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Sample records for aspergillus tracheobronchitis facilitated

  1. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillus tracheobronchitis facilitated by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration: a case report

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    Casal Roberto F

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is the most common form of infection by Aspergillus species among immunocompromised patients. Although this infection frequently involves the lung parenchyma, it is unusual to find it limited to the tracheobronchial tree, a condition known as invasive aspergillus tracheobronchitis. Case presentation A 65 year-old Hispanic man from Bolivia with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia developed cough and malaise eight months after having an allogenic stem cell transplant. A computed tomography of the chest revealed an area of diffuse soft tissue thickening around the left main stem bronchus, which was intensely fluorodeoxyglucose-avid on positron emission tomography scanning. An initial bronchoscopic exam revealed circumferential narrowing of the entire left main stem bronchus with necrotic and friable material on the medial wall. Neither aspirates from this necrotic area nor bronchial washing were diagnostic. A second bronchoscopy with endobronchial ultrasound evidenced a soft tissue thickening on the medial aspect of the left main stem bronchus underlying the area of necrosis visible endoluminally. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration performed in this area revealed multiple fungal elements suggestive of Aspergillus species. Conclusion We describe the first case of invasive aspergillus tracheobronchitis in which the diagnosis was facilitated by the use of endobronchial ultrasound guided trans-bronchial needle aspiration. To the best of our knowledge, we are also presenting the first positron emission tomography scan images of this condition in the literature. We cautiously suggest that endobronchial ultrasound imaging may be a useful tool to evaluate the degree of invasion and the involvement of vascular structures in these patients prior to bronchoscopic manipulation of the affected areas in an effort to avoid potentially fatal hemorrhage.

  2. Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis Causing Subtotal Tracheal Stenosis in a Liver Transplant Recipient

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    Sonia Radunz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is recognized as one of the most significant opportunistic infections after liver transplantation. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients has been proven to be challenging, and optimal approach to the treatment of invasive aspergillosis is still controversial. We here present an unusual case of Aspergillus tracheobronchitis in the setting of liver transplantation. A 47-year-old female patient with persistent dry cough after liver transplantation developed respiratory insufficiency and was readmitted to the intensive care unit 55 days after liver transplantation. A CT scan revealed subtotal tracheal stenosis; bronchoscopy was performed, and extended white mucus coverings causative of the tracheal stenosis were removed. Microbiological assessment isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. The diagnosis was obstructive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis. The patient was started on a treatment of voriconazole 200 mg orally twice daily, adjusted to a trough level of 1–4 mg/L. For further airway management, a tracheal stent had to be implanted. The patient is alive and well 28 months after liver transplantation. Invasive aspergillosis should be considered a possible etiology in liver transplant patients presenting with unspecific symptoms such as persistent dry cough. Optimal strategies for improved and early diagnosis as well as prophylaxis need to be defined.

  3. Case Report of a Child after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Acute Aspergillus Tracheobronchitis as a Cause for Respiratory Failure

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    Stefanie Gauguet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid respiratory failure due to invasive mycosis of the airways is an uncommon presentation of Aspergillus infection, even in immunocompromised patients, and very few pediatric cases have been reported. Patients with Aspergillus tracheobronchitis present with nonspecific symptoms, and radiologic studies are often noninformative, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Prompt initiation of adequate antifungal therapies is of utmost importance to improve outcome. We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with chronic myelogenous leukemia who developed respiratory distress 41 days after hematopoietic cell transplantation and rapidly deteriorated despite multiple interventions and treatment modalities.

  4. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

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    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  5. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by Streptomyces albus antigen

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    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman is reported with atopic cough, in whom bronchoprovocation with Streptomyces albus antigen induced cough and bronchoscopic biopsy revealed eosinophilic tracheobronchitis. She was admitted for the diagnosis and treatment of severe non-productive cough. Although her induced sputum contained 8% eosinophils of nucleated cells and bronchoscopic biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration in both tracheal and bronchial wall, she did not have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or heightened bronchomotor tone. Bronchodilator therapy was not effective for her coughing. Her symptoms worsened on returning home, suggesting the existence of some etiologic agents in her house. Streptomyces albus was isolated from her house. A high titer of anti-S. albus antibody was detected in her serum and the bronchoprovocation test with S. albus antigen was positive: development of coughing 15 min later and decrease in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin 24 h later (3.9 μmol/L from 31.3 μmol/L prechallenge. This is the first report on eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by allergic reaction to S. albus antigen.

  6. Incidence and prognosis of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (TAVeM): a multicentre, prospective, observational study.

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    Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Povoa, Pedro; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Curcio, Daniel; Suarez, David; Mira, Jean-Paul; Cordero, Maria Lourdes; Lepecq, Raphaël; Girault, Christophe; Candeias, Carlos; Seguin, Philippe; Paulino, Carolina; Messika, Jonathan; Castro, Alejandro G; Valles, Jordi; Coelho, Luis; Rabello, Ligia; Lisboa, Thiago; Collins, Daniel; Torres, Antonio; Salluh, Jorge; Nseir, Saad

    2015-11-01

    Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis has been suggested as an intermediate process between tracheobronchial colonisation and ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. We aimed to establish the incidence and effect of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a large, international patient cohort. We did a multicentre, prospective, observational study in 114 intensive care units (ICU) in Spain, France, Portugal, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Colombia over a preplanned time of 10 months. All patients older than 18 years admitted to an ICU who received invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h were eligible. We prospectively obtained data for incidence of ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections, defined as ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis or ventilator-associated pneumonia. We grouped patients according to the presence or absence of such infections, and obtained data for the effect of appropriate antibiotics on progression of tracheobronchitis to pneumonia. Patients were followed up until death or discharge from hospital. To account for centre effects with a binary outcome, we fitted a generalised estimating equation model with a logit link, exchangeable correlation structure, and non-robust standard errors. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01791530. Between Sept 1, 2013, and July 31, 2014, we obtained data for 2960 eligible patients, of whom 689 (23%) developed ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections. The incidence of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis and that of ventilator-associated pneumonia at baseline were similar (320 [11%; 10·2 of 1000 mechanically ventilated days] vs 369 [12%; 8·8 of 1000 mechanically ventilated days], p=0·48). Of the 320 patients with tracheobronchitis, 250 received appropriate antibiotic treatment and 70 received inappropriate antibiotics. 39 patients with tracheobronchitis progressed to pneumonia; however

  7. Long-term treatment of invasive sinus, tracheobroncheal, pulmonary and intracerebral aspergillosis in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

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    Björkholm, M; Kalin, M; Grane, P; Celsing, F

    2012-02-01

    A 59-year-old male with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed sinus, tracheobroncheal, pulmonary, and intracerebral aspergillosis. All lesions except the intracerebral aspergillosis healed after combination antifungal treatment. Long-term voriconazole--but not posaconazole--therapy induced partial regression of the cerebral manifestations. At the time of writing, 3.5 years after the initial diagnosis, the patient is working half-time and suffers from a possible voriconazole-induced polyneuropathy.

  8. Transient disruption of non-homologous end-joining facilitates targeted genome manipulations in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a transiently disrupted nkuA system in Aspergillus nidulans for efficient gene targeting. The nkuA disruption was made by inserting a counter-selectable marker flanked by a direct repeat (DR) composed of nkuA sequences. In the disrupted state, the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ...

  9. Delayed recurrence of ulcerative colitis manifested by tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchiolectasis

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    Iclal Ocak MD,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis can cause inflammation of small and large airways, characterized by mucosal inflammation, tracheobronchial stenosis, bronchiestasis, and bronchiolitis. We present a case of tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis associated with ulcerative colitis in a 58-year-old nonsmoking man, 17 years after the total colectomy and complete resolution of intestinal findings. Computed tomography demonstrated wall thickening of trachea and left main stem bronchus, and multiple bronchi around the both hilum with mild to moderate stenosis. Fiberoptic bronchial biopsy showed inflammation of the airways, similar to histologic findings of ulcerative colitis within colon. Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, Trachea, Lung

  10. Risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis: a case-control study.

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    Pontes, Leonilda Giani; Menezes, Fernando Gatti de; Gonçalves, Priscila; Toniolo, Alexandra do Rosário; Silva, Claudia Vallone; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Santos, Camila Marques Dos; Castagna, Helena Maria Fernandes; Martino, Marinês Dalla Valle; Corrêa, Luci

    2017-01-01

    To describe the microbiological characteristics and to assess the risk factors for mortality of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a case-control study of intensive care patients. This case-control study was conducted over a 6-year period in a 40-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care, private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients were identified using the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee database. For the analysis of risk factors, matched control subjects were selected from the same institution at a 1:8.8 ratio, between January 2006 and December 2011. A total of 40 episodes of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis were evaluated in 40 patients in the intensive care unit, and 354 intensive care patients who did not experience tracheobronchitis were included as the Control Group. During the 6-year study period, a total of 42 organisms were identified (polymicrobial infections were 5%) and 88.2% of all the microorganisms identified were Gram-negative. Using a logistic regression model, we found the following independent risk factors for mortality in ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis patients: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation I score (odds ratio 1.18 per unit of score; 95%CI: 1.05-1.38; p=0.01), and duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.09 per day of mechanical ventilation; 95%CI: 1.03-1.17; p=0.004). Our study provided insight into the risk factors for mortality and microbiological characteristics of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis. Descrever as características microbiológicas e avaliar os fatores de risco para mortalidade na traqueobronquite associada à ventilação mecânica em um estudo caso-controle de pacientes de terapia intensiva. Estudo realizado ao longo de 6 anos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva médico-cirúrgica de 40 leitos, em um hospital privado e de nível terciário em São Paulo, Brasil. O Grupo Caso foi identificado usando o banco de dados da Comissão de

  11. ASPERGILLUS NIGER ASPERGILLUS NIGER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Additives such as low molecular weight alcohols, trace metals, phytate, lipids etc have been reported to stimulate citric acid production. Hence the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulating the metabolic activity of activity of Aspergillus niger for the purpose of improved citric acid production from ...

