226920

  10. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species ha...

  11. Mutagenicity of monoadducts and cross-links induced in Aspergillus nidulans by 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    8-Methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm radiation induces mutation at the methionine supressor loci of Aspergillus inhibitor-deficient conidia at low doses of near-UV radiation with one-hit kinetics and at higher near-UV radiation doses with two-hit kinetics. These results and others suggest that both monoadducts and cross-links, formed by 8-methoxypsoralen and DNA upon exposure to UV radiation, are capable of inducing mutation. Evidence is also presented that induced furocoumarin cross-links are responsible for the inactivation of the Aspergillus conidium. (author)

  12. Chitin enhances serum IgE in Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a ubiquitous fungus that activates, suppresses or modulates the immune response by changing its cell wall structure and by secreting proteases. In this study, we show that chitin acts as an adjuvant in a murine model of A. fumigatus protease induced allergy....... The mice were immunised intraperitoneally with A. fumigatus culture filtrate antigen either with or without chitin and were subsequently challenged with the culture filtrate antigen intranasally. Alum was used as an adjuvant control. Compared to alum, chitin induced a weaker inflammatory response in...... the lungs, measured as the total cell efflux in BAL, EPO and chitinase production. However, chitin enhanced the total IgE, specific IgE and specific IgG1 production as efficiently as alum. Pre-treatment with chitin but not with alum depressed the concentration of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in...

  13. Kinetics Studies on citric acid production by gamma ray induced mutant of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of cultural pH and incubation temperature on citric acid yield and kinetic patterns of citric acid fermentation by a natural isolate of aspergillus niger as CA16 and one of its gamma ray induced mutants were studied using cane molasses as growth and fermentation substrate. Mutant strain, 277/30 gave maximum citric acid yield of 85 g/l at pH 3.5 and 28 degree centigrade in molasses medium adjusted to 16% sugar and 25% prescott salt in the medium. Parent strain, CA16 gave a maximum yield of 34 g/l at pH 4.0 and 26 degree centigrade in molasses medium adjusted to 16% sugar and 100% prescott salt in the medium. In kinetic studies, strains showed combination kinetics of citric acid fermentation where product formation is directly related to growth and cell mass and indirectly related to carbohydrate uptake

  14. Methods for study of induced by ultraviolet irradiation DNA degradation in miceliar fungi after the example of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA degradation is shown to take place in conidias and septate mycelium of Aspergillus nidulans after ultraviolet irradiation. However the analysis of degradated DNA, induced by ultraviolet irradiation in conidias is hampered because of DNA instability in control non-irradiated culture. DNA instability at conidia germination is supposed to be the result of metabolic DNA decomposition. DNA instability is not detected in septate mycelium. The study method of DNA degradation induced by ultraviolet irradiation in septate mycelium is suggested

  15. Unfolded protein response is required for Aspergillus oryzae growth under conditions inducing secretory hydrolytic enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2015-12-01

    Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In yeast UPR, Ire1 cleaves the unconventional intron of HAC1 mRNA, and the functional Hac1 protein translated from the spliced HAC1 mRNA induces the expression of ER chaperone genes and ER-associated degradation genes for the refolding or degradation of unfolded proteins. In this study, we constructed an ireA (IRE1 ortholog) conditionally expressing strain of Aspergillus oryzae, a filamentous fungus producing a large amount of amylolytic enzymes, and examined the contribution of UPR to ER stress adaptation under physiological conditions. Repression of ireA completely blocked A. oryzae growth under conditions inducing the production of hydrolytic enzymes, such as amylases and proteases. This growth defect was restored by the introduction of unconventional intronless hacA (hacA-i). Furthermore, UPR was observed to be induced by amylolytic gene expression, and the disruption of the transcriptional activator for amylolytic genes resulted in partial growth restoration of the ireA-repressing strain. In addition, a homokaryotic ireA disruption mutant was successfully generated using the strain harboring hacA-i as a parental host. These results indicated that UPR is required for A. oryzae growth to alleviate ER stress induced by excessive production of hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26496881

  16. Triazole Fungicides Can Induce Cross-Resistance to Medical Triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, E.; Camps, S.M.T.; Karawajczyk, A.; Schaftenaar, G.; Kema, G.H.J.; Lee, van der H.A.; Klaassen, C.H.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Azoles play an important role in the management of Aspergillus diseases. Azole resistance is an emerging global problem in Aspergillus fumigatus, and may develop through patient therapy. In addition, an environmental route of resistance development has been suggested through exposure to 1

  17. Characterization of a 5-azacytidine-induced developmental Aspergillus fumigatus variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Varga, John; Lewis, Russell E; May, Gregory S; Nierman, William C

    2010-01-01

    The hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine (5AC) is widely used in patients at risk of invasive mycoses. We sought to determine whether 5AC affects the developmental competence and virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. Incubation of A. fumigatus strain 293 with 5AC induced high-frequency conversion to a fluffy-variant (Af293FL). The conidiation defect was bypassed by exposing Af293FL to light during the initial 18 hours of growth on solid media. Transcriptional profiling revealed differential expression of multiple genes involved in G-protein signaling, including a putative G-protein coupled photoreceptor (opsin), suggesting that impaired signaling through a light-responsive pathway upstream of brlA is responsible for this phenotype. Af293FL was fully virulent in fruit fly and murine models of invasive aspergillosis. Moreover, Af293FL overexpressed aspergillopepsin F, had increased elastase activity and was more angioinvasive than the parental wild-type strain. The 5AC-induced A. fumigatus fluffy variant illustrates the potential effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the developmental and pathobiologic characteristics of opportunistic fungi. PMID:21178435

  18. 15 keV N+ implantation to induce mutation of protopectinase-producing Aspergillus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopectinase will be of potential use in industry. The strain of protopectinase-producing Aspergillus sp. XZ-131 was mutagenized by 15 keV N+ ion implantation, with a dose range of 0.52 x 1015 ion/cm2 to 4.68 x 1015 ion/cm2. From the ion implanted Aspergillus sp. XZ-131, the Strain Z-25, which yields high activity protopectinase, was screened out. The protopectinase activity increased by 179% and the protopectinase (U/g dry cell) increased by 84%. In addition, the exponential phase of Aspergillus sp. Z-25 was 24 hours shorter than the Strain XZ-131. The Aspergillus sp. Z-25 yielded high protopectinase activity during stationary phase, the highest protopectinase activity was achieved after 72 h fermentation. (authors)

  19. Monitoring of soluble starch hydrolysis induced by α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae using ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Resa, Pablo; Buckin, Vitaly; Elvira, Luis

    2012-05-01

    The online monitoring of enzymatic starch hydrolysis is an important issue for several industrial sectors, mainly in the alimentary industry. Ultrasonic non-invasive methods based on the detection of wave velocity and amplitude changes can be used to study this enzymatic reaction. These wave propagating changes are result of physicalchemical modifications produced in the media by the starch hydrolysis. In this work the starch hydrolysis induced by the enzyme α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae is studied. This biochemical reaction has been monitored using a high-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US) which is non-invasive and nondestructive. The measured time profiles o of ultrasonic velocity are explained in terms of the starch hydrolysis and the subsequent production of oligosaccharides as a consequence of the enzymatic action. The obtained results have been compared to a conventional off-line technique used in biochemistry, the iodine-starch reaction, a spectrophotometric method to quantify the amount of starch remaining in the medium. The combination of these two types of measurement provides more complete information about the biochemical processes occurred during hydrolysis.

  20. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy.

  1. Aspergillus flavus infection induces transcriptional and physical changes in developing maize kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Dolezal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize kernels are susceptible to infection by the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus flavus. Infection results in reduction of grain quality and contamination of kernels with the highly carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin. To understanding host response to infection by the fungus, transcription of approximately 9,000 maize genes were monitored during the host-pathogen interaction with a custom designed Affymetrix GeneChip® DNA array. More than 1,000 maize genes were found differentially expressed at a fold change of 2 or greater. This included the up regulation of defense related genes and signaling pathways. Transcriptional changes also were observed in primary metabolism genes. Starch biosynthetic genes were down regulated during infection, while genes encoding maize hydrolytic enzymes, presumably involved in the degradation of host reserves, were up regulated. These data indicate that infection of the maize kernel by A. flavus induced metabolic changes in the kernel, including the production of a defense response, as well as a disruption in kernel development.

  2. Amelioration Of Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress Using Water Soluble Chitosan Produced By Aspergillus Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide synthesized by a great number of living organisms and considered as a source of potential bioactive material and has many biological applications which are greatly affected by its solubility in neutral ph. In this study, low molecular weight water soluble chitosan was prepared by chemical degradation of chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger using H2O2. Chitosan chemical structure was detected before and after treatment using FTIR spectrum, and its molecular weight was determined by its viscosity using viscometer. Its antioxidant activity against gamma radiation was evaluated in vivo using rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; group 1: control, group 2: exposed to acute dose of gamma radiation (6 Gy), group 3: received water soluble chitosan, group 4: received water soluble chitosan then exposed to gamma radiation as group 2. Gamma radiation significantly increased malondialdehyde, decreased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutatione peroxidase, while significantly increased alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, urea and creatinine levels. Administration of water soluble chitosan has ameliorated induced changes caused by gamma radiation. It could be concluded that water soluble chitosan by scavenging free radicals directly or indirectly may act as a potent radioprotector against ionizing irradiation

  3. Amelioration of radiation induced oxidative stress using water soluble chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide synthesized by a great number of living organisms and considered as a source of potential bioactive material and has many biological applications which are greatly affected by its solubility in neutral ph. In this study low molecular weight water soluble chitosan was prepared by chemical degradation of chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger using H2O2. Chitosan chemical structure was detected before and after treatment using FTIR spectrum, and its molecular weight was determined by its viscosity using viscometer. Its antioxidant activity against gamma radiation was evaluated in vivo using rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; group 1: control, group 2: exposed to acute dose of gamma radiation (6 Gy), group 3: received water soluble chitosan, group 4: received water soluble chitosan then exposed to gamma radiation as group 2. Gamma radiation significantly increased malonaldehyde, decreased glutathione concentration, activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutatione peroxidase, while significantly increase the activity of alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, urea and creatinine concentration. Administration of water soluble chitosan has ameliorated induced changes caused by gamma radiation. It could be concluded that water soluble chitosan by scavenging free radicals directly or indirectly may act as a potent radioprotector against ionizing irradiation.

  4. Triazole fungicides can induce cross-resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Snelders

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Azoles play an important role in the management of Aspergillus diseases. Azole resistance is an emerging global problem in Aspergillus fumigatus, and may develop through patient therapy. In addition, an environmental route of resistance development has been suggested through exposure to 14α-demethylase inhibitors (DMIs. The main resistance mechanism associated with this putative fungicide-driven route is a combination of alterations in the Cyp51A-gene (TR(34/L98H. We investigated if TR(34/L98H could have developed through exposure to DMIs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Thirty-one compounds that have been authorized for use as fungicides, herbicides, herbicide safeners and plant growth regulators in The Netherlands between 1970 and 2005, were investigated for cross-resistance to medical triazoles. Furthermore, CYP51-protein homology modeling and molecule alignment studies were performed to identify similarity in molecule structure and docking modes. Five triazole DMIs, propiconazole, bromuconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and difenoconazole, showed very similar molecule structures to the medical triazoles and adopted similar poses while docking the protein. These DMIs also showed the greatest cross-resistance and, importantly, were authorized for use between 1990 and 1996, directly preceding the recovery of the first clinical TR(34/L98H isolate in 1998. Through microsatellite genotyping of TR(34/L98H isolates we were able to calculate that the first isolate would have arisen in 1997, confirming the results of the abovementioned experiments. Finally, we performed induction experiments to investigate if TR(34/L98H could be induced under laboratory conditions. One isolate evolved from two copies of the tandem repeat to three, indicating that fungicide pressure can indeed result in these genomic changes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a fungicide-driven route of TR(34/L98H development in A. fumigatus. Similar molecule structure

  5. Surfactant Protein-A inhibits Aspergillus fumigatus-induced allergic T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Scott J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pulmonary surfactant protein (SP-A has potent immunomodulatory activities but its role and regulation during allergic airway inflammation is unknown. Methods We studied changes in SP-A expression in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL using a murine model of single Aspergillus fumigatus (Af challenge of sensitized animals. Results SP-A protein levels in the BAL fluid showed a rapid, transient decline that reached the lowest values (25% of controls 12 h after intranasal Af provocation of sensitized mice. Decrease of SP-A was associated with influx of inflammatory cells and increase of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA and protein levels. Since levels of SP-A showed a significant negative correlation with these BAL cytokines (but not with IFN-γ, we hypothesized that SP-A exerts an inhibitory effect on Th2-type immune responses. To study this hypothesis, we used an in vitro Af-rechallenge model. Af-induced lymphocyte proliferation of cells isolated from sensitized mice was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by addition of purified human SP-A (0.1–10 μg/ml. Flow cytometric studies on Af-stimulated lymphocytes indicated that the numbers of CD4+ (but not CD8+ T cells were significantly increased in the parental population and decreased in the third and fourth generation in the presence of SP-A. Further, addition of SP-A to the tissue culture inhibited Af-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production suggesting that SP-A directly suppressed allergen-stimulated CD4+ T cell function. Conclusion We speculate that a transient lack of this lung collectin following allergen exposure of the airways may significantly contribute to the development of a T-cell dependent allergic immune response.

  6. Semi-pilot scale production of citric acid in cane molasses by gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing cane molasses as substrate, semi-pilot scale production of citric acid was investigated in fermentation trays (40 x 35 cm) with several gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger. Of the mutants tested, two were found to have high yield efficiency (14/20, 51.06%; 79/20, 50.35%) of sugar to citric acid. The yield of other mutants (HB3, 10/20, 164/20, 277/30 and 112/40) ranged between 30 to 42%. The prospect of utilizing the high yielding mutants for commercial production of citric acid has been discussed. (author)

  7. Aflatoxigenesis induced in Aspergillus flavus by oxidative stress and reduction by phenolic antioxidants from tree nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds, pistachios, and walnuts grown in California have an aggregate value of over $3.3 billion, with a large proportion of the crop being exported. However, these tree nuts can be subject to contamination by aflatoxins, metabolites produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus, and im...

  8. Dectin-1 and IL-17A suppress murine asthma induced by Aspergillus versicolor but not Cladosporium cladosporioides due to differences in beta-glucan surface exposure1

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Gibson, Aaron M.; Bass, Stacey A.; Budelsky, Alison L.; Reponen, Tiina; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence supporting a role for mold exposure in the pathogenesis and expression of childhood asthma. Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides are common molds that have been implicated in asthma. In a model of mold-induced asthma, mice were repeatedly exposed to either A. versicolor or C. cladosporioides spores. The two molds induced distinct phenotypes and this effect was observed in both Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains. C. cladosporioides induced robust airwa...

  9. Induced production of cytochalasans in co-culture of marine fungus Aspergillus flavipes and actinomycete Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liyan; Ding, Wanjing; Ma, Zhongjun

    2016-08-01

    Abstarct Secondary metabolites profiles of co-culture of Aspergillus flavipes and Streptomyces sp. that isolated from the same habitat showed an induced production of a series of cytochalasans (five aspochalasins and rosellichalasin, determined by MS and NMR analysis). These cytochalasans were found to be produced by A. flavipes in LC-MS comparison analysis, and biological activity assays revealed that they were able to cause cytotoxic effects against Streptomyces sp. within a wide range of concentrations without causing any effect to the producer A. flavipes, which favoured the producer in competition. Further induction mechanism study applying membrane-separated culture and morphology study with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that the successful induction of active secondary metabolites required microbial physical contact. PMID:26783945

  10. Menadione-Induced Oxidative Stress Re-Shapes the Oxylipin Profile of Aspergillus flavus and Its Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Zaccaria

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is an efficient producer of mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxin B1, probably the most hepatocarcinogenic naturally-occurring compound. Although the inducing agents of toxin synthesis are not unanimously identified, there is evidence that oxidative stress is one of the main actors in play. In our study, we use menadione, a quinone extensively implemented in studies on ROS response in animal cells, for causing stress to A. flavus. For uncovering the molecular determinants that drive A. flavus in challenging oxidative stress conditions, we have evaluated a wide spectrum of several different parameters, ranging from metabolic (ROS and oxylipin profile to transcriptional analysis (RNA-seq. There emerges a scenario in which A. flavus activates several metabolic processes under oxidative stress conditions for limiting the ROS-associated detrimental effects, as well as for triggering adaptive and escape strategies.

  11. X-ray induced degradation of DNA in Aspergillus nidulans cells comparative analysis of UV- and X-ray induced DNA degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiating cells of Aspergillus nidulans of the wild type in the logarythmical growth phase with X-rays leads to a certain retention in DNA synthesis. This period is characterized by an insignificant fermentative DNA degradation connected with a process of its repair. There is no direct dependence between the radiation dose and the level of DNA degradation. The investigation of X-ray induced DNA degradation in a number of UVS-mutants permits to show the existence of two branches of DNA degradation - dependent and independent of the exogenic energy source. The dependence of DNA degradation on albumen synthesis prior to irradiation and after it, is demonstrated. It is supposed that the level of X-ray induced DNA degradation is determined by two albumen systems, one of which initiates degradation and the other terminates it. The comparative analysis of UV and X-ray induced DNA degradation is carried out

  12. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Fan; Wang, Kai; Shen, Si-Le; Liu, Bing-Bing; Zou, Bo; Zou, Guang-Tian

    2011-01-01

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 MPa for 20 min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively.

  13. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 MPa for 20 min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively. (general)

  14. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua; ZHANG Jian; YANG Fan; WANG Kai; SHEN Si-Le; LIU Bing-Bing; ZOU Bo; ZOU Guang-Tian

    2011-01-01

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 Mpa for 20min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively.

  15. Aspergillus antigen induces robust Th2 cytokine production, inflammation, airway hyperreactivity and fibrosis in the absence of MCP-1 or CCR2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charo Israel F

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is characterized by type 2 T-helper cell (Th2 inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, and airway fibrosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 or CCL2 and its receptor, CCR2, have been shown to play important roles in the development of Th2 inflammation. CCR2-deficient mice have been found to have altered inflammatory and physiologic responses in some models of experimental allergic asthma, but the role of CCR2 in contributing to inflammation and airway hyperreactivity appears to vary considerably between models. Furthermore, MCP-1-deficient mice have not previously been studied in models of experimental allergic asthma. Methods To test whether MCP-1 and CCR2 are each required for the development of experimental allergic asthma, we applied an Aspergillus antigen-induced model of Th2 cytokine-driven allergic asthma associated with airway fibrosis to mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2. Previous studies with live Aspergillus conidia instilled into the lung revealed that MCP-1 and CCR2 play a role in anti-fungal responses; in contrast, we used a non-viable Aspergillus antigen preparation known to induce a robust eosinophilic inflammatory response. Results We found that wild-type C57BL/6 mice developed eosinophilic airway inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, airway hyperreactivity, elevations in serum IgE, and airway fibrosis in response to airway challenge with Aspergillus antigen. Surprisingly, mice deficient in either MCP-1 or CCR2 had responses to Aspergillus antigen similar to those seen in wild-type mice, including production of Th2 cytokines. Conclusion We conclude that robust Th2-mediated lung pathology can occur even in the complete absence of MCP-1 or CCR2.

  16. Anethole induces apoptotic cell death accompanied by reactive oxygen species production and DNA fragmentation in Aspergillus fumigatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tatsumi, Miki; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

    2014-02-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, and antimicrobial activity that is weaker than that of other antibiotics on the market. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to possess significant synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole has not been completely determined. We found that anethole stimulated cell death of a human opportunistic pathogenic fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, in addition to S. cerevisiae. The anethole-induced cell death was accompanied by reactive oxygen species production, metacaspase activation, and DNA fragmentation. Several mutants of S. cerevisiae, in which genes related to the apoptosis-initiating execution signals from mitochondria were deleted, were resistant to anethole. These results suggest that anethole-induced cell death could be explained by oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis via typical mitochondrial death cascades in fungi, including A. fumigatus and S. cerevisiae. PMID:24393541

  17. Aspergillus flavus-Induced Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Child: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Nawal; Hussain, Ibrahim; Jumaa, Suleiman; Al-Shail, Essam A

    2016-05-01

    Intracranial aspergillosis is an extremely rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent children and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child who was referred to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in May 2010 after a sudden-onset headache and loss of consciousness. Brain imaging revealed a large right space-occupying occipital lesion and the patient underwent a craniotomy and resection. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotising granulomatous fungal encephalitis with many hyphae engulfed by multinucleated giant histiocytes. Two days later, a computed tomography scan showed debulking of the fungal mass and the patient was discharged on oral voriconazole. However, imaging at a six-week follow-up showed progression of the abnormality. A residual or persistent fungal brain lesion was suspected. Further neurosurgical resection of the lesion was performed and cultures showed growth of Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated successfully with antifungal therapy over the following two years. PMID:27226920

  18. Aspergillus flavus-Induced Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Child; Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Al-Maskari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial aspergillosis is an extremely rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent children and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child who was referred to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in May 2010 after a sudden-onset headache and loss of consciousness. Brain imaging revealed a large right space-occupying occipital lesion and the patient underwent a craniotomy and resection. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotising granulomatous fungal encephalitis with many hyphae engulfed by multinucleated giant histiocytes. Two days later, a computed tomography scan showed debulking of the fungal mass and the patient was discharged on oral voriconazole. However, imaging at a six-week follow-up showed progression of the abnormality. A residual or persistent fungal brain lesion was suspected. Further neurosurgical resection of the lesion was performed and cultures showed growth of Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated successfully with antifungal therapy over the following two years.

  19. Bioprocessing of citrus waste peel for induced pectinase production by Aspergillus niger; its purification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtiaq Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely disseminated enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Czapeck media supplemented with orange waste peel as carbon source under submerged fermentation process Aspergillus niger presenting the preeminent enzymatic production. On partial optimization culture showed the maximum enzyme yield (117.1 ± 3.4 μM/mL/min at 30 °C in an orange waste peel medium having pH 5.5 and substrate concentration (4% after 5th day of fermentation. The produced enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. A purification fold of 5.59 with specific activity and % recovery of 97.2 U/mg and 12.96% was achieved respectively after gel filtration chromatographic technique. The molecular weight of purified pectinase from A. niger was 30 kDa evidenced by SDS-PAGE. Pectinase activity profile showed purified enzyme was optimally active at pH = 7 and 55 °C. The maximum production of pectinase in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration makes the enzyme useful in industrial sectors especially for textile and juice industry.

  20. Protective Effects of Emodin and Chrysophanol Isolated from Marine Fungus Aspergillus sp. on Ethanol-Induced Toxicity in HepG2/CYP2E1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Zhong-Ji; Zhang, Chen; Li, Yong-Xin; Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Kwon; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-induced liver injury progresses from fatty infiltration followed by a harmful cause of inflammation leading to an irreversible damage. In this study, two compounds (emodin and chrysophanol) isolated from marine fungus Aspergillus sp. were examined for their protective effects against ethanol-induced toxicity in vitro. Ethanol-induced HepG2/CYP2E1 cells were treated with the compounds at various concentrations, and the results showed that there was a dose-dependent decrease of gamma-gl...

  1. Doxorubicin and etoposide induce somatic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans Doxorubicina e etoposida induzem a recombinação somática em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Jurema Ruggeri Chiuchetta

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin and etoposide are intercalating agents that inhibit the action of the enzyme topoisomerase II. Both drugs present therapeutic activity in numerous human neoplasms In the present work the recombinagenic potential of these drugs was evaluated by ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Their effects on the asexual cycle of A. nidulans was also appraised. Two heterozygous diploid strains of A. nidulans, a wild (uvsH+//uvsH+ and a defective to the DNA repair (uvsH//uvsH were used. The drugs' recombinagenic potential was evaluated by their capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes from heterozygous cells. Both drugs have a recombinagenic effect on diploid cells of A. nidulans. Doxorubicin and etoposide are potentially capable to induce secondary malignancies, mediated by the mitotic crossing-over in eukaryotic cells.Doxorubicina e etoposida são agentes intercalantes que inibem a ação da enzima topoisomerase II. Ambas drogas são amplamente utilizadas no tratamento de neoplasias. O potencial recombinagênico destes agentes e seus efeitos sobre o ciclo assexual de Aspergillus nidulans foram avaliados no presente trabalho. Duas linhagens diplóides heterozigotas foram utilizadas: uma selvagem (uvsH+//uvsH+ e outra deficiente para o reparo do DNA (uvsH//uvsH. O potencial recombinagênico destas drogas foi avaliado pela indução de homozigose de genes recessivos a partir de células heterozigotas. Doxorubicina e etoposida apresentaram efeitos recombinagênicos em ambas linhagens utilizadas. Os resultados permitem concluir que doxorubicina e etoposida são agentes potencialmente capazes de induzir malignidades secundárias, mediadas pelo crossing-over mitótico, em células diplóides eucariotas.

  2. Different Stress-Induced Calcium Signatures Are Reported by Aequorin-Mediated Calcium Measurements in Living Cells of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muñoz

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is an inhaled fungal pathogen of human lungs, the developmental growth of which is reliant upon Ca2+-mediated signalling. Ca2+ signalling has regulatory significance in all eukaryotic cells but how A. fumigatus uses intracellular Ca2+ signals to respond to stresses imposed by the mammalian lung is poorly understood. In this work, A. fumigatus strains derived from the clinical isolate CEA10, and a non-homologous recombination mutant ΔakuBKU80, were engineered to express the bioluminescent Ca2+-reporter aequorin. An aequorin-mediated method for routine Ca2+ measurements during the early stages of colony initiation was successfully developed and dynamic changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]c in response to extracellular stimuli were measured. The response to extracellular challenges (hypo- and hyper-osmotic shock, mechanical perturbation, high extracellular Ca2+, oxidative stress or exposure to human serum that the fungus might be exposed to during infection, were analysed in living conidial germlings. The 'signatures' of the transient [Ca2+]c responses to extracellular stimuli were found to be dose- and age-dependent. Moreover, Ca2+-signatures associated with each physico-chemical treatment were found to be unique, suggesting the involvement of heterogeneous combinations of Ca2+-signalling components in each stress response. Concordant with the involvement of Ca2+-calmodulin complexes in these Ca2+-mediated responses, the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP induced changes in the Ca2+-signatures to all the challenges. The Ca2+-chelator BAPTA potently inhibited the initial responses to most stressors in accordance with a critical role for extracellular Ca2+ in initiating the stress responses.

  3. Mesenchymal stromal cells mediate Aspergillus hyphal extract-induced allergic airway inflammation by inhibition of the Th17 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Melissa J; Brooks, Elice M; Bonenfant, Nick R; Sokocevic, Dino; Borg, Zachary D; Goodwin, Meagan; Loi, Roberto; Cruz, Fernanda; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Systemic administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) suppresses airway inflammation and methacholine-induced airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in mouse models of T helper cell (Th) type 2-mediated eosinophilic allergic airway inflammation (AAI); however, the efficacy of MSCs in mouse models of severe Th17-mediated neutrophilic AAI has not yet been demonstrated. We assessed MSC effects in a mouse model of mixed Th2/Th17 AAI produced by mucosal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus hyphal extract (AHE). Following sensitization produced by oropharyngeal AHE administration, systemic (tail vein) administration of syngeneic MSCs on the first day of challenge significantly reduced acute AHR predominantly through reduction of Th17-mediated airway inflammation. In parallel experiments, MSCs also mitigated AHR when administered during recurrent challenge 10 weeks after initial sensitization and challenge through reduction in systemic Th17-mediated inflammation. Investigation into potential mechanistic actions of MSCs in this model demonstrated that although T regulatory cells were increased in all AHE-treated mice, MSC administration did not alter T regulatory cell numbers in either the acute or recurrent model. Differential induction of interleukin-17a secretion was observed in ex vivo restimulation of mediastinal lymph node mixed-cell cytokine analyses. Although the mechanisms by which MSCs act to decrease inflammation and AHR in this model are not yet fully elucidated, decrease in Th17-mediated airway inflammation appears to play a significant role. These results provide a basis for further investigations of MSC administration as a potential therapeutic approach for severe refractory neutrophilic asthma. PMID:24436442

  4. Transcriptional Profiles Uncover Aspergillus flavus-Induced Resistance in Maize Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yuan Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination caused by the opportunistic pathogen A. flavus is a major concern in maize production prior to harvest and through storage. Previous studies have highlighted the constitutive production of proteins involved in maize kernel resistance against A. flavus’ infection. However, little is known about induced resistance nor about defense gene expression and regulation in kernels. In this study, maize oligonucleotide arrays and a pair of closely-related maize lines varying in aflatoxin accumulation were used to reveal the gene expression network in imbibed mature kernels in response to A. flavus’ challenge. Inoculated kernels were incubated 72 h via the laboratory-based Kernel Screening Assay (KSA, which highlights kernel responses to fungal challenge. Gene expression profiling detected 6955 genes in resistant and 6565 genes in susceptible controls; 214 genes induced in resistant and 2159 genes induced in susceptible inoculated kernels. Defense related and regulation related genes were identified in both treatments. Comparisons between the resistant and susceptible lines indicate differences in the gene expression network which may enhance our understanding of the maize-A. flavus interaction.

  5. The use of a-methyl-D-glucoside, a synthetic analogue of maltose, as inducer of amylase by Aspergillus sp in solid-state and submerged fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fabiana G.; Lenartovicz Veridiana; Souza Cristina G. M.; Ramos Edivan P.; Peralta Rosane M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of a methyl-D-glucoside (alphaMG), a synthetic analogue of maltose, as carbon source and inducer of amylase synthesis to several species of Aspergillus was studied in submerged and solid-state fermentations. Among a group of ten species, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. flavus were able to produce biomass and high specific amylolytic activity in submerged cultures containing alphaMG as the only carbon source. In solid state fermentation, the enrichment of basal wheat bran or corn cob m...

  6. Proteomic analysis of the maize rachis: Potential roles of constitutive and induced proteins in resistance to Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of the maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus and consequent contamination with carcinogenic aflatoxin is a persistent and serious agricultural problem causing disease and significant crop losses worldwide. The rachis (cob) is an important structure of maize ear ...

  7. The use of a-methyl-D-glucoside, a synthetic analogue of maltose, as inducer of amylase by Aspergillus sp in solid-state and submerged fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a methyl-D-glucoside (alphaMG, a synthetic analogue of maltose, as carbon source and inducer of amylase synthesis to several species of Aspergillus was studied in submerged and solid-state fermentations. Among a group of ten species, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. flavus were able to produce biomass and high specific amylolytic activity in submerged cultures containing alphaMG as the only carbon source. In solid state fermentation, the enrichment of basal wheat bran or corn cob medium with alphaMG increased up to 3 times the production of amylases. In both submerged and solid state fermentations, alphaMG was more effective inducer of amylases than maltose and starch.

  8. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars

    Filamentous fungi are extensively used in the fermentation industry for synthesis of numerous products. One of the most important, is the fungus Aspergillus niger, used industrially for production of organic acids, and homologous as well as heterologous enzymes. This fungus has numerous of advant...... fumonisin production, identified. These formed the basis for the subsequent examinations, which resulted in the identification of azelaic acid, a plant hormone and a very potent fumonisin inducer....

  9. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  10. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme system of Aspergillus japonicus: Pt. 2. Purification and characterization of an inducible extracellular. beta. -glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Arunik; Kundu, R.K.; Dube, S.; Dube, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    A high molecular weight ..beta..-glucosidase (mol. wt. > 240 000 daltons) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus japonicus and was finally purified to 86-fold by alcohol precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography on Whatman DE-52. An apparently homogeneous form of the enzyme appeared in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is capable of utilizing cellobiose, salicin, o-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside (ONPG), methyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and amygdalin effectively as substrates but not arbutin, esculin hydrate and phloridzin. No metal ion is required for its catalytic activity. Hg/sup ++/ and p-chloromercuricbenzoate (PCMB) are strong inhibitors for the enzyme. Nojirimycin and glucono-delta-lactone are two competitive inhibitors of the same enzyme, and nojirimycin is the more potent of the two.

  11. Biochemical characterization of N-methyl N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus niger

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samar Kumar Pal; Tapan Kumar Das

    2005-12-01

    Two cadmium resistant mutants (Cd1 and Cd2) of Aspergillus niger, among the six isolated by mutagenization with N-methyl N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) at pH 6.4 were selected for the study. Analysis of lipid composition of the mutants and the wildtype indicated that total lipid as well as individual lipids of the cadmium resistant mutants were changed as compared with that of the wildtype. The increased activities of metal-lothionein and reduced activities of D-xylose isomerase and L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase in cell free extract of the cadmium resistant mutants suggested that mutants could allow high concentration of cadmium salt as compared with that of the wildtype. The respiratory activity and intracellular as well as extracellular Cd2+ concentration of the mutants reflected the high tolerance of the Cd mutants to cadmium ion.

  12. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  13. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host

  14. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); M.G. Netea (Mihai); J. Sugui (Janyce); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Warris (Adilia); K.J. Kwon-Chung (Kyung); B. Jan Kullberg (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced

  15. Deletion of the msdS/AfmsdC gene induces abnormal polarity and septation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjie; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Depeng; Zhou, Hui; Ouyang, Haomiao; Ming, Jia; Jin, Cheng

    2008-07-01

    alpha-Mannosidases play an important role in the processing of mannose-containing glycans in eukaryotes. A deficiency in alpha-mannosidase is lethal in humans and cattle. In contrast to mammals, Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not require the endoplasmic reticulum alpha-mannosidase gene for growth. However, little is known of the consequence of loss of function of class I alpha-mannosidases in filamentous fungi. In this study, the msdS/AfmsdC gene was identified to encode 1,2-alpha-mannosidase MsdS in Aspergillus fumigatus. Soluble MsdS expressed in Escherichia coli was characterized as a typical class I alpha-mannosidase. The msdS gene was deleted by replacement of the msdS gene with a pyrG gene. Although the mutant showed a defect in N-glycan processing, as well as a reduction of cell wall components and a reduced ability of conidiation, it appeared that the rate of hyphal growth was not affected. Morphology analysis revealed abnormal polarity and septation at the stages of germination, hyphal growth and conidiation. Although the mechanism by which the N-glycan processing affects polarity and septation is unclear, our results show that msdS is involved in polarity and septation in A. fumigatus. PMID:18599824

  16. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially...

  17. Regulation of Development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2010-01-01

    Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various pl...

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Melanin Modulates Host Cytokine Response

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Louis; Netea, Mihai; SUGUI, JANYCE; Vonk, Alieke; van de Sande, Wendy; Warris, Adilia; Kwon-Chung, Kyung; Jan Kullberg, Bart

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine response. The albino conidia induced significantly more proinflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as compared to melanised wild-type conidia. Blocking ...

  19. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...

  20. beta-1,3-Glucan-Induced Host Phospholipase D Activation Is Involved in Aspergillus fumigatus Internalization into Type II Human Pneumocyte A549 Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Xuelin; Yu, Rentao; Zhen, Dongyu; Tao, Sha; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2011-01-01

    The internalization of Aspergillus fumigatus into lung epithelial cells is a process that depends on host cell actin dynamics. The host membrane phosphatidylcholine cleavage driven by phospholipase D (PLD) is closely related to cellular actin dynamics. However, little is known about the impact of PL

  1. Study of a High-Yield Cellulase System Created by Heavy-Ion Irradiation-Induced Mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger and Mixed Fermentation with Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yang Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the efficiency of 12C6+ irradiation of Aspergillus niger (A. niger or mutagenesis via mixed Trichoderma viride (T. viride culturing as well as a liquid cultivation method for cellulase production via mixed Trichoderma reesei (T. reesei and A. niger culture fermentation. The first mutagenesis approach was employed to optimize yield from a cellulase-producing strain via heavy-ion mutagenesis and high-throughput screening, and the second was to effectively achieve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulase from a mixed culture of mutant T. viride and A. niger. We found that 12C6+-ion irradiation induced changes in cellulase biosynthesis in A. niger but had no effect on the time course of the synthesis. It is notable that the exoglucanases (CBH activities of A. niger strains H11-1 and H differed (6.71 U/mL vs. 6.01 U/mL and were significantly higher than that of A. niger mutant H3-1. Compared with strain H, the filter paper assay (FPA, endoglucanase (EG and β-glucosidase (BGL activities of mutant strain H11-1 were increased by 250.26%, 30.26% and 34.91%, respectively. A mixed culture system was successfully optimized, and the best ratio of T. reesei to A. niger was 5:1 for 96 h with simultaneous inoculation. The BGL activity of the mixed culture increased after 72 h. At 96 h, the FPA and BGL activities of the mixed culture were 689.00 and 797.15 U/mL, respectively, significantly higher than those of monocultures, which were 408.70 and 646.98 U/mL for T. reesei and 447.29 and 658.89 U/mL for A. niger, respectively. The EG activity of the mixed culture was 2342.81 U/mL, a value that was significantly higher than that of monocultures at 2206.57 U/mL for T. reesei and 1727.62 U/mL for A. niger. In summary, cellulose production and hydrolysis yields were significantly enhanced by the proposed combination scheme.

  2. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Harris, Pernille

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules in...

  3. Studies on Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies were conducted on conidia of Aspergillus flavus Link (aflatoxin producing) and Aspergillus flavus oryzae (non-toxigenic) strains isolated and identified in this laboratory. These strains differed in resistance to heat and gamma radiation, the toxigenic strain being more resistant to both treatments. Results of tests on dose-modifying factors indicated that composition, temperature and pH of suspending media affected radiation resistance. On the other hand, the size of the initial population and the age of the conidia did not influence the radiation resistance of either strain. Studies on thermal inactivation of the conidia suggested that the temperature employed was more important than the time of heat treatment. Conidia of both strains showed a synergistic effect of combined heat and radiation treatments, although a heat-radiation sequence was more effective than a radiation-heat sequence. (author)

  4. Pituitary aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907

  5. Indigestible dextrin is an excellent inducer for α-amylase, α-glucosidase and glucoamylase production in a submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Shoji, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    α-Amylase activities of Aspergillus oryzae grown on dextrin or indigestible dextrin were 7·8 and 27·7 U ml(-1), respectively. Glucoamylase activities of the cultures grown on dextrin or indigestible dextrin were 5·4 and 301 mU ml(-1), respectively. The specific glucoamylase production rate in indigestible dextrin batch culture reached 1·35 U g DW(-1) h(-1). In contrast, biomass concentration of A. oryzae in indigestible dextrin culture was 35% of that in dextrin culture. Thus, the culture method using indigestible dextrin has the potential to improve amylolytic enzyme production and fungal fermentation broth rheology. PMID:22009575

  6. Three-dimensional image analysis of plugging at the septal pore by Woronin body during hypotonic shock inducing hyphal tip bursting in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed that the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, grown on agar media burst out cytoplasmic constituents from the hyphal tip soon after flooding with water. Woronin body is a specialized organelle known to plug the septal pore adjacent to the lysed compartment to prevent extensive loss of cytoplasm. A. oryzae Aohex1 gene homologous to Neurospora crassa HEX1 gene encoding a major protein in Woronin body was expressed as a fusion with DsRed2, resulting in visualization of Woronin body. Confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of images visualized the septal pore as a dark region surrounded by green fluorescence of EGFP-fused secretory protein, RNase T1, on the septum. Dual fluorescent labeling revealed the plugging of the septal pores adjacent to the lysed apical compartments by Woronin bodies during hypotonic shock. Disruption of Aohex1 gene caused disappearance of Woronin bodies and the defect to prevent extensive loss of cytoplasm during hypotonic shock

  7. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Teller, Philip J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  8. Disruption of the Phospholipase D Gene Attenuates the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xianping; Gao, Meihua; Han, Xuelin; Tao, Sha; Zheng, Dongyu; Cheng, Ying; Yu, Rentao; Han, Gaige; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen that induces serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Phospholipases are key enzymes in pathogenic fungi that cleave host phospholipids, resulting in membrane destabilization and host cell penetration. However, knowledge o

  9. Aspergillus endophthalmitis in orthotopic liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Hamid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a patient with drug-induced liver failure who developed endogenous endophthalmitis after liver transplantation. Our patient′s clinical course was so fulminant that the eye was lost in less than 1 month, without any response to therapy. Recognition of this infection is important because many patients die of disseminated Aspergillus infection, which may be detected early with bedside funduscopic examination by an ophthalmologist. Probably if the patient had referred to us earlier, it may have been possible to save the eye.

  10. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  11. Submerged Conidiation and Product Formation by Aspergillus niger at Low Specific Growth Rates Are Affected in Aerial Developmental Mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jørgensen, T.R.; Nielsen, K.F.; Arentshorst, M.; Park, J.; Van den Hondel, C.A.; Frisvad, J.C.; Ram, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revea

  12. A comparative study of the timecourse of the expression of the thermo‑inducible HSP70 gene in clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Golnaz; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Vahedi, Ghasem; Yahyaraeyat, Ramak; Abbasi, Teimur

    2016-05-01

    The internal environment within animals or humans provides different conditions to invading saprophytic fungal pathogens, requiring the differential regulation of genes in comparison to environmental conditions. Understanding the mechanisms by which pathogens regulate genes within the host may be key in determining pathogen behavior within the host and may additionally facilitate further investigation into novel therapeutic agents. The heat shock protein (HSP)70 gene and its associated proteins have been frequently reported to be among the most highly expressed and dominant proteins present within various locations at physiological temperatures. The present study examined relative gene expression levels of the HSP70 gene in Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from both clinical and environmental origins, at a range of temperature points (20, 30, 37 and 42˚C) over five days, using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, comparing with a standard A. fumigatus strain incubated at 25˚C. The results indicated a differential gene expression pattern for the environmental and clinical isolates. During the five days, the HSP70 expression levels in the clinical samples were higher than in the environmental samples. However, the difference in the expression levels between the two groups at 42˚C was reduced. The mean HSP70 expression level over the five incubation days demonstrated a gradual and continual increasing trend by temperature elevation in both groups at 30, 37 and 42˚C, however, at 20˚C both groups demonstrated reduced expression. The temperature shift from 20 to 42˚C resulted in HSP70 induction and up to a 10‑ and 8.6‑fold change in HSP70 expression levels on the fifth day of incubation in the clinical and environmental groups, respectively. In conclusion, incubation at 37 and 42˚C resulted in the highest expression levels in both experimental groups, with these temperature points important for the induction of HSP70

  13. Allergens/Antigens, Toxins and Polyketides of Important Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P.

    2011-01-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important specie...

  14. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... exemptions for experimental use of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio (72 FR 28871, May 23, 2007) (FRL-8129... Findings In the Federal Register of March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9596) (FRL-8811-2), EPA issued a notice pursuant..., 2003 (68 FR 41541) (FRL-7311-6). Those health effects data were the basis for establishing...

  15. Aspergillus infections in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jill; Brunel, Shan F; Warris, Adilia

    2016-07-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities. PMID:27177733

  16. Aspergillus mediastinitis after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Caballero

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The clinical features of postoperative Aspergillus mediastinitis may be paucisymptomatic, emphasizing the need for a low index of suspicion in cases of culture-negative mediastinitis or in indolent wound infections. In addition to surgical debridement, the central component of antifungal therapy should include amphotericin B or voriconazole.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipas

  18. Inhalation of Aspergillus fumigatus spores induces airway inflammation in mice in a similar manner as observed in Recurrent Airway Obstruction in horses Inhalación de esporas de Aspergillus fumigatus induce en ratones una inflamación de las vías aéreas similar a la observada en equinos con Obstrucción Recurrente de las Vías Aéreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Morán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if mice exposed to Aspergillus (A. fumigatus spores develop airway inflammation in a similar manner to Recurrent Airway Obstruction (RAO in horses. Different groups of 2-, 5-, 6- and 8-month-old Rockefeller (RK mice were used throughout the experiment. The mice were maintained in the animal house for 16 days and kept in cages containing hay contaminated with A. fumigatus. After 16 days of mold exposure, the mice were bled and sacrificed to obtain bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF or lung tissues for histological analysis. In addition, we measured the levels of A. fumigatus-specific antibodies by ELISA. The results demonstrated that inhalation of A. fumigatus spores in mice induced an inflammatory response in the lungs that was characterized by peribronchiolar and perivascular mononuclear infiltration and bronchiolar luminal exudates. Moreover, there was extensive folding of the airway epithelia, which is a sign of airway smooth muscle contraction and smooth muscle hypertrophy. In addition, we observed a high number of neutrophils and an increase in IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies in the BALF from mice that were older than 5 months and were exposed to A. fumigatus. These animals recovered from their respiratory distress when they were placed in a remission environment. We conclude that simple exposure of mice to moldy hay induces a condition that is similar to RAO in horses. Therefore, using this mouse model for the study of equine RAO offers the opportunity to approximate the immunologic response to airborne irritants and allergens as well as to evaluate pharmacological therapies.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si ratones expuestos a esporas de Aspergillus fumigatus desarrollan una inflamación alérgica de las vías respiratorias similar a la observada en equinos con Obstrucción Recurrente de las Vías Aéreas (ORVA. Para esto se utilizaron ratones Rockefeller (RK de 2, 5, 6 y 8 meses

  19. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  20. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  1. Post-Synthetic Defucosylation of AGP by Aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-Fucosidase Expressed in Arabidopsis Apoplast Induces Compensatory Upregulation of α-1,2-Fucosyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Gennady V.; Reem, Nathan T.; Young, Zachary T.; Chambers, Lauran; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations. Here we report that post-synthetic removal of fucose residues specifically from arabinogalactan proteins in the Arabidopsis plant cell wall induces differential expression of fucosyltransferases and leads to the root and hypocotyl elongation changes. These results demonstrate that the post-synthetic modification of cell wall components presents a valuable approach to investigate the potential signaling pathways induced during plant responses to such modifications that usually occur during plant development and stress responses. PMID:27448235

  2. Post-Synthetic Defucosylation of AGP by Aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-Fucosidase Expressed in Arabidopsis Apoplast Induces Compensatory Upregulation of α-1,2-Fucosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelko, Gennady V; Reem, Nathan T; Young, Zachary T; Chambers, Lauran; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations. Here we report that post-synthetic removal of fucose residues specifically from arabinogalactan proteins in the Arabidopsis plant cell wall induces differential expression of fucosyltransferases and leads to the root and hypocotyl elongation changes. These results demonstrate that the post-synthetic modification of cell wall components presents a valuable approach to investigate the potential signaling pathways induced during plant responses to such modifications that usually occur during plant development and stress responses. PMID:27448235

  3. Post-Synthetic Defucosylation of AGP by Aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-Fucosidase Expressed in Arabidopsis Apoplast Induces Compensatory Upregulation of α-1,2-Fucosyltransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V Pogorelko

    Full Text Available Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations. Here we report that post-synthetic removal of fucose residues specifically from arabinogalactan proteins in the Arabidopsis plant cell wall induces differential expression of fucosyltransferases and leads to the root and hypocotyl elongation changes. These results demonstrate that the post-synthetic modification of cell wall components presents a valuable approach to investigate the potential signaling pathways induced during plant responses to such modifications that usually occur during plant development and stress responses.

  4. Ochratoxin A-Produktion durch Aspergillus ochraceus

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlencoert, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A, one of the 5 most important mycotoxins in food safety, is produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium strains growing on grain, grapes and coffee. OTA biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. depends more on the complex interaction of diverse environmental conditions than on a single growth factor or even the genetic ability to produce OTA. No apparent connection between biomass and OTA production was observed. OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus could be controlled by the pH of...

  5. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  6. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipases. In contrast to polysaccharide-degrading enzyme networks, not much is known about the signaling and regulatory processes that control lipase expression and activity in fungi. This project was ai...

  8. Asexual Sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Thomas H; Wieser, Jenny K.; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    1998-01-01

    The formation of mitotically derived spores, called conidia, is a common reproductive mode in filamentous fungi, particularly among the large fungal class Ascomycetes. Asexual sporulation strategies are nearly as varied as fungal species; however, the formation of conidiophores, specialized multicellular reproductive structures, by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has emerged as the leading model for understanding the mechanisms that control fungal sporulation. Initiation of A. nid...

  9. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Heddergott, C.; Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J P

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VO...

  10. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  11. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  12. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines. PMID:27391523

  13. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Gomes; Roberto da Silva; Alcides Serzedello

    1998-01-01

    Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of a...

  14. Expression of agsA, one of five 1,3-α-d-glucan synthase-encoding genes in Aspergillus niger, is induced in response to cell wall stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, R.A.; Kuyk, P.A. van; Arentshorst, M.; Klis, F.M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Ram, A.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    1,3-α-d-Glucan is an important component of the cell wall of filamentous fungi. We have identified a family of five 1,3-α-d-glucan synthase-encoding genes in Aspergillus niger. The agsA gene was sequenced and the predicted protein sequence indicated that the overall domain structure of 1,3-α-d-gluca

  15. Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Person, A. K.; Chudgar, S. M.; Norton, B. L.; Tong, B. C.; Stout, J E

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolid...

  16. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. PMID:26658315

  17. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia;

    2008-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergill...... atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523(T)=CBS 127591(T)= ITEM 4834(T)= IBT26606(T)....

  18. Chromosomal duplication strains of Aspergillus nidulans and their instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with chromosomal duplication were obtained after gamma irradiation followed by crossing of the translocated strains with normal strains. From 20 analysed colonies, 12 have shown translocations induced by irradiation. Segregants from four of these translocation strains crossed to normal strains have shown to be unstable although presenting normal morphology. Two segregants were genetically analysed. The first one has shown a duplication of part of linkage groups VIII and the second one presented a duplication of a segment of linkage group V. These new duplication strains in A. nidulans open new perspectives of a more detailed study of the instability phenomenon in this fungus. (Author)

  19. Novel Sexual-Cycle-Specific Gene Silencing in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Bruce L. Miller

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans. Duplication of the mating type matAHMG gene in this haploid organism triggers Mat-induced silencing (MatIS) of both endogenous and transgenic matA genes, eliminates function of the encoded SRY structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. MatIS is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth...

  20. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...... analysis. The sequence data used to delimitate subgeneric taxa included partial calmodulin, rDNA and RNA polymerase gene sequences. In our phylogenic structure of Aspergillus extrolite data of the various Aspergillus taxa collected from ex-type cultures and numerous other isolates are also discussed. A new...... subgeneric classification is proposed which includes 8 subgenera and 22 sections within the Aspergillus genus. Characteristics of these taxa are shortly discussed in this chapter....

  1. Putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomee, JFC; Kauffman, HF

    2000-01-01

    Various putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus have been studied over the past decades. A. fumigatus gliotoxin is a potent inhibitor of the mucociliary system. Several fungal metabolites interfere with phagocytosis and opsonization including toxins, 'conidial inhibitory factor', 'A. fum

  2. Apical control of conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiartzabal-Arano, Elixabet; Perez-de-Nanclares-Arregi, Elixabet; Espeso, Eduardo A; Etxebeste, Oier

    2016-05-01

    The infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). After the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. Under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, asexual development or conidiation is induced by the upstream developmental activation (UDA) pathway. UDA proteins transduce signals from the tip, the polarity site of hyphae, to nuclei, where developmental programs are transcriptionally activated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this tip-to-nucleus communication mechanism, emphasizing its dependence on hyphal polarity. Future approaches to the topic will also be suggested, as stimulating elements contributing to the understanding of how apical signals are coupled with the transcriptional control of development and pathogenesis in filamentous fungi. PMID:26782172

  3. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Pedro M.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S.; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F.; Ohm, Robin A.; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs...

  4. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of activity at pH 4.5 and 7.0. A. flavipes RNases were more sensitive to temperature: 50% of the initial activity was lost after 1 hour at 70ºC. After this heat treatment, RNase of A. sulphureus lost 30% of this activity and that of A. fischeri only 16%. The nucleotides released by enzimatic hydrolysis of RNA were separated by ion exchange chromatography in a AG-1X8-formiate column and identified by paper chromatography. This procedure indicated that the raw enzymatic extract of Aspergillus flavipes is able to hydrolyze RNA, releasing 3'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 4.5 and 3' and 5'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 7.0 and 8.5. This result suggests that this strain produces two different types of RNase, one acidic and other alcaline, with different specificities.A produção de ribonucleases extracelulares pelos fungos Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus e A. fischeri foi estudada em meio semi-sintético por períodos de 24 a 144 horas, em "shaker" a 30ºC. Após o cultivo, o meio foi separado da massa micelial por filtração, sendo o filtrado utilizado como solução enzimática bruta. As três espécies produziram maior quantidade de biomassa e ribonuclease após 96 horas de cultivo. O estudo das RNases como extrato enzimático bruto demonstrou que existe grande similaridade entre as enzimas das três espécies, com temperaturas ótimas de 55ºC e dois picos de atividade a pH 4,5 e a pH 7,0. A RNAse produzida pelo fungo A. flavipes demonstrou ser mais

  5. Neuroimaging features of cerebral aspergillus abscess: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Bai

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Cerebral aspergillus abscesses possess some degree neuroimaging features on traditional CT/MR imaging. Combined with patient's clinical history, CT/MRI examination could facilitate early diagnosis of aspergillus abscesses in central nervous system.

  6. Genetic control of mutation process in Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of UV-induced morphological mutations, the resistance to methyl green and rava → rava+ reversions have been studied in 6 uvs mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. It is shown that in all the uvs mutants the induction curves of different mutation types have a characteristic form with a maximum and a decrease in the mutation number (per number of survived cells) at high UV doses. Maxima of the induction of one mutation type in different uvs strains have been observed at different UV doses (and different survival). Comparative frequencies of the induction of different mutation types are different in different uvs strains. Uvs mutations are found which result in a sharp increase (uvs 19) or decrease down to complete absence (uvs12) or the induction of all the mutation types and mutations (uvs2, 20sup(a), 20sup(b), 26) specifically affecting the induction frequency of certain mutation types. It is concluded that UV-induced mutations in Aspergillus nidulans originate not only during postreplicative recombinative reparation, but also at other reparation ways, possibly, following excision

  7. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B[sub 1] and G[sub 1] with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author).

  8. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B1 and G1 with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author)

  9. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius

    OpenAIRE

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) wer...

  10. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  11. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; T. D. C. P. Gunasekara; Bulugahapitiya, U.; K. N. P. Ranasinghe; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; M M Weerasekara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  13. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Rossen, L.; Hoor-Suykerbuyk, M.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nine Aspergillus japonicus isolates and 10 Aspergillus aculeatus isolates by using molecular and biochemical markers, including DNA sequences of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and secondary-metabolite profiles. The DNA sequence of...... the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and...

  14. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  15. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes - right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  16. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  17. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  18. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; Gunasekara, T. D. C. P.; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Ranasinghe, K. N. P.; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; Weerasekara, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients’ toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P onychomycosis. Aspergillus species were most commonly isolated n = 180 (71%) followed by dermatophytes, yeasts, and other molds n = 75 (29%). Of the patients having Aspergillus onychomycosis, 149 (83%) were in the > age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63%) had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation. PMID:26693433

  19. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives of...... the wild molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. All four species are classified to the A. flavus group. Strains of the A. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological similarity. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic, whereas wild molds...... are associated with the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Thus, reliable identification of individual strains is very important for application purposes. This review considers the pheno- and genotypic markers used in the classification of A. flavus group strains and specifically in the identification of A...

  20. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Lysková, P.; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Skořepová, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2014), s. 565-576. ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus candidus * Aspergillus tritici * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  1. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI; ADENIRAN EUNICE ADERONKE

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP), an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried...

  2. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Budroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182, which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli.

  3. Assessment of Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Against Bread Spoilage Fungus Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Matei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are generally recognized as safe and can be used against fungi that contaminate various food commodities. The aim of the research was to select LAB strains with high antifungal activity for the biocontrol of Aspergillus ochraceus. The antifungal activity of eight strains of lactic acid bacteria has been evaluated by overlay assay method against the spoilage fungus, Aspergillus ochraceus isolated from white bread. The antifungal effect was assessed by co-cultivation of lactic acid bacteria strains and Aspergillus ochraceus in liquid media and mycelium growth inhibition was monitored for over 14 days. The LAB strains Lpl, LAB 43 and LAB 13 presented intense antifungal activity with large inhibition zones of fungal growth and sporulation, but smaller for Lpa and LAB 15 strains. Total inhibition of mycelia growth was induced by the strains LAB 43, LAB 13 and Lpa. The strains LAB 15 and LAB 35 had a moderate inhibition activity on the mycelia growth. The results of this study demonstrated the antifungal activity of several LAB strains by overlay assay and by co-cultivation method. Therefore, it was confirmed the inhibitory effect of the strains LAB 43 and LAB 13 against Aspergillus ochraceus. The experiment revealed that these LAB strains could be further used as biocontrol agents.

  4. Study of effect ultraviolet radiation on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the results of ultraviolet radiation effects on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus to reach the quality control standards are presented. The purpose was to test the effect of ultraviolet radiation in 254 nanometer wavelength for fungi decontamination with respect to the exposure time of radiation and the distance between samples and radiation source. The ultraviolet radiation effects on plates containing Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi were studied in the exposure time duration of 30, to 360 seconds of a fixed distance, and also for variable distances from 10 to 40 cm at a given exposure time. It is shown that in the exposure time of more than 360 second the ultraviolet radiation exposure highly decreases the number of Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi colonies. By reducing the distance, the number of colonies decreases and it is minimized at a 10 cm distance in the time exposure of 360 second. The above results show that the ultraviolet radiation is an effective method for food decontamination and can be used in industry

  5. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  6. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...

  7. Organic acid production by Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de

    2006-01-01

    . Specielt Aspergillus niger er interessant i forbindelse med produktion af organiske syrer, idet denne organisme tolerer lavt pH, kan give høje produktudbytter, og kan give høje produktiviteter som allerede illustreret i anvendelsen af denne organisme i produktionen af citronsyre. Disse faktorer gør A...

  8. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...

  9. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  10. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  11. The isolation and improvement of Aspergillus niger by radiation for higher production of citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local citric acid producer of fungal strain Aspergillus niger have been successfully isolated from stale bread and onion. The isolates, designated as SB 1 and NN I showed a potential performance for citric acid production of 49% and 52% yield respectively, in shake flask studies. The strain improvement on NN1 was carried out by radiation induced mutation by gamma rays at LD50 of 1.28 kGy

  12. Utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to produce pectin lyase from various agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Safia Koser; Zahid Anwar; Zafar Iqbal; Awais Anjum; Tahir Aqil; Sajid Mehmood; Muhammad Irshad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the culture influence on pectin lyase production potential of fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme profile of A. oryzae showed highest activity of pectin lyase after 3rd day of incubation on lemon peel waste under solid state fermentation conditions. To induce the pectin lyase synthesis capability of A. oryzae at optimal level various culture variables including physical and nutritional parameters were optimized by adopting classical optimiza...

  13. Disruption of the Phospholipase D Gene Attenuates the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianping; Gao, Meihua; Han, Xuelin; Tao, Sha; Zheng, Dongyu; Cheng, Ying; Yu, Rentao; Han, Gaige; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen that induces serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Phospholipases are key enzymes in pathogenic fungi that cleave host phospholipids, resulting in membrane destabilization and host cell penetration. However, knowledge of the impact of phospholipases on A. fumigatus virulence is rather limited. In this study, disruption of the pld gene encoding phospholipase D (PLD), an important member of the phospholipase protei...

  14. An Analysis of the Response of Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans to Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Eshwika, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is capable of causing a range of diseases in immunocompromised patients and is responsible for up to 3% of all hospitalbased deaths in the EU. The yeast Candida albicans induces a range of diseases in immunocompromised patients. Caspofungin is a recently introduced antifungal compound that has good efficacy against these fungi with minimal side effects. The aim of the work presented here was to characterise the response of A. fumigat...

  15. Morphological Transitions Governed by Density Dependence and Lipoxygenase Activity in Aspergillus flavus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz Brown, S.; Zarnowski, R.; Sharpee, W. C.; Keller, N P

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus differentiates to produce asexual dispersing spores (conidia) or overwintering survival structures called sclerotia. Results described here show that these two processes are oppositely regulated by density-dependent mechanisms and that increasing the cell density (from 101 to 107 cells/plate) results in the lowest numbers of sclerotial and the highest numbers of conidial. Extract from spent medium of low-cell-density cultures induced a high-sclerotium-number phenotype, wher...