  12. Aspergillus: introduction

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    Species in the genus Aspergillus possess versatile metabolic activities that impact our daily life both positively and negatively. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae are closely related fungi. While the former is able to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins and is an etiological agent of aspergill...

  13. Clinical Features and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacterial Agents of Ventilator-Associated Tracheobronchitis in Hamedan, Iran

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    Seyyed Hamid Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of VAT in ICUs in Hamedan, Iran. Methods: During a 12-month period, all patients with VAT in a medical and a surgical ICU were included. The criteria for the diagnosis of VAT were fever, mucus production, a positive culture of tracheal secretions, and the absence of lung infiltration. Clinical course, including changes in temperature and tracheal secretions, and outcomes were followed. The endotracheal aspirates were cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates were performed using the disk diffusion method. Results: Of the 1 070 ICU patients, 69 (6.4% were diagnosed with VAT. The mean interval between the patient’s intubation and the onset of symptoms was 4.7±8.5 days. The mean duration of response to treatment was 4.9±4.7 days. A total of 23 patients (33.3% progressed to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP, and 38 patients (55.0% died. The most prevalent bacterial isolates included Acinetobacter baumannii (24.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.2%, and Enterobacter(13.0%. P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter were the most prevalent bacteria in surgical ICU, and A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were the most common in the medical ICU. All A. baumannii and Citrobacter species were multidrug-resistant (MDR. MDR pathogens were more prevalent in medical ICU compared to surgical ICU (p < 0.001. Conclusions: VAT increases the rates of progression to VAP, the need for tracheostomy, and the incidence of mortality in ICUs. Most bacterial agents of VAT are MDR. Preventive policies for VAP, including the use of ventilator care bundle, and appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy for VAT may reduce the incidence of VAP.

  14. Fermentation of sugar beet waste by ¤Aspergillus niger¤ facilitates growth and P uptake of external mycelium of mixed populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, A.; Jakobsen, Iver; Vassilev, N.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet waste has potential value as a soil amendment and this work studied whether fermentation of the waste by Aspergillus niger would influence the growth and P uptake of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Plants were grown in compartmentalised growth units, each with a root compartment (RC......) and two lateral root-free compartments (RFC). One RFC contained untreated soil while the other RFC contained soil, which was uniformly mixed with sugar beet waste, either untreated (SB) or degraded by A. niger (ASB) in a rock phosphate (RP)-supplied medium. The soil in each pair of RFC was labelled with P......-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was higher in SB than in ASB treatments. Whilst ASB increased growth and activity of AM mycelium, SB had the opposite effect. Moreover, shoot P content was increased by the addition of ASB, and by inoculation with AM fungi. Modification of soil microbial structure and production...

  15. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially...

  16. A case-control study on the clinical impact of ventilator associated tracheobronchitis in adult patients who did not develop ventilator associated pneumonia.

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    Cantón-Bulnes, María Luisa; González-García, María Ascensión; García-Sánchez, Manuela; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Ángel; Garnacho-Montero, José

    2018-02-05

    The main objective was to determine whether ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is related to increased length of ICU stay. Secondary endpoints included prolongation of hospital stay, as well as, ICU and hospital mortality. A retrospective matched case-control study. Each case was matched with a control for duration of ventilation (± 2 days until development of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis), disease severity (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II) at admission ± 3, diagnostic category and age ±10 years. Critically ill adults admitted to a polyvalent 30-beds ICU with the diagnosis of VAT in the period 2013-2016. We identified 76 cases of VAT admitted to our ICU during the study period. No adequate controls were found for 3 patients with VAT. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, reasons for admission and comorbidities. Patients with VAT had a longer ICU length of stay, median 22 days (14-35), compared to controls, median 15 days (8-27), p=.02. Ventilator days were also significantly increased in VAT patients, median 18 (9-28) versus 9 days (5-16), p=.03. There was no significant difference in total hospital length of stay 40 (28-61) vs. 35days (23-54), p=.32; ICU mortality (20.5 vs. 31.5% p=.13) and hospital mortality (30.1 vs. 43.8% p=.09). We performed a subanalysis of patients with microbiologically proven VAT receiving adequate antimicrobial treatment and did not observe significant differences between cases and the corresponding controls. VAT is associated with increased length of intensive care unit stay and longer duration of mechanical ventilation. This effect disappears when patients receive appropriate empirical treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Incidence of severe tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in laryngectomized patients: a retrospective clinical study and a European-wide survey among head and neck surgeons.

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    van den Boer, Cindy; van Harten, Michel C; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Retèl, Valesca P

    2014-12-01

    Laryngectomized patients, lacking conditioning of the breathing air in the upper respiratory tract, have reported considerable pulmonary complaints. It is assumed that these patients also run a higher risk of developing severe respiratory infections. Unfortunately, there is little scientific information available about the occurrence of respiratory infections and related health costs in these patients with and without the use of an HME. Therefore, the occurrence of respiratory infections in laryngectomized patients was investigated in the Netherlands Cancer Institute and by means of a survey among head and neck oncology surgeons throughout Europe. The number of tracheobronchitis and/or pneumonia events was retrospectively scored between 1973 and 2013 in medical records of 89 laryngectomized patients treated in our institute. To assess expert experiences and opinions regarding these pulmonary problems, a study-specific survey was developed. The survey was sent by email to head and neck surgeons from ten different countries. In the medical record study, an average of 0.129 respiratory infections per patient/year was found in non-HME users and 0.092 in HME users. In the survey (response rate HN surgeons 20 %; countries 90 %) 0.285 episodes per patient/year in non-HME users was statistically higher than the 0.066 episodes per patient/year in HME users. The average mortality in the HME user group per entire career of each physician was estimated at 0.0045, and for the non-HME user group this was 0.0152. There is a tendency that the number of tracheobronchitis and pneumonia episodes in non-HME users is higher than in HME users.

  18. The potential of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi isolated included Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. tamarii, Mucor rouxii, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus sp. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were selected for heavy metals bioaccumulation studies on PDB-amended with lagoon water in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 respectively for 3 weeks.

  19. Genome sequence of Aspergillus luchuensis NBRC 4314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Goto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Futagami, Taiki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Koike, Hideaki; Abe, Keietsu; Asai, Kiyoshi; Arita, Masanori; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Kazuro; Higa, Ken-ichi; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takeaki; Jinno, Koji; Kato, Yumiko; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Mizutani, Osamu; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sano, Motoaki; Shiraishi, Yohei; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. An alternative oxidase and acid-stable α-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation. PMID:27651094

  20. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka

    2011-01-01

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules...

  1. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species ha...

  2. Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango, orange and pineapple peels as carbon sources.

  3. Development of Aspergillosis in a cohort of non-neutropenic, non-transplant patients colonised by Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberán, José; García-Pérez, Francisco-Javier; Villena, Victoria; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Malmierca, Eduardo; Salas, Cristina; Giménez, María-José; Granizo, Juan-José; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2017-01-06

    A previous study explored factors discriminating colonization and true infection among non-transplant, non-neutropenic patients with repeated Aspergillus spp. isolation from lower respiratory samples. The present study explored the evolution of patients with Aspergillus colonization in that study to determine the percentage of cases progressing to aspergillosis and time to development. Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed (for each patient from his end date in the past study) and data from all respiratory processes suffered by patients up to April 2015 were recorded. Comparisons of variables were performed between colonized patients that developed aspergillosis and those that did not. A Kaplan-Meier curve was used to describe time to development of aspergillosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients for II-IV stages of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. Sixty seven colonized patients were followed, 12 of them (17.9%) developed aspergillosis. Diagnoses included six tracheobronchitis (4 invasive, 2 simple tracheobronchitis), four pulmonary disease (2 invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, 2 chronic pulmonary aspergillosis), one allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and one pulmonary aspergilloma. Up to 47 (70.4%) of the study patients presented COPD. Among patients developing aspergillosis COPD was more frequent (100%) than among those that did not develop aspergillosis (35 out of 55; 63.6%) (p = 0.012), as well as GOLD IV patients were more frequent among COPD patients developing aspergillosis than among COPD patients that did not (50.0 vs. 26.1%, p = 0.046). Mean time to development of aspergillosis was 18.4 months (median: 8.5) with a wide range (1-58). Overtime, the percentage of patients developing aspergillosis was significantly higher among GOLD IV patients than among GOLD II-III patients (p = 0.032). The high percentage of cases progressing to aspergillosis among colonized

  4. [Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Palomar Martínez, M; Rodríguez Carvajal, M; Machado Casas, J F; Jiménez Quintana, M M; Esteve Urbano, F; Ballesteros Herráez, J C; Zavala Zegarra, E

    2015-04-01

    The presence of respiratory fungal infection in the critically ill patient is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To assess the incidence of respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. independently of the origin of infection in patients admitted to Spanish ICUs, as well as to describe the rates, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with this type of infection. An observational, retrospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out in a cohort of patients with respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. admitted to Spanish ICUs between 2006 and 2012 (months of April, May and June), and included in the ENVIN-HELICS registry (108,244 patients and 825,797 days of ICU stay). Variables independently related to in-hospital mortality were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 267 patients from 79 of the 198 participating ICUs were included (2.46 cases per 1000 ICU patients and 3.23 episodes per 10,000 days of ICU stay). From a clinical point of view, infections were classified as ventilator-associated pneumonia in 93 cases (34.8%), pneumonia unrelated to mechanical ventilation in 120 cases (44.9%), and tracheobronchitis in 54 cases (20.2%). The study population included older patients (mean 64.8±17.1 years), with a high severity level (APACHE II score 22.03±7.7), clinical diseases (64.8%) and prolonged hospital stay before the identification of Aspergillus spp. (median 11 days), transferred to the ICU mainly from hospital wards (58.1%) and with high ICU (57.3%) and hospital (59.6%) mortality rates, exhibiting important differences depending on the type of infection involved. Independent mortality risk factors were previous admission to a hospital ward (OR=7.08, 95%CI: 3.18-15.76), a history of immunosuppression (OR=2.52, 95%CI: 1.24-5.13) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR=8.91, 95%CI: 4.24-18.76). Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to

  5. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...... data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XInR-binding site to be 5'-GGNTAAA-3'. The composition of the conserved gene......-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross...