  16. Posttranscriptional Control Mediates Cell Type-Specific Localization of Catalase A during Aspergillus nidulans Development

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Rosa E.; Aguirre, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    Two differentially regulated catalase genes have been identified in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The catA gene belongs to a class whose transcripts are specifically induced during asexual sporulation (conidiation) and encodes a catalase accumulated in conidia. Using a developmental mutant affected in the brlA gene, which is unable to form conidia but capable of producing sexual spores (ascospores), we demonstrated that the catA mRNA accumulated during induction of conidiation but did not ...

  17. Studies on Aspergillus oryzae Mutants for the Production of Single Cell Proteins from Deoiled Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder, Rudravaram; Venkateshwar Rao, Linga; Ravindra, Pogaku

    2003-01-01

    Ethyl methyl sulphonate was used to induce point mutation in Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC 1846). Incubation with ethyl methyl sulphonate for 1 h resulted in 98 % killing of spores. By screening the survived colonies three hypermorphs were found (Shan1, Shan2 and Shan3). These three mutants along with the A. oryzae (MTCC 1846) were used for the production of single cell proteins. They grew profusely on deoiled rice bran and produced higher percentage of protein. Among the three mutants Shan2 ha...

  18. An Antifungal Role of Hydrogen Sulfide on the Postharvest Pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum

    OpenAIRE

    Liu-Hui Fu; Kang-Di Hu; Lan-Ying Hu; Yan-Hong Li; Liang-Bin Hu; Hong Yan; Yong-Sheng Liu; Hua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contract...

  19. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and...

  20. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos;

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  1. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species......, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...

  2. Genetics of amyloglucosidase production in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained with the isolation and characterization of mutants induced by irradiating 5-8 days old spores with ultraviolet light are presented. The modification in the amyloglucosidase accumulation, the allelic interactions of these mutations and the inhibitory effects of glycerol are reported. (M.A.C.)

  3. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when...... comparing with or without the presence of Pseudomonas. Conclusion: All Aspergilli tested, with the exception of A. fumigatus, triggered the upregulation of phenazine-1-carboxamide and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly no changes in secondary metabolite profiles were...

  4. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Wijesuriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients' toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63% had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation.

  5. Restriction endonuclease analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnie, J P; Coke, A.; Matthews, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a genome based DNA fingerprinting system for Aspergillus fumigatus mould. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 21 isolates obtained from eight patients with an aspergilloma. This was with a freeze-dried mycelial extract fragmented in liquid nitrogen. DNA was subsequently purified by phenol-chloroform extraction followed by ultracentrifugation on a caesium chloride gradient. The DNA was restricted by EcoRI and Xba I. RESULTS: All isolates were identical when cut by EcoRI; Xba I del...

  6. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani; Nandigam Srujana; Guntur Preethi; Tandale Swati

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of co...

  7. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of copper nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy.

  8. L-histidine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Polkinghorne, M A; Hynes, M J

    1982-01-01

    Histidase activity rather than uptake of L-histidine is the limiting factor for the utilization of histidine as the sole nitrogen source for Aspergillus nidulans. Histidine cannot act as the sole carbon source, and evidence is presented indicating that this is attributable to an inability to convert histidine to L-glutamate in vivo. It has been shown that this fungus lacks an active urocanase enzyme and that histidine is quantitatively converted to urocanate, which accumulates in the extracel...

  9. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H.

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melani...

  10. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The fol...

  11. Pectinolytic activity of Aspergillus section Nigri strains

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, M. H. C.; Ottoni, C. A.; Santos, C.; Moreira, K.; Lima, Nelson; Motta, Cristina Souza

    2012-01-01

    Pectinases are a heterogeneous group of related enzymes that hydrolyze pectic substances present mostly in plants. Pectinases are produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Filamentous fungi are good producers of pectinolytic enzymes (e.g., exopolygalacturonase (exo-PG) and endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) and Aspergillus niger is the most commonly used fungal species for industrial production of pectinolytic enzymes. The application of pectinolytic enzymes plays an importa...

  12. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  13. Susceptibility to Aspergillus Infections in Rats with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease via Deficiency Function of Alveolar Macrophages and Impaired Activation of TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuting; Xu, Hong; Li, Li; Yuan, Weifeng; Zhang, Deming; Huang, Wenjie

    2016-08-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are more susceptible to Aspergillus. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we used cigarette smoke exposure to generate COPD rat model. colony-forming units (CFU) count assessment and phagocytosis were applied to evaluate the defense function of COPD rats against Aspergillus challenge. ELISA, western blotting, and GST-Rac1 pull-down assays were conducted to determine the expressions of cytokines and TLR2-associated signaling pathway. Our data showed that Aspergillus burdens increased, phagocytosis of Aspergillus as well as the expressions of inflammatory cytokines from alveolar macrophages (AMs) were impaired in COPD rats compared with normal rats. Though TLR2 signaling-related proteins were induced in response to the stimulation of Aspergillus or Pam3csk4 (TLR2 agonist), the activation of TLR2-associated signaling pathway was apparently interfered in rats with COPD, compared to that in normal rats. Taken together, our study demonstrated that COPD caused the deficiency of AMs function and impaired the activation of TLR2/PI3K/Rac 1 signaling pathway, leading to invasion of Aspergillus infection, which also provides a future basis for the infection control in COPD patients. PMID:27312383

  14. Secretome data from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    The cultivation procedure and the fungal strain applied for enzyme production may influence levels and profile of the proteins produced. The proteomic analysis data presented here provide critical information to compare proteins secreted by Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger when cultivated through submerged and sequential fermentation processes, using steam-explosion sugarcane bagasse as inducer for enzyme production. The proteins were organized according to the families described in CAZy database as cellulases, hemicellulases, proteases/peptidases, cell-wall-protein, lipases, others (catalase, esterase, etc.), glycoside hydrolases families, predicted and hypothetical proteins. Further detailed analysis of this data is provided in "Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation process: enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis" C. Florencio, F.M. Cunha, A.C Badino, C.S. Farinas, E. Ximenes, M.R. Ladisch (2016) [1]. PMID:27419196

  15. Clonality and sex impact aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populatio...

  16. The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aspergillus is a large economically important genus of fungi. In agriculture, some of the 250 species in this genus cause disease in plants and animals and some also produce poisons (mycotoxins) in foods and feeds. Aspergillus is a major killer of immunosuppressed people, such as diabeti...

  17. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  18. Influence of medium composition and pH on the production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Eloane Malvessi; Mauricio Moura da Silveira

    2004-01-01

    A liquid medium containing wheat bran, salts and a source of inducer (pectin) was found to be suitable for the production of exo- and endo-polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae CCT3940. Induction of polygalacturonases by purified pectin was significantly higher than when rinds of citrus fruits were used as inducer. A. oryzae growth was favoured by pH close to 4, although a drop of pH to around 3 was needed for enzymes production. Afterwards, decreasing activities were observed with the nor...

  19. Effect of serum components on biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuren, Tuya; Toyotome, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Muraosa, Yasunori; Yahiro, Maki; Wang, Dan-Ni; Watanabe, Akira; Taguchi, Hideaki; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. Serum promotes biofilm production by Aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other Aspergillus spp. have not been reported. We analyzed biofilm formation by five Aspergillus spp., i.e., A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), fetuin A, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. The antifungal susceptibility of A. fumigatus isolates that formed biofilms was also examined. All serum/serum proteins promoted the growth of all these fungal species; growth promotion was most evident with FBS, followed by fetuin A and BSA. This effect was most evident in case of A. fumigatus and least evident in case of A. terreus. Electron microscopy showed thick ECM layers surrounding fungal cell walls after culture with FBS, particularly in A. fumigatus. An increase in hyphal branching caused by fetuin A was the highest in case of A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Biofilm-forming A. fumigatus showed resistance to most antifungal agents, although a synergism of micafungin and amphotericin B was suggested. Our results indicate that serum promotes biofilm formation, including thick ECM, by many Aspergillus spp., particularly A. fumigatus, and that this may be closely related to its virulence. PMID:24858605

  20. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta;

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740...

  1. The population genomics of mycotoxin diversity in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins, and especially the aflatoxins, are an enormous problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic known natural compound. The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aspergillus flavus and A. par...

  2. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.; Cabral, D.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces......Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... aflatoxins G(1) and G(2), aflavarins, aflatrem, aflavinines, parasiticolides and paspaline. This species also includes several isolates previously assigned to A. flavus group II and three Australian soil isolates. A. arachidicola produces aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2), kojic acid, chrysogine and...

  3. Cloning and Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and the closely related A. rambellii. A. och...

  4. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  5. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A...

  6. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen; Lima Francieli Arrias de; Pedrinho Sophia Renata Fazzano; Lenartovicz Veridiana; Souza Cristina Giatti Marques de; Peralta Rosane Marina

    1999-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v) starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10) and temperature (from 25 to 42oC). Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamy...

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  8. Scleral buckle infection with aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaimed Manal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a case of scleral buckle infection with Aspergillus flavus in a tertiary eye center in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective case report of a 28-year-old Saudi male who presented with a six-month history of conjunctival injection and discharge from the left eye which had undergone uncomplicated conventional retinal detachment surgery, at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the form of cryopexy, subretinal fluid drainage and scleral buckle (grooved segmental sponge and circumferential band with sleeve for a macula on retinal detachment four years earlier. A diagnosis of infected extruded scleral buckle was made and the buckle was removed. Results: The infected scleral buckle was removed under local anesthesia with administration of sub-conjunctival irrigation of 50 mg solution of Vancomycin, and sub-conjunctival injection of 25mg of Vancomycin. Post operative microbiological studies revealed infection with silver staining of moderate Aspergillus flavus hyphae. Visual acuity of the left eye improved from 20/200 before surgery to 20/60 in the two years follow-up visit. Conclusion: This case report indicates the importance of considering infection with multiple organisms - including fungal ones - in cases of scleral buckle infections in our population.

  9. Aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-dong; HU Xiao-peng; YIN Hang; WANG Wei; ZHANG Xin; MA Lin-lin; WANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungal infections are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplants.The present study aimed to investigate the aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients, and its diagnosis as well as treatment.Methods Approximately 2000 cases of renal transplants were retrospectively studied and we focused on cases hospitalized during August 1, 2005 and February 1, 2007, as the study period. The clinical database and electronic records were analyzed. Recently published literature was reviewed.Results There was more diabetes and hypertension in the infected group than in the non-infected group (86% vs 62% and 57% vs 39%, respectively). Eighty-six percent of recipients from the infected group had delayed graft function. Seven cases with aspergillus pneumonia were identified based on either fungal culture or radiology. Of the 7 cases, 4 died in a few days after diagnosis. Liposomal amphotericin B was used as a first-line therapy.Conclusions Incidences of fungal infection are increasing among renal transplant recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical steps in curing aspergillosis.

  10. Aspergillus in the lung: diverse and coincident forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus has traditionally been regarded as belonging to one of the following, apparently distinct, entities: saprophytic aspergilloma; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); and invasive aspergillosis (IPA); which may be further categorised as angioinvasive, acute or chronic airway invasive [1]. It is not always obvious that there is overlap between these entities, and that in any given patient more than one Aspergillus-related pathological process can co-exist [2]. The aim of this article is to review the clinical and imaging features of the main categories of Aspergillus-related pulmonary disease and, in particular, to highlight the overlap between them. (orig.)

  11. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  14. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav;

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from...... secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents...... suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were...

  15. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  16. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  17. Nonfunctionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a Strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a Disrupted aflR Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Yu, Jiujiang; Abe, Keietsu; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.; Koyama, Yasuji

    2002-01-01

    Aspergillus sojae belongs to the Aspergillus section Flavi but does not produce aflatoxins. The functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene (aflRs) was examined by transforming it into an ΔaflR strain of A. parasiticus, derived from a nitrate-nonutilizing, versicolorin A (VERA)-accumulating strain. The A. parasiticus aflR gene (aflRp) transformants produced VERA, but the aflRs transformants did not. Even when aflRs was placed under the control of the amylase gene (amyB) promoter of Aspergillus or...

  18. Fungal biofilm reactor improves the quality of a fusion protein GLA::GFP produced by Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Zune, Quentin; Delepierre, Anissa; Bauwens, Julien; Francis, Frédéric; Toye, Dominique; Punt, Peter; Thonart, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites, in accordance with solid-state related physiological mechanisms. In this work, the potentialities of fungal biofilm will be investigated in the context of the production of a Gla::GFP fusion protein by Aspergillus oryzae. Since the production of this protein is under the control of the promoter glaB, specifically induced in solid-state fermentation, biofilm mode of culture is expected to enhance the global productivity...

  19. Sequence and functional analysis of the positively acting regulatory gene amdR from Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrianopoulos, A; Hynes, M J

    1990-01-01

    The positively acting regulatory gene amdR of Aspergillus nidulans coordinately regulates the expression of five structural genes involved in the catabolism of certain amides (amdS), omega amino acids (gatA and gabA), and lactams (lamA and lamB) in the presence of omega amino acid inducers. Analysis of the amdR gene showed that it contains three small introns, heterogeneous 5' and 3' transcription sites, and multiple AUG codons prior to the major AUG initiator. The predicted amdR protein sequ...

  20. Low-cost carbon sources for the production of a thermostable xylanase by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia Elias Pião Benedetti; Eliana Dantas da Costa; Caio Casale Aragon; Andréa Francisco dos Santos; Antônio José Goulart; Derlene Attili-Angelis; Rubens Monti

    2013-01-01

    A strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was isolated and shown to possess extracellular xylanolytic activity. These enzymes have biotechnological potential and can be employed in various industries. This fungus produced its highest xylanase activity in a medium made up of 0.1% CaCO3 , 0.5% NaCl, 0.1% NH4 Cl, 0.5% corn steep liquor and 1% carbon source, at pH 8.0. A lowcost hemicellulose residue (powdered corncob) proved to be an excellent inducer of the A. ni...

  1. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  2. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  3. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.;

    2005-01-01

    The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination ...

  4. Nutrient environment influences competition among Aspergillus flavus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures of Aspergillus flavus populations, shaped by intraspecific competition, influence the incidences and severities of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrie...

  5. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena;

    2011-01-01

    . Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species......Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger ‘aggregate’ represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus...... mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these...

  6. Bioremediation of dyes in textile effluents by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Carlos Renato; Maganha de Almeida, Ana Carolina

    2009-02-01

    In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption was 2.50, though the autoclaved demonstrated a higher biosorption capacity than the non-autoclaved pellets. The toxicity level was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The calculated toxicity of PV-H3R (LC100 62.50 microg mL(-1)) was higher than to PR-HE7B (LC100 300.00 microg mL(-1)), and its results brought out that the decrease of toxicity levels to zero might be accomplished by adding small quantities of pelletized A. oryzae to the solutions. PMID:18989608

  7. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed;

    2012-01-01

    including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are...... publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten...... polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols....

  8. Microbial transformation of curcumol by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Tian-Xian; Qiu, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Curcumol is a representative index component for the quality control of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling, an antivirus and anticancer drug in China. Microbial transformation of curcumol (1) by Aspergillus niger AS 3.739 yielded two products. Their structures were elucidated as 3alpha-hydroxycurcumol (2) and 3alpha-(4'-methoxy-succinyloxy)-curcumol (3) by extensive spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS. Among them, 3 is a new compound. Esterification of the substrate with succinic acid is a novel reaction in the field of microbial transformation of natural products. Compound 2, the major transformation product of 1, was a high regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation product and showed significant antiviral effects. PMID:23513713

  9. Aspergillus: a primer for the novice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J W

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus is a genus of molds named after the morphological structure that bears asexual spores, the aspergillum, which resembles a liturgical device. This genus contains several species of positive or negative economic importance in industry, agriculture and medicine. The majority of aspergilli, including most species of economic importance, are known to reproduce only by asexual spores. Genome projects have been completed for A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae; several other species are also being sequenced. The data from these genome projects have been useful in elucidating aspects of phylogeny, the evolution of sexuality and the extent of secondary metabolite diversity. To date, however, the impact on drug discovery, diagnosis of aspergillosis, and our understanding of fungal pathogenesis has been less pronounced. PMID:19253144

  10. Synthesis of lead nanoparticles by Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, K V; Kumar, N Sunil; Sangameswaran, B B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the current demand to develop green technologies in material synthesis, a natural process in the synthesis of lead particles by Aspergillus species to suit such technology is reported. The fungal strain was grown in medium containing different concentrations of lead (0.2-1.5 mM) to determine its resistance to heavy metals. The organism was found to utilize some mechanism and accumulate lead particles outside and inside the cell. The extracellular presence of lead particles in the range of 1.77-5.8 microm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of particles of lead in the 5-20 nm size range was found on the cell surface, in the periplasmic space and in the cytoplasm and was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22708348

  11. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10 and temperature (from 25 to 42oC. Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamylase, were separated by ion exchange chromatography. Both partially purified enzymes had optimal activities at pH values between 4.5 and 6.0 and were stable under acid conditions (pH 4.0-7.0. The enzymes exhibited optimal activities at temperatures between 50o and 60o C and were stable for more than ten hours at 55oC.

  12. Studies on Aspergillus Flavus Link. Isolated From Maize in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Houshyar-Fard Mahmoud; Rouhani Hamid; Falahati-Rastegar Mahrokh; Mahdikhani-Moghaddam Esmat; Malekzadeh-Shafaroudi Saeed; Probst Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus flavus population structure from maize kernels was examined. During 2011, samples were collected from two main grain maize production areas in Iran (Fars and Ardebil provinces), shortly before harvest. One-hundred nine A. flavus isolates were recovered on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicole (DRBC) agar and Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus medium (AFPA) and grouped into morphotypes and Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs) based on morphological (e.g. sclerotia production), p...

  13. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Kuijpers, A.F.A.; Samson, R.A.

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... A: Aspergillus cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. westerdijkiae, A. sulphurous, and Neopetromyces muricatus. Two species produce large or small amounts of ochratoxin A, but less consistently: A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum. Ochratoxin production in these species...

  14. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of th...

  15. Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, T. M.; Andrewski, M. D.; Roossinck, M J; Keller, N P

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppre...

  16. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of op...

  17. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati Dali; A. B. D. Rauf Patong; M.Noor Jalaluddin; Pirman; Baharuddin Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  18. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, G.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding genes. This thesis describes the purification and characterisation of two accessory enzymes from Aspergillus , feruloyl esterase A (FaeA) andα-glucuronidase A (AguA), and the activities of these enz...

  19. Utilization of Low-Cost Ellagitannins for Ellagic Acid Production and Antimicrobial Phenolics Enhancing By Aspergillus awamorii and Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal strains, Aspergillus awamorii A9, Aspergillus awamorii A23 and Aspergillus oryzae O2, were selected out of ten fungal strains for their activeness in converting pomegranate peel ellagitannins into ellagic acid. When pomegranate peel was fermented by Aspergillus awamorii A9, the highest yields of ellagic acid (7.93±0.23 mg/g solid substrate) and total soluble phenolics (14.61±0.36 mg/g solid substrate) were produced at 5 and 10 days of incubation, respectively. Also, blue berry pomace, red grape pomace, strawberry pomace were evaluated as low cost ellagitannin sources for ellagic acid and soluble phenolics production. The antimicrobial activity of soluble phenolics extracted from fermented pomegranate peel and strawberry pomace was tested against two food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). This study also revealed that 3 kGy enhanced the activity of antimicrobial phenolics

  20. Biosynthetic Pathway of the Reduced Polyketide Product Citreoviridin in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-03-18

    Citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of F1-ATPase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. These potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. The identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans are reported. Two intermediates were isolated that allowed the proposal of the biosynthetic pathway of citreoviridin. PMID:26954888

  1. The Aspergillus Genome Database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the Aspergillus research community

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Chibucos, Marcus C; Costanzo, Maria C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Inglis, Diane O.; Lotia, Adil; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Sherlock, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the Aspergilli. AspGD combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of Aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple Aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring ...

  2. How peroxisomes affect aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Reverberi

    Full Text Available In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived, an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis.

  3. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.; Murphy, R.L.; Kelly, J.M.; Nielsen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the...... biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted in a...... sources on the alpha-amylase production in the creA deletion strain was investigated and it was found that starch was the best inducer. The degree of induction by starch increased almost linearly with the concentration of starch in starch/glucose mixtures. High-density batch cultivation was performed with...

  4. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Species in the anamorph genus Aspergillus are associated with several teleomorphic genera in the Eurotiales and the most important mycotoxin producers are concentrated in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati. A new genus, Neopetromyces, is proposed for the recently described Petromyces muricatus, beca...

  5. The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal s

  6. Simultaneous amyloglucosidase and exo-polygalacturonase production by Aspergillus niger using solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG and exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG were simultaneously produced by two different strains of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF using defatted rice-bran as substrate. The effect of Aspergillus niger strain (t0005/007-2 and/or CCT 3312, inoculum type (spore suspension or fermented bran and addition of inducers (pectin and/or starch to the culture media was studied using a 3² x 2¹ factorial experimental design. The production of AMG and exo-PG was significantly affected by fungal strain and inoculum type but inducers had no effect. The maximum yields obtained were 1310 U/g dm for AMG using a spore suspension of A. niger CCT 3312 and 50.2 U/g dm for exo-PG production, using A. niger t0005/007-2 and fermented bran as inoculum. The yields obtained represented acceptable values in comparison with data available in the literature and indicated that defatted rice-bran was a good nutrient source.As enzimas amiloglicosidase (AMG e exo-poligalacturonase (exo-PG foram produzidas simultaneamente por duas cepas de Aspergillus niger, através de fermentação em estado sólido usando farelo de arroz desengordurado como substrato. Foram avaliados os efeitos da cepa de Aspergillus niger, tipo de inóculo e adição de indutores no meio de cultura, utilizando-se um planejamento experimental fracionário 3² x 2¹. O máximo rendimento obtido foi 1310 U/g ms para a produção de AMG e 50,2 U/g ms para a exo-PG. Comparando-se estes resultados com dados da literatura pode-se dizer que os rendimentos obtidos foram aceitáveis e indicam que o farelo de arroz desengordurado é uma boa fonte de nutrientes. A produção de AMG e exo-PG foi significativamente afetada pelas variáveis cepa de A. niger e tipo de inóculo, enquanto a variável indutor não apresentou influência significativa na produção destas enzimas.

  7. Sporogenic Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Development of Aspergillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Ana M.; Hinze, Lori L.; Gardner, Harold W.; Keller, Nancy P

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased ...

  8. Sexual structures in Aspergillus: morphology, importance and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, David M

    2009-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus comprises a few hundred species sharing a common asexual spore forming structure, the aspergillum. Approximately one-third of these species also produce a sexual stage, all but five of which are known to be homothallic. Sexual stages associated with Aspergillus fall into approximately ten different genera, reflecting a tremendous degree of phylogenetic and biological diversity. Sexual stages in Aspergillus are plectomycetous, typical for the order in which it resides, the Eurotiales. Theoretically, a homothallic Aspergillus species can produce both asexual conidia and sexual ascospores in both clonal and recombinant fashion, although the actual significance of these potential modes of reproduction is unclear. Aspergillus species with known sexual stages tend to be minor players in infections of humans, perhaps because of their tendency to produce fewer asexual spores compared to their non-teleomorphic congeners. The discovery of population genetic and genomic evidence for sex in species with no known sexual stage indicates that no assumptions can be made about the clonal versus recombinant life histories of a species based on its known mitotic and/or meiotic reproductive modes. PMID:18608901

  9. Overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawi, H; Khanh, N Q; Gassen, H

    2000-10-01

    One of the major problems with the production of biotechnologically valuable proteins has been the purification of the product. For Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several techniques for the purification of intracellular proteins, but these are time consuming and often result in poor yields. Purification can be considerably facilitated, if the product is secreted from the host cell. In the work presented, we have constructed an expression vector (pSGNH2) for the secretion of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; EC 5.3.4.1) from Aspergillus niger, in which the retention signal His-Asp-Glu-Leu (H-D-E-L) was modified to Ala-Leu-Glu-Gln (A-L-E-Q) via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The PDI gene was placed under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter. This expression vector was transformed into A. niger NRRL3, resulting in PDI secretion into the medium. The catalytic activity of overexpressed PDI from A. niger was indistinguishable from that of PDI isolated from bovine liver. With further strain improvement and optimization of culture conditions, it could be possible to raise the PDI production to the bioprocessing scale. PMID:10977899

  10. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Klejnstrup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols.

  11. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  12. Three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidases found in Aspergillus oryzae show varying substrate specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takuji; Morita, Hiroto; Okamoto, Ayako; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-06-01

    Three extracellular dipeptidyl peptidase genes, dppB, dppE, and dppF, were unveiled by sequence analysis of the Aspergillus oryzae genome. We investigated their differential enzymatic profiles, in order to gain an understanding of the diversity of these genes. The three dipeptidyl peptidases were expressed using Aspergillus nidulans as the host. Each recombinant enzyme was purified and subsequently characterized. The enzymes displayed similar optimum pH values, but optimum temperatures, pH stabilities, and substrate specificities varied. DppB was identified as a Xaa-Prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase, while DppE scissile substrates were similar to the substrates for Aspergillus fumigatus DPPV (AfDPPV). DppF was found to be a novel enzyme that could digest both substrates for A. fumigatus DPPIV and AfDPPV. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed that the transcription of dppB in A. oryzae was induced by protein substrates and repressed by the addition of an inorganic nitrogen source, despite the presence of protein substrates. The transcription of dppE depended on its growth time, while the transcription of dppF was not affected by the type of the nitrogen source in the medium, and it started during the early stage of the fungal growth. Based on these results, we conclude that these enzymes may represent the nutrition acquisition enzymes. Additionally, DppF may be one of the sensor peptidases responsible for the detection of the protein substrates in A. oryzae environment. DppB may be involved in nitrogen assimilation control, since the transcription of dppB was repressed by NaNO3, despite the presence of protein substrates. PMID:26846741

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Kim, Young Min; Youm, Yoon Seok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Jeong, Ae Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings.

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings

  15. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathoorn Erik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 μg/ml. Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri.

  16. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  17. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the ...... to attenuate unwanted side effects resulting from oxygen limitation during industrial fermentations with A. niger.......The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  18. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process

  19. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  20. Variability in Galactomannan detection by platelia Aspergillus EIA™ according to the Aspergillus species Variabilidade na detecção de galactomanana pelo Platelia Aspergillus EIA® de acordo com a espécie de Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the extent to which different Aspergillus species release galactomannan (GM in vitro. Marked variability was observed in GM reactivity between and within Aspergillus species, with A. terreus strains showing the highest GM indexes. The in vivo significance of these findings remains to be determined.O estudo objetivou investigar a liberação in vitro de galactomanana (GM em distintas espécies patogênicas de fungos do gênero Aspergillus. Grande variabilidade foi detectada tanto intra quanto inter espécies, sendo as cepas da espécie A. terreus relacionadas aos maiores índices de GM detectados. O significado in vivo destes achados permanece em aberto, porém merece investigação.

  1. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  2. Heterologous expression of Aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Czermak, Peter

    2016-06-25

    Fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. They can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is Pectinex Ultra, which is produced with Aspergillus aculeatus. Here we used the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus Aspergillus terreus. A synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative β-fructofuranosidase ATEG 04996 (XP 001214174.1) from A. terreus NIH2624 was secreted as a functional protein into the extracellular medium. At 60°C, the purified A. terreus enzyme generated the same pattern of oligosaccharides as Pectinex Ultra, but at lower temperatures it also produced oligomers with up to seven units. We achieved activities of up to 986.4U/mL in high-level expression experiments, which is better than previous reports of optimised Aspergillus spp. fermentations. PMID:27084521

  3. Aspergillus sellar abscess: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus sellar abscess is a very rare form of fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS. In this report, we describe the successful treatment of a patient with aspergillus sellar abscess. A 65-year-old woman presented with headache, nasal discharge and decreased visual acuity. The diagnosis of sellar mass was made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination. The computed tomography (CT scan revealed sellar enlargement and sellar floor bony destruction. After hospitalization the patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Histopathological examination of the sellar mass revealed aspergillosis. Postoperatively, amphotericine-B and itraconazole therapy was started. During a six-month follow-up, the patient′s headache and inertia disappeared, visual acuity improved. Aspergillus sellar abscess must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a sellar mass. The correct diagnosis of pituitary aspergillosis can only be achieved by histopathological examination. Surgical intervention and antifungal therapy should be considered the optimal treatment.

  4. Biosorption potency of Aspergillus niger for removal of chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger isolated from soil and effluent of leather tanning mills had higher activity to remove chromium. The potency of Aspergillus niger was evaluated in shake flask culture by absorption of chromium at pH 6 and temperature 30 degrees C. The results of the study indicated removal of more than 75% chromium by Aspergillus niger determined by diphenylcarbazide colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry after 7 days. Study of microbial Cr(VI) reduction and identification of reduction intermediates has been hindered by the lack of analytical techniques that can identify the oxidation state with subcellular spatial resolution. Therefore, removal of chromium was further substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which indicated an accumulation of chromium in the fungal mycelium. PMID:16874547

  5. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  6. Genotoxicity of the cyclo-oxygenase-inhibitor sulindac sulfide in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Genotoxicidade de sulfeto de sulindaco em Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID with chemopreventive effect on human cancer cells. Due to the involvement of the somatic recombination in the carcinogenic process, sulindac sulfide's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by the Homozygotization Index (HI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The drug's recombinogenic potential was evaluated by its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes from heterozygous diploid cells. Sulindac sulfide at 175 and 350 µM concentrations induced mitotic recombination in A. nidulans diploid cells, with HI values for genetic markers higher than 2.0, and significantly different from control HI values. The recombinogenic effect of NSAID was related to the induction of DNA strand breaks and cell cycle alterations. Sulindac sulfide's carcinogenic potential was also discussed.Sulfeto de sulindaco é um antiinflamatório não-esteroidal com efeitos quimiopreventivos em cânceres humanos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial recombinagênico do sulfeto de sulindaco em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans. O efeito recombinagênico da droga foi demonstrado através da homozigotização de genes recessivos, previamente presentes em heterozigose. Os valores de HI (Índice de Homozigotização para diferentes marcadores genéticos apresentaram-se maiores do que 2,0 e significativamente diferentes dos valores obtidos em sulfeto de sulindaco ausência da droga (controle. O potencial recombinagênico do sulfeto de sulindaco foi associado à indução de quebras na molécula do DNA e a alterações no ciclo celular. O potencial carcinogênico do sulfeto de sulindaco foi discutido no presente trabalho.