  6. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  7. Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright‐Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis...

  8. Tremorgenic Mycotoxins from Aspergillus Caespitosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H. W.; Cole, R. J.; Hein, H.; Kirksey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn. PMID:1155935

  9. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger ‘aggregate’ represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus...

  10. Repeated Aspergillus isolation in respiratory samples from non-immunocompromised patients not selected based on clinical diagnoses: colonisation or infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberan, Jose; Alcazar, Bernardino; Malmierca, Eduardo; Garcia de la Llana, Francisco; Dorca, Jordi; Del Castillo, Daniel; Villena, Victoria; Hernandez-Febles, Melissa; Garcia-Perez, Francisco-Javier; Granizo, Juan-Jose; Gimenez, Maria-Jose; Aguilar, Lorenzo

    2012-11-12

    Isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples is associated with colonisation in high percentage of cases, making it of unclear significance. This study explored factors associated with diagnosis (infection vs. colonisation), treatment (administration or not of antifungals) and prognosis (mortality) in non-transplant/non-neutropenic patients showing repeated isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples. Records of adult patients (29 Spanish hospitals) presenting ≥ 2 respiratory cultures yielding Aspergillus were retrospectively reviewed and categorised as proven (histopathological confirmation) or probable aspergillosis (new respiratory signs/symptoms with suggestive chest imaging) or colonisation (symptoms not attributable to Aspergillus without dyspnoea exacerbation, bronchospasm or new infiltrates). Logistic regression models (step-wise) were performed using Aspergillosis (probable + proven), antifungal treatment and mortality as dependent variables. Significant (p < 0.001) models showing the highest R2 were considered. A total of 245 patients were identified, 139 (56.7%) with Aspergillosis. Aspergillosis was associated (R2 = 0.291) with ICU admission (OR = 2.82), congestive heart failure (OR = 2.39) and steroids pre-admission (OR = 2.19) as well as with cavitations in X-ray/CT scan (OR = 10.68), radiological worsening (OR = 5.22) and COPD exacerbations/need for O2 interaction (OR = 3.52). Antifungals were administered to 79.1% patients with Aspergillosis (100% proven, 76.8% probable) and 29.2% colonised, with 69.5% patients receiving voriconazole alone or in combination. In colonised patients, administration of antifungals was associated with ICU admission at hospitalisation (OR = 12.38). In Aspergillosis patients its administration was positively associated (R(2) = 0.312) with bronchospasm (OR = 9.21) and days in ICU (OR = 1.82) and negatively with Gold III + IV (OR = 0.26), stroke (OR = 0.024) and quinolone treatment (OR = 0

  11. Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Krenke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1 lung transplant recipients, (2 highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3 the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects.

  12. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites...... including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi...... are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten...

  13. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  14. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called

  15. The Aspergillus Mine - publishing bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian

    with the Joint Genome Institute. The Aspergillus Mine is not intended as a genomic data sharing service but instead focuses on creating an environment where the results of bioinformatic analysis is made available for inspection. The data and code is public upon request and figures can be obtained directly from...

  16. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  17. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  18. Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Subsequently, the α-amylase activity of the microorganism was researched. In the measurements made on the 7th day of production on respectively Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus cultures produced at mycological, ...

  19. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, E.; Escobar Salazar, N.; Sepehrkhouy, S.; Meijer, M.; de Cock, H.; Haas, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being

  20. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  1. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  2. Shedding light on Aspergillus niger volatile exometabolome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography...

  3. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  5. Infectious keratitis caused by Aspergillus tubingensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kredics, L.; Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Rajaraman, R.; Raghavan, A.; Doczi, I.; Bhaskar, M.; Nemeth, T.M.; Antal, Z.; Venkatapathy, N.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Samson, R.A.; Chockaiya, M.; Palanisamy, M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report 2 cases of keratomycosis caused by Aspergillus tubingensis. METHODS: The therapeutic courses were recorded for 2 male patients, 52 and 78 years old, with fungal keratitis caused by black Aspergillus strains. Morphological examination of the isolates was carried out on malt extract

  6. Sporulation inhibited secretion in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsheld, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is abundantly found in nature. It degrades dead material of plants and animals but can also be a pathogen of these organisms. Aspergillus niger is also important for mankind because it is one of the main organisms used for the industrial production of enzymes. These enzymes are

  7. Aspergillus species intrinsically resistant to antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W. van der; Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphasic taxonomy has had a major impact on the species concept of the genus Aspergillus. New sibling species have been described that exhibit in vitro susceptibility profiles that differ significantly from that of Aspergillus fumigatus. While acquired resistance is an emerging problem in A.

  8. GLUCOSIDASE GENE FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER F321

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richard Auta

    One of the cellulases produced in this fashion by species of Aspergillus is β- glucosidase. .... the crude enzyme (sample) or nutrient broth (Control) was placed and incubated for 2 .... 7: Multiple sequence alignment of β-glucosidases amino acids from Aspergillus niger AnBg11, ANRA12.6 and ANRA12.9. [Symbols: Catalytic ...

  9. Conserved secondary structures in Aspergillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Manson McGuire

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the number and variety of functional RNAs (ncRNAs as well as cis-acting RNA elements within mRNAs is much higher than previously thought; thus, the ability to computationally predict and analyze RNAs has taken on new importance. We have computationally studied the secondary structures in an alignment of six Aspergillus genomes. Little is known about the RNAs present in this set of fungi, and this diverse set of genomes has an optimal level of sequence conservation for observing the correlated evolution of base-pairs seen in RNAs.We report the results of a whole-genome search for evolutionarily conserved secondary structures, as well as the results of clustering these predicted secondary structures by structural similarity. We find a total of 7450 predicted secondary structures, including a new predicted approximately 60 bp long hairpin motif found primarily inside introns. We find no evidence for microRNAs. Different types of genomic regions are over-represented in different classes of predicted secondary structures. Exons contain the longest motifs (primarily long, branched hairpins, 5' UTRs primarily contain groupings of short hairpins located near the start codon, and 3' UTRs contain very little secondary structure compared to other regions. There is a large concentration of short hairpins just inside the boundaries of exons. The density of predicted intronic RNAs increases with the length of introns, and the density of predicted secondary structures within mRNA coding regions increases with the number of introns in a gene.There are many conserved, high-confidence RNAs of unknown function in these Aspergillus genomes, as well as interesting spatial distributions of predicted secondary structures. This study increases our knowledge of secondary structure in these aspergillus organisms.

  10. Tools for retargeting proteins within Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbulakshmi Suresh

    Full Text Available Endogenously tagging proteins with green fluorescent protein (GFP enables the visualization of the tagged protein using live cell microscopy. GFP-tagging is widely utilized to study biological processes in model experimental organisms including filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans. Many strains of A. nidulans have therefore been generated with different proteins endogenously tagged with GFP. To further enhance experimental approaches based upon GFP-tagging, we have adapted the GFP Binding Protein (GBP system for A. nidulans. GBP is a genetically encoded Llama single chain antibody against GFP which binds GFP with high affinity. Using gene replacement approaches, it is therefore possible to link GBP to anchor proteins, which will then retarget GFP-tagged proteins away from their normal location to the location of the anchor-GBP protein. To facilitate this approach in A. nidulans, we made four base plasmid cassettes that can be used to generate gene replacement GBP-tagging constructs by utilizing fusion PCR. Using these base cassettes, fusion PCR, and gene targeting approaches, we generated strains with SPA10-GBP and Tom20-GBP gene replacements. These strains enabled test targeting of GFP-tagged proteins to septa or to the surface of mitochondria respectively. SPA10-GBP is shown to effectively target GFP-tagged proteins to both forming and mature septa. Tom20-GBP has a higher capacity to retarget GFP-tagged proteins being able to relocate all Nup49-GFP from its location within nuclear pore complexes (NPCs to the cytoplasm in association with mitochondria. Notably, removal of Nup49-GFP from NPCs causes cold sensitivity as does deletion of the nup49 gene. The cassette constructs described facilitate experimental approaches to generate precise protein-protein linkages in fungi. The A. nidulans SPA10-GBP and Tom20-GBP strains can be utilized to modulate other GFP-tagged proteins of interest.

  11. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergillus...... uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two...... atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523(T)=CBS 127591(T)= ITEM 4834(T)= IBT26606(T)....

  12. Playing facilitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmøller, Ellen; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    t: This paper presents reflections on the role of teachers as facilitators, in a context of role-play targeting learning of design thinking skills. Our study was conducted according to the method of visual ethnography. We acted as facilitators for 50 students through the yearly six-day competitive...... event called InnoEvent, addressed to students in the fields of multimedia and healthcare. Being interested in studying games and role-play as tools to support independent learning in the field of design thinking and team-building, following Dewey’s (1938) theory of learning experience, we ran two...... workshops based on two classic role-play games: The Silent Game (Brandt, 2006) and The Six Thinking Hats (de Bono, 1985). These games were created to support students in learning design thinking in groups and are assigned positive values in literature, hence we expected a smooth process. However, our...

  13. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  14. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...... on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and beta-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  15. Antagonism of Aspergillus terreus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Itamar S.; Faull, Jane L.; Nascimento, Rosely S.

    2006-01-01

    An Aspergillus terreus strain showed in vitro antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. The interaction between A. terreus and sclerotia revealed that the mycoparasite sporulated abundantly on the sclerotial surface. Cell breakdown due to host cell wall disruption was observed in inner rind cells, by a scanning electron microscopy.Uma linhagem de Aspergillus terreus mostrou forte atividade parasítica contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Interações e...

  16. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, Pedro M; Andersen, Mikael R; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F; Ohm, Robin A; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs

  17. Repeated Aspergillus isolation in respiratory samples from non-immunocompromised patients not selected based on clinical diagnoses: colonisation or infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barberan Jose

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples is associated with colonisation in high percentage of cases, making it of unclear significance. This study explored factors associated with diagnosis (infection vs. colonisation, treatment (administration or not of antifungals and prognosis (mortality in non-transplant/non-neutropenic patients showing repeated isolation of Aspergillus from lower respiratory samples. Methods Records of adult patients (29 Spanish hospitals presenting ≥2 respiratory cultures yielding Aspergillus were retrospectively reviewed and categorised as proven (histopathological confirmation or probable aspergillosis (new respiratory signs/symptoms with suggestive chest imaging or colonisation (symptoms not attributable to Aspergillus without dyspnoea exacerbation, bronchospasm or new infiltrates. Logistic regression models (step–wise were performed using Aspergillosis (probable + proven, antifungal treatment and mortality as dependent variables. Significant (p 2 were considered. Results A total of 245 patients were identified, 139 (56.7% with Aspergillosis. Aspergillosis was associated (R2 = 0.291 with ICU admission (OR = 2.82, congestive heart failure (OR = 2.39 and steroids pre-admission (OR = 2.19 as well as with cavitations in X-ray/CT scan (OR = 10.68, radiological worsening (OR = 5.22 and COPD exacerbations/need for O2 interaction (OR = 3.52. Antifungals were administered to 79.1% patients with Aspergillosis (100% proven, 76.8% probable and 29.2% colonised, with 69.5% patients receiving voriconazole alone or in combination. In colonised patients, administration of antifungals was associated with ICU admission at hospitalisation (OR = 12.38. In Aspergillosis patients its administration was positively associated (R2 = 0.312 with bronchospasm (OR = 9.21 and days in ICU (OR = 1.82 and negatively with Gold III + IV (OR = 0.26, stroke

  18. A molecular analysis of L-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipphi, M.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a molecular study of the genetics ofL-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans. These saprophytic hyphal fungi produce an extracellular hydrolytic enzyme system to

  19. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives...

  20. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straat, van der L.; Vernooij, M.; Lammers, M.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Schonewille, T.; Cordewener, J.; Meer, van der I.; Koops, A.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger,

  1. Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger as the dominant black Aspergillus, use of simple PCR-RFLP for preliminary differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, H; Zarei, F; Motamedi, M; Nouripour-Sisakht, S

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to identify the species distribution of common clinical and environmental isolates of black Aspergilli based on simple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the β-tubulin gene. A total of 149 clinical and environmental strains of black Aspergilli were collected and subjected to preliminary morphological examination. Total genomic DNAs were extracted, and PCR was performed to amplify part of the β-tubulin gene. At first, 52 randomly selected samples were species-delineated by sequence analysis. In order to distinguish the most common species, PCR amplicons of 117 black Aspergillus strains were identified by simple PCR-RFLP analysis using the enzyme TasI. Among 52 sequenced isolates, 28 were Aspergillus tubingensis, 21 Aspergillus niger, and the three remaining isolates included Aspergillus uvarum, Aspergillus awamori, and Aspergillus acidus. All 100 environmental and 17 BAL samples subjected to TasI-RFLP analysis of the β-tubulin gene, fell into two groups, consisting of about 59% (n=69) A. tubingensis and 41% (n=48) A. niger. Therefore, the method successfully and rapidly distinguished A. tubingensis and A. niger as the most common species among the clinical and environmental isolates. Although tardy, the Ehrlich test was also able to differentiate A. tubingensis and A. niger according to the yellow color reaction specific to A. niger. A. tubingensis and A. niger are the most common black Aspergillus in both clinical and environmental isolates in Iran. PCR-RFLP using TasI digestion of β-tubulin DNA enables rapid screening for these common species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Aspergillus vaccines: Hardly worth studying or worthy of hard study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines rank among the greatest advances in the history of public health. Yet, despite the need, there are no licensed vaccines to protect humans against fungal diseases, including aspergillosis. In this focused review, some of the major scientific and logistical challenges to developing vaccines to protect at-risk individuals against aspergillosis are discussed. Approaches that have shown promise in animal models include vaccines that protect against multiple fungal genera and those that are specifically directed to Aspergillus Advances in proteomics and glycomics have facilitated identification of candidate antigens for use in subunit vaccines. Novel adjuvants and delivery systems are becoming available that can skew vaccine responses toward those associated with protection. Immunotherapy consisting of adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells to allogeneic hematopoietic transplant recipients has advanced to human testing but is technically difficult and of unproven benefit. While progress has been impressive, much work still needs to be done if vaccines against aspergillosis are to become a reality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders......The concept of governance has mutated into an all‐embracing buzz‐word characterised by a low degree of conceptual precision and empirical focus. This paper therefore suggests a narrower and more precise understanding of governance and the regulatory function it fulfils by advancing the argument...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  4. Aspergillus-associated hypersensitivity respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The mould Aspergillus is responsible for a gamut of respiratory diseases ranging from saprobic colonisation to rapidly invasive disseminated disease. The clinical spectrum of Aspergillus-associated hypersensitivity respiratory disorders includes Aspergillus induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Inhalant allergens, in patients with allergic asthma, play a key role in bringing about the inflammation present in the airways, and fungi are increasingly being recognised as important inhalant allergens. Aspergillus is linked to asthma in more ways than one. In the asthmatic subjects, the fungal spores are trapped in the thick and viscid secretions that are usually present in the airways. This generally develops in atopic subjects and is sustained by continuous inhalation of Aspergillus antigens, triggering asthma that may be more severe in form. Aspergillus induced asthma is yet to receive the recognition that it deserves. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is the best known form of allergic aspergillosis and is an emerging disease in India. An immunologically mediated lung disease, ABPA occurs predominantly in patients with asthma. A set of diagnostic criteria is required as there is no single test that establishes the diagnosis apart from demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi, a feature considered to be pathognomonic of ABPA. Radiologically, ABPA is characterised by 'transient pulmonary infiltrates' or 'fleeting shadows', often confused with pulmonary tuberculosis. A comparatively more recently recognised clinical entity, AAS is characterised by mucoid impaction in the paranasal sinuses which is akin to that in ABPA. Although it appears that the patient with ABPA provides a favourable milieu for the occurrence of AAS, it is perhaps surprising that in spite of similar histopathological features the co-existence of both these diseases has

  5. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14 and A. luchuensis (n = 6. The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948 does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

  6. Facilitating rotationplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ajay; Agarwal, Manish

    2007-03-15

    Rotationplasty, a unique surgical procedure where the ankle is converted into the knee joint after shortening and 180 degree external rotation of the limb is a well accepted alternative to amputation in musculoskeletal oncology. The required vascular dissection can be quite difficult as the concerned vessels lie in the posterior compartment from the distal third of the thigh downwards. The problem is compounded when rotationplasty is used as a salvage procedure after failed limb-sparing tumor surgery because of the additional fibrosis and stiffness at the level of the prosthetic knee joint. We advocate making the femoral osteotomy at an early stage in the procedure so as to allow free rotation of the distal limb thus making the popliteal fossa and the limb distal to it face anteriorly to facilitate the neuro vascular dissection. We also describe use of a novel cutting jig to ensure a perfect horizontal cut perpendicular to the long axis of the bone while making the femoral and tibial osteotomies. This ensures maximal surface contact between the apposing femoral and tibial cut ends, promoting early bony union. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  8. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  9. [Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.

  10. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta

    2007-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis...... and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found...... to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  11. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces...... and parasiticolide, and some strains produce aspergillic acid. The type strain of A. arachidicola is CBS 117610(T) =IBT 25020(T) and that of A. minisclerotigenes is CBS 117635(T) =IBT 27196(T). The Mycobank accession numbers for Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. and Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov...

  12. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60% were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%. These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  13. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Pedro M.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kolenova, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs...... on polysaccharides. Growth differences were observed between the Aspergilli and Podospora anserina, which has a more different genomic potential for polysaccharide degradation, suggesting that large genomic differences are required to cause growth differences oil polysaccharides, Differences were also detected...

  14. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  15. Enhanced lipase production by mutation induced Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the HNO2 mutant (AHN3) and 217% higher than the UV mutant (AUV3) and 276% higher lipase activity than the parent strain. The results indicated that UV, HNO2 and NTG treatment were effective physical and chemical mutagenic agents for strain improvement of Aspergillus japonicus for enhanced lipase productivity.

  16. Mycotic keratitis due to Aspergillus nomius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manikandan, P.; Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Samson, R.A.; Anita, R.; Revathi, R.; Doczi, I.; Nemeth, T.M.; Narendran, V.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Manoharan, C.; Kredics, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus nomius. Ocular injury was known as a predisposing factor. The patient was treated with natamycin and econazole eye drops, itraconazole eye ointment, and oral ketoconazole. A therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed 16

  17. Characterization of Aspergillus species associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also reveal that only A. flavus showed amplification with all the three aflatoxigenic primers apa-2, ver-1 and omt-1, which means that only A. flavus was identified as aflatoxigenic and other Aspergillus species as non-toxigenic after PCR analysis. Hence, morphological, microscopic and molecular methods are ...