  7. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Zinc Tolerance Efficiency of Aspergillus terreus Thorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipanwita; Chakraborty, A; Santra, S C

    2016-03-01

    The present study emphasizes the potential of gamma radiation in enhancing zinc tolerance of Aspergillus terreus. Gamma-exposed A. terreus could tolerate 1.13 times more Zn, reflecting higher growth (in terms of CFU) under Zn stress and enhanced Zn removal efficacies than their unirradiated counterparts. Radiation-induced upregulation of antioxidative system (SOD, CAT, GSH and MT) of A. terreus is responsible for radiation-induced enhancement of Zn tolerance. FTIR spectra reveals the involvement of functional groups in Zn biosorption; SEM study divulges the structural changes due to metal and gamma exposure and SEM-EDX depicts the Zn uptake by A. terreus (both in gamma-exposed and unexposed conditions). This work sheds light toward utilizing low doses of ionizing radiation for making more metal-tolerant fungi and the possible mechanisms adopted by A. terreus for being more metallo-resistant. PMID:26612034

  8. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol and...... on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha -amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha -amylase production. A possible induction by alpha -methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also...... investigated, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of alpha -amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer....

  9. Evidence for a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxalate accumulation of up to 8 g/liter was induced in Aspergillus niger by shifting the pH from 6 to 8. This required the presence of P/sub i/ and a nitrogen source and was inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Exogenously added 14CO2 was not incorporated into oxalate, but was incorporated into acetate and malate, thus indicating the biosynthesis of oxalate by hydrolytic cleavage of oxaloacetate. Inhibition of mitochondrial citrate metabolism by fluorocitrate did not significantly decrease the oxalate yield. The putative enzyme that was responsible for this oxaloacetate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.1), which was induced de novo during the pH shift. Subcellular fractionation of oxalic acid-forming mycelia of A. niger showed that this enzyme is located in the cytoplasm of A. niger. The results are consistent with a cytoplasmic pathway of oxalate formation which does not involve the tricarboxylic acid cycle

  10. Diversity and specificity of microsatellites within Aspergillus section Fumigati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs are the genetic markers of choice for studying Aspergillus fumigatus molecular epidemiology due to its reproducibility and high discrimination power. However, the specificity of these markers must be investigated in a group of isolates from closely related species. The aim of this work was to test a microsatellite-based PCR multiplex previously designed for A. fumigatus in a set of species belonging to section Fumigati, namely Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus novofumigatus, Aspergillus unilateralis, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartorya fischeri, Neosartorya hiratsukae, Neosartorya pseudofischeri and Neosartorya udagawae. Results The reference A. fumigatus strain ATCC 46645 was easily genotyped in standard conditions showing a final electrophoretic profile of 8 expected peaks corresponding to each microsatellite locus. Inversely, no peaks were observed for all other species from section Fumigati, with an exception for marker MC6b in A. unilateralis. By screening the genome sequence of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181, the results showed that MC3, MC6a and MC7 might be employed for N. fischeri genotyping since these markers present several repeats of each motif. The accumulation of insertions and deletions was frequently observed in the genomic regions surrounding the microsatellites, including those where the A. fumigatus primers are located. The amplification of microsatellite markers in less stringent amplification conditions resulted in a distinct electrophoretic profile for species within section Fumigati. Conclusions Therefore, the microsatellite-based PCR multiplex allow simple identification of A. fumigatus and, with a slight modification of temperature conditions, it also allows discriminating other pathogenic species within section Fumigati, particularly A. fumigatiaffinis, N. fischeri and N. udagawae.

  11. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W. Peterson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species

  12. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  13. Upstream and Downstream Regulation of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus†

    OpenAIRE

    Mah, Jae-Hyung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in A. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, GpaA (Gα), AfFlbA (RGS), AfFluG, and AfBrlA, previously studied in Aspergillus nidulans. Expression analyses of gpaA, AfflbA, AffluG, AfbrlA, and AfwetA thr...

  14. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocsube, S.;

    2011-01-01

    based on either beta-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-gamma-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces...... and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or beta...

  15. Comparative Secretome Analysis of Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium oxalicum During Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Peiji; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Lushan

    2015-11-01

    Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp., and Penicillium spp. are frequently used to produce high concentrations of lignocellulosic enzymes. This study examined the discrepancies in the compositions and dynamic changes in the extracellular enzyme systems secreted by Aspergillus niger ATCC1015, Trichoderma reesei QM9414, and Penicillium oxalicum 114-2 cultured on corn stover and wheat bran. The results revealed different types and an abundance of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides were released during incubation, which induced the secretion of diverse glycoside hydrolases. Both the enzyme activities and isozyme numbers of the three fungal strains increased with time. A total of 279, 161, and 183 secretory proteins were detected in A. niger, T. reesei, and P. oxalicum secretomes, respectively. In the A. niger secretomes, more enzymes involved in the degradation of (galacto)mannan, xyloglucan, and the backbone of pectin distributed mostly in dicots were detected. In comparison, although P. oxalicum 114-2 hardly secreted any xyloglucanases, the diversities of enzymes involved in the degradation of xylan and β-(1,3;1,4)-D-glucan commonly found in monocots were higher. The cellulase system of P. oxalicum 114-2 was more balanced. The degradation preference provided a new perspective regarding the recomposition of lignocellulosic enzymes based on substrate types. PMID:26319683

  16. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  17. Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus em cavidade pleural Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Silva Guazzelli; Cecília Bittencourt Severo; Leonardo Santos Hoff; Geison Leonardo Fernandes Pinto; José Jesus Camargo; Luiz Carlos Severo

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar os casos de 6 pacientes com bola fúngica (BF) na cavidade pleural por Aspergillus fumigatus. MÉTODOS: Entre 1980 e 2009, foram diagnosticados 391 pacientes com BF aspergilar no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (RS). O diagnóstico de BF na cavidade pleural foi definido com exames de imagem demonstrando derrame e espessamento pleural com nível líquido; exame micológico direto demonstrando hifas septadas, consistentes com Aspergillus sp.; e cultura positiva para A...

  18. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404 and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542 were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP, an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried, ground, pre-treated with alkali and steam, re-dried and used as substrate in media containing mineral salt medium and inocula of A. niger and A. terreus. Fermentation was submerged at pH 5.0; 10% substrate concentration; 10 mL inocula size; temperature 250 C for five days with carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC as control. Optimization experiments were conducted by varying fermentation parameters. Results of physico-chemical analysis revealed carbohydrate 65.9%; sugars 22.60%; protein 5.38%; fibre 3.48%; fat 4.0% ash 4.02% and moisture 8.13%. Itaconic acid yield of 67.67+1.20 mg mL-1 and 70.67+2.60 mg mL-1 produced by A. niger and A. terreus from SPP respectively. The CMC yielded 3.00 +0.6 mg mL-1. Results of the optimization experiments showed higher yields of itaconic acid by A. niger and A. terreus to 112.67+5.20 mg mL-1 and 115.67+5.30 mg mL-1 from SPP respectively at pH 4.0; 10% substrate concentration; 5 mL inocula size on Day-5 of the fermentation. This represented an increase in product yield by both organisms and supports the potential use of this waste for the industrial production of itaconic acid.

  19. The potential inhibitory effect of cuminum cyminum, ziziphora clinopodioides and nigella sativa essential oils on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Khosravi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Cuminum cyminum, Ziziphora clinopodioides and Nigella sativa essential oils to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus and to evoke ultrastructural changes. The fungi were cultured into RPMI 1640 media in the presence of oils at concentrations of 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.5, 1.25, 1, 0.75 and 0.5 mg/ml in broth microdilution and 2, 1.5, 1 and 0.5 mg/ml in broth macrodilution methods with shaking for 48 h at 28ºC. Conidial and mycelial samples exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg essential oils/ml for 5 days in 2% yeast extract granulated plus 15% Saccharose media were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Based on broth dilution methods, C. cyminum and to a lesser extent Z. clinopodioides oils exhibited the strongest activity against A. fumigatus and A. flavus with MIC90 ranging from 0.25 to 1.5 mg/ml, while the oil from N. sativa exhibited relatively moderate activity against two above fungi with MIC90 ranging from 1.5 to 2 mg/ml. The main changes observed by TEM were in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles; in particular, in the nuclei and mitochondria. These modifications in fungal structure were associated with the interference of the essential oils with the enzymes responsible for cell wall synthesis, which disturbed normal growth. Moreover, the essential oils caused high vacuolation of the cytoplasm, detachment of fibrillar layer of cell wall, plasma membrane disruption and disorganization of the nuclear and mitochondrial structures. Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus growth inhibition induced by these oils were found to be well-correlated with subsequent morphological changes of the fungi exposed to different fungistatic concentrations of the oils. Our results show the anti-Aspergillus activities of C. cyminum, Z. clinopodioides and N. sativa essential oils, which strengthens the potential use of these substances as anti

  20. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores: Strain typing and protein identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Miroslav; Pešlová, Kateřina; Žabka, Martin; Hajdúch, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 280, 1-3 (2009), s. 162-168. ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aspergillus * spore * protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  1. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    candidus and therefore a large number of Aspergilli were screened for production of these compounds to see whether they could be regarded as chemotaxonomical indicators of section membership in the monotypic Aspergillus section Candidi. The results indicated that A. campestris and A. taichungensis should...

  2. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have been performed to study L-[S-35] methionine incorporation and protein secretion kinetics in Aspergillus oryzae. Pulse experiments confirmed the mechanism of methionine uptake reported previously for Penicillium chrysogenum (Benko et al., 1967). Pulse...

  3. Genetic relationships among strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.; Iamanaka, B.T.; Sartori, D.; Schaoavaloff, M.E.; Fungaro, M.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...

  4. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their...

  5. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  6. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  7. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.;

    2003-01-01

    dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  8. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytop

  9. Genetic Analysis of the TOR Pathway in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgibbon, Gregory J.; Morozov, Igor Y; Jones, Meriel G.; Caddick, Mark X.

    2005-01-01

    We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism.

  10. Study on radiation sterilization of aspergillus niger pectinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of radiation sterilization of aspergillus niger pectinase liquid by 60Co γ-rays was reported. When absorbed dose was from 1 to 25 kGy, enzyme activity didn't reduce. When absorbed dose was 15 kGy. There are no active strains in the enzyme liquid; and enzyme activity of the enzyme liquid preserved had better preserved effect

  11. Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-12-01

    Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

  12. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  13. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  14. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  15. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, an

  16. Production of Aspergillus niger beta-mannosidase in Pichia pastoris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliedrová, Barbora; Gerstorferová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2012), s. 159-164. ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/0321; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Keywords : Beta-mannosidase * Aspergillus niger * Cloning Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2012

  17. Novofumigatonin, a New Orthoester Meroterpenoid from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille; Fristrup, Peter; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2008-01-01

    Novofumigatonin (1), a new metabolite, has been isolated from Aspergillus novofumigatus. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined from HR ESI MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration was assigned using vibrational circular...

  18. epi-Aszonalenins A, B, and C from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille;

    2006-01-01

    Three new benzodiazepines have been isolated from an unusual chemotype of Aspergillus novofumigatus: epi-aszonalenins A, B, and C. The structures were elucidated by use of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR ESI MS. The relative configuration was established on the basis ...

  19. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  20. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus niger Strain An76

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Weili; Cheng, Zhi; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Lin; Gao, Peiji; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has become one of the most important fungi in industrial biotechnology, and it can efficiently secrete both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and organic acids. We report here the 6,074,961,332-bp draft sequence of A. niger strain An76, and the findings provide important information related to its lignocellulose-degrading ability.

  2. Study on the molecular basis of glucoamylase overproduc-tion of a mutant strain Aspergillus niger T21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Xiaochun

    2001-01-01

    -encoding gene, Gene, 1994, 145: 179.[12]Nagata, O., Takashima, T., Tanaka, M. et al., Aspergillus nidulans nuclear proteins bind to a CCAAT element and the adja-cent upstream sequences in the promoter region of the starch-inducible Taka-amylase A gene, Mol. Gen Genet., 1993, 237: 251.[13]Hata, Y., Kitamoto, K., Gomi, K. et al., Functional elements of the promoter region of the Aspergillus oryzae glaA gene encoding glucoamylase, Curr. Genet., 1992, 22: 85.

  3. AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS NRRL 3357 AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SRRC 143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasiticus grown in yeast extract su...

  4. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Chung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxybenzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxybenzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  5. Segregação mitótica induzida pelo edulcorante L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame em células diplóides de Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121 Mitotic segregation induced by edulcorant l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialba Avezum Alves Castro Prado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho demonstra o efeito recombinagênico do edulcorante artificial L-Aspartil-L-Fenilalanina-Metil-Ester (aspartame, amplamente utilizado em dietas hipocalóricas e de baixo consumo de glicose. Este efeito pode refletir respostas celulares a danos genéticos induzidos pelo edulcorante artificial, no período G2 do ciclo celular e demonstra sua capacidade de induzir homozigose de genes recessivos previamente presentes em heterozigoseThis study aims to verify the recombinogenic effect of artificial edulcorant l-aspartil-l-phenylalanine-metyl-ester (aspartame, widely used in hypocaloric and low-glucose diets. Such effect may reflect cell response to genetic damage, induced by artificial edulcorant in the cell cycle G2 period and shows its capacity to induce homozygosis of recessive genes, previously present in heterozygosis

  6. The pH dependence of the mutagenicity of methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) towards Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, H I; Speakman, J B

    1981-01-01

    The ability of methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate (MBC) to induce point mutations to carboxin and MBC resistance in Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter and Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arth. was dependent upon the pH value of the agar medium into which it had been incorporated. The relevance of this in relation to testing chemicals for a possible mutagenic activity with microorganisms is discussed. PMID:7010148

  7. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of {alpha}-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Nessa, Azizun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. {alpha}-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK).

  8. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of α-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. α-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK)

  9. Gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Oier Etxebeste; Erika Herrero-García; Cortese, Marc S.; Aitor Garzia; Elixabet Oiartzabal-Arano; Vivian de los Ríos; Unai Ugalde; Espeso, Eduardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by Upstream Developmental Activators (UDAs) that include the bZIP-type Transcription Factor (TF) FlbB. A 2D-PAGE/MS-MS-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of FlbB identified 18 candidates. Most candidates belong to GO term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. Among these, we focused on GmcA, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a Δ...

  10. The formamidase gene of Aspergillus nidulans: regulation by nitrogen metabolite repression and transcriptional interference by an overlapping upstream gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, J A; Davis, M A; Hynes, M J

    2001-01-01

    The ability to utilize formamide as a sole nitrogen source has been found in numerous fungi. We have cloned the fmdS gene encoding a formamidase from Aspergillus nidulans and found that it belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins separate from the major amidase families. The expression of fmdS is primarily regulated via AreA-mediated nitrogen metabolite repression and does not require the addition of exogenous inducer. Consistent with this, deletion analysis of the 5' region of fmdS h...

  11. Purification, Characterization, and Substrate Specificity of a Novel Highly Glucose-Tolerant β-Glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, Christine; Salmon, Jean-Michel; Vallier, Marie-Jose; Günata, Ziya; Barre, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae was found to secrete two distinct β-glucosidases when it was grown in liquid culture on various substrates. The major form had a molecular mass of 130 kDa and was highly inhibited by glucose. The minor form, which was induced most effectively on quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone)-rich medium, represented no more than 18% of total β-glucosidase activity but exhibited a high tolerance to glucose inhibition. This highly glucose-tolerant β-glucosidase (designated HGT-B...

  12. .i.Aspergillus baeticus./i. sp. nov. and .i.Aspergillus thesauricus./i. sp. nov., two species in section .i.Usti./i. from Spanish caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vít; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2012), s. 2778-2785. ISSN 1466-5026 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 607812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. * Aspergillus thesauricus sp.nov. * Spanish caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2012

  13. Induction and repression of alpha-amylase production in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkeberg, R; Carlsen, M; Nielsen, J

    1995-10-01

    The intra- and extracellular concentrations of alpha-amylase in Aspergillus oryzae have been measured during batch culture of a wild-type strain and two recombinant strains. The mean intracellular level for the two recombinant strains was about four to five times the level of the wild-type strain. The recombinant strains also had a higher alpha-amylase productivity, whereas the residence time of the intracellular alpha-amylase pool was approximately the same for the three strains. At high glucose concentrations there was a low constitutive synthesis of alpha-amylase, whereas at low glucose concentrations derepression resulted in an increased production rate. Shifts from a glucose- to a maltose-limited chemostat showed that maltose induces both the production and secretion of alpha-amylase. Finally, from immunoblots, both a glycosylated and an unglycosylated alpha-amylase have been detected. PMID:7582005

  14. Increase in mitotic recombination in diploid cells of Aspergillus nidulans in response to ethidium bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia C.A. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethidium bromide (EB is an intercalating inhibitor of topoisomerase II and its activities are related to chemotherapeutic drugs used in anti-cancer treatments. EB promotes several genotoxic effects in exposed cells by stabilising the DNA-enzyme complex. The recombinagenic potential of EB was evaluated in our in vivo study by the loss of heterozygosity of nutritional markers in diploid Aspergillus nidulans cells through Homozygotization Index (HI. A DNA repair mutation, uvsZ and a chromosome duplication DP (II-I were introduced in the genome of tested cells to obtain a sensitive system for the recombinagenesis detection. EB-treated diploid cells had HI values significantly greater than the control at both concentrations (4.0 x 10-3 and 5.0 x 10-3 mM. Results indicate that the intercalating agent is potentially capable of inducing mitotic crossing-over in diploid A. nidulans cells.

  15. Effect of alkali pretreatment on degradation of some cellulosic wastes by Aspergillus sydowii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghareib, M. (Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Youssef, K.A. (Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Nour El Dein, M.M. (Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1992-01-01

    Alkali pretreatment of pods of bean, rice plant straw, wheat bran, sugar-cane bagasse and sawdust enhanced their degradation by Aspergillus sydowii (Bainier and Sartory) Thom and Church. The fungus could produce 0.153 g dry mycelium when grown on 100 ml of 10% NaOH pretreated sawdust-containing medium. Alkali hydrolysates were assimilated better than the cellulosic pulps of different wastes. Maximal growth amounting to 0.239 g/100 ml dry biomass was produced on hydrolysate of 10% NaOH pretreasted sawdust for 30 minutes. Highest accumulation of different cellulases and pectinase was occurred on cellulosic pulps-containing media. Good xylanolytic activity has been achieved on both cellulosic pulps and hydrolysates media. Cellulases, xylanase and pectinase of A. sydowii were proved to be an inducible enzymes. (orig.)

  16. Integrative analysis of the heat shock response in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brakhage Axel A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a thermotolerant human-pathogenic mold and the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (IA in immunocompromised patients. Its predominance is based on several factors most of which are still unknown. The thermotolerance of A. fumigatus is one of the traits which have been assigned to pathogenicity. It allows the fungus to grow at temperatures up to and above that of a fevered human host. To elucidate the mechanisms of heat resistance, we analyzed the change of the A. fumigatus proteome during a temperature shift from 30°C to 48°C by 2D-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE. To improve 2D gel image analysis results, protein spot quantitation was optimized by missing value imputation and normalization. Differentially regulated proteins were compared to previously published transcriptome data of A. fumigatus. The study was augmented by bioinformatical analysis of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter region of genes whose corresponding proteins were differentially regulated upon heat shock. Results 91 differentially regulated protein spots, representing 64 different proteins, were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. They showed a continuous up-, down- or an oscillating regulation. Many of the identified proteins were involved in protein folding (chaperones, oxidative stress response, signal transduction, transcription, translation, carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. A correlation between alteration of transcript levels and corresponding proteins was detected for half of the differentially regulated proteins. Interestingly, some previously undescribed putative targets for the heat shock regulator Hsf1 were identified. This provides evidence for Hsf1-dependent regulation of mannitol biosynthesis, translation, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell division in A. fumigatus. Furthermore, computational analysis of promoters revealed putative binding sites for an AP-2alpha

  17. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  18. Expression of an alpha-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R A; Power, R F G

    2002-02-01

    A gene encoding alpha-galactosidase activity was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC686 and separately placed under the control of transcriptional elements regulating alpha-amylase expression in Aspergillus oryzae and glucoamylase expression in A. awamori. Following transformation of both A. oryzae and A. awamori with their respective expression vectors, induction of heterologous alpha-galactosidase from positively selected clones was effected through the addition of soluble starch (10% wt/vol) to the growth medium. Upon induction in A. oryzae, a transcriptional instability resulted in degradation of mRNA encoding heterologous alpha-galactosidase, thus preventing expression of the active enzyme. The use of a gene fusion strategy in A. awamori overcame this instability and resulted in stable expression of S. cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase. Subsequent to initial (shake flask) experiments, a series of scale-up and optimisation studies led to heterologous expression of the recombinant enzyme in batch fermentation at 51 U mg(-1) total extracellular protein. This was higher than previously published works, which reported extracellular levels of heterologous alpha-galactosidase up to 38 U mg(-1) total protein. Analysis of crude extracts of the fermentation medium revealed significant differences between the activity parameters reported previously in the literature for this enzyme and those observed here. The recombinant enzyme exhibited thermostability properties not previously reported for S. cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase, a trait which would make it suitable for use in processes requiring high temperatures. PMID:12074058

  19. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  20. Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental and applied Aspergillus research with a focus on new molecular tools, te...

  1. In Vitro Interactions between Target of Rapamycin Kinase Inhibitor and Antifungal Agents against Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Ding, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhun; Wu, Qingzhi; Zeng, Tongxiang; Sun, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In vitro interactions of INK128, a target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase inhibitor, and antifungals, including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, against Aspergillus spp. were assessed with the broth microdilution checkerboard technique. Our results suggested synergistic effects between INK128 and all azoles tested, against multiple Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus isolates. However, no synergistic effects were observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B or caspofungin. No antagonism was observed for any combination. PMID:26976874

  2. Immunosuppressive Compounds Exhibit Particular Effects on Functional Properties of Human Anti-Aspergillus TH1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tramsen, Lars; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Roeger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Klingebiel, Thomas; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Whereas adoptive immunotherapy transferring donor-derived anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells has been shown to be beneficial for HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis, little is known about the impact of commonly used immunosuppressants on the functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells were coincubated with different concentrations of methyl...

  3. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  4. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  5. Decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum has been studied. It was found that Aspergillus ficuum could effectively decolorize Direct Black 22 especially when grown as pelleted mycelia. Results showed that the media containing Direct Black 22 at 50 mg/L could be decolorized by 98.05% of the initial color in 24 h. The optimum pH and temperature of decolorization are 4.0 and 33 ℃ respectively. Aeration was quite beneficial to decolorization. Medium composition and the concentration of Direct Black 22 could affect the rate of decolorization. The dye degraded products assayed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and macroscopic observation showed that the decolorization of Direct Black 22 by mycelial pellets includes two important processes: bioadsorption and biodegradation.The degradation experiment agree with the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation

  6. Biosorption of Cadmium by Fungal Biomass of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI YANG; JIAN-LONG WANG; ZHI XING

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by waste fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger, originated from citric acid fermentation industry. Methods Batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. The Cd2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) HITACHI 180-80. Results The biosorption achieved equilibrium within 30 min. The adsorption isotherm could be described by Freundlich adsorption model, and the constants KF and 1/n were determined to be 2.07 and 0.18, respectively, and the correlation efficiency was 0.97. The optimal pH for Cd adsorption was 6.0. The cadmium-laden biomass could be effectively regenerated using 0.1 N HCl. Conclusion The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, a by-product of fermentation industry, is a potential biosorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

  7. Different species of Aspergillus involved in ungual pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years non dermatophyte fungi (NDF are often described as responsible for onychomycosis. The problem related to these fungi concern their identification and treatment. Nowadays a number of Aspergillus were observed in this kind of pathologies but the identification at level of species is frequently omitted. In this work we analysed 26 cases of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus, belonging to 8 different species. The identification were based on micro- and macro-morphological characteristics; physiological characters; and molecular analysis (B-tubulin gene. 3 species are very interesting: A. perii, a species recently described; A.nominus, never described before in onychomycosis, and A.melleus, likely a new opportunistic fungus involved in medical mycology. Though the identification of these fungi is an additional workload for the laboratory of medical mycology, there is the need to increase the number of identified NDF in order to improve the management of onychomycosis.

  8. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  9. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang-qiang; LI Li; ZHU Min; ZHANG Chao-ying; WANG Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infections caused by opportunistic organisms which have been known as etiologic agents of disease become more and more frequent.Aspergillus spp. is one of the agents. Fungi of aspergillus genus are widely distributed in nature, particularly in the soil and in the decomposed vegetation. They are frequent opportunist pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The most frequent causative organisms that cause cutaneous aspergillosis are A.fumigatus and A.flavus.1-3 In this report, we present a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis manifested by ulceration of the shank due to A. flavus. The patient had no deficiency of immunological status and severe disease associated with fungal infection. Excellent response was shown to anti-fungal therapy.

  10. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf;

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded...... as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species...... were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios...

  11. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The...... objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have....... Sixty-six A. niger strains were isolated and screened for a fumonisin production, and 77 % produced fumonisin on agar media. Worst-case scenarios were made by inoculation of A. niger on grapes and solidified the thought that a potential fumonisin production/contamination in grapes and derived products...

  12. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper;

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods...... ever used in biotechnology could produce fuminisins B2, B4 & B6. The strains could be subdivided into two clades (representing A. niger and the “phylospecies” A. awamori), and there were fumonisin producers in both clades. Ochratoxin A was also produced by strains in both clades, but only...... of approximately 6% of the strains. None of the other species in the black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. One strain (NRRL 337), called the “food fungus”, because it is used for single cell protein based on cheap growth substrates, produced both fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Industrial citric acid producers...

  13. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I.; de Groot, M.J.L.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out......, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general...... dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  14. Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2009-01-01

    , splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window...... better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene....

  15. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: bho@ufpr.br; Souza Filho, Jose Dias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11{beta},13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16{beta}-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  16. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Júnior L.M.; Macedo G.R.; Duarte M.M.L.; Silva E.P.; Lobato A.K.C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was als...

  17. Protein secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Weenink, Xavier Oswin

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms, which represent a separate taxonomic group organisms within the fungal kingdom, apart from the yeasts. These fungi always need a substrate to grow on, this can be living or dead material. Fungi possess the capacity to secrete high levels of enzymes. Because of this specific property, fungi are already used for centuries as miniature factories for the production of extracellular proteins. Aspergillus niger is an attractive organism beca...

  18. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  19. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor, Marko J; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 α-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory ...

  20. Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, William J.; Cramer, Robert A; Perfect, B. Zachary; Asfaw, Yohannes G.; Sauer, Theodor C.; Najvar, Laura K.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Thomas F. Patterson; Benjamin, Daniel K., Jr.; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demonstrate that a mutant of A. fumigatus lacking the calcineurin A (cnaA) catalyt...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae Vacuolar Protein Sorting Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Ohneda, Mamoru; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) system in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which has unique cell polarity and the ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, was evaluated by using mutants that missort vacuolar proteins into the medium. Vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as a vacuolar marker. Twenty dfc (dim EGFP fluorescence in conidia) mutants with reduced intracellular EGFP fluorescence in conidia were isolated by ...

  2. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, A

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytoplasmic genes are genes that are located in the cell cytoplasm and not in the cell nucleus where most genes are situated. The cytoplasmic genes investigated in this research are the genomes of mitochondria and virus...

  3. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  4. Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus f...

  5. crnA encodes a nitrate transporter in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Unkles, S.E.; Hawker, K L; Grieve, C; Campbell, E I; Montague, P.; Kinghorn, J R

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Aspergillus nidulans crnA gene for the transport of the anion nitrate has been determined. The crnA gene specifies a predicted polypeptide of 483 amino acids (molecular weight 51,769). A hydropathy plot suggests that this polypeptide has 10 membrane-spanning helices with an extensive hydrophilic region between helices six and seven. No striking homology was observed between the crnA protein and other reported membrane proteins of either prokaryotic or eukaryotic...

  6. Nutrient Environments Influence Competition among Aspergillus flavus Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehl, Hillary L.; Cotty, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus, shaped in part by intraspecific competition, influence the likelihood and severity of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but the influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrients on competition between genotypes of A. flavus have not been investigated. Competition between paired A. flavus isolates on agar media was affected by varying concentrations of carbon...

  7. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya KARACA; Merih KIVANÇ

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13) dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with dif...

  8. Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Beernaert, Lies Angèle; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. Immunosup...

  9. Developmental regulation of laccase levels in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, D. J.; Timberlake, W E

    1980-01-01

    Asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus nidulans contain a dark green pigment which is not present in other cell types. Synthesis of this pigment is catalyzed, in part, by a developmentally controlled p-diphenol oxidase, or laccase, encoded at the gamma A genetic locus (A. J. Clutterbuck, J. Gen. Microbiol. 70:423-435, 1972). We have investigated the mechanisms regulating expression of the gamma A gene of A. nidulans. Vegetative hyphae grown in submerged culture lacked detectable laccase enzy...

  10. Clustering of spore-specific genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, W C; Timberlake, W E

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the chromosomal organization of genes that are expressed specifically in the asexual spores (conidia) of the Ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, using two experimental approaches. In the first, 30 different recombinant clones, containing long nuclear DNA inserts and at least one spore-specific gene, were selected randomly. The total number of spore-specific genes present in each clone was then determined by RNA blot analysis. In the second approach, several chromosoma...

  11. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11β,13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  12. Pectinases of Aspergillus niger: A Molecular and Biochemical Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Parenicová, L.

    2000-01-01

    The major topics of this thesis are the microfilamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and the pectinases a group of extracellular enzymes. Many 'products' of this species hold the GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and thus pectinases find a broad range of applications in food, feed and beverage industries.Pectinases are enzymes which degrade pectin, a heteropolysaccharide found in the middle lamella and the primary cell wall of higher plants. The number of pectinase-encoding genes identifi...

  13. Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Hijab; Mehta, Hitendra B; Garg, Prashant; Kodial, Harish

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks o...

  14. Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hijab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks of therapy.

  15. Diketopiperazines produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus Brazilian strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven diketopiperazines, corresponding to the cycles (L)-Pro-(L)-Phe, (L)-Pro-Gly, (L)-Pro- (L)-Pro, (L)-Pro-(L)-Val, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Leu, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Phe, and (L)-Pro-(L)-Leu, were isolated from the Aspergillus fumigatus fermentation broth. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were determined on the basis of NOESY experiments and by using a modified version of Marfey's method using HPLC, respectively. (author)

  16. Diketopiperazines produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus Brazilian strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Niege A.J.C; Pupo, Monica T.; Carvalho, Ivone; Campo, Vanessa L. Campo; Bastos, Jairo K. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: jkbastos@fcfrp.usp.br; Duarte, Marta Cristina T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2005-11-15

    Seven diketopiperazines, corresponding to the cycles (L)-Pro-(L)-Phe, (L)-Pro-Gly, (L)-Pro- (L)-Pro, (L)-Pro-(L)-Val, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Leu, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Phe, and (L)-Pro-(L)-Leu, were isolated from the Aspergillus fumigatus fermentation broth. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were determined on the basis of NOESY experiments and by using a modified version of Marfey's method using HPLC, respectively. (author)

  17. A rare pigmented keratitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio; Vélez; Kepa; Balparda; Ana; María; Díaz

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Sir,I am Mauricio Vélez,from the Department of Ophthalmology,Cornea Service Director,Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana in Medellín,Colombia.Below,I would like to share an interesting case I managed recently,which I’ve entitled"A rare pigmented keratitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus".Fungi are a relatively uncommon cause of microbial keratitis

  18. Growth and production of amylotic enzymes by aspergillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mary B.

    1987-01-01

    The growth and production of ©¿-amylase and amyloglucosidase by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 and A. niger CBS 26265 were investigated, with a view to obtaining optimal levels of both these enzymes in shake flask culture, and subsequently on the large scale. The effect of various parameters, such as carbon source, nitrogen source, presence/absence of buffering agents, carbon:nitrogen ratio , pH values, and time were examined. Following the screening of ten strains of As...

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  20. Acquired antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: epidemiology and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Susan Julie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2011-04-01

    Voriconazole is the recommended agent for invasive aspergillosis, with lipid amphotericin B or caspofungin as second line treatment choices. Being the only agents available in oral formulation, azoles are used in chronic infections and often over longer time periods. In addition to being used in clinical medicine, azoles are employed extensively in agriculture. Azole-resistant Aspergillus has been isolated in azole naïve patients, in azole exposed patients and in the environment. The primary underlying mechanism of resistance is as a result of alterations in the cyp51A target gene, with a variety of mutations found in clinical isolates but just one identified in a environmental strain (a point mutation at codon 98 accompanied by a tandem repeat in the promoter region). Much less is currently known about echinocandin resistance in Aspergillus, in part because susceptibility testing is not routinely performed and because the methods suffer from technical difficulties and suboptimal reproducibility. Clinical breakthrough cases have been reported however, and resistance has been confirmed in vivo. In this paper we review the current knowledge on epidemiology, susceptibility testing and underlying mechanisms involved in azole and echinocandin resistance in Aspergillus. PMID:20795765

  1. EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON -AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE FROM SOME AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amylases are one of the most important and oldest industrial enzymes. The optimization of production of α -amylase from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae fungi, using different agro-wastes as sole carbon sources, was performed. The highest productivity of α -amylase by the two organisms was recorded at pH 6 and incubation temperature at 300C when the two organisms were grown on potato peels (PPs) and/or wheat straw (Ws) after days of cultivation. Pre-treated PPs and Ws with 20 kGy gave the best enzyme productivity by the two organisms compared with untreated ones. Also, exposing the inoculums of A. niger and A.oryzae to 0.5 and 0.75 kGy, respectively, led to enhancement of α-amylase to 48 and 46 μ/ml, respectively

  2. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li;

    2016-01-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated...

  3. Production of xylanases and cellulases by aspergillus fumigatus ms16 using crude lignocellulosic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xylanolytic and cellulolytic potential of a soil isolate, Aspergillus fumigatus (MS16) was studied by growing it on a variety of lignocellulosics, purified cellulose and xylan supplemented media. It was noted that carboxymethyl cellulose, salicin and xylan induce the -glucosidase and xylanase, respectively production of endoglucanase. The study revealed that Aspergillus fumigatus (MS16) co-secretes xylanase and cellulase in the presence of xylan; the ratio of the two enzymes was influenced by the initial pH of the medium. The maximum titers of xylanase and cellulase were noted at initial pH of 5.0. Relatively higher titers of both the enzymes were obtained when the fungus was cultivated at 35 degree C. Whereas, cellulase production was not detected when the fungus was cultivated at 40 degree C. The volumetric productivity (Qp) of xylanase was much higher than cellulases. The organism produced 2-3 folds higher titers of xylanase when grown on lignocellulosic materials in submerged cultivation than under solid-state cultivation, suggesting a different pattern of enzyme production in presence and in absence of free water. The partial characterization of enzymes showed that xylanase from this organism has -glucosidase. The higher melting temperature than endoglucanase and optimum temperature for activity was higher for xylanases than cellulases, whereas the optimum pH differed slightly i.e. in the range of 4.0-5.0. Enzyme preparation from this organism was loaded on some crude substrates and it showed that the enzyme preparation can be used to hydrolyze a variety of vegetable and agricultural waste materials. (author)

  4. Wheat straw lignin degradation induction to aromatics by por Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium chrysogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltierra-Trejo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is a recalcitrant agricultural waste; incineration of this material represents an important environmental impact. Different reports have been made regarding the use of the structural components of wheat straw, i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; however, lignin has been less exploited because it is largely considered the recalcitrant part. Residual wheat straw lignin (REWSLI has a potential biotech-nological value if depolymerization is attained to produce aromatics. Ligninolytic mitosporic fungus represent an alternative where very little research has been done, even though they are capable of depol-ymerize REWSLI in simple nutritional conditions in relatively short periods, when compared to basidio-mycetes. The aim of this research was to study the depolymerization activity of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp on semipurified REWSLI as the sole carbon source to produce aromatics. The depoly-merization capacity was determined by the activity of the laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase enzymes. The generated aromatics derived from the REWSLI depolymerization were identi-fied by gas chromatography. Obtained results revealed that Penicillium chrysogenum depolymerized the lignin material by 34.8% during the 28-day experimentation period. Laccase activity showed the largest activity with 111 U L-1 in a seven-day period, this enzyme induction was detected in a smaller period than that required by basidiomycetes to induce it. Moreover, the enzymatic activity was produced with-out the addition of an extra carbon source as metabolic inductor. Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp generated guaiacol, vanillin, and hydroxybenzoic, vanillinic, syringic and ferulic acid with a maximum weekly production of 3.5, 3.3, 3.2, 3.3, 10.1 and 21.9 mg mL-1, respectively.

  5. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunashree B. Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentations (SSF for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  6. Nonfunctionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a disrupted aflR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Yu, Jiujiang; Abe, Keietsu; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E; Koyama, Yasuji

    2002-08-01

    Aspergillus sojae belongs to the Aspergillus section Flavi but does not produce aflatoxins. The functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene (aflRs) was examined by transforming it into an DeltaaflR strain of A. parasiticus, derived from a nitrate-nonutilizing, versicolorin A (VERA)-accumulating strain. The A. parasiticus aflR gene (aflRp) transformants produced VERA, but the aflRs transformants did not. Even when aflRs was placed under the control of the amylase gene (amyB) promoter of Aspergillus oryzae, the amy(p)::aflRs transformants did not produce VERA. A chimeric construct containing the aflRs promoter plus the aflRs N- and aflRp C-terminal coding regions could restore VERA production, but a construct containing the aflRp promoter plus the aflRp N- and aflRs C-terminal coding regions could not. These results show that the A. sojae aflR promoter is functional in A. parasiticus and that the HAHA motif does not affect the function of the resulting hybrid AflR. We conclude that the lack of aflatoxin production by A. sojae can be attributed, at least partially, to the premature termination defect in aflRs, which deletes the C-terminal transcription activation domain that is critical for the expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. PMID:12147467

  7. Crystal Structures and Small-angle X-ray Scattering Analysis of UDP-galactopyranose Mutase from the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhatwalia, Richa; Singh, Harkewal; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Karr, Dale B.; Nix, Jay C.; Sobrado, Pablo; Tanner, John J. (LBNL); (Missouri); (VPI)

    2015-10-15

    UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose, which is a central reaction in galactofuranose biosynthesis. Galactofuranose has never been found in humans but is an essential building block of the cell wall and extracellular matrix of many bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The importance of UGM for the viability of many pathogens and its absence in humans make UGM a potential drug target. Here we report the first crystal structures and small-angle x-ray scattering data for UGM from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, the causative agent of aspergillosis. The structures reveal that Aspergillus UGM has several extra secondary and tertiary structural elements that are not found in bacterial UGMs yet are important for substrate recognition and oligomerization. Small-angle x-ray scattering data show that Aspergillus UGM forms a tetramer in solution, which is unprecedented for UGMs. The binding of UDP or the substrate induces profound conformational changes in the enzyme. Two loops on opposite sides of the active site move toward each other by over 10 {angstrom} to cover the substrate and create a closed active site. The degree of substrate-induced conformational change exceeds that of bacterial UGMs and is a direct consequence of the unique quaternary structure of Aspergillus UGM. Galactopyranose binds at the re face of the FAD isoalloxazine with the anomeric carbon atom poised for nucleophilic attack by the FAD N5 atom. The structural data provide new insight into substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism and thus will aid inhibitor design.

  8. 302 Screening for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients with Aspergillus + Asthma From 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 25% of patients with persistent asthma have immediate skin reactivity to Aspergillus species. The purpose of this study was to screen all patients with immediate hypersensitivity to Aspergillus for evidence of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). Methods All patients with asthma underwent immediate cutaneous testing including prick (epicutaneous) with a mix of Aspergillus species and if negative, intradermal at 1000 PNU/mL, Aspergillus fumigatus (Af). Sera ...

  9. Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against aspergillus species and its interaction with common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-juan; CHEN Wei; XU Hui; WAN Zhe; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased in frequency in immunocompromised patients with a variety of diseases. The poor prognosis might be due to limited treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of ibuprofen against clinical isolates of aspergillus species, as well as its interaction with azoles or with amphotericin B or with micafungin.Methods Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against 10 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were tested with both disk diffusion assay and standard broth microdilution method. To determine whether ibuprofen combined with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, or micafungin had interactive effects on aspergillus spp., we used both disk diffusion assay and Chequerboard method.Results As for disk diffusion method, ibuprofen produced a zone of growth inhibition with diameters of (20.1±3.9) mm at 48 hours of incubation. As for broth microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of ibuprofen against aspergillus spp. were 1000-2000 μg/ml, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges of that was 2000-8000 μg/ml. For 2 of 5 isolates, when ibuprofen combined with itraconazole or voriconazole, the zones of growth inhibition were larger than those of the individual drug. The results of Chequerboard method showed that fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranges were 1.125-2.500.Conclusions Ibuprofen is active against aspergillus spp.. And ibuprofen does not affect the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B or micafungin against aspergillus spp..

  10. A rare case of onychomycosis caused by Emericella quadrilineata (Aspergillus tetrazonus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, D.; M R Capoor; Ramesh, V; Gupta, S.; Shivaprakash, M. R.; Chakrabarti, A

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common chronic nail disorder where dermatophytes are the predominant pathogens. However, non-dermatophytic moulds like Aspergillus can also be implicated as the causative agents. Herein, we report a rare case of onychomycosis due to Emericella quadrilineata ( Aspergillus tetrazonus) in an apparently immunocompetent host.

  11. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  12. Critical stages of extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus in whole-blood specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Perry, M.D.; Loeffler, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Klingspor, L.; Bretagne, S.; McCulloch, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Finnstrom, N.; Donnelly, J.P.; Barnes, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A standardized protocol for extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus has been proposed by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI). Using meta-regression analysis, the EAPCRI showed certain stages of the process to be critical to providing a satisfactory analytical sensitivity. The study in

  13. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. 173.120 Section 173.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...) Aspergillus niger is classified as follows: Class, Deuteromycetes; order, Moniliales; family,...

  14. Sexual reproduction influences aflatoxin chemotype diversity in worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that contaminate food crops worldwide. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of aflatoxin contamination of oil-rich crops. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered and convert acetat...

  15. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Costa Rica and produces large pink to greyish brown sclerotia. Aspergillus lacticoffeatus was found on coffee beans in Venezuela and Indonesia, and is an effective producer of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus piperis was isolated from black ground pepper and produces large yellow to pink brown sclerotia...

  16. Aspergillus Flavus Endocarditis of the Native Mitral Valve in a Bone Marrow Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Tolga; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Ekinci, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Nursen; Sahin, Mazlum; Demirsoy, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 36 Final Diagnosis: Aspergillus flavus endocarditis Symptoms: Malaise • fatigue and dyspnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Mitral vale replacemnet Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Infective endocarditis due to Aspergillus species is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It mostly occurs after the implantation of prosthetic heart valves. Parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens, and illegal intravenous dr...

  17. Radiological abnormalities associated with Aspergillus colonization in a cystic fibrosis population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine if sputum colonization with Aspergillus species in patients with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) correlates with radiological abnormalities and/or a reduction in pulmonary function (FEV1). Methods: We prospectively evaluated 32 PWCF utilizing high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax and pulmonary function testing (PFT). The cohort was assessed as two groups: Aspergillus positive (n = 16) and Aspergillus negative (n = 16) based on sputum culture for Aspergillus species. A modified Bhalla scoring system was applied to each HRCT scan by two blinded radiologists. Results: Aspergillus positive patients had more severe and significant bronchiectasis compared to those Aspergillus negative (p < 0.05). This was most marked in the right upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL). Total Bhalla score was clinically significant in both groups and approached statistical significance between groups (p = 0.063). No difference in pulmonary function between the groups was detected. Conclusion: PWCF colonized by Aspergillus species have greater radiological abnormalities undetectable by PFTs. Early radiological evaluation of Aspergillus colonized PWCF is therefore warranted.

  18. Ochratoxin production and taxonomy of the yellow aspergilli (Aspergillus section Circumdati)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Varga, J.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati or the Aspergillus ochraceus group, includes species with rough walled stipes, biseriate conidial heads, yellow to ochre conidia and sclerotia that do not turn black. Several species are able to produce mycotoxins including ochratoxins, penicillic acids, and....... The most important species regarding potential ochratoxin A contamination in agricultural products are A. ochraceus, A. steynii and A. westerdijkiae....

  19. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Gouka, R.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding VHHs were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting VHH fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA level

  20. First reported case of Aspergillus granulosus infection in a cardiac transplant patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, M G; Barden, G E; Oakes, C A; Berenson, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of disseminated infection with Aspergillus granulosus in a cardiac transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy. This is the first reported case in which this organism has been described as a pathogen. This organism bears morphological features different from those of more common Aspergillus species and should be considered a potential pathogen in immunocompromised patients.

  1. Description of a cellulose-binding domain and a linker sequence from Aspergillus fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, M; Ebbelaar, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; van der Valk, H

    2002-01-01

    A family I cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and a serine- and threonine-rich linker peptide were cloned from the fungi Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein comprising GST and a peptide linker with the CBD fused to its C-terminus, was express

  2. Mutantes letais termossensíveis em Aspergillus nidulans Temperature sensitive lethal mutants in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. de Oliveira

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras termossensíveis (42ºC de A. nidulans foram obtidas pela irradiação com U.V. Dentre 18 mutantes termossensíveis, 3 demonstraram que o determinante da termossensibilidade era causado por efeitos associados com o núcleo e foram selecionados para estudos posteriores. Foram sintetizados diplóides entre amostras normais e os três mutantes (mais um exibindo letalidade 42ºC e foi verificada uma completa recessividade em todos os casos. Para fins comparativos forma feitas tentativas para o alelo correspondente, mostraram resultados bastante diferentes quando experimentados em diferentes tempos de incubação inicial a 37ºC e depois transferidos para 41ºC. Os herocários praticamente não apresentaram resposta adaptativa às mudanças de temperatura. A ligeira diferença de comportamento heterocários: heterozigoto provavelmente é resultante do efeito de dosagem. Os resultados reafirmam e oferecem confiança na estabilidade dos heterocários quando em condições constantes de meio.Temperature sensitive strains (42ºC of Aspergillus nidulans were obtaines by U.V. irradiation. The mutant alleles had not been located and among 18 thermosensitive mutants theree gave clear evidence that the determinant of thermosensitivity was caused by effects associated with the nucleus and were selected for further studies. Diploids have been synthesised between normal straisn and the three latter variants eschibiting lethality at 42ºC and a complete recessivity of the character in each case was shown. For comparative purposes attempts were made to find instances of "adaptation". Nutritionally balanced heterokaryons, between tsl and the wild tipe strains for the corresponding alleles had show quite different results when experience on increasing initial incutation time at 37ºC ant then were transfered to 41ºC. Heterokaryons had not showed adaptative reponse to the changes of temperature. The heterokaryon: heterozygote slight difference of behavior

  3. Three-dimensional models of 14?-sterol demethylase (Cyp51A) from Aspergillus lentulus and Aspergillus fumigatus: an insight into differences in voriconazole interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aspergillus lentulus, an Aspergillus fumigatus sibling species, is increasingly reported in corticosteroid-treated patients. Its clinical significance is unknown, but the fact that A. lentulus shows reduced antifungal susceptibility, mainly to voriconazole, is of serious concern. Heterologous expression of cyp51A from A. fumigatus and A. lentulus was performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess differences in the interaction of Cyp51A with the azole drugs. The absence o...

  4. Growth Inhibition of Aspergillus niger by Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol

    OpenAIRE

    Narumol MATAN

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol against Aspergillus niger, major spoilage mold of fruits and nuts, were investigated. A. niger inoculated on agar plates was exposed to paper discs impregnated with 10 μL of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at various concentrations (10 - 100 mg/ml) before incubating at 25 °C for 3 days. Antifungal activities of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were examined at various temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 37 °C. ...

  5. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.;

    2007-01-01

    species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...... occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A...

  6. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  7. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  8. Metabolism of p-Cresol by the Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kerina H.; Trudgill, Peter W.; Hopper, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was shown to grow on p-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. A pathway for metabolism of this compound was proposed. This has protocatechuate as the ring-fission substrate with cleavage and metabolism by an ortho-fission pathway. The protocatechuate was formed by two alternative routes, either by initial attack on the methyl group, which is oxidized to carboxyl, followed by ring-hydroxylation, or by ring-hydroxylation as the first step wit...

  9. Kinetics of the nuclear division cycle of Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergen, L G; Morris, N R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed the cell cycle kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans by using the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) and a temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutant nimT that blocks in G2. HU rapidly inhibits DNA synthesis (S), and as a consequence progression beyond S to mitosis (M) is blocked. Upon removal of HU the inhibition is rapidly reversible. Conidia (asexual spores) of nimT were germinated at restrictive temperature to synchronize germlings in G2 and then downshifted to permissive t...

  10. Vacuolar Membrane Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae†

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Jun-ya; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Vacuoles in filamentous fungi are highly pleomorphic and some of them, e.g., tubular vacuoles, are implicated in intra- and intercellular transport. In this report, we isolated Aovam3, the homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VAM3 gene that encodes the vacuolar syntaxin, from Aspergillus oryzae. In yeast complementation analyses, the expression of Aovam3 restored the phenotypes of both Δvam3 and Δpep12 mutants, suggesting that AoVam3p is likely the vacuolar and/or endosomal syntaxin in A...

  11. Chitosan Obtained from Cell Wall of Aspergillus Niger Mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui-li; LIN Wen-luan; LIN Jian-ming

    2004-01-01

    Chitin from cell walls of Aspergillus Niger mycelium was prepared. A new method for the preparation of high deacetylation degree chitosan was studied in a dilute sodium hydroxide solution at a high pressure. The experimental results indicate that the deacetylation degree of the chitosan can reach 80% under the condition of a 5.00 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution at 0.1 MPa of pressure for 1 h. This method shows the advantages of the applications in the industry production and environment protection.

  12. Biosynthesis of pectinolytic enzymes by Aspergillus on apple pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro; Petreska, Meri; Ziberoski, Jugoslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pulp utilization. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts by submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus. Different concentration on apple pulp and different pH initial on the bases were studied, and all other process parameters were same. Results of different concentration on apple pulp gived maximal endo- PG with 1% apple pulp, during from 96 h, and the growth of the micr...

  13. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A. oryzae alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, Jesper B; O'Connor, Susan M; Murphy, Rachael L; Kelly, Joan M; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-18

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined--a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted in a decreased maximum specific growth rate, but also in drastic changes in morphology. Furthermore, the expression of alpha-amylase was completely derepressed and creA thus seems to be the only regulatory protein responsible for glucose repression of alpha-amylase expression. The effect of different carbon sources on the alpha-amylase production in the creA deletion strain was investigated and it was found that starch was the best inducer. The degree of induction by starch increased almost linearly with the concentration of starch in starch/glucose mixtures. High-density batch cultivation was performed with the creA deletion strain and a final titre of 6.0 g l(-1) of alpha-amylase was reached after 162 h of cultivation. PMID:11689252

  14. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, M; Nielsen, J

    2001-10-01

    The influence of the carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. A. oryzae did not grow on galactose as the sole carbon source, but galactose was co-metabolized together with glucose. Relative to that on low glucose concentration (below 10 mg/l), productivity was found to be higher during growth on maltose and maltodextrins, whereas it was lower during growth on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha-amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha-amylase production. A possible induction by alpha-methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also investigated, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of a-amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer. PMID:11759683

  15. A benzoate-activated promoter from Aspergillus niger and regulation of its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Mauricio S; Hodges, Thomas K; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2016-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is able to use benzoic acid as a sole carbon source by conversion to protocatechuic acid and subsequent metabolism. Synthesis of the first enzyme in this metabolic pathway, benzoate p-hydroxylase, is encoded by the bphA gene and positively regulated at the transcriptional level by benzoic acid. Methyl benzoate and para-aminobenzoate also act as inducers of the bphA gene. We show that bphA expression in A. niger in response to benzoate is confined to a 530-bp fragment from the bphA promoter region from -787 to -509 bp from the transcriptional start site. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays show that a benzoate-response element, consisting of a single 6-bp sequence (5'-TAGTCA-3') within a 51-bp sequence in this region, is most likely to be involved in binding of one or more proteins that modulate the activity of the promoter in response to benzoic acid. We show through fusion of promoter fragments with the green fluorescent protein that the active sequences are located within a 200-bp sequence containing the TAGTCA benzoate-response element. Identification of the benzoate-response element in the bphA promoter region constitutes the first step in the development of a benzoate-inducible promoter system that could be used to control gene expression in fungi, and possibly in other organisms, such as plant and animal cells. PMID:26907094

  16. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Gerin

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI vs. non-inducing (OTAN cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05 were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps and chloroperoxidase (cpo was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome.

  17. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome. PMID:26765536

  18. Utilization of Aspergillus oryzae to produce pectin lyase from various agro-industrial residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safia Koser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the culture influence on pectin lyase production potential of fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme profile of A. oryzae showed highest activity of pectin lyase after 3rd day of incubation on lemon peel waste under solid state fermentation conditions. To induce the pectin lyase synthesis capability of A. oryzae at optimal level various culture variables including physical and nutritional parameters were optimized by adopting classical optimization technique. Therefore, through fermentation process optimization the production of pectin lyase was substantially induced up to the level of 875 U/mL, when fermentation medium of lemon peel waste inoculated with 5 mL spore suspension of A. oryzae. The optimal fermentation conditions for maximum pectin lyase yield were as: optimum pH 5, 70% moisture level and incubated at 40 °C in addition with 1% sterile glucose solution as readily available carbon source and 0.2% yeast extract as an inexpensive nitrogen supplement (1%. The results obtained in current investigation so far demonstrated that culture conditions have great influence on the pectin lyase production potential of A. oryzae.

  19. RNA-Seq Reveals OTA-Related Gene Transcriptional Changes in Aspergillus carbonarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerin, Donato; De Miccolis Angelini, Rita M.; Pollastro, Stefania; Faretra, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin harmful for animals and humans. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main responsible for OTA contamination of grapes and derived products. Gene transcriptional profiling of 4 A. carbonarius strains was carried out by RNA-Seq analysis to study transcriptome changes associated with OTA production. By comparing OTA inducing (OTAI) vs. non-inducing (OTAN) cultural conditions, a total of 3,705 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (fold change > |2| and FDR ≤ 0.05) were identified. Several genes involved in primary metabolic processes, with particular regard to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, secondary metabolic processes, transport, response to stress and sporulation were up-regulated by OTAI conditions at all the analysed sampling times (4, 6 and 8 DAI) or starting from 6 DAI. Highly up-regulated DEGs encoding enzymes involved in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, oxidoreductases, transporters and transcription factors were examined for their potential involvement in OTA biosynthesis and related metabolic pathways. Differential expression of genes encoding polyketide synthases (pks), non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) and chloroperoxidase (cpo) was validated by RT-qPCR. Among clusters of co-regulated genes involved in SM biosynthesis, one putative OTA-gene cluster, including both pks and nrps genes, was detected in the A. carbonarius genome. PMID:26765536

  20. Lipids in Aspergillus flavus-maize interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo eReverberi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In sSome filamentous fungi, the pathways related to the oxidative stress and oxylipins production are involved both in the process of host-recognition of the host that and in the pathogenic phase. In fact, recent studies have shown that the production of oxylipins in filamentous fungi, yeasts and chromists is also related to the development of the organism itself and to mechanisms of communication with the host at the cellular level. The oxylipins, also involved produced in by the host during defense reactions, are able to induce sporulation and to modulate regulate the biosynthesis of mycotoxins in numerous several pathogenic fungi, apparently replacing the endogenous ones. In A. flavus, the oxylipins play a crucial role as signals for the regulation regulatingof the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, the conidiogenesis and the formation of sclerotia.To investigate the involvement of the an oxylipins based cross-talk into Z. mays and A. flavus interaction, we analyzed the oxylipins profile of the wild type strain and of three mutants of A. flavus that are deleted at the Aflox1 gene level also during maize kernel invasion; Aflox1 encodes for a manganese lipoxygenase.A lipidomic approach has been addressed through the use of LC-ToF-MS, followed by a statistical analysis of the principal components (PCA. The results showed the existence of a difference between the oxylipins profile generated by the WT and the mutants onto challenged maize. In relation to this, aflatoxin synthesis which is largely hampered in vitro, is intriguingly restored. These results highlight the important role of maize oxylipin in driving secondary metabolism in A. flavus.

  1. Influence of medium composition and pH on the production of polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae

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    Eloane Malvessi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid medium containing wheat bran, salts and a source of inducer (pectin was found to be suitable for the production of exo- and endo-polygalacturonases by Aspergillus oryzae CCT3940. Induction of polygalacturonases by purified pectin was significantly higher than when rinds of citrus fruits were used as inducer. A. oryzae growth was favoured by pH close to 4, although a drop of pH to around 3 was needed for enzymes production. Afterwards, decreasing activities were observed with the normal increase in pH to near neutrality. The highest activities were achieved with an initial pH of 4 and controlled when it decreased to a value slightly below 3 (159 units endo-PG.mL-1 at 83 h and 45 units exo-PG.mL-1 at 64 h, being the loss in polygalacturonases activities strongly reduced at this condition. The best values of pH and temperature for the action of exo-PG (4.5/57ºC and endo-PG (4.3/40ºC were assessed.Um meio líquido contendo farelo de trigo, sais e fonte de indutor (pectina foi definido para a produção de exo e endo-poligalacturonases por Aspergillus oryzae CCT3940. A indução por pectina purificada foi significativamente maior que a observada com cascas de cítricos. O crescimento de A. oryzae é favorecido por valores de pH próximos a 4, embora uma queda até valor em torno de 3 seja necessária para a produção das enzimas. Posteriormente, atividades decrescentes foram observadas com a subida normal do pH até próximo à neutralidade. As maiores atividades foram alcançadas quando o processo foi iniciado em pH 4 e controlado quando decresceu até níveis ligeiramente abaixo de 3 (159 unidades.mL-1 para endo-PG, em 83 h, e 45 unidades.mL-1, em 64 h, para exo-PG, com a perda de atividades sendo drasticamente reduzida. Os melhores valores de pH e temperatura para a ação de exo-PG (4,5/57°C e endo-PG (4,3/40ºC foram estimados.