  18. Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Bretagne, S.; Klingspor, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; McCulloch, E.; Schulz, B.; Finnstrom, N.; Mengoli, C.; Barnes, R.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Loeffler, J.

    2010-01-01

    PCR has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis for almost 2 decades. A lack of standardization has limited both its acceptance as a diagnostic tool and multicenter clinical evaluations, preventing its inclusion in disease-defining criteria. In 2006, the European Aspergillus

  19. Global Population Genetic Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashu, E.E.; Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Xu, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing invasive aspergillosis, a globally distributed disease with a mortality rate of up to 90% in high-risk populations. Effective control and prevention of this disease require a thorough understanding of its

  20. Morphogenesis and protein production in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Min Jin

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aims to get more fundamental insights in the molecular mechanisms used by Aspergillus niger in relation to control morphology and protein secretion. Knowledge on these two aspects is highly relevant to further optimization of A.niger as a cell factory

  1. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    agents. Keywords. Aspergillus flavus; silver nanoparticles; antimicrobial; antioxidant; cytotoxicity. 1. Introduction. Nanoparticles with controlled size and composition are of fundamental and technological interest as they provide solu- tions to technological and environmental challenges in the areas of solar energy conversion ...

  2. Overexpression, purification and characterization of the Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are industrially important hydrolytic enzymes applicable in the bioconversion of cellulosic biomass to simple sugars. In this work, an endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574, EglA, was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and the properties of the recombinant protein were ...

  3. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stalhberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Follett, Sarah A; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2010-08-01

    Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods are at risk for contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably Aspergillus fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Rare Cause of Headache: Aspergillus Sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Şehnaz Arıcı; Özge Özen Gökmuharremoğlu; Behiye Özer

    2015-01-01

    Fungal sinusitis are mostly seen in immunosuppressive individuals and somtimes which can be mortal. Most frequently species of Aspergillus were isolated from, clinical forms of mycotic sinonasal disease.Surgical debridement,sinus ventilation and medical therapy in treatment of fungal sinusitis, are recommended. In this article, a case of healthy immune patient with fungal sinusitis who peresent with headache was repoted.

  5. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence ...

  6. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 1. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus fumigatus initiate infection in Phaseolus mungo in the presence of phaseo-linone; levamisole gives protection. Suchandra Sett Santosh K Mishra Kazia I Siddiqui. Articles Volume 25 Issue 1 March ...

  7. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  8. Mycotic Keratitis Due to Aspergillus nomius▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Palanisamy; Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Samson, Robert A.; Anita, Raghavan; Revathi, Rajaraman; Dóczi, Ilona; Németh, Tibor Mihály; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Manoharan, Chockaiya; Kredics, László

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus nomius. Ocular injury was known as a predisposing factor. The patient was treated with natamycin and econazole eye drops, itraconazole eye ointment, and oral ketoconazole. A therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed 16 days after presentation. A sequence-based approach was used to assign the isolate to a species. PMID:19710265

  9. Comparative Studies on Pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. Pectinase was produced from Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, and A. niger) in a submerged fermentation system after 4 and 5 days of fermentation, respectively using pectin extracted from different agro-wastes (mango, orange and pineapple peels) as the carbon sources. The pectin was extracted from mango, ...

  10. Characterisation of Aspergillus niger prolyl aminopeptidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, E.J.W.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have cloned a gene (papA) that encodes a prolyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus niger. Homologous genes are present in the genomes of the Eurotiales A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and Talaromyces emersonii, but the gene is not present in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts

  11. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , and scientific model organisms. The phenotypic diversity in this genus is extraordinary and identifying the genetic basis for this diversity has great potential for academia and industry. When the genomic era began for Aspergillus in 2005 with the genome sequences of A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus...

  12. Clinical implications of environmental sources for Aspergillus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis presents a formidable problem for both diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, prevention is a very important strategy in controlling this disease. Preventing invasive aspergillosis demands a clear understanding of the environmental sources of Aspergillus spp. and how this mould is

  13. A prospective international Aspergillus terreus survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risslegger, B; Zoran, T; Lackner, M

    2017-01-01

    of A. terreus species complex among the investigated patients with mould-positive cultures was 5.2% (370/7116). Amphotericin B MICs ranged from 0.125 to 32 mg/L, (median 8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus terreus species complex infections cause a wide spectrum of aspergillosis and the majority...

  14. Detection of Aspergillus in lung and other tissue samples using the MycAssay Aspergillus real-time PCR kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Flörl, C; Follett, S A; Moody, A; Denning, D W

    2011-09-01

    The MycAssay™ Aspergillus real-time PCR kit was tested on tissues from patients with invasive fungal infections. Tissue samples from nine organ transplant recipients and 33 patients with haematological malignancy were from lung (n = 30), skin (n = 4), and others. Samples were preprocessed with proteinase K and lyticase, followed by DNA extraction and real-time PCR. For all samples, the sensitivity of the MycAssay Aspergillus test was 82% and specificity 79% relative to microscopy and 90% and 64%, respectively, compared with Aspergillus culture. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values compared with culture were 69% and 88% and were 88% and 69% compared with microscopy, respectively. The MycAssay Aspergillus test detected tissue invasive infections with Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus flavus , and Aspergillus terreus.

  15. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D Fedorova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT, but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL. The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories".

  16. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  18. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Aspergillus niger is classified as follows: Class, Deuteromycetes; order, Moniliales; family, Moniliaceae...

  19. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and

  20. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  1. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  2. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Cervini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic ap....... christenseniae, A. novoguineensis, A. subnutans, A. transcarpathicus and A. wisconsinensis. A dichotomous key for the identification is provided....

  3. Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

    2013-08-01

    This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Wijesuriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients' toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63% had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation.

  5. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  6. Production and Preliminary Characterization of Alkaline Protease from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chellapandi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are being an industrial candidate, which are widely used in food, bakery, and beverage and detergent industry. In leather industry, alkaline proteases are exhibiting a prominent role in unhairing and bating processes. An extensive use of filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus species has been studied elaborately. Although, the significant application of alkaline protease produced from these strains in leather industry is being limited. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus found as the potential strains for production of tannery protease in submerged fermentation. To improve the productivity of this enzyme in liquid broth, various media ingredients have been optimized. The crude and partially purified proteases preliminarily characterized and used for unhairing processes at lab scale in tannery. The protease obtained from these strains showed the good activity in wide alkaline condition at 50 °C suggesting the possibility of using in leather and detergent industry.

  7. Intra and extracellular nuclease production by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Adlane V. B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra and extracellular nuclease production by strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans was estimated using a modified DNAse test agar and cell-free extract assays. Differences in the production of nucleases by A. niger and A. nidulans were observed. These observations suggest that the DNAse test agar can be helpful for a quick screening for some types of nucleases in filamentous fungi. The assays using cell-free extracts can also be useful for initial characterization of other types of nucleases.

  8. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  9. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

  10. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspe...

  11. Species of Aspergillus section Aspergillus from clinical samples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, João P Z; Sutton, Deanna A; Gené, Josepa; García, Dania; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep

    2017-10-09

    The diversity of Aspergillus species in clinical samples is continuously increasing. Species under the former name Eurotium, currently accommodated in section Aspergillus of the genus Aspergillus, are xerophilic fungi widely found in the human environment and able to grow on substrates with low water activity. However, their prevalence in the clinical setting is poorly known. We have studied the presence of these species in a set of clinical samples from the United States using a multilocus sequence analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA, and fragments of the genes β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM), and polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2). A total of 25 isolates were studied and identified as follows: A. montevidensis (44%), A. chevalieri (36%), A. pseudoglaucus (8%), and A. costiformis (4%). A new species Aspergillus microperforatus is also proposed, which represented 8% of the isolates studied and is characterized by uniseriate conidial heads, subglobose to pyriform vesicles, rough conidia, globose to subglobose cleistothecia, and lenticular and smooth ascospores. The in vitro antifungal activity of eight clinically available antifungals was also determined against these isolates, with the echinocandins and posaconazole having the most potent activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR Protocols for Testing Serum Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Mengoli, C.; Bretagne, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Finnstrom, N.; Klingspor, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; McCulloch, E.; Barnes, R.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Loeffler, J.

    2011-01-01

    A panel of human serum samples spiked with various amounts of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA was distributed to 23 centers within the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative to determine analytical performance of PCR. Information regarding specific methodological components and PCR performance was

  13. Genetic diversity of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri , using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the genetic diversity of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri using RAPD and VCG techniques. Results obtained revealed OPX 07 as the most informative of the tested RAPD markers generating 12 polymorphic bands while the least bands were generated by OPR 19. Of the 40 Aspergillus section ...

  14. Assessment of Aspergillus niger biofilm growth kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... assessed by evaluating the CO2 released during the fermentation in minibioreactors. Key words: Aspergillus niger, biofilm, mathematical modeling, endogenous respiration, Cryo-SEM. INTRODUCTION. Aspergillus niger is currently one of the microbial species of main biotechnological importance because ...

  15. screening and improvement of local isolates of aspergillus niger for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The study involved the screening of fourteen isolates of Aspergillus niger for citric acid production from glucose. The study was aimed at screening and improving local strains of Aspergillus niger with potential for citric acid production. All the isolates screened produced varying amounts of citric acid, the highest ...

  16. Aspergillus Monitoring Project in a Large Educational Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All specimens were transported to Medical Mycology Center for the detection and identification of Aspergillus species using morphological methods. Also molecular method, PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme as a rapid and available method was performed to investigate environmental sources of Aspergillus ...

  17. What can Aspergillus flavus genome offer for mycotoxin research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomic study of filamentous fungi has made significant advances in recent years, and the genomes of several species in the genus Aspergillus have been sequenced, including Aspergillus flavus. This ubiquitous mold is present as a saprobe in a wide range of agricultural and natural habits, and c...