  2. Cremophor EL stimulates mitotic recombination in uvsH//uvsH diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans

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    Cleverson Busso

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cremophor EL is a solubilizer and emulsifier agent used in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. The solvent is the principal constituent of paclitaxel's clinical formulation vehicle. Since mitotic recombination plays a crucial role in multistep carcinogenesis, the study of the recombinagenic potential of chemical compounds is of the utmost importance. In our research genotoxicity of cremophor EL has been studied by using an uvsH//uvsH diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans. Since it spends a great part of its cell cycle in the G2period, this fungus is a special screening system for the study of mitotic recombination induced by chemical substances. Homozygotization Indexes (HI for paba and bi markers from heterozygous B211//A837 diploid strain were determined for the evaluation of the recombinagenic effect of cremophor EL. It has been shown that cremophor EL induces increase in mitotic crossing-over events at nontoxic concentrations (0.05 and 0.075% v/v.Cremofor EL (CEL é um solubilizante e emulsificante amplamente utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas e de gêneros alimentícios. É o principal veículo empregado nas formulações clínicas do antineoplásico paclitaxel. Considerando-se que a recombinação mitótica desempenha importante função no processo de carcinogênese, o estudo de substâncias químicas com potencial recombinagênico assume importância crucial, no sentido de se detectar aquelas que eventualmente possam atuar como promotoras de neoplasias. A genotoxicidade do cremofor EL foi estudada no presente trabalho, utilizando-se uma linhagem diplóide uvsH//uvsH de Aspergillus nidulans. Neste fungo as células vegetativas comumente repousam no período G2 do ciclo celular, facilitando a ocorrência da recombinação mitótica. O efeito recombinagênico do CEL foi avaliado através da determinação dos Índices de Homozigotização para os marcadores nutricionais paba e bi do diplóide heterozigoto B211//A837. Os

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengsong; Chen, Dan; Shen, Yiping; Ye, Baodong

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a haploid filamentous fungus that is common in the environment and has been implicated in human infections. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. flavus has been determined by high-throughput sequencing technology in this work. Our study revealed that the mitochondrial genome of A. flavus is 31,602 bp long, with an A + T content of 74.83%, which consists of a usual set of mitochondrial proteins and RNA genes, including large and small ribosomal RNAs, 15 proteins, and 20 tRNA genes and contains two introns. Notably, it also contains two hypothetical proteins without obvious homology to any known proteins. All structural genes are located on one strand and are apparently transcribed in one direction. Codon usage analysis indicated that all protein coding genes employ the standard fungal mitochondrial start and stop codons; and the nucleotide bias toward AT was also reflected in the codon usage. The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. flavus would be useful for future investigation of the genetic, evolution, and clinical identification of Aspergillus species. PMID:25922962

  4. Aspergillus flavus: A potential Bioremediator for oil contaminated soils

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    Y.Avasn Maruthi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly treatment for oily contaminated sites by the use of microorganisms. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the performance of fungal isolates in degradation of organic compounds contained in soils contaminated with petrol and diesel. As a result of the laboratory screening, two natural fungal strains capable of degrading total organic carbons (TOC were prepared from isolates enriched from the oil contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TOC removal percentage varied from 0.7 to 32% depending on strains type and concentration. Strains Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger exhibited the highest TOC removal percentage of 32 and 21%, respectively, before nutrient addition. TOC removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TOC reduction (45% was estimated after addition of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to Phanerocheate chrysosporium strains. Results of experimental work carried out elucidate that the fungi like Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger were capabled of producing enzymes at a faster rate to decompose the substrate hydrocarbon and released more CO2 and hence these potential fungi can be utilized effectively as agents of biodegradation in waste recycling process and Bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

  5. Polyketides in Aspergillus terreus: biosynthesis pathway discovery and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ying; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of biosynthesis gene clusters, production improving methods, and bioactivity mechanisms is very important for the development of filamentous fungi metabolites. Metabolic engineering and heterologous expression methods can be applied to improve desired metabolite production, when their biosynthesis pathways have been revealed. And, stable supplement is a necessary basis of bioactivity mechanism discovery and following clinical trial. Aspergillus terreus is an outstanding producer of many bioactive agents, and a large part of them are polyketides. In this review, we took polyketides from A. terreus as examples, focusing on 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. terreus NIH 2624 genome. The biosynthesis pathways of nine PKS genes have been reported, and their downstream metabolites are lovastatin, terreic acid, terrein, geodin, terretonin, citreoviridin, and asperfuranone, respectively. Among them, lovastatin is a well-known hypolipidemic agent. Terreic acid, terrein, citreoviridin, and asperfuranone show good bioactivities, especially anticancer activities. On the other hand, geodin and terretonin are mycotoxins. So, biosynthesis gene cluster information is important for the production or elimination of them. We also predicted three possible gene clusters that contain four PKS genes by homologous gene alignment with other Aspergillus strains. We think that this is an effective way to mine secondary metabolic gene clusters. PMID:27455860

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  7. Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 in flour production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halt, M

    1994-10-01

    This paper discusses the results of investigations of contamination with aflatoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin B1 affecting 545 samples of wheat grains, 475 samples of intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (like middlings) and 238 samples of flour. A significant contamination with moulds was detected in analyzed samples. Although Aspergillus (34.87%) and Penicillium (32.37%) dominated, other types were also present, e.g., Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Absidia and Trichoderma (listed in order of frequency). The presence of Aspergillus flavus, the known aflatoxin producer, was detected in 9.94% of analyzed samples. Isolates of A. Flavus were capable of producing aflatoxin B1 under favourable conditions. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 76.8% of samples contaminated with A. flavus. The highest contamination with aflatoxin B1 was detected in wheat grain samples (mean value of 16.3 micrograms/kg) and in intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (mean value of 11.13 micrograms/kg). Contamination was lower in flour samples (mean value of 4.13 micrograms/kg). With regard to proposed standards given by the FAO and WHO, under which the content of aflatoxin should not exceed 30 micrograms/kg in food products, only two of 96 samples did not meet these criteria. PMID:7859854

  8. Identification of fungi of the genus Aspergillus section nigri using polyphasic taxonomy

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    Daiani M. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the taxonomy of the Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section being regarded as troublesome, a number of methods have been proposed to aid in the classification of this Section. This work aimed to distinguish Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section from foods, grains and caves on the basis in Polyphasic Taxonomy by utilizing morphologic and physiologic characters, and sequencing of ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The morphologic identification proved useful for some species, such as A. carbonarius and Aspergillus sp UFLA DCA 01, despite not having been totally effective in elucidating species related to A. niger. The isolation of the species of the Nigri Section on Creatine Sucrose Agar (CREA enabled to distinguish the Aspergillus sp species, which was characterized by the lack of sporulation and by the production of sclerotia. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM allowed distinguishing the species into two distinct groups. The production of Ochratoxin A (OTA was only found in the A. carbonarius and A. niger species. The sequencing of β-tubulin gene was efficient in differing most of the Aspergillus species from the Nigri Section with the exception of Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01, which could not be distinguished from A. costaricaensis. This species is morphologically similar to A. costaricaencis for its low sporulation capacity and high sclerotia production, but it differs morphologically from A. costaricaensis for its conidial ornamentation and size of vesicles. Equally, based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01 differs from A. costaricaensis.

  9. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (Pdisease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization. PMID:24430250

  10. Characterization of a second physiologically relevant lactose permease gene (lacpB) in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Erzsébet; Orosz, Anita; Kulcsár, László; Kavalecz, Napsugár; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente

    2016-05-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. Deletion of the lactose permease A-encoding gene (lacpA) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. We have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, LacpB. Glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpB appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a medium transfer, while mycelia of double lacpA/lacpB-deletant strains are unable to produce new biomass from lactose. Although transcription of both lacp genes was strongly induced by lactose, their inducer profiles differ markedly. lacpA but not lacpB expression was high in d-galactose cultures. However, lacpB responded strongly also to β-linked glucopyranose dimers cellobiose and sophorose, while these inducers of the cellulolytic system did not provoke any lacpA response. Nevertheless, lacpB transcript was induced to higher levels on cellobiose in strains that lack the lacpA gene than in a wild-type background. Indeed, cellobiose uptake was faster and biomass formation accelerated in lacpA deletants. In contrast, in lacpB knockout strains, growth rate and cellobiose uptake were considerably reduced relative to wild-type, indicating that the cellulose and lactose catabolic systems employ common elements. Nevertheless, our permease mutants still grew on cellobiose, which suggests that its uptake in A. nidulans prominently involves hitherto unknown transport systems. PMID:26935851

  11. IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: a laboratory correlate of disease activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, K D; Hohmann, A W; Martin, A J.; Bradley, J

    1988-01-01

    Serum was collected from 50 patients with cystic fibrosis, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, total IgE and Aspergillus specific IgE antibodies were measured in 41 of the 50. A close association was found between pulmonary function and clinical state, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus. There was no association between pulmonary function or clinical state and IgE antibodies. It is postulated that in patients with...

  12. Hydrophobic Effect of Amphiphilic Derivatives of Chitosan on the Antifungal Activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

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    Vera Ap. de Oliveira Tiera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight amphiphilic derivatives of chitosan were synthesized, characterized and their antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were tested. The derivatives were synthesized using as starting material a deacetylated chitosan sample in a two step process: the reaction with propyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (Pr, followed by reductive amination with dodecyl aldehyde. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the hydrophobic modification of the derivatives on the antifungal activity against the pathogens, the degree of substitution (DS1 by Pr groups was kept constant and the proportion of dodecyl (Dod groups was varied from 7 to 29% (DS2. The derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR and FTIR and their antifungal activities against the pathogens were tested by the radial growth of the colony and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods. The derivatives substituted with only Pr groups exhibited modest inhibition against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, like that obtained with deacetylated chitosan. Results revealed that the amphiphilic derivatives grafted with Dod groups exhibited increasing inhibition indexes, depending on polymer concentration and hydrophobic content. At 0.6 g/L, all amphiphilic derivatives having from 7.0 to 29% of Dod groups completely inhibited fungal growth and the MIC values were found to decrease from 4.0 g/L for deacetylated chitosan to 0.25–0.50 g/L for the derivatives. These new derivatives open up the possibility of new applications and avenues to develop effective biofungicides based on chitosan.

  13. The 53-kDa proteolytic product of precursor starch-hydrolyzing enzyme of Aspergillus niger has Taka-amylase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi-Kumar, K; Venkatesh, K S; Umesh-Kumar, S

    2007-04-01

    The 53-kDa amylase secreted by Aspergillus niger due to proteolytic processing of the precursor starch-hydrolyzing enzyme was resistant to acarbose, a potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. The enzyme production was induced when A. niger was grown in starch medium containing the inhibitor. Antibodies against the precursor enzyme cross-reacted with the 54-kDa Taka-amylase protein of A. oryzae. It resembled Taka-amylase in most of its properties and also hydrolyzed starch to maltose of alpha-anomeric configuration. However, it did not degrade maltotriose formed during the reaction and was not inhibited by zinc ions. PMID:17123073

  14. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glucoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo; Eriksen, Susanne Havn

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify factors responsible for production of multiple forms of glucoamylase (GA) by Aspergillus niger Bo-1, the fungus was cultured in both complex and defined media in pH-controlled batch fermenters and chemostats. At all culture conditions three forms of GA were produced with...... extracellular profile of the multiple forms of GA by degradation of GAI to GAII, whereas no proteolytic processing of the GA profile was observed in the defined medium. In vitro experiments confirmed that the pH-induced modifications of the GA multiple-form profile were caused by proteolytic and not spontaneous...

  15. The mutagenic effect of near ultraviolet light on the nvs strains of Aspergillus nidulans in the presence of 8-metoxypsoralen or angelicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutual mutagenic effect of long-wave ultraviolet radiation (EUV) with angelicin which forms monoadducts in DNA and 8-metoxypsoralen (8 MOP) which forms monoadducts and joints, on conidia of uvs- and uvs+ strains of Aspergillus nidulans, is studied. The two types of interaction are shown to induce mutations intensively. Mutation induction with angelicin shows the role of psoralen pyrimidine monoadducts in mutagenesis. The technique of fractionated EUV radiation and studying the effect of monoadduct repair effectiveness on mutation output permits to prove that interthread DNA joints induced by 8-MOP+EUV are also highly mutagenous. The products of UVS/2, 20b, 26 genes which take part in the excision of DNA damages do not take part in the formation of mutations induced in aspergil by furocoumarine + EUV. The products of uvs 19, 20a genes which take part in the postreplicative DNA reduction are neccessary for the repair of premutation damages induced by furocoumarine + EUV

  16. Nine New and Five Known Polyketides Derived from a Deep Sea-Sourced Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1

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    Xiu-Wen Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nine new C9 polyketides, named aspiketolactonol (1, aspilactonols A–F (2–7, aspyronol (9 and epiaspinonediol (11, were isolated together with five known polyketides, (S-2-(2′-hydroxyethyl-4-methyl-γ-butyrolactone (8, dihydroaspyrone (10, aspinotriol A (12, aspinotriol B (13 and chaetoquadrin F (14, from the secondary metabolites of an Aspergillus sp. 16-02-1 that was isolated from a deep-sea sediment sample. Structures of the new compounds, including their absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic methods, especially the 2D NMR, circular dichroism (CD, Mo2-induced CD and Mosher’s 1H NMR analyses. Compound 8 was isolated from natural sources for the first time, and the possible biosynthetic pathways for 1–14 were also proposed and discussed. Compounds 1–14 inhibited human cancer cell lines, K562, HL-60, HeLa and BGC-823, to varying extents.

  17. ETUDE DE L'APTITUDE FROMAGERE D'UN EXTRAIT ENZYMATIQUE COAGULANT PRODUIT PAR ASPERGILLUS NIGER FFB1

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    S. BENSMAIL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After solid - state fermentation on wheat bran under optimum conditions of production, the acid protease ofAspergillus niger FFB1 extracted with sterile distilledwater (1:5 w/v presented milk-clotting activity of 600 SU/g bran and a ratio of coagulant to proteolytic activities 4.7; was applied in the production of unripened cheese pressed using cow milk.Cheese yields obtained by the commercial preparation(control on the one hand and the milk - curdling enzyme of A. niger FFB1 on the other hand; differ by 2.8% of product weight, which are higher in the case of commercial rennet.This difference results from a loss more or less important proteins(11% and fat(4% during the draining, induced by the proteolytic activity of the fungal enzyme extract.The organoleptic qualities of the two hard cheeses produced are very similar.

  18. Two Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cycle Inhibitory Cyclodepsipeptides from a Hydrothermal Vent Crab-Associated Fungus Aspergillus clavatus C2WU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two novel cyclodepsipeptides containing an unusual anthranilic acid dimer and a d-phenyllactic acid residues, clavatustides A (1 and B (2, were identified from cultured mycelia and broth of Aspergillus clavatus C2WU isolated from Xenograpsus testudinatus, which lives at extreme, toxic habitat around the sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents in Taiwan Kueishantao. This is the first example of cyclopeptides containing an anthranilic acid dimer in natural products, and the first report of microbial secondary metabolites from the hydrothermal vent crab. Clavatustides A (1 and B (2 suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines (HepG2, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7402 in a dose-dependent manner, and induced an accumulation of HepG2 cells in G1 phase and reduction of cells in S phase.

  19. Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Pearlman, Eric; Lalitha, Prajna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness.

  20. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the ...

  1. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Recently genome sequence data have become available for Aspergillus and Pichia species of industrial interest. This has stimulated the use of systems biology approaches for large-scale analysis of the molecular and metabolic responses of Aspergillus and Pichia under defined conditions, which has...... resulted in much new biological information. Case-specific contextualization of this information has been performed using comparative and functional genomic tools. Genomics data are also the basis for constructing genome-scale metabolic models, and these models have helped in the contextualization of...... knowledge on the fundamental biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species. Furthermore, with the availability of these models, the engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia is moving from traditional approaches, such as random mutagenesis, to a systems metabolic engineering approach. Here we review the recent...

  2. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  3. Aspergillus specific IgE estimation by radioallergosorbent technique (RAST) in obstructive airways disease at Agra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioallergosorbent technique (RAST) was used to measure the levels of Aspergillus specific IgE in 25 normal controls, 25 cases of extrinsic bronchial asthma and 25 cases of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis with a view to study the clinical role and its correlation with sputum culture, skin sensitivity and severity of airways obstruction. The test was performed using Pharmacia diagnostic kits with antigen derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. Abnormal levels of Aspergillus specific IgE were observed in 84 per cent cases of bronchial asthma but none of the controls. 86.7 per cent of all cases with positive skin test had positive radioallergosorbent test and there was no false positive reaction. There was a positive correlation of Aspergillus specific IgE with skin test positivity and with FEV1/FVC per cent. (author)

  4. Erratum to: Purification and characterization of a nitrilase from Aspergillus niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Ondřej; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Plíhal, O.; Pompach, P.; Kavan, D.; Bojarová, Pavla; Bezouška, K.; Macková, M.; Cantarella, M.; Jirků, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2013), s. 3745-3746. ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nitrilase * Aspergillus niger Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2013

  5. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing. PMID:26398282

  6. Susceptibility testing of sequential isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from treated patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Tortorano, A.M.; Symoens, F.; Nolard, N.; Viviani, M.A.; Piens, M.A.; Lebeau, B.; Verweij, P.E.; Grillot, R.

    2004-01-01

    Two-hundred sequential Aspergillus fumigatus isolates recovered from 26 immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis or bronchial colonization were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and amphotericin B. Twenty-one patients were

  7. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  8. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  9. Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Michael; Kyslík, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1760, - (2006), s. 245-252. ISSN 0006-3002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : epoxide hydrolase * enantioselectivity * aspergillus niger Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Method To Estimate Growth of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus wentii in Mixed Culture on Cellulosic Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, T.; Bisaria, V. S.; Ghose, T. K.

    1989-01-01

    A simple differential method based on measurement of an intracellular pigment of Aspergillus wentii was developed for estimation of the individual growths of two fungi, Trichoderma reesei and A. wentii, in mixed-culture fermentation of an insoluble cellulosic substrate.

  11. Morphological change and enhanced pigment production of monascus when cocultured with saccharomyces cerevisiae or aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin; Kim; Kim; Ju

    1998-09-01

    When a Monascus isolate, a producer of Monascus pigments, was cocultured with either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Aspergillus oryzae in a solid sucrose medium, there were significant morphological changes in Monascus culture. Cocultures exhibited cell mass increases of 2 times and pigment yield increases of 30 to 40 times compared to monocultures of Monascus. However, enhanced cell growth, an increase in pigment production, and morphological change did not occur in coculture with Bacillus cereus. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more effective at enhancing pigment production than Asp. oryzae. Enhanced cell growth and increased pigment production occurred only in conjunction with morphological changes. Culture filtrates of S. cerevisiae were also effective in inducing morphology change in Monascus, similar to culture broths of S. cerevisiae. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by S. cerevisiae, such as amylase, and chitinase, are thought to be the effectors. The commercial enzymes alpha-amylase and protease from Asp. oryzae both caused a morphological change in Monascus and were effective in enhancing pigment production. However, lysozyme, alpha-amylase and protease from Bacillus species, protease from Staphylococcus, and chitinase from Streptomyces were not effective. The hydrolytic enzymes which cause a morphological change of Monascus culture and enhancement of pigment production are thought to be capable of degrading Monascus cell walls. An approximate 10-fold increase in pigment production was observed in liquid cocultures with S. cerevisiae. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099374

  12. Rapid host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus involves alveolar macrophages with a predominance of alternatively activated phenotype.

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    Shikha Bhatia

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with chronic diseases such as invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA in patients with cystic fibrosis or severe asthma. Because of constant exposure to this fungus, it is critical for the host to exercise an immediate and decisive immune response to clear fungal spores to ward off disease. In this study, we observed that rapidly after infection by A. fumigatus, alveolar macrophages predominantly express Arginase 1 (Arg1, a key marker of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs. The macrophages were also found to express Ym1 and CD206 that are also expressed by AAMs but not NOS2, which is expressed by classically activated macrophages. The expression of Arg1 was reduced in the absence of the known signaling axis, IL-4Rα/STAT6, for AAM development. While both Dectin-1 and TLR expressed on the cell surface have been shown to sense A. fumigatus, fungus-induced Arg1 expression in CD11c(+ alveolar macrophages was not dependent on either Dectin-1 or the adaptor MyD88 that mediates intracellular signaling by most TLRs. Alveolar macrophages from WT mice efficiently phagocytosed fungal conidia, but those from mice deficient in Dectin-1 showed impaired fungal uptake. Depletion of macrophages with clodronate-filled liposomes increased fungal burden in infected mice. Collectively, our studies suggest that alveolar macrophages, which predominantly acquire an AAM phenotype following A. fumigatus infection, have a protective role in defense against this fungus.

  13. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitun Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The alcohol oxidase (AOx cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of 7829.5 min-1 mM-1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application.

  14. Effects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Li, Chong; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, Desheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study was to better understand the potential factors affecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) accumulation varies between different grains. The nutrient composition and contents of defatted substrates were determined; additionally, according to the nutrient content of the substrates, the effects of starch, soluble sugars, amino acids, and trace elements on AFB1 production and mycelial growth in Czapek-Dox medium were examined. These results verified that removal of lipids from ground substrates significantly reduced the substrate's potential for AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus. Maltose, glucose, sucrose, arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and zinc significantly induced AFB1 production up to 1.7- to 26.6-fold. And stachyose more significantly promoted A. flavus growth than the other nutrients. Thus, this study demonstrated that, combined with the nutrients content of grains, in addition to lipids, sucrose, stachyose, glutamic acid, and zinc might play key roles in various grains that are differentially infected by A. flavus. Particularly, two new nutrients (arginine and stachyose) of the grains we found significantly stimulate AFB1 production and A. flavus growth, respectively. The results provide new concepts for antifungal methods to protect food and animal feed from AFB1 contamination. PMID:27294129

  15. Scientific Opinion on Lipase from a Genetically Modified Strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3 produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA. The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations in bacteria nor chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared with the dietary exposure results in a sufficiently high Margin of Exposure. The allergenicity was evaluated by searching for similarity of the amino acid sequence to those of known allergens. The Panel considered that the likelihood of food allergic reactions to the enzyme is low and therefore does not raise safety concern. Based on the genetic modifications performed, the manufacturing process, the compositional and biochemical data provided and the toxicological studies, this food enzyme does not raise safety concern under the intended conditions of use.

  16. Scientific Opinion on Lipase from a Genetically Modified Strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3 produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA. The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as in baking and other cereal-based processes. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations in bacteria nor micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared with the dietary exposure results in a sufficiently high Margin of Exposure. The allergenicity was evaluated by searching for similarity of the amino acid sequence to those of known allergens. The Panel considered that the likelihood of food allergic reactions to the enzyme is low and therefore does not raise safety concern. Based on the genetic modifications performed, the manufacturing process, the compositional and biochemical data provided and the toxicological studies, this food enzyme does not raise safety concern under the intended conditions of use.

  17. Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

  18. MULTISTEP MUTAGENIC STRAIN IMPROVEMENT IN ASPERGILLUS CARBONARIUS TO ENHANCE PECTINASE PRODUCTION POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabika Akbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is one of the most important commercially synthesised enzyme having its application in several industrial sectors like food and beverages, fruit clarifications etc. A.carbonarius has the capacity to produce Exo-pectinase 50 U/ml by submerged fermentation process as per the previous study. The present study describes the improvement of previously identified fungal strain Aspergillus carbonarius for enhancement of pectinase production by inducing mutations using physical and chemical mutagens. Aiming to increase the potentiality in pectinase production, the parental strain was treated for three times with four mutagens - UV irradiation, Colchicine, Hydrogen peroxide and Ethidium bromide to obtain mutants. Mutants were selected based on higher enzyme activity, improved growth rates and varied morphology with increased pectinase production. All the surviving mutants were assessed quantitatively after first mutagenic treatment. The stability of the best mutants was tested by repeating the exposures for two times to obtain 3rd generation mutants. These mutants were tested quantitatively to assess the pectinase production. Of all the best mutants E8 showed maximum activity producing 65U/ml pectinase enzyme compared to wild and sister mutants. The wild strain of A. carbonarius is a low pectinase producing organism as per literature. This strain was successfully mutated to increase the productivity rate to 1.8 fold in comparison to wild strain. This overproduction and strain stability may be due to repeated mutagenic treatments.

  19. Aspergillus fumigatus Triggers Inflammatory Responses by Stage-Specific beta-Glucan Display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of fungal spores (conidia occurs commonly and, in specific circumstances, can result in invasive disease. We investigated the murine inflammatory response to conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common invasive mold in immunocompromised hosts. In contrast to dormant spores, germinating conidia induce neutrophil recruitment to the airways and TNF-alpha/MIP-2 secretion by alveolar macrophages. Fungal beta-glucans act as a trigger for the induction of these inflammatory responses through their time-dependent exposure on the surface of germinating conidia. Dectin-1, an innate immune receptor that recognizes fungal beta-glucans, is recruited in vivo to alveolar macrophage phagosomes that have internalized conidia with exposed beta-glucans. Antibody-mediated blockade of Dectin-1 partially inhibits TNF-alpha/MIP-2 induction by metabolically active conidia. TLR-2- and MyD88-mediated signals provide an additive contribution to macrophage activation by germinating conidia. Selective responsiveness to germinating conidia provides the innate immune system with a mechanism to restrict inflammatory responses to metabolically active, potentially invasive fungal spores.

  20. Low-cost carbon sources for the production of a thermostable xylanase by Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Elias Pião Benedetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger was isolated and shown to possess extracellular xylanolytic activity. These enzymes have biotechnological potential and can be employed in various industries. This fungus produced its highest xylanase activity in a medium made up of 0.1% CaCO3 , 0.5% NaCl, 0.1% NH4 Cl, 0.5% corn steep liquor and 1% carbon source, at pH 8.0. A lowcost hemicellulose residue (powdered corncob proved to be an excellent inducer of the A. niger xylanolytic complex. Filtration of the crude culture medium with suspended kaolin was ideal for to clarify the extract and led to partial purification of the xylanolytic activity. The apparent molecular mass of the xylanase was about 32.3 kDa. Maximum enzyme activity occurred at pH 5.0 and 55-60ºC. Apparent Km was 10.41 ± 0.282 mg/mL and Vmax was 3.32 ± 0.053 U/mg protein, with birchwood xylan as the substrate. Activation energy was 4.55 kcal/mol and half-life of the crude enzyme at 60ºC was 30 minutes. Addition of 2% glucose to the culture medium supplemented with xylan repressed xylanase production, but in the presence of xylose the enzyme production was not affected.

  1. Induction, purification and characterization of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Aspergillus Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weignerová, L; Filipi, T; Manglová, D; Kren, V

    2008-07-01

    A set of filamentous fungi (42 strains) was screened for alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity, and a series of inducers and different cultivation conditions were tested. Enzyme production by the best producer Aspergillus niger CCIM K2 was optimized and scaled up. alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by cation exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and chromatofocusing, and basic biochemical data of the enzyme were determined: The native molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration to be approximately 440 kDa, the molecular weight of the subunit was determined to be 76 kDa and the pI = 4.8. The K (M) was 0.73 mmol/l for o-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (o-NP-alpha-GalNAc), and optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH 1.8 and 55 degrees C. This alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase is a retaining-type glycosidase, and it was N-deglycosylated without any loss of activity. PMID:18443780

  2. Identification of the Gene Encoding Isoprimeverose-producing Oligoxyloglucan Hydrolase in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Mitsuishi, Yasushi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a unique β-glucosidase, isoprimeverose-producing oligoxyloglucan hydrolase (IPase), that recognizes and releases isoprimeverose (α-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 6)-D-glucopyranose) units from the non-reducing ends of oligoxyloglucans. A gene encoding A. oryzae IPase, termed ipeA, was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. With the exception of cellobiose, IpeA hydrolyzes a variety of oligoxyloglucans and is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family 3. Xylopyranosyl branching at the non-reducing ends was vital for IPase activity, and galactosylation at a α-1,6-linked xylopyranosyl side chain completely abolished IpeA activity. Hepta-oligoxyloglucan saccharide (Xyl3Glc4) substrate was preferred over tri- (Xyl1Glc2) and tetra- (Xyl2Glc2) oligoxyloglucan saccharides substrates. IpeA transferred isoprimeverose units to other saccharides, indicating transglycosylation activity. The ipeA gene was expressed in xylose and xyloglucan media and was strongly induced in the presence of xyloglucan endo-xyloglucanase-hydrolyzed products. This is the first study to report the identification of a gene encoding IPase in eukaryotes. PMID:26755723

  3. Pulmonary immune responses to Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunocompetent mouse model of repeated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, Amanda D; Templeton, Steven P; Nayak, Ajay P; Hettick, Justin M; Law, Brandon F; Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a filamentous fungus that produces abundant pigmented conidia. Several fungal components have been identified as virulence factors, including melanin; however, the impact of these factors in a repeated exposure model resembling natural environmental exposures remains unknown. This study examined the role of fungal melanin in the stimulation of pulmonary immune responses using immunocompetent BALB/c mice in a multiple exposure model. It compared conidia from wild-type A. fumigatus to two melanin mutants of the same strain, Δarp2 (tan) or Δalb1 (white). Mass spectrometry-based analysis of conidial extracts demonstrated that there was little difference in the protein fingerprint profiles between the three strains. Field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the immunologically inert Rodlet A layer remained intact in melanin-deficient conidia. Thus, the primary difference between the strains was the extent of melanization. Histopathology indicated that each A. fumigatus strain induced lung inflammation, regardless of the extent of melanization. In mice exposed to Δalb1 conidia, an increase in airway eosinophils and a decrease in neutrophils and CD8(+) IL-17(+) (Tc17) cells were observed. Additionally, it was shown that melanin mutant conidia were more rapidly cleared from the lungs than wild-type conidia. These data suggest that the presence of fungal melanin may modulate the pulmonary immune response in a mouse model of repeated exposures to A. fumigatus conidia. PMID:23919459

  4. An antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Hui Fu

    Full Text Available In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation.