  18. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  19. Specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We developed a two-step PCR assay that specifically amplifies a region of the 18S rRNA gene that is highly conserved in Aspergillus fumigatus. This assay allows direct and rapid detection of down to 10 fg of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA corresponding to 1 to 5 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml of sputum sample of pulmonary ...

  20. The Inhibition of aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition of Aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus strain NRRL 2999 was investigated using ethanol extracts of Aframommon danielli flower at concentrations of 250ìg/g, 500ìg/g, 750ìg/g and 1000ìg/g with whole wheat bread as a substrate. Aspergillus parasiticus grew abundantly on whole wheat bread; ...

  1. Rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus as a Possible Contaminant of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemist

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Horn BW, Dorner JW, Greene RL, Blankenship PD, Cole RJ (1994). Effect of Aspergillus parasiticus soil inoculum on invasion of peanut seeds. Mycopathology, 125: 179-191. Jeffrey D, Palumbo, Teresa L, O'Keeffe, Ali K, Hamed KA, Bobbie JJ. (2010). Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus in Soil by Antagonistic.

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, L.; Netea, M.G.; Sugui, J.; Vonk, A.G.; Sande, W.W. van de; Warris, A.; Kwon-Chung, K.J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Melanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); M.G. Netea (Mihai); J. Sugui (Janyce); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Warris (Adilia); K.J. Kwon-Chung (Kyung); B. Jan Kullberg (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced

  4. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Mortensen, K.L.; Verweij, P.E.; Mouton, J.W.; Arendrup, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of resistant Aspergillus isolates, objective, automated and high-throughput antifungal susceptibility testing is important. The EUCAST E.Def 9.3 reference method for MIC determination of Aspergillus species relies on

  5. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocsube, S.

    2011-01-01

    aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca saliva in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 degrees C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated...

  6. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Growth of Aspergillus Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycotoxins of public health importance (Ehrlich,. 2007). As such, the occurrence of Aspergillus secondary metabolites in food stuffs such as millet grains is becoming an increasing environmental concern. The presence of Aspergillus species in stored millet may pose a threat to the health of both humans and livestock.

  7. Density and Molecular Epidemiology of Aspergillus in Air and Relationship to Outbreaks of Aspergillus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; van Belkum, Alex; Behrendt, Myra; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    1999-01-01

    After five patients were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus, a 14-month surveillance program for pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal conidia in the air within and outside the University Hospital in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) was begun. A. fumigatus isolates obtained from the Department of Hematology were studied for genetic relatedness by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This was repeated with A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media in the microbiology laboratory. The density of the conidia of nonpathogenic fungi in the outside air showed a seasonal variation: higher densities were measured during the summer, while lower densities were determined during the fall and winter. Hardly any variation was found in the numbers of Aspergillus conidia. We found decreasing numbers of conidia when comparing air from outside the hospital to that inside the hospital and when comparing open areas within the hospital to the closed department of hematology. The increase in the number of patients with invasive aspergillosis could not be explained by an increase in the number of Aspergillus conidia in the outside air. The short-term presence of A. flavus can only be explained by the presence of a point source, which was probably patient related. Genotyping A. fumigatus isolates from the department of hematology showed that clonally related isolates were persistently present for more than 1 year. Clinical isolates of A. fumigatus obtained during the outbreak period were different from these persistent clones. A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media were all genotypically identical, indicating a causative point source. Knowledge of the epidemiology of Aspergillus species is necessary for the development of strategies to prevent invasive aspergillosis. RAPD fingerprinting of Aspergillus isolates can help to determine the cause of an outbreak of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:10325319

  8. Expression of Aspergillus hemoglobin domain activities in Aspergillus oryzae grown on solid substrates improves growth rate and enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, te R.; Boussier, A.; Biezen van, N.; Braaksma, M.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    DNA fragments coding for hemoglobin domains (HBD) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The HBD activities were expressed in A. oryzae by introduction of HBD gene fragments under the control of the promoter of the constitutively expressed gpdA gene. In the transformants,

  9. Human T-cell responses to Aspergillus fumigatus : In healthy individuals and patients with Aspergillus-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolink, H.

    2017-01-01

    The T-cell mediated immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus was studied in healthy individuals and in several patient groups. In peripheral blood of healthy individuals low frequencies of Aspergillus-specific CD4+ T-cells with a Thelper 1 profile were present. In patients with invasive

  10. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...... for HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Results: P. aeruginosa PAO1 suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and Emericella nidulans. HPLC and HPLC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa...

  11. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    culture plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture diluted to 108 CFU/ml was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days, examined and plugs were extracted for HPLC and LC-DAD-MS analysis. Results: P. aeruginosa PAO1...... suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified...

  12. Aspergillus Sydowi Infection of Human Finger Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Barde

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Aspergillus sydowi infection of left middle finger nail is described ′ The presence of fungal hypae with phialids and spores on direct microscopy as well as in culture, the colour of the sub-ungual mass of the nail resembling the colour of the fungus in, culture′ repeated isolations of A sydowi from the diseased tissue along with the absence of any established pathogenic species in the specimen are taken as evidences that this fungus was invading the nail tissue.

  13. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  14. Identificação de Aspergillus spp: toxigênico em arroz Identification of toxigenic Aspergillus spp: in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívina Catarina de Oliveira Guimarães

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A composição química e o modo de cultivo do arroz o tornam susceptível à contaminação fúngica e, consequentemente, por micotoxinas. Considerando-se o expressivo consumo de arroz e a possibilidade de ser potencial fonte de micotoxinas, especial atenção deve ser dispensada quanto à qualidade do produto adquirido. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar espécies do gênero Aspergillus quanto à capacidade toxigênica, em diferentes subgrupos de arroz. As amostras constituíram-se de 31 marcas de arroz referentes aos subgrupos branco polido (21 e parboilizado (10, mais comumente comercializadas na cidade de Lavras - MG. Ao contrário dos outros subgrupos, a incidência de Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus niger em amostras de arroz branco polido aumentou significativamente após a desinfecção. Pôde-se observar que, 50% dos Aspergillus flavus e 50% dos Aspergillus niger encontrados, foram considerados toxigênicos para o subgrupo branco polido. Na amostra de arroz parboilizado, 67% dos Aspergillus flavus eram potenciais produtores. O Aspergillus ochraceus não se revelou como toxigênico. Este estudo permitiu concluir que, apesar de trabalhos isolados, a presença de fungos toxigênicos em arroz é verídico, o que se torna relevante por se tratar de um cereal importante no cenário mundial.The chemical composition and its methods of cultivation, make rice plants susceptible to fungi and consequently to mycotoxins contamination. Considering the expressive rice consumption and given the possibility that it maybe a potential source of mycotoxins, special attention should be devoted to its quality. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the Aspergillus species as to its toxigenic capacities in different rice subgroups. Thirty one and rice brands among the most popular brands sold in the city of Lavras - MG, were collected as samples, (21 polished white and (10 parboiled, respectively. Unlike other subgroups, the

  15. Comprehensive annotation of secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes and gene clusters of Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary metabolite production, a hallmark of filamentous fungi, is an expanding area of research for the Aspergilli. These compounds are potent chemicals, ranging from deadly toxins to therapeutic antibiotics to potential anti-cancer drugs. The genome sequences for multiple Aspergilli have been determined, and provide a wealth of predictive information about secondary metabolite production. Sequence analysis and gene overexpression strategies have enabled the discovery of novel secondary metabolites and the genes involved in their biosynthesis. The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) provides a central repository for gene annotation and protein information for Aspergillus species. These annotations include Gene Ontology (GO) terms, phenotype data, gene names and descriptions and they are crucial for interpreting both small- and large-scale data and for aiding in the design of new experiments that further Aspergillus research. Results We have manually curated Biological Process GO annotations for all genes in AspGD with recorded functions in secondary metabolite production, adding new GO terms that specifically describe each secondary metabolite. We then leveraged these new annotations to predict roles in secondary metabolism for genes lacking experimental characterization. As a starting point for manually annotating Aspergillus secondary metabolite gene clusters, we used antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis SHell) and SMURF (Secondary Metabolite Unknown Regions Finder) algorithms to identify potential clusters in A. nidulans, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. oryzae, which we subsequently refined through manual curation. Conclusions This set of 266 manually curated secondary metabolite gene clusters will facilitate the investigation of novel Aspergillus secondary metabolites. PMID:23617571

  16. PENGARUH RHIZOPUS ORYZAE DAN ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE TERHADAP KUALITAS KECAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sabita Slamet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah diteliti pengganti fermentasi mikroorganisme Aspergillus oryzae Rhyzopus oryzae dan campuran Aspergillus dan Rhyzopus oryzae, dengan perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% dalam waktu yang berbeda terhadap kualitas kecap.Lamanya perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% yang berbeda menghasilkan kadar protein kecap yang berbeda. Aspergillus oryzae lebih baik dalam menghasilkan enzima protease dari pada Rhyzopus oryzae.Uji organoleptik menunjukkan perbedaan tidak bermakna dalam hal rasa maupun aroma antar kecap yang dibuat dengan strain jamur yang berlainan serta waktu perendaman yang berbeda. Untuk membuat kecap, sebaiknya dilakukan perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% selama 14 hari.

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  18. Antagonism of Aspergillus terreus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Antagonismo de Aspergillus terreus contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar S. Melo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An Aspergillus terreus strain showed in vitro antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary. The interaction between A. terreus and sclerotia revealed that the mycoparasite sporulated abundantly on the sclerotial surface. Cell breakdown due to host cell wall disruption was observed in inner rind cells, by a scanning electron microscopy.Uma linhagem de Aspergillus terreus mostrou forte atividade parasítica contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Interações entre o patógeno e o antagonista revelaram que A. terreus esporulou profusamente sobre os escleródios. Quando visto em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o antagonista mostra-se rompendo e lisando a parede celular e penetrando o interior do escleródio, onde se estabelece no tecido medular.

  19. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    Italy. LL.M (Business Law) Addis Ababa .... section identifies the main trade facilitation challenges in Ethiopia that are mostly within customs law. ... Various international and regional organizations define trade facilitation according to their mandate ...

  20. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    OpenAIRE

    Visagie,Cobus; Yilmaz,Neriman; Renaud,Justin; Sumarah,Mark; Hubka,Vit; Frisvad,Jens; Chen,Amanda; Meijer,Martin; Seifert,Keith

    2017-01-01

    Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called E...

  2. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Cervini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data, temperature profiles and partial BenA, CaM and RPB2 sequences to examine the relationships within this section. Based on this taxonomic approach the section Cervini is resolved in ten species including six new species: A. acidohumus, A. christenseniae, A. novoguineensis, A. subnutans, A. transcarpathicus and A. wisconsinensis. A dichotomous key for the identification is provided.

  3. Effect of simulated microgravity on Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Jeffrey J.

    2005-08-01

    A rotating bioreactor was developed to simulate microgravity and its influence was studied on fungal growth. The reactor was designed to simulate microgravity using 'free fall' principle, which creates an apparent weightlessness for a brief period of time. In this experiment, a sealed vertically rotating tube is the reactor in which the cells are grown. For the first time vertically rotating tubes were used to obtain 'free fall' thereby simulating microgravity. Simulated microgravity served significant in the alteration of growth and productivity of Aspergillus niger, a common soil fungi. Two other sets of similar cultures were maintained as still and shake control cultures to compare with the growth and productivity of cells in rotating culture. It was found increased growth and productivity occurred in simulated microgravity. Since this experiment involves growth of cells in a liquid medium, the fluidic effects must also be studied which is a limitation.

  4. Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum from the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Tanney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi, especially Aspergillus species, are prevalent in the built environment. In this study, we employed a combined culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing and culture-dependent (dilution-to-extinction approach to investigate the mycobiota of indoor dust collected from 93 buildings in 12 countries worldwide. High and low water activity (aw media were used to capture mesophile and xerophile biodiversity, resulting in the isolation of approximately 9 000 strains. Among these, 340 strains representing seven putative species in Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum were isolated, mostly from lowered aw media, and tentatively identified based on colony morphology and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS barcodes. Further morphological study and phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2, DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, and a pre-mRNA processing protein homolog (TSR1 confirmed the isolation of seven species of subgenus Polypaecilum, including five novel species: A. baarnensis, A. keratitidis, A. kalimae sp. nov., A. noonimiae sp. nov., A. thailandensis sp. nov., A. waynelawii sp. nov., and A. whitfieldii sp. nov. Pyrosequencing detected six of the seven species isolated from house dust, as well as one additional species absent from the cultures isolated, and three clades representing potentially undescribed species. Species were typically found in house dust from subtropical and tropical climates, often in close proximity to the ocean or sea. The presence of subgenus Polypaecilum, a recently described clade of xerophilic/xerotolerant, halotolerant/halophilic, and potentially zoopathogenic species, within the built environment is noteworthy.

  5. Self-affine fractal growth front of Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae have been grown in various environmental conditions and analyzed from the viewpoint of self-affinity. The growth behavior can be described by the Eden model in favorable conditions, and by DLA in unfavorable conditions.

  6. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  7. Ortholog prediction of the Aspergillus genus applicable for synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Theobald, Sebastian

    The Aspergillus genus contains leading industrial microorganisms, excelling in producing bioactive compounds and enzymes. Using synthetic biology and bioinformatics, we aim to re-engineer these organisms for applications within human health, pharmaceuticals, environmental engineering, and food...

  8. Reconstruction of the central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The topology of central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger was identified and the metabolic network reconstructed, by integrating genomic, biochemical and physiological information available for this microorganism and other related fungi. The reconstructed network may serve as a valuable...

  9. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  10. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi.

  11. Pectinolytic complex production by Aspergillus niger URM 4645 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PE), produced by Aspergillus niger URM 4645, were studied in solid state fermentation (SSF) using yellow passion fruit peels as substrate. The effect of substrate amount, initial moisture ...

  12. The het-c heterokaryon incompatibility gene in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Pal, K.; Lee, T.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Heterokaryon incompatibility among Aspergillus niger strains is a widespread phenomenon that is observed as the inability to form stable heterokaryons. The genetic basis of heterokaryon incompatibility reactions is well established in some sexual filamentous fungi but largely unknown in presumed

  13. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger , Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. The synthesis of nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a microbial nanotechnology biosynthesis process for mass scale production. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, fungi, Aspergillus.

  14. Identification, classification and phylogeny of the Aspergillus section Nigri inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, K; Wang, L; Miyaji, M; Nishimura, K

    2001-06-25

    The partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 32 strains of 12 species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced directly. Using 402 nucleotide characters, nucleotide-based and amino acid-based phylogenetic trees were inferred and the genetic divergence among the species was evaluated. Based on analyses of the 402-bp nucleotide and 133-amino acid sequences, strains were divided into 11 DNA types and five amino acid types. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori showed different amino acid sequences. A. niger clade included A. niger var. niger and Aspergillus ficuum. A. awamori clade included A. awamori, Aspergillus phoenicis, Aspergillus pulverulentus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus foetidus, and two varieties of A. niger, var. nanus and var. intermedius. Two varieties of A. niger will be reclassified. One strain of A. phoenicis and one strain of Aspergillus carbonarius were reidentified.

  15. Production and Purification of Peroxidase from Aspergillus niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Jebor

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditi...

  16. Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, T. M.; Andrewski, M. D.; Roossinck, M. J.; Keller, N P

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppre...

  17. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine, and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice, we used plate-dilution method and DRBC as medium. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus isolates were inoculated on the identification media. Representatives of the genus Aspergillus were isolated from 13 samples berries, 7 samples of surface-sterilized berries, 4 samples of damaged berries and 9 samples of grape juice. Overall, representatives of aspergilli were detected in 90% of samples (75 isolates. In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of ochratoxin A belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Isolates, potential producers of ochratoxin A (Aspergillus niger aggregate and Aspergillus westerdijkiae, were after their identification inoculated on YES medium (Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar and after 14 days of incubation at 25±1°C, in the dark, we tested them for their ability to produce ochratoxin A using thin layer chromatography. Out of the 16 isolates from isolated potential producers of ochratoxin A none of the isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested produced ochratoxin A. The isolate of Aspergillus westerdijkiae (1, isolated from the surface-sterilized berries, produced ochratoxin A.

  18. Aspergillus mycoviruses are targets and suppressors of RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T M; Andrewski, M D; Roossinck, M J; Keller, N P

    2008-02-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppresses RNA silencing through a mechanism that alters the level of small interfering RNA. Aspergillus virus 178 is related to RNA virus L1 of Gremmeniella abietina and does not appear to affect RNA silencing. The third virus investigated, Aspergillus virus 341, is distantly related to Sphaeropsis sapinea RNA virus 2. Detection of mycovirus-derived siRNA from this mycovirus demonstrates that it is targeted for degradation by the Aspergillus RNA silencing machinery. Thus, our results indicate that Aspergillus mycoviruses are both targets and suppressors of RNA silencing. In addition, they suggest that the morphological and physiological changes associated with some mycoviruses could be a result of their antagonistic relationship with RNA silencing.

  19. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  20. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Govindarajulu Venkateswaran

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were ca...

  1. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  2. Training facilitators and supervisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Binow; O Connor, Maja; Krogh, Kristian

    At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired by the apprentic......At the Master’s program in Medicine at Aarhus University, Denmark, we have developed a faculty development program for facilitators and supervisors in 4 progressing student modules in communication, cooperation, and leadership. 1) A course for module 1 and 3 facilitators inspired...... by the apprenticeship approach, and 2) A course for module 2 and 5 supervisors, based on principles of professional peer supervision....

  3. An investigation of the nuclei of hülle cells of Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos D.F. Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain species of fungi of the genus Aspergillus produce a type of cells around the cleistothecium that are called hülle cells. To facilitate the analysis of the formation of these cells, an Aspergillus nidulans strain with high hülle cell production was obtained. Hülle cells from this strain were allowed to grow on dialysis membranes, where it was possible to observe their nuclei. The material was fixed with Carnoy, hydrolyzed with HCl and stained with Giemsa. Several nuclei approximately equal in size to the nuclei of hyphae and conidia were observed during the phase of hülle cell formation. The formation of a macronucleus measuring approximately 3.1 mum was observed in mature hülle cells. To compare the DNA amount, hülle cells and conidia of the CH-89 strain were isolated and submitted to DNA extraction (Tuyl, 1977. The amount of DNA per cell was, on average, 17.2 times greater than the amount of DNA in the conidia.

  4. Role of germination in murine airway CD8+ T-cell responses to Aspergillus conidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P Templeton

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus has been associated with morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus conidia produce β-glucan, proteases, and other immunostimulatory factors upon germination. Murine models have shown that the ability of A. fumigatus to germinate at physiological temperature may be an important factor that facilitates invasive disease. We observed a significant increase in IFN-γ-producing CD8(+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of immunocompetent mice that repeatedly aspirated A. fumigatus conidia in contrast to mice challenged with A. versicolor, a species that is not typically associated with invasive, disseminated disease. Analysis of tissue sections indicated the presence of germinating spores in the lungs of mice challenged with A. fumigatus, but not A. versicolor. Airway IFN-γ(+CD8(+ T-cells were decreased and lung germination was eliminated in mice that aspirated A. fumigatus conidia that were formaldehyde-fixed or heat-inactivated. Furthermore, A. fumigatus particles exhibited greater persistence in the lungs of recipient mice when compared to non-viable A. fumigatus or A. versicolor, and this correlated with increased maintenance of airway memory-phenotype CD8(+ T cells. Therefore, murine airway CD8(+ T cell-responses to aspiration of Aspergillus conidia may be mediated in part by the ability of conidia to germinate in the host lung tissue. These results provide further evidence of induction of immune responses to fungi based on their ability to invade host tissue.

  5. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium, and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were identified using calmodulin gene sequencing. Of these, 163 isolates were subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS rDNA, partial β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2 genes. Colony characteristics were documented on eight cultivation media, growth parameters at three incubation temperatures were recorded and micromorphology was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy to illustrate and characterize each species. Many specific extrolites were extracted and identified from cultures, including echinulins, epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important mycotoxins in the strict sense, such as sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin were not detected despite previous reports on their production in this section. Adopting a polyphasic approach, 31 species are recognized, including nine new species. ITS is highly conserved in this section and does not distinguish species. All species can be differentiated using CaM or RPB2 sequences. For BenA, Aspergillus brunneus and A. niveoglaucus share identical

  6. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A J; Hubka, V; Frisvad, J C; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Meijer, M; Varga, J; Demirel, R; Jurjević, Ž; Kubátová, A; Sklenář, F; Zhou, Y G; Samson, R A

    2017-09-01

    Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were identified using calmodulin gene sequencing. Of these, 163 isolates were subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS rDNA, partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes. Colony characteristics were documented on eight cultivation media, growth parameters at three incubation temperatures were recorded and micromorphology was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy to illustrate and characterize each species. Many specific extrolites were extracted and identified from cultures, including echinulins, epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important mycotoxins in the strict sense, such as sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin were not detected despite previous reports on their production in this section. Adopting a polyphasic approach, 31 species are recognized, including nine new species. ITS is highly conserved in this section and does not distinguish species. All species can be differentiated using CaM or RPB2 sequences. For BenA, Aspergillus brunneus and A. niveoglaucus share identical sequences. Ascospores

  7. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straat, Laura; Vernooij, Marloes; Lammers, Marieke; van den Berg, Willy; Schonewille, Tom; Cordewener, Jan; van der Meer, Ingrid; Koops, Andries; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-17

    Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5-8 times higher than previously described. Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over

  8. In-host adaptation and acquired triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a dilemma for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Paul E; Zhang, Jianhua; Debets, Alfons J M; Meis, Jacques F; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Schoustra, Sijmen E; Zwaan, Bas J; Melchers, Willem J G

    2016-11-01

    the probability of eradication. Our hypothesis challenges current management strategies, and future research should investigate the genomic dynamics during infection to understand the key factors facilitating adaptation of Aspergillus spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Facilitation Performance Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a guide, derived from the Situational Leadership model, which describes the process that should be used in facilitating a group discussion. The process includes preparation, assessment, diagnosis, prescription, development, reinforcement, and follow-up. Three figures depict the Situational Leadership model, the facilitation process, and…

  10. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most

  11. Learning facilitating leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deplo....... By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership.......This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology...... deployed for this paper is empirical and conceptual. A specific facilitation project carried out by six international engineering students is presented. The importance of combining cognitive, emotional and synergistic skills is highlighted on the basis of this example, the authors’ extensive experience...

  12. Linking secondary metabolites to gene clusters through genome sequencing of six diverse Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbølling, Inge; Vesth, Tammi C.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2018-01-01

    The fungal genus of Aspergillus is highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverse Aspergillus species (A...

  13. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of Maize and Groundnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus popula...

  14. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Species in the anamorph genus Aspergillus are associated with several teleomorphic genera in the Eurotiales and the most important mycotoxin producers are concentrated in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati. A new genus, Neopetromyces, is proposed for the recently described Petromyces muricatus, beca...

  15. Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Diba

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.

  16. A reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleku, Godwin A.; France, Scott P.; Man, Henry; Mangas-Sanchez, Juan; Montgomery, Sarah L.; Sharma, Mahima; Leipold, Friedemann; Hussain, Shahed; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2017-10-01

    Reductive amination is one of the most important methods for the synthesis of chiral amines. Here we report the discovery of an NADP(H)-dependent reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae (AspRedAm, Uniprot code Q2TW47) that can catalyse the reductive coupling of a broad set of carbonyl compounds with a variety of primary and secondary amines with up to >98% conversion and with up to >98% enantiomeric excess. In cases where both carbonyl and amine show high reactivity, it is possible to employ a 1:1 ratio of the substrates, forming amine products with up to 94% conversion. Steady-state kinetic studies establish that the enzyme is capable of catalysing imine formation as well as reduction. Crystal structures of AspRedAm in complex with NADP(H) and also with both NADP(H) and the pharmaceutical ingredient (R)-rasagiline are reported. We also demonstrate preparative scale reductive aminations with wild-type and Q240A variant biocatalysts displaying total turnover numbers of up to 32,000 and space time yields up to 3.73 g l-1 d-1.

  17. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-08

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ω-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ω-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and α- and/or β-oxidation.

  18. Purification and characterization of Aspergillus ficuum endoinulinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, T B; Chung, M S; Lee, S H; Gourronc, F; Housen, I; Kim, J H; Van Beeumen, J; Haye, B; Vandenhaute, J

    1999-01-01

    Endoinulinase from Aspergillus ficuum, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of inulin via an endo-cleavage mode, was purified by chromatography from Novozym 230 as a starting commercial enzyme mixture on CM-Sephadex and DEAE-Sepharose, and by preparative electrophoresis under native conditions. The enzyme was estimated to be pure on the basis of its I/S ratio, whose value was infinite in our assay conditions. Two forms separated by using this method. SDS gel electrophoresis showed the two purified forms to respectively exhibit molecular weights of 64,000 +/- 500 and 66,000 +/- 1,000. The results of deglycosylation indicated that the two forms were originally the same protein but with different sugar contents. A molecular weight of 54,800 +/- 1,500 was found by gel filtration of the native enzyme, indicating the native functional protein to be a monomer. The enzyme showed nearly absolute substrate specificity towards inulin and inulooligosaccharides, and acted via an endo-attack to produce mainly inulotriose during the late stage of the reaction. The apparent Km and Vmax values for inulin hydrolysis were 8.1 +/- 1.0 mM and 773 +/- 60 U/mg, respectively. The internal peptides of the enzyme showed sequence homology to the endoinulinase of Penicillium purpurogenum.

  19. [Induced synthesis of hydroxyapatite by Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Lian, Bin; Liu, Shirong; Gong, Guohong

    2011-03-01

    The research objective is to induce hydroxyapatite (HAP) synthesis by using fungus. We used the PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar Medium) liquid medium containing different concentrations of Na2HPO4 and CaCO3 to study the way Aspergillus niger synthesize HAP, to observe the induced mineral crystal structure and to analyze the induced mineral type with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main results are as follows: (1) A. niger can induce HAP synthesis in PDA liquid medium with the proper concentration of Na2HPO4 and CaCO3. (2) The reaction of A. niger inducing HAP synthesis depends on the time of the response system. Longer time is more advantageous in producing HAP. The main reason for A. niger inducing HAP crystals formation are as follows: fungal metabolism produces the acidic substances to dissolve CaCO, and the growth mycelia absorbing Ca2+ lead to Ca2+ enriched on the surface, to promote the production of secondary mineral apatite and further transform into HAP in the mycelia spheres. A. niger can inducing HAP crystals formation in PDA liquid medium containing Na2HPO4 and CaCO3. Considering the importance of HAP in bio-medicine materials and its costly prices, our method for HAP bio-induction is of the temperate response condition, simple preparation craft, and lower cost, which has the potential application prospect.

  20. A Case Report on Aspergillus lentulus Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Cidem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus lentulus was described as a new species in 2005 but it was isolated from Turkey for the first time. Case report: A. lentulus was isolated as the cause of pneumonia from a patient who had renal transplantation 4 months ago. The patient received immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation. A. lentulus was isolated from his sputum as an agent in pneumonia developed 4 months after the transplantation. Leukocytes, blastospores, and hyphae were seen in both Gram- and Giemsa-stained smears of the sputum. The isolate was identified by using the Maren A. Klich algorithm and molecular methods and confirmed by the reference laboratory of the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre (The Netherlands. In the susceptibility tests of the isolate, minimal inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin were found to be 0.5 µg/mL, 0.25 µg/mL, 0.125 µg/mL, and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. The patient recovered with voriconazole treatment (2x200 mg/day. Conclusion: The use of the molecular tests is important for identification of A. lentulus strains because they are very easily confused with A.fumigatus strains according to phenotypic characteristics.

  1. Evaluation of analytical and preliminary clinical performance of Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus when testing serum specimens for diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P Lewis; Perry, Michael D; Moody, Adrian; Follett, Sarah A; Morgan, Gillian; Barnes, Rosemary A

    2011-06-01

    Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a significant problem. PCR testing may aid diagnosis but is not yet included in disease-defining criteria due to a lack of standardization of assays and methodologies. This study investigated the analytical performance and the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus PCR (MAP) assay compared to those of a validated in-house Aspergillus PCR (IHP) test when testing serum specimens. Serum specimens spiked with Aspergillus genomic DNA had a limit of detection equivalent to 5 genomes and a linear dynamic range of 5 to >5 × 10(4) genomes for both assays. When testing clinical specimens (n = 170), the MAP assay had a sensitivity of 60 to 70% and a specificity of 90.5 to 100%. The IHP assay had a sensitivity of 50 to 80% and a specificity of 100%. A commercially available Aspergillus PCR assay provides a methodology that is standardized and reagents that are quality controlled. This facilitates multicenter evaluation of the clinical utility of PCR