  5. Improving Peanut Productivity and Resistance to Aspergillus flavus L Through mutation Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to improve peanut productivity and resistance to Aspergillus flavus that caused aflatoxin formation in peanut seeds . To achieve these goals , dry seeds of the two local varieties (Giza 4 and Giza5) were irradiated with gamma ray doses of 0 , 50 , 100 , 150 , 200 , 250 , 300 Gy. The irradiated seeds were sown to get the M1 and M2 generations. Six high yielding mutants were selected in M2 from irradiated populations of 150 Gy and 200 Gy for Giza 4 and Giza 5 respectively. These mutants were evaluated in M3 generation for yield and yield components , quality traits (protein and oil content) and the resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection. The obtained results revealed that analysis of variance for Giza 4 selected mutants showed significant differences between genotypes for different studied characters except for plant height and no. of branches /plant .However, for Giza5 selected mutants, significant differences between genotypes were only obtained for plant height , no of pods/plant, weight of pods/plant, weight of seeds/plant, and weight of 100 seeds. Different M3 mutants that selected from irradiated populations of both two peanut cultivars Giza4 and Giza5 shod marked improvement for yield and yield components, and quality traits in comparison with their mother varieties.The results of M3 progeny test indicated that most selected mutants retained the features of their M2 selectors, suggesting that they were considered true breeding materials. For Giza 4 selected mutants, aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 31.11 μg for mutant 1 to 188.46 μ g for mutant3 in comparison with 42.76 μg for the mother variety Giza 4. The lowest yielding progenies of mutant1 (1 ) showed the lowest aflatoxin concentrations as compared with the mother variety Giza 4 and other mutants, therefore the use of induced mutations for peanut improvement may be led to the development of improved varieties .However, for Giza 5 selected mutants aflatoxin

  6. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L-1. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  7. BIOSORPTION OF CR (VI BY RESTING CELLS OF ASPERGILLUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sen , M. Ghosh Dastidar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Cr(VI from aqueous solution was studied in a batch bioreactor using the resting cells of filamentous fungal biomass (Aspergillus sp. isolated from industrial wastewaters. The specific Cr(VI removal (mg/g of dried biomass decreased with increase in pH and increased with increase in initial Cr(VI concentration, upto 500 mg/L. By increasing biomass concentration from 2.4 to 5.2 g/L, the specific metal removal remained almost constant. The studies carried out by using the resting cells from various stages of growth indicated maximum Cr(VI removal of 34.8 mg/g using the biomass from the beginning of the stationary phase. The adsorption equilibrium constants Qº (42.9 mg/g and b (0.0091/mg were obtained from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  8. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation. PMID:18601027

  9. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  10. Cell wall structure and biogenesis in Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Akira; Miyazawa, Ken; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi from the viewpoints of industry, pathogenesis, and mycotoxin production. Fungal cells are exposed to a variety of environmental stimuli, including changes in osmolality, temperature, and pH, which create stresses that primarily act on fungal cell walls. In addition, fungal cell walls are the first interactions with host cells in either human or plants. Thus, understanding cell wall structure and the mechanism of their biogenesis is important for the industrial, medical, and agricultural fields. Here, we provide a systematic review of fungal cell wall structure and recent findings regarding the cell wall integrity signaling pathways in aspergilli. This accumulated knowledge will be useful for understanding and improving the use of industrial aspergilli fermentation processes as well as treatments for some fungal infections. PMID:27140698

  11. Optimization of cultivation conditions for the cellulase producer aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svistova, I.D.; Zherebtsov, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus was able to synthesize C1-cellulase, Cx-cellulase, endoglucanase and cellobiase in a synthetic minimal medium containing agricultural wastes (sawdust, straw, sugar beet pulp, barley husks, etc) as a sole source of C. The highest enzyme activity was observed with sugar beet pulp whereas the lowest activity occurrred with sawdust. Of various N sources tested, NaNO3 and peptone were most effective. Addition of corn meal, malt sprout, or protein-vitamin concentration (PVC) significantly stimulated enzyme biosynthesis. The optimum culture medium, determined by the mathematical method of experimental factor design was composed of sugar beet pulp 30, KH2PO4 1-4, NaNO3 7.5, and PVC 15 g/L.

  12. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  13. Biotransformations of organic compounds mediated by cultures of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshikov, Igor A; Woodling, Kellie A; Sutherland, John B

    2015-09-01

    Many different organic compounds may be converted by microbial biotransformation to high-value products for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This review summarizes the use of strains of Aspergillus niger, a well-known filamentous fungus used in numerous biotechnological processes, for biochemical transformations of organic compounds. The substrates transformed include monocyclic, bicyclic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; azaarenes, epoxides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The types of reactions performed by A. niger, although not unique to this species, are extremely diverse. They include hydroxylation, oxidation of various functional groups, reduction of double bonds, demethylation, sulfation, epoxide hydrolysis, dechlorination, ring cleavage, and conjugation. Some of the products may be useful as new investigational drugs or chemical intermediates. PMID:26162670

  14. Uranium leaching using mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both of culture temperature and pH value had impacts on the degree of uranium extraction through changing types and concentrations of mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger, and significant interactions existed between them though pH value played a leading role. And with the change of pH value of mixed organic acids, the types and contents of mixed organic acids changed and impacted on the degree of uranium extraction, especially oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid. The mean degree of uranium extraction rose to peak when the culture temperature was 25 deg C (76.14 %) and pH value of mixed organic acids was 2.3 (82.40 %) respectively. And the highest one was 83.09 %. The optimal culture temperature (25 deg C) of A. niger for uranium leaching was different from the most appropriate growing temperature (37 deg C). (author)

  15. In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

    2014-09-01

    Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen β-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these β-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

  16. Reversion in variants from a duplication strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a chromosome segment in duplicate, one in normal position and one translocated to another chromosome, are unstable at mitosis. In addition to variants which result from deletions in either of the duplicate segments, which usually have improved morphology, they produce variants with deteriorated morphology. Three deteriorated variants reverted frequently to parental type morphology, both spontaneously and after ultra-violet treatment. Of six reversions analysed genetically, five were due to suppressors and one was probably due to back mutation. The suppressors segregated as single genes and were not linked to the mutation which they suppress. The instability of these so-called 'deteriorated' variants is discussed in relation to mitotic instability phenomena in A. nidulans. (orig.)

  17. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å

  18. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. E.; Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  19. Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 μs, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880

  20. Carbon sources effect on pectinase production from Aspergillus japonicus 586

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on the pectinesterases, endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activities from Aspergillus japonicus 586 was evaluated in liquid media (Manachini solutions supplemented with different substrate concentrations. The culture medium was inoculated with 5.10(6 spores/ml and mantained under agitation (140 rpm, at 30°C, during 122 h. The enzyme evaluation was carried out 24 h after filtration. The crude extract from A. japonicus 586 indicated that the best enzymatic activities were afforded in the presence of 0.5% pectin (pectinesterease, 0.2% pectin and 0.2% glycerol (endopolygalacturonase, and 0.5% pectin associated to 0.5% glucose (exopolygalacturonase. Carbon sources concentration, isolated or associated, significantly affects the pectinesterase, and endo- and exopolygalacturonase activities. Pectin, glucose and saccharose, when added to the culture medium in high concentrations, exhibited a repression effect on all the analyzed enzymes.

  1. Biotransformation of germacranolide from Onopordon leptolepies by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Moazami, Nasrin; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives to prevent fungal growth. Herein, we describe the microbial transformation of onopordopicrin (1) by Aspergillus niger. Four product 11α H-dihydroonopordopicrin (2), 11β H-dihydroonopordopicrin (3), 3β-hydroxy-11β H-dihydroonopordopicrin (4), and 14-hydroxy-11β H-dihydroonopordopicrin (5) were obtained. Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All the four compounds were novel. PMID:22186324

  2. Preparation of 3-deacetyl cephalosporins by Aspergillus niger lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, G; Corcelli, A; Palmisano, G; Riva, S

    1996-12-20

    Lipase from Aspergillus niger was used for the selective hydrolysis of the 3-O-acetate of cephalosporin C to give an intermediate useful for further chemical elaborations. This lipase was purified to homogeneity and its properties compared with previously published data that present some discrepancies. The lipase proved to be very effective in catalyzing 3-O-acetate hydrolysis and versatile toward substitution on the beta-lactamic ring. In fact, as an example, two other cephalosporinic derivatives, cephalotin and cefotaxime, were efficiently deacetylated. The lipase was immobilized on Eupergit C and employed continuously in either a column or a batch reactor for 2 months without appreciable loss of activity. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18629943

  3. [A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis accompanied with Aspergillus meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, K; Goto, H; Sakurada, S; Ota, T; Yuasa, K; Iguchi, M; Okamura, T; Ieki, R; Kawamura, T

    1996-06-01

    A 53-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining of chest pain and gait disturbance. Examinations on admission showed that she was immunocompetent except the negative tuberculin test. The chest X-ray showed infiltrative shadows with old tuberculous lesions in the bilateral upper lung fields. In CT, a mass lesion was revealed in the lesion, which destructed the fifth thoracic vertebra and invaded into the epidural space. She died of meningitis on the 18th day after admission. On autopsy, it was made clear that the mass lesion was caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and that the meningitis was the result of the invasion of the fungus into the epidural space. PMID:8741716

  4. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  5. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kuklin, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  6. UTILIZING Aspergillus niger FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF TANNERY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bisht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannery waste water is characterized by highly toxic ammonium, sulfates, surfactants, acids, dyes, sulfonated oils and organic substances, including natural or synthetic tannins. This study was designed to study the potential of Aspergillus niger for bioremediation of tannery effluent. Addition of glucose as a carbon source in the tannery effluent encouraged the growth of A. niger but there was no change in physico-chemical parameters. The toxic effects were mostly reduced after treatment when 20% mineral salt medium was added in tannery effluent. Colour, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfides and chromium reduction were 71.9%, 72.1%, 69.0%, 65.0%, 68.1%, 66.8%, 65.7% and 57.8%, respectively.

  7. Human Leukocytes Kill Aspergillus nidulans by Reactive Oxygen Species-Independent Mechanisms▿

    OpenAIRE

    Henriet, Stefanie S. V.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Verweij, Paul E.; Simonetti, Elles; Holland, Steven M.; Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Warris, Adilia

    2010-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Although Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered Aspergillus species, the presence of A. nidulans appears to be disproportionately high in CGD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the NADPH oxidase and the resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in host defense against fungi and to clarify their relationship toward A. nidulans. Murine CG...

  8. Pulmonary Aspergillus chest wall involvement in chronic granulomatous disease: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with chronic granulomatous disease tends to involve the chest wall and consequently carries a high mortality rate. We report the findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three such cases. We suggest that CT and MRI have a complementary role in evaluating chest wall invasion by pulmonary Aspergillus infection in chronic granulomatous disease. (orig./GDG)

  9. Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigenemia To Determine Biological and Clinical Implications of Beta-Lactam Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Basile, Maria; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Souville, Didier; Gay, Frédérick; Philippe, Bruno; Bossi, Philippe; Danis, Martin; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Datry, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum with the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is useful for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. From May 2003 to November 2004, 65 patients who did not develop aspergillosis had at least two positive sera while receiving a beta-lactam treatment (GM index [GMI], ≥0.5). Of the 69 treatment episodes scored, 41 consisted of a beta-lactam other than piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 29), namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate (n = 25), amoxicillin (...

  10. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC) to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1) Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2) Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermen...

  11. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

    OpenAIRE

    GiancarloPerrone; AntoniaGallo

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus Section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003-2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus Section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of A. flavus L-morp...

  12. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Tivkaa Amande; Bukola Adebayo-Tayo; Uduak Ndubuisi-Nnaji; Benjamin Ado

    2013-01-01

    Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase produc...

  13. Rapid HPLC method for simultaneous detection of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic from Aspergillus section Flavi

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Rodrigues, Paula; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by moulds and are an important world-wide food safety concern. Among the most relevant mycotoxigenic producer fungi are some Aspergillus species in particular those belonging to the Aspergillus section Flavi. These are known to produce the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Due to its impact in animal and human health, these species are among the most intenSively studied ones, being well known producers...

  14. Role of Aspergillus lentulus 14-α Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51A) in Azole Drug Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado, Emilia; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some morphologically atypical Aspergillus fumigatus strains are different species belonging to the section Fumigati. Aspergillus lentulus, one of these sibling species, is increasingly reported in patients under corticosteroid treatment. MICs of most antifungals in clinical use are elevated against A. lentulus, and it shows primary resistance to azole drugs. Two A. lentulus cytochrome P450 14-α sterol demethylases, encoded by A. lentulus cyp51A (Alcyp51A)...

  15. In Vitro Biochemical Study of CYP51-Mediated Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Parker, Josie E.; Price, Claire L.; Nes, W. David; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of triazole-resistant Aspergillus infections is increasing worldwide, often mediated through mutations in the CYP51A amino acid sequence. New classes of azole-based drugs are required to combat the increasing resistance to existing triazole therapeutics. In this study, a CYP51 reconstitution assay is described consisting of eburicol, purified recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus CPR1 (AfCPR1), and Escherichia coli membrane suspensions containing recombinant A. fumigatus CYP51 prote...

  16. Characterization of oxylipins and dioxygenase genes in the asexual fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkhove Stefanie IC; de Vries Ronald P; Wadman Mayken W; Veldink Gerrit A; Vliegenthart Johannes FG

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. An example of such genes are the dioxygenase genes which in Aspergillus nidulans, have been shown to be connected to oxylipin production and regulation of both sexual and asexual sporulation 234. Nevertheless, the presence of...

  17. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chinaputi, A.; Lim, S; Petcharat, V.; Chuenchit, S.; Pathanadech, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty sun-dried medicinal plants were obtained from fraditional drug stores in Songkhla Province, Thailand, and examined for Aspergillus and aflatoxin B1. 288 isolates of Aspergillus were obtaines by standard blotter plate and 25 species were identified. The most common species were A. niger with 99 isolates, A. Flavus 84 isolates, A. terreus 33 isolates, A. oryzae 25 isolates, A.nidulans (Emericella nidulans) 10 isolates, A fumigatus 9 isolates and A. chevalieri (Eurotium chevalieri) 8 isola...

  18. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Aspergillus spp. FROM THE WATER USED FOR REHABILITATION OF MAGELLANIC PENGUINS

    OpenAIRE

    Vanice Rodrigues Poester; Gabriel Baracy Klafke; Ângela Leitzke Cabana; Andréa Corrado Adornes; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillosis is the main cause of mortality in captivity penguins. The infection occurs mainly by conidia inhalation of the Aspergillus genus, however, the fungus can also be dispersed by water. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate water quality of the pool where the rehabilitated penguins remain at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos in Rio Grande city, Brazil, searching for the presence of the fungus Aspergillus spp. Water samples were collected weekly during a ten-month period an...

  19. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a patient on mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    MV Pravin Charles; M Ravishankar; Easow, Joshy M; Noyal Mariya Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. often colonise the respiratory tract of critically ill patients in intensive care units and subsequently cause invasive disease. The risk of developing invasive disease is more in immunocompromised patients. Here we report a case of fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a post-operative patient on mechanical ventilation, who did not respond to intravenous itraconazole. We then discuss the challenges involved in the accurate diagnosis of th...

  20. Cellulolytic enzymes on lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, M. Subhosh; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B. Rajasekhar

    2007-01-01

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger on lignocellulosic substrates groundnut fodder, wheat bran, rice bran and sawdust in solid state fermentation in a laboratory scale was compared. Czapek Dox liquid broth amended with cellulose (0.5%) was used to moisten lignocellulosic solid supports for cultivation of Aspergillus niger. The production of filter paperase, carboxymethyl cellulase and -glucosidase were monitored at daily intervals for 5 days. The peak production of the...

  1. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappe, R; Schulze-Berge, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pastorex Aspergillus antigen test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis is used in many clinical laboratories. A serum sample contaminated with Penicillium chrysogenum gave a strongly positive reaction (1:128) which was heat stable, was not eliminated by pronase treatment, and was not detected by a normal rabbit globulin control. This observation was shown to be due to cross-reactions of the monoclonal antibody EB-A2 used by...

  2. Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis in a double-lung transplanted patient: unusual radiographic and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis is considered as an early form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, a well-known airway infection in immunocompromised patients. Radiologic features concerning invasive aspergillosis of the airways have been reported. However, we describe here an unusual feature of invasive aspergillus bronchitis, never reported to date, observed in a double-lung transplanted patient. Chest radiograph and CT revealed significant peribronchial thickening without any parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  3. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  4. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  5. 曲霉菌性气管支气管炎%Aspergillus tracheobronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海东; 李强

    2011-01-01

    曲霉菌性气管支气管炎是曲霉菌在气道内定植及生长所致疾病的总称,主要包括侵袭性曲霉菌性气管支气管炎、溃疡性曲霉菌性气管支气管炎、伪膜坏死性曲霉菌性气管支气管炎、气管支气管腔内曲菌栓型等4种类型.该病在全身免疫功能损害并气道局部结构破坏的人群中多见.本文对曲霉菌性气管支气管炎发病机制、临床表现、诊断、治疗和预后,以及在常见免疫功能损害人群中的临床特点进行综述.%Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is the generic term for all the diseases caused by planting and growing of Aspergillus in the airway, mainly including invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, ulcerative Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, pseudomembranous necrotizing Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and tracheobronchial aspergilloma. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is frequently seen in populations with immunodeficiency accompanied with local airway damages. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, imagining findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease, and the clinical features of populations with impaired general immune function.

  6. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Aspergillus spp. FROM THE WATER USED FOR REHABILITATION OF MAGELLANIC PENGUINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanice Rodrigues Poester

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the main cause of mortality in captivity penguins. The infection occurs mainly by conidia inhalation of the Aspergillus genus, however, the fungus can also be dispersed by water. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate water quality of the pool where the rehabilitated penguins remain at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos in Rio Grande city, Brazil, searching for the presence of the fungus Aspergillus spp. Water samples were collected weekly during a ten-month period and processed within six hours, applying the technique of filtrating membrane, with incubation at 25 ºC and 37 ºC during seven days. Of the forty samples analyzed, thirty-two were positive for the presence of Aspergillus genus, from these 60% correspond to A. fumigatus. Some variables significantly interfered on the isolation of Aspergillus genus and/or Aspergillus fumigatus specie, such as incubation temperature, seasonality and population density. This study showed Aspergillus spp. is present in the water, being one of the possible sources of infections for penguins in rehabilitation.

  7. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

  8. Molecular identification of Aspergillus spp. isolated from coffee beans Identificação molecular de Aspergillus spp. isolados de grãos de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciane Magnani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species belonging to the genus Aspergillus are potential producers of ochratoxin A (OA, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Aspergillus that contaminate the inside of coffee beans collected in the stage of maturation and drying, from 16 producing areas located in the northern region of the State of Paraná, in the South of Brazil. A total of 108 isolates of Aspergillus spp. was identified at the species level, by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. The results revealed the presence of potentially ochratoxigenic species in 82% of the geographic regions studied, among which Aspergillus niger was the species most frequently detected, followed by A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius. The presence of A. carbonarius in immature coffee fruits harvested from trees is reported for the first time.Algumas espécies pertencentes ao gênero Aspergillus possuem potencial para produção de Ocratoxina A (OA, uma micotoxina de efeitos nefrotóxicos, imunossupressivos, teratogênicos e carcinogênicos. Com o objetivo de identificar as espécies de Aspergillus que contaminam o interior de grãos de café, foram coletadas amostras em diferentes estádios de maturação do produto, em 16 propriedades produtoras do norte do estado do Paraná. Um total de 108 isolados de Aspergillus spp. foram identificados ao nível de espécie, pelo sequenciamento dos espaços internos transcritos (ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 do DNA ribossomal (rDNA. Os resultados revelaram a presença de espécies potencialmente ocratoxigênicas em 82% das regiões analisadas, sendo dentre estas, Aspergillus niger a espécie mais freqüentemente detectada,seguida por A. ochraceus, e A. carbonarius. É relatada pela primeira vez a presença de A. carbonarius em frutos de café coletados na árvore.

  9. Lethal and mutagenic effects of ion beams and γ-rays in Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of different LET radiation in A. oryzae. ► Both γ-rays and ion beams induced base substitutions, frameshifts, deletions. ► Both γ-rays and ion beams induced genome-wide large-scale mutations in A. oryzae. ► Some differences in the types and frequencies of mutations were found. ► Our results provide new basic insights into the mutation breeding of A. oryzae. - Abstract: Aspergillus oryzae is a fungus that is used widely in traditional Japanese fermentation industries. In this study, the lethal and mutagenic effects of different linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in freeze-dried conidia of A. oryzae were investigated. The lethal effect, which was evaluated by a 90% lethal dose, was dependent on the LET value of the ionizing radiation. The most lethal ionizing radiation among that tested was 12C5+ ion beams with an LET of 121 keV/μm. The 12C5+ ion beams had a 3.6-times higher lethal effect than low-LET (0.2 keV/μm) γ-rays. The mutagenic effect was evaluated by the frequency of selenate resistant mutants. 12C6+ ion beams with an LET of 86 keV/μm were the most effective in inducing selenate resistance. The mutant frequency following exposure to 12C6+ ion beams increased with an increase in dose and reached 3.47 × 10−3 at 700 Gy. In the dose range from 0 to 700 Gy, 12C5+ ion beams were the second most effective in inducing selenate resistance, the mutant frequency of which reached a maximum peak (1.67 × 10−3) at 400 Gy. To elucidate the characteristics of mutation induced by ionizing radiation, mutations in the sulphate permease gene (sB) and ATP sulfurylase gene (sC) loci, the loss of function of which results in a selenate resistant phenotype, were compared between 12C5+ ion beams and γ-rays. We detected all types of transversions and transitions. For frameshifts, the frequency of a +1 frameshift was the highest in all cases. Although the incidence of deletions >2 bp was generally low, deletions >20

  10. PENGARUH FILTRAT CENDAWAN Aspergillus sp. DAN Fusarium sp. TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria)

    OpenAIRE

    Naning Yuniarti; Tati Suharti; Yulianti Bramasto

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are one of the main causes of damage to seeds. Fungi can be a pathogen or saprophyte such as Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of filtrate fungus Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp on seed viability and seedling growth performance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). The experiment design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with treatment: control, filtrate of Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp filtrate. Each treatment was rep...

  11. Gβ-like CpcB plays a crucial role for growth and development of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Kong

    Full Text Available Growth, development, virulence and secondary metabolism in fungi are governed by heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins. A Gβ-like protein called Gib2 has been shown to function as an atypical Gβ in Gpa1-cAMP signaling in Cryptococcus neoformans. We found that the previously reported CpcB (cross pathway control B protein is the ortholog of Gib2 in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this report, we further characterize the roles of CpcB in governing growth, development and toxigenesis in the two aspergilli. The deletion of cpcB results in severely impaired cellular growth, delayed spore germination, and defective asexual sporulation (conidiation in both aspergilli. Moreover, CpcB is necessary for proper expression of the key developmental activator brlA during initiation and progression of conidiation in A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Somewhat in accordance with the previous study, the absence of cpcB results in the formation of fewer, but not micro-, cleistothecia in A. nidulans in the presence of wild type veA, an essential activator of sexual development. However, the cpcB deletion mutant cleistothecia contain no ascospores, validating that CpcB is required for progression and completion of sexual fruiting including ascosporogenesis. Furthermore, unlike the canonical GβSfaD, CpcB is not needed for the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST as the cpcB null mutant produced reduced amount of ST with unaltered STC gene expression. However, in A. fumigatus, the deletion of cpcB results in the blockage of gliotoxin (GT production. Further genetic analyses in A. nidulans indicate that CpcB may play a central role in vegetative growth, which might be independent of FadA- and GanB-mediated signaling. A speculative model summarizing the roles of CpcB in conjunction with SfaD in A. nidulans is presented.

  12. Dectin-1 agonist curdlan modulates innate immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus in human corneal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Cheng; Zhu; Gui-Qiu; Zhao; Jing; Lin; Li-Ting; Hu; Qiang; Xu; Xu-Dong; Peng; Xue; Wang; Sheng; Qiu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To explore the immunomodulatory effects of curdlan on innate immune responses against Aspergillus fumigatus(A. fumigatus) in cultured human corneal epithelial cells(HCECs), and whether C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 mediates the immunomodulatory effects of curdlan.·METHODS: The HCECs were stimulated by curdlan in different concentrations(50, 100, 200, 400 μg/m L) for various time. Then HCECs pretreated with or without laminarin(Dectin-1 blocker, 0.3 mg/m L) and curdlan were stimulated by A. fumigatus hyphae. The m RNA and protein production of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The protein level of Dectin-1 was measured by Western blot.· RESULTS: Curdlan stimulated m RNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in a dose and time dependent manner in HCECs. Curdlan pretreatment before A. fumigatus hyphae stimulation significantly enhanced the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 at m RNA and protein levels compared with A. fumigatus hyphae stimulation group(P <0.05).Both curdlan and A. fumigatus hyphae up-regulated Dectin-1 protein expression in HCECs, and Dectin-1expression was elevated to 1.5- to 2-fold by curdlan pretreatment followed hyphae stimulation. The Dectin-1blocker laminarin suppressed the m RNA expression and protein production of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by curdlan and hyphae(P <0.05).· CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated that curdlan pretreatment enhanced the inflammatory response induced by A. fumigatus hyphae in HCECs.Dectin-1 is essential for the immunomodulatory effectsof curdlan. Curdlan may have high clinical application values in fungal keratitis treatment.

  13. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500μg/kg B and 341,000μg/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (pfeed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

  14. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data. PMID:25616499

  15. Diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne Aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Firoozeh; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Aspergillus species isolated from Tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Thirty-eight Aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. A. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), A. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), A. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), A. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), A. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each A. nidulans, A. amstelodami, A. oryzae, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. flavipes and A. fumigatus were obtained by settle plate method which they were distributed in 18 out of 22 sampling sites examined. Fungal DNA was extracted from cultured mycelia of all Aspergillus isolates on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for amplification of gene fragments in RAPD-PCR using 11 primers. RAPD-PCR data was analyzed using UPGMA software. Resulting dendrogram of combined selected primers including PM1, OPW-04, OPW-05, P160, P54, P10 and OPA14 indicated the distribution of 12 Aspergillus species in 8 major clusters. The similarity coefficient of all 38 Aspergillus isolates ranged from 0.02 to 0.40 indicating a wide degree of similarities and differences within and between species. Taken together, our results showed that various Aspergillus species including some important human pathogenic ones exist in the outdoor air of Tehran by different extents in distribution and diversity and suggested inter- and intra-species genetic diversity among Aspergillus species by RAPD-PCR as a rapid, sensitive and reproducible method. PMID:27116962

  16. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    ). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...

  17. Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus under various conditions of temperature, light and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Fani makk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Aflatoxins are a large group of mycotoxins. The aim of the present study was the comparison of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus (IR 111 and Aspergillus parasiticus (NRRL 2999 under various conditions of temperature, light, and pH. Methods: In this experimental study, twenty-four flasks were assigned for incubation of each of the fungi A. Flavus and parasiticus at 18, 24, 32 °C. Both flasks were maintained under conditions of light and darkness. The rate of (AFB1 produced by each groups, was measured by thin layer chromatography. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis (SPSS, version 16. Results: The lowest yield of (AFB1 produced by A. Flavus and parasiticus belonged to 32 °C and pH 6.5, respectively. On the other hand, the highest yield of toxin was observed at 24 °C and pH 6. The lighting effects were considerable. According to the studies on the adverse effects of light and the fermentation process, aflatoxin production increased in dark conditions. Conclusion: The results of study showed that A. Parasiticus (NRRL 2999 produced more aflatoxin than A. Flavus (IR 111. Key words: Aflatoxin B1, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus

  18. Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Jens

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus nidulans is a member of a diverse group of filamentous fungi, sharing many of the properties of its close relatives with significance in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, A. nidulans has been a classical model organism for studies of development biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi. It was the first Aspergillus species to have its genome sequenced, and automated gene prediction tools predicted 9,451 open reading frames (ORFs in the genome, of which less than 10% were assigned a function. Results In this work, we have manually assigned functions to 472 orphan genes in the metabolism of A. nidulans, by using a pathway-driven approach and by employing comparative genomics tools based on sequence similarity. The central metabolism of A. nidulans, as well as biosynthetic pathways of relevant secondary metabolites, was reconstructed based on detailed metabolic reconstructions available for A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and information on the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of A. nidulans. Thereby, it was possible to identify metabolic functions without a gene associated, and to look for candidate ORFs in the genome of A. nidulans by comparing its sequence to sequences of well-characterized genes in other species encoding the function of interest. A classification system, based on defined criteria, was developed for evaluating and selecting the ORFs among the candidates, in an objective and systematic manner. The functional assignments served as a basis to develop a mathematical model, linking 666 genes (both previously and newly annotated to metabolic roles. The model was used to simulate metabolic behavior and additionally to integrate, analyze and interpret large-scale gene expression data concerning a study on glucose repression, thereby providing a means of upgrading the information content of experimental data

  19. Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in Denmark: a laboratory-based study on resistance mechanisms and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R H; Hagen, F; Astvad, K M T; Tyron, A; Meis, J F; Arendrup, M C

    2016-06-01

    Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus originating from the environment as well as induced during therapy are continuously emerging in Danish clinical settings. We performed a laboratory-based retrospective study (2010-2014) of azole resistance and genetic relationship of A. fumigatus at the national mycology reference laboratory of Denmark. A total of 1162 clinical and 133 environmental A. fumigatus isolates were identified by morphology, thermotolerance and/or β-tubulin sequencing. Screening for azole resistance was carried out using azole agar, and resistant isolates were susceptibility tested by the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) E.Def 9.2 reference method and CYP51A sequenced. Genotyping was performed for outbreak investigation and, when appropriate, short tandem repeat Aspergillus fumigatus microsatellite assay. All 133 environmental A. fumigatus isolates were azole susceptible. However, from 2010 to 2014, there was an increasing prevalence of azole resistance (from 1.4 to 6% isolates (p 50% of the azole resistance mechanisms. Among 184 Danish A. fumigatus isolates, 120 unique genotypes were identified and compared to a collection of 1822 international genotypes. Seven (5.8%) Danish genotypes were shared between isolates within Denmark but with different origin, 19 (15.8%) were shared with foreign genotypes, and two (11.8%) of 17 genotypes of isolates carrying the TR34/L98H resistance mechanisms were identical to two Dutch TR34/L98H isolates. Our findings underlines the demand for correct identification and susceptibility testing of clinical mould isolates. Furthermore, although complex, genotyping supported the hypotheses regarding clonal expansion and the potential of a single origin for the TR34/L98H clone. PMID:27091095

  20. Evaluation of viability of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxins degradation in irradiated samples of maize Avaliação da viabilidade de Aspergillus flavus e degradação de aflatoxinas em amostras de milho irradiadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aquino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the currently most important fungi in stored grains is Aspergillus flavus, which produce aflatoxins. This fungus can grow on diverse substrates and represents a serious public health and animal nutritional problem. Therefore, the study of techniques that can be applied to the control of aflatoxins is of great importance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of gamma radiation on the growth of Aspergillus flavus Link and on degradation of aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1 and AFB2 at a relative humidity of 97 99% and a water activity (Aw of 0.88-0.94. Samples of corn grains were irradiated using a cobalt 60 source emitting gamma rays at doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy. Irradiation was found to be effective in reducing the number colony-forming units of A. flavus, per gram, in the corn samples analyzed. In addition, the fluorescent viability test (fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide revealed a decrease in the number of viable cells with increasing irradiation doses and three different fluorescence patterns. Furthermore, irradiation induced a partial reduction in AFB1 and AFB2 levels at the doses of 2 and 5 kGy, whereas complete degradation of aflatoxins was observed in the assay employing 10 kGy.Um dos fungos mais importantes atualmente em grãos armazenados é o Aspergillus flavus, o qual produz aflatoxinas. Este fungo pode crescer em diversos substratos e representa uma séria preocupação em saúde pública e nutrição animal. Portanto, o estudo de técnicas que possam ser aplicadas no controle das aflatoxinas é de grande importância. Assim sendo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da radiação gama no crescimento de Aspergillus flavus Link e na degradação das aflatoxinas B1 e B2, (AFB1 e AFB2 em umidade relativa (UR de 97-99% e atividade de água (Aa de 0,88-0,94. Amostras de grãos de milho foram irradiadas, utilizando-se uma fonte de Cobalto 60, emissora de raios gama, com as doses de 2; 5

  1. Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase is processed and secreted from transformed Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge-Jensen, B; Andreasen, F; Christensen, T; Christensen, M; Thim, L; Boel, E

    1989-09-01

    The cDNA encoding the precursor of the Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase was inserted in an Aspergillus oryzae expression vector. In this vector the expression of the lipase cDNA is under control of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase gene promoter and the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase gene terminator. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Aspergillus oryzae, and transformed colonies were selected and screened for lipase expression. Lipase-positive transformants were grown in a small fermentor, and recombinant triglyceride lipase was purified from the culture broth. The purified enzymatically active recombinant lipase (rRML) secreted from A. oryzae was shown to have the same characteristics with respect to mobility on reducing SDS-gels and amino acid composition as the native enzyme. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that approximately 70% of the secreted rRML had the same N-terminal sequence as the native Rhizomucor miehei enzyme, whereas 30% of the secreted rRML was one amino acid residue shorter in the N-terminal. The recombinant lipase precursor, which has a 70 amino acid propeptide, is thus processed in and secreted from Aspergillus oryzae. We have hereby demonstrated the utility of this organism as a host for the production of recombinant triglyceride lipases. PMID:2586234

  2. Aspergillus Spondylitis involving the Cervico-Thoraco-Lumbar Spine in an Immunocompromised Patient: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis. Moreover, early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment can prevent the serious complications of fungal infection. To our knowledge, the MR findings of multilevel aspergillus spondylitis in the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine have not been previously described. Here, we report the MR findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. spergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis, and early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment are essential for a good outcome. Although the MR findings of bacterial spondylitis have been fully described, the findings of aspergillus spondylitis have been rarely described, and to the best of our knowledge multilevel involvement of cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine has not been previously reported. Here, we report the MR imaging findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. In conclusion, aspergillus spondylitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with MR findings resembling those of tuberculous spondylitis

  3. The effects of types of media on uranium leaching using metabolite of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influences of different media to uranium leaching applying with metabolite of Aspergillus niger, PSA and glucose-steepwater medium were used for the culture of Aspergillus niger, and the metabolite of Aspergillus niger with different pH value produced in the diverse culture temperature were obtained which was applied on the tests of uranium leaching as leaching agent. The test results show that the maximum leaching rate is 83.05% when the leaching agent is the metabolite of Aspergillus niger produced by PSA, as for the glucose- steepwater medium, the maximum leaching rate is 68.20%. The pH value of the metabolite of Aspergillus niger of the two kinds of media has a significant effect on the leaching rate. When PSA is adopted, the best leaching rate appears at the pH value of metabolite ranging from 2.0 to 2.5, and as for the glucose-steepwater medium, the pH value is below 2.1. (authors)

  4. A genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Pi

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites (SMs produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic.

  5. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection

  6. Aspergillus Spondylitis involving the Cervico-Thoraco-Lumbar Spine in an Immunocompromised Patient: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jeong-Min; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Il; Ha, Kee-Yong [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Aspergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis. Moreover, early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment can prevent the serious complications of fungal infection. To our knowledge, the MR findings of multilevel aspergillus spondylitis in the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine have not been previously described. Here, we report the MR findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. spergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis, and early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment are essential for a good outcome. Although the MR findings of bacterial spondylitis have been fully described, the findings of aspergillus spondylitis have been rarely described, and to the best of our knowledge multilevel involvement of cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine has not been previously reported. Here, we report the MR imaging findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. In conclusion, aspergillus spondylitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with MR findings resembling those of tuberculous spondylitis.

  7. Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus was carried out in a batch reactor to study the effect of initial pH and metal ion concentration, contact time, biomass dose and kinetics and equilibrium Th uptake. Thorium(IV) uptake by A. fumigatus was pH dependent (pH range, 2.0-6.0) and maximum sorption was observed at pH 4.0. The uptake was rapid and the biosorption process reached equilibrium within 2 h of contact times at pH 2-4 and initial Th concentration of 50 and 100 mg/L. The kinetics data fitted well to Lagergren's pseudo-second-order rate equation (r2 > 0.99). A maximum initial sorption rate of 71.94 (mg/g min) and second-order rate constant of 7.82 x 10-2 (g/mg min) were observed at pH 4.0, 50 mg Th/L. The observed maximum uptake of thorium was 370 mg Th/g at equilibrium. Biosorption process could be well described by Langmuir isotherm in comparison to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Sodium bicarbonate was the most efficient desorbing reagent with desorption efficiency of more than 99%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph (ESEM) showed that the surface of the biomass after desorption was intact.

  8. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Jintana Bunnak; Guzman, Z.M. de; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-10-01

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D{sub 10} value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B{sub 1} occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B{sub 1} was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author).

  9. Initial intracellular proteome profile of Aspergillus niger biofilms

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    Gretty K. Villena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An initial profiling of the intracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 biofilm cultures developed on polyester cloth was carried out by using 2D-PAGE and MS-TOF analysis and it was compared to the proteome of conventionally grown free-living submerged cultures. A number of 2D-PAGE protein spots from both types of cultures were subjected to MS-TOF analysis and data interrogation of the NCBI nr database available for this species. Proteomic maps showed different expression patterns in both culture systems with differentially expressed proteins in each case. In biofilm cultures, 19% and 32% of the selected protein spots were over- expressed and differentially expressed, respectively. On the contrary, in free-living cultures, 44% and 7% of the selected protein spots were over-expressed and differentially expressed, respectively. Although preliminary, results presented in this paper show that there are significant differences between the proteomes of A. niger biofilm and free-living mycelia. It seems that cell adhesion is the most important stimulus responsible for biofilm development which is the basis of Surface Adhesion Fermentation.

  10. Some studies of alpha-amylase production using Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanibolandbalaie, Z; Rostami, K; Mirdamadi, S S

    2008-11-15

    The extracellular alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was studied in submerged fermentation using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The effect of initial pH values in the range of 4 to 7.5 on enzyme production was investigated and initial pH medium of 6.2 +/- 0.1 resulted in enhanced alpha-amylase production. The effect of carbon and nitrogen source and composition was examined and it has been observed that corn starch concentration of 15 g L(-1) has sound effect on enzyme production. The medium containing corn starch, sodium nitrate resulted in considerable higher enzyme production. Further, the yeast extract of 2.5 g L(-1) in the medium produced higher enzyme in view to other organic nitrogen sources. The effect of temperature on alpha-amylase production from 20 to 40 degrees C has been studied and at 35 +/- 1 degrees C higher alpha-amylase has been obtained. The effect of shaker's speed on alpha-amylase production from 50 to 200 rpm was investigated. And at about 180 rpm higher enzyme production has been observed. In the present study, it has been found that glucose has repressing effect on a-amylase production using A. oryzae PTCC5164. PMID:19260332

  11. The nucleation of microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings

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    Andrade-Monteiro Cristina de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are filaments composed of dimers of alpha- and beta-tubulins, which have a variety of functions in living cells. In fungi, the spindle pole bodies usually have been considered to be microtubule-organizing centers. We used the antimicrotubule drug Benomyl in block/release experiments to depolymerize and repolymerize microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings to learn more about the microtubule nucleation process in this filamentous fungus. Twenty seconds after release from Benomyl short microtubules were formed from several bright (immunofluorescent dots distributed along the germlings, suggesting that microtubule nucleation is randomly distributed in A. nidulans germlings. Since nuclear movement is dependent on microtubules in A. nidulans we analyzed whether mutants defective in nuclear distribution along the growing hyphae (nud mutants have some obvious microtubule defect. Cytoplasmic, astral and spindle microtubules were present and appeared to be normal in all nud mutants. However, significant changes in the percentage of short versus long mitotic spindles were observed in nud mutants. This suggests that some of the nuclei of nud mutants do not reach the late stage of cell division at normal temperatures.

  12. Pulmonary Immune Responses to Aspergillus Fumigatus in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIRKOV Ivana; EL-MUZGHI Amal Atia Mhfuod; DJOKIC Jelena; NINKOV Marina; POPOV ALEKSANDROV Aleksandra; GLAMOCLIJA Jasmina; KATARANOVSKI Milena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate immunologic mechanisms underlying Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infections in immunocompetent Dark Agouti (DA) and Albino Oxford (AO) rats recognized as being susceptible to some inflammatory diseases in different manners. Methods Lung fungal burden (quantitative colony forming units, CFU, assay), leukocyte infiltration (histology, cell composition) and their function (phagocytosis, oxidative activity, CD11b adhesion molecule expression) and cytokine interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 and-4 (IL-17 and IL-4) lung content were evaluated following infection (intratracheally, 1x107 conidia). Results Slower reduction of fungal burden was observed in AO rats in comparison with that in DA rats, which was coincided with less intense histologically evident lung cell infiltration and leukocyte recovery as well as lower level of most of the their activities including intracellular myeloperoxidase activity, the capacity of nitroblue tetrazolium salt reduction and CD11b adhesion molecule expression (except for phagocytosis of conidia) in these rats. Differential patterns of changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels (unchanged levels of IFN-γand transient increase of IL-17 in AO rats vs continuous increase of both cytokines in DA rats) and unchanged levels of IL-4 were observed. Conclusion Genetically-based differences in the pattern of antifungal lung leukocyte activities and cytokine milieu, associated with differential efficiency of fungal elimination might be useful in the future use of rat models in studies of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  13. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D10 value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B1 occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B1 was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author)

  14. Hexavalent chromium removal by waste mycelium of Aspergillus awamori

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    VELIZAR K. GOCHEV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Cr(VI removal potential of waste mycelium from the industrial xylanase-producing strain Aspergillus awamori was evaluated. It was determined by FTIR analysis that amino groups from the major fungal wall constituents, chitin and chitosan, played a key role in the metal binding process. The effect of pH, initial ion concentration, temperature and amount of biomass on the removal was also studied. The removal efficiency increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature and amount of biomass. The mechanism of Cr(VI removal by A. awamori can be explained by a two-stage process involving an initial adsorption stage followed by a reducing stage. The removal process was described by a second-order polynomial and the optimal process parameters for attaining Rmax 94.4 % in 48 h were predicted, i.e., pH 1.5 and t = 40 °C. From both economic and ecological points of view, a promising possibility for the utilization of waste industrial mycelium of A. awamori as a low-cost Cr(VI removal agent was proposed.

  15. VelC positively controls sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Soo Park

    Full Text Available Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia. In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ΔvelC ΔvosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ΔvosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting.

  16. Plant-like biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccile, Joshua A; Spraker, Joseph E; Le, Henry H; Brandenburger, Eileen; Gomez, Christian; Bok, Jin Woo; Macheleidt, Juliane; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Keller, Nancy P; Schroeder, Frank C

    2016-06-01

    Natural product discovery efforts have focused primarily on microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) containing large multimodular polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases; however, sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed a vast number of BGCs containing smaller NRPS-like genes of unknown biosynthetic function. Using comparative metabolomics, we show that a BGC in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus named fsq, which contains an NRPS-like gene lacking a condensation domain, produces several new isoquinoline alkaloids known as the fumisoquins. These compounds derive from carbon-carbon bond formation between two amino acid-derived moieties followed by a sequence that is directly analogous to isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Fumisoquin biosynthesis requires the N-methyltransferase FsqC and the FAD-dependent oxidase FsqB, which represent functional analogs of coclaurine N-methyltransferase and berberine bridge enzyme in plants. Our results show that BGCs containing incomplete NRPS modules may reveal new biosynthetic paradigms and suggest that plant-like isoquinoline biosynthesis occurs in diverse fungi. PMID:27065235

  17. Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhainsa, Kuber C; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

    2009-06-15

    Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus was carried out in a batch reactor to study the effect of initial pH and metal ion concentration, contact time, biomass dose and kinetics and equilibrium Th uptake. Thorium(IV) uptake by A. fumigatus was pH dependent (pH range, 2.0-6.0) and maximum sorption was observed at pH 4.0. The uptake was rapid and the biosorption process reached equilibrium within 2h of contact times at pH 2-4 and initial Th concentration of 50 and 100mg/L. The kinetics data fitted well to Lagergren's pseudo-second-order rate equation (r(2)>0.99). A maximum initial sorption rate of 71.94 (mg/g min) and second-order rate constant of 7.82 x 10(-2) (g/mg min) were observed at pH 4.0, 50 mg Th/L. The observed maximum uptake of thorium was 370 mg Th/g at equilibrium. Biosorption process could be well described by Langmuir isotherm in comparison to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Sodium bicarbonate was the most efficient desorbing reagent with desorption efficiency of more than 99%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph (ESEM) showed that the surface of the biomass after desorption was intact. PMID:19036508

  18. Nickel accumulation and nickel oxalate precipitation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyarosy, A; Laidlaw, R D; Kilaas, R; Echer, C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2002-07-01

    A strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from a metal-contaminated soil was able to grow in the presence of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, and unusually high levels of nickel on solid (8.0 mM) and in liquid (6.5 mM) media. This fungus removed >98% of the nickel from liquid medium after 100 h of growth but did not remove the other metals, as determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Experiments with non-growing, live fungal biomass showed that nickel removal was not due to biosorption alone, as little nickel was bound to the biomass at the pH values tested. Furthermore, when the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoremetoxy) phenyl hydrazone (FCCP) was added to the actively growing fungus nickel removal was inhibited, supporting the hypothesis that energy metabolism is essential for metal removal. Analytical electron microscopy of thin-sectioned fungal biomass revealed that metal removed from the broth was localized in the form of small rectangular crystals associated with the cell walls and also inside the cell. X-ray and electron diffraction analysis showed that these crystals were nickel oxalate dihydrate. PMID:12111174

  19. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya KARACA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13 dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with different physiological conditions (pH, temprature, agitate condition. For A. niveus results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 3, 35°C and 120-150 rpm. For F. moniliforme results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 7, 20°C ve 120 rpm. For A. niveus decolorisation results were close to dead cells and live cells.Dead cells decolorisation were about %90 for F. moniliforme and live cells decolorisation were about %75.

  20. Genetic control of asexual development in aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Conidia, the asexual spores, serve as the main dispersal and infection agent allowing entrance of the fungus into the host through the respiratory tract. Therefore, understanding the asexual developmental process that gives rise to the conidia is of great interest to the scientific community and is currently the focus of an immense load of research being conducted. We have been studying the genetic basis that controls asexual development and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. In this review, we discuss the genetic regulatory system that dictates conidiation in this important fungus by covering the roles of crucial genetic factors from the upstream heterotrimeric G-protein signaling components to the more specific downstream central activators of the conidiation pathway. In addition, other key asexual regulators including the velvet regulators, the Flb proteins and their associated regulatory factors are discussed. PMID:25596030

  1. Characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela P; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria M

    2016-10-01

    Two xylanases from Aspergillus nidulans, XlnB and XlnC, were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. XlnB and XlnC achieved maximal activities at 60°C and pH 7.5 and at 50°C and pH 6.0, respectively. XlnB showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°C. XlnB had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while XlnC had the best activity against beechwood xylan. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by SDS and HgCl2. Xylotriose at 1mg/ml also totally inibited XlnB activity. TLC analysis showed that the main product of beechwood xylan hydrolysis by XlnB and XlnC was xylotetraose. An additive effect was shown between XlnB and XlnC and the xylanases of two tested commercial cocktails. Sugarcane bagasse saccharification results showed that these two commercial enzymatic cocktails were able to release more glucose and xylose after supplementation with XlnB and XlnC. PMID:27235731

  2. [Effect of microparticles on echinocandin B production by Aspergillus nidulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kun; Hu, Yibo; Mao, Jian; Zou, Shuping; Zheng, Yuguo

    2015-07-01

    Anidulafungin is an effective antifungal medicine, which can inhibit activities of candida in vitro and in vivo. Echinocandin B (ECB) is the key precursor of Anidulafungin, thus the price and market prospect of Anidulafungin is directly due to the fermentation titer of ECB. In this study, Aspergillus nidulans was used for ECB fermentation, and the influence of adding microparticles on ECB fermentation was studied, such as talcum powder, Al2O3, and glass beads. The particle size and concentration were the key factors for mycelium morphology and ECB production, and ECB production could reach 1 262.9 mg/L and 1 344.1 mg/L by adding talcum powder of 20 g/L (d50 = 14.2 μm) and 7 glass beads (6 mm), an increase by 33.2% and 41.7%, respectively. The results indicated that the mycelium morphology of filamentous microorganisms and the product yield of fermentation could be improved by adding microparticles remarkably, and it provide an important method for the fermentative optimization of filamentous microorganisms. PMID:26647583

  3. Inhaled corticosteroids and Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni, Maria; Katelari, Anna; Dimopoulos, George; Kourlaba, Georgia; Spoulou, Vana; Alexandrou-Athanassoulis, Helen; Doudounakis, Stavros-Eleftherios; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cultures from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is quite common; however, the role of A. fumigatus as a pathogen and whether its presence is associated with progression of pulmonary disease remain unclear. We investigated the association between inhaled corticosteroids and the recovery of A. fumigatus by performing a retrospective cohort study of CF patients born between 1988 and 1996. The patients' medical records from their first visit to the CF Center until December 2010 were reviewed. Outcomes were the occurrence of A. fumigatus first isolation, chronic colonization, or the last visit at the CF Center. A number of possible confounders were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to identify an independent association between inhaled corticosteroids and colonization status. A total of 121 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (32.2%) had at least one positive culture and 14 (11.6%) developed chronic colonization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the odds of first isolation (odds ratio [OR], 1.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015-1.337; P = 0.029) and chronic colonization (OR, 1.180; 95% CI, 1.029-1.353; P = 0.018). In conclusion, A. fumigatus first isolation and chronic colonization are associated with the duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25056962

  4. [Aspergillus niger alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: isolation, purification and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzova, N V; Varbanets, L D

    2006-01-01

    alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase has been isolated from liquid culture of micromycete Aspergillus niger and purified 600 times by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange and gel-filtration chromatography on TSK-gels with specific activity 10.5 U/mg of protein. The preparation was homogenic: its molecular mass by the data of gel-filtration on Sepharose 6B was 430 kDa, on PAAGE in the system of DDSNa--70 kDa. That gives every reason to suppose oligomeric structure of the enzyme molecule. The carbohydrate component, including mannose, galactose, glucosamine and two nonidentified hexosamines was observed in alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Thermo- and pH- optima were 60 degrees C and pH 3.5, respectively. The enzyme was thermo- and pH-stable, resistant in storage. The enzyme was found to exhibit strict specificity in respect ofglycon. It was shown that enzyme was competitively inhibited by substrate and reaction product. Km and Vmax with respect to nitrophenyl substrate were 1.25 mM and 10.5 mkmole/min/mg of protein. The activity of glycosidase tested was independent of the presence of metal ions. The presence of carboxylic group of C-terminal aminoacid and imidazol group of hystidine in active centre of molecule was established. A number of natural and synthetic substrates were able to activate (50-200%) production of A. niger alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. PMID:17290780

  5. A novel non-thermostable deuterolysin from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Katase, Toru; Sakai, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Abe, Keietsu; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-09-01

    Three putative deuterolysin (EC 3.4.24.29) genes (deuA, deuB, and deuC) were found in the Aspergillus oryzae genome database ( http://www.bio.nite.go.jp/dogan/project/view/AO ). One of these genes, deuA, was corresponding to NpII gene, previously reported. DeuA and DeuB were overexpressed by recombinant A. oryzae and were purified. The degradation profiles against protein substrates of both enzymes were similar, but DeuB showed wider substrate specificity against peptidyl MCA-substrates compared with DeuA. Enzymatic profiles of DeuB except for thermostability also resembled those of DeuA. DeuB was inactivated by heat treatment above 80° C, different from thermostable DeuA. Transcription analysis in wild type A. oryzae showed only deuB was expressed in liquid culture, and the addition of the proteinous substrate upregulated the transcription. Furthermore, the NaNO3 addition seems to eliminate the effect of proteinous substrate for the transcription of deuB. PMID:27050120

  6. Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2014-12-01

    Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

  7. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin. [Aspergillus ustus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using /sup 13/C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding (1-/sup 14/C)-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the /sup 13/C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in (1-/sup 14/C)-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of (1,2-/sup 13/C/sub 2/)-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus.

  8. Essential gene identification and drug target prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqi; Sillaots, Susan; Lemieux, Sebastien; Davison, John; Kauffman, Sarah; Breton, Anouk; Linteau, Annie; Xin, Chunlin; Bowman, Joel; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry

    2007-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne filamentous fungal pathogen in humans, causing severe and often fatal invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis have limited modes of action, and few are safe and effective. To identify and prioritize antifungal drug targets, we have developed a conditional promoter replacement (CPR) strategy using the nitrogen-regulated A. fumigatus NiiA promoter (pNiiA). The gene essentiality for 35 A. fumigatus genes was directly demonstrated by this pNiiA-CPR strategy from a set of 54 genes representing broad biological functions whose orthologs are confirmed to be essential for growth in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extending this approach, we show that the ERG11 gene family (ERG11A and ERG11B) is essential in A. fumigatus despite neither member being essential individually. In addition, we demonstrate the pNiiA-CPR strategy is suitable for in vivo phenotypic analyses, as a number of conditional mutants, including an ERG11 double mutant (erg11BDelta, pNiiA-ERG11A), failed to establish a terminal infection in an immunocompromised mouse model of systemic aspergillosis. Collectively, the pNiiA-CPR strategy enables a rapid and reliable means to directly identify, phenotypically characterize, and facilitate target-based whole cell assays to screen A. fumigatus essential genes for cognate antifungal inhibitors. PMID:17352532

  9. Purification and properties of dihydrogeodin oxidase from Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, I; Iijima, H; Tsukita, S; Ebizuka, Y; Sankawa, U

    1987-01-01

    The last step of (+)-geodin biosynthesis is a phenol oxidative coupling, which is one of the most important reactions in biosynthesis of natural products. The enzyme named dihydrogeodin oxidase catalyzes the regio- and stereospecific phenol oxidative coupling reaction to form (+)-geodin from dihydrogeodin. The enzyme was purified from the cell-free extract of Aspergillus terreus, a (+)-geodin producer, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid treatment, and column chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, Hydroxyapatite, chromatofocusing, and Toyopearl HW-55S. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 153,000 by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55S column and 76,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer. The purified enzyme showed an intense blue color and had absorption maxima at 280 and 600 nm, which suggested it to be a blue copper protein. The copper content was found to be 8 atoms per subunit by atomic absorption analysis and no significant amount of other metals was detected by ICP emission spectrometry. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showed the presence of type 1 and type 2 copper atoms in the enzyme molecule. Sodium azide and ethylxanthate inhibited the enzyme activity, but potassium cyanide and diethyldithiocarbamate, both known as potent copper enzyme inhibitors, were not inhibitory. PMID:3032923

  10. Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

  11. False-Positive Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Results In Vivo during Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Mordini, Nicola; Cuda, Federica; Lo Nigro, Cristiana; Musso, Maura; Arnelli, Aldo; Cagnassi, Sebastiano; Gallamini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Positive Platelia Aspergillus test results were observed in consecutive serum samples from an immunocompromised host during amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, and a correlation between plasmatic amoxicillin concentration and galactomannan optical density index was observed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid vials tested positive for galactomannan but were negative for Aspergillus DNA.

  12. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.;

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the...

  13. Evaluation of intraspecific competition (Aspergillus flavus Link) and aflatoxin formation in suspended disc culture and preharvest maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abilities of non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 32354; 18543; 21882; 21368 as well as domesticated koji strains Aspergillus oryzae (syn. A. flavus var. oryzae) NRRL 451; 1911; 5592; 6271; 30038 to interfere with aflatoxin formation by A. flavus NRRL 3357; 32355 were exami...

  14. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated from Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinye Monica; Palencia, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi produce carcinogenic mycotoxins in peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here, we report nine genome sequences of Aspergillus spp., isolated from Georgia peanut seeds in 2014. The information obtained will lead to further biodiversity studies that are essential for developing control strategies. PMID:27081142

  15. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated From Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi, carcinogen-mycotoxins producers, infect peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here we report 9 genome sequences of Aspergillus spp. isolated from peanut seeds. The information obtained will allow conducting biodiv...

  16. Characterization and expression analysis of a maltose-utilizing (MAL) cluster in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sachiko; Takizawa, Masahiro; Suyama, Haruhiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    Starch and maltooligosaccharides such as maltose and maltotriose induce the production of amylolytic enzymes including alpha-amylase in Aspergillus oryzae. A transcriptional activator gene amyR, required for maltose induction of amylolytic enzymes, has been cloned and characterized. The amyR gene deletion mutant showed significantly poor growth on starch medium but normal growth on maltose medium. This indicated the existence of another maltose-utilizing system, whose expression might not be controlled by amyR. We have identified a gene cluster homologous to the MAL cluster of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the A. oryzae genome. The cluster consists of a MAL61 homolog (designated malP), a MAL62 homolog (designated malT), and a MAL63 homolog (designated malR). Overexpression of malT in A. oryzae resulted in a significant increase in intracellular alpha-glucosidase activity, and that of malP allowed S. cerevisiaemal61Delta to grow on maltose. The expression of both malP and malT genes was highly up-regulated in the presence of maltose, but malR expressed constitutively irrespective of carbon sources. Disruption of malR resulted in the loss of malP and malT expression and thus in restricted growth on maltose medium. In addition, a malP disruptant showed a significantly reduced expression of malT and malR and exhibited a growth defect on maltose similar to the malR disruptant. These results suggest that the MAL cluster of A. oryzae is responsible for the assimilation of maltose in A. oryzae. PMID:19850146

  17. The carbon starvation response of Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation: Insights from the transcriptome and secretome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitsche Benjamin M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are confronted with changes and limitations of their carbon source during growth in their natural habitats and during industrial applications. To survive life-threatening starvation conditions, carbon from endogenous resources becomes mobilized to fuel maintenance and self-propagation. Key to understand the underlying cellular processes is the system-wide analysis of fungal starvation responses in a temporal and spatial resolution. The knowledge deduced is important for the development of optimized industrial production processes. Results This study describes the physiological, morphological and genome-wide transcriptional changes caused by prolonged carbon starvation during submerged batch cultivation of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioreactor cultivation supported highly reproducible growth conditions and monitoring of physiological parameters. Changes in hyphal growth and morphology were analyzed at distinct cultivation phases using automated image analysis. The Affymetrix GeneChip platform was used to establish genome-wide transcriptional profiles for three selected time points during prolonged carbon starvation. Compared to the exponential growth transcriptome, about 50% (7,292 of all genes displayed differential gene expression during at least one of the starvation time points. Enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology, Pfam domain and KEGG pathway annotations uncovered autophagy and asexual reproduction as major global transcriptional trends. Induced transcription of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes was accompanied by increased secretion of hydrolases including chitinases, glucanases, proteases and phospholipases as identified by mass spectrometry. Conclusions This study is the first system-wide analysis of the carbon starvation response in a filamentous fungus. Morphological, transcriptomic and secretomic analyses identified key events important for fungal survival and their chronology. The

  18. The involvement of the Mid1/Cch1/Yvc1 calcium channels in Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves de Castro

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen and allergen of mammals. Calcium homeostasis and signaling is essential for numerous biological processes and also influences A. fumigatus pathogenicity. The presented study characterized the function of the A. fumigatus homologues of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcium channels, voltage-gated Cch1, stretch-activated Mid1 and vacuolar Yvc1. The A. fumigatus calcium channels cchA, midA and yvcA were regulated at transcriptional level by increased calcium levels. The YvcA::GFP fusion protein localized to the vacuoles. Both ΔcchA and ΔmidA mutant strains showed reduced radial growth rate in nutrient-poor minimal media. Interestingly, this growth defect in the ΔcchA strain was rescued by the exogenous addition of CaCl2. The ΔcchA, ΔmidA, and ΔcchA ΔmidA strains were also sensitive to the oxidative stress inducer, paraquat. Restriction of external Ca(2+ through the addition of the Ca(2+-chelator EGTA impacted upon the growth of the ΔcchA and ΔmidA strains. All the A. fumigatus ΔcchA, ΔmidA, and ΔyvcA strains demonstrated attenuated virulence in a neutropenic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Infection with the parental strain resulted in a 100% mortality rate at 15 days post-infection, while the mortality rate of the ΔcchA, ΔmidA, and ΔyvcA strains after 15 days post-infection was only 25%. Collectively, this investigation strongly indicates that CchA, MidA, and YvcA play a role in A. fumigatus calcium homeostasis and virulence.

  19. Characteristics of exo- polygalacturonase produced by irradiated Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of 69 fungal isolates from nine pectin rich fresh fruit wastes-showed pectinolytic activity, two were the powerful and best. They were identified as Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride. Gamma irradiation of the spore suspensions of these two isolates (0- 3 kGy) stimulated the exo-polygalacturonase (PG) production. Treatment with 0.25 kGy and 0.25-0.50 kGy was found to be the best doses for inducing PG activity produced from T. viride and Asp. niger respectively . The enzyme characteristics were also studied. The optimum temperature of T. viride enzyme reaction was 5 C compared with 45 degree C for Asp. niger enzyme extract.The optimum incubation time of T. viride enzyme reaction was 70-80 min which greater than that of Asp. niger namely 60 min.The results of enzyme reaction ph revealed that the best PG activity was observed at ph 5.0 for the extract of the two fungal isolates. The stability of the enzyme was affected markedly by each of incubation temp., incubation period and ph value .A. niger and T. viride crude extract enzymes were stimulated with Mn2+ while Zn2+ and Ca2+ were inhibitors. The best volume of crude enzyme extract was 3.00 ml in case of T. viride while in case of A. niger was 2.00 ml. T. viride enzyme extract showed its highest enzyme activity with substrate concentration 1.5 % while that of A. niger was found to be 3.0%.

  20. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis. PMID:26603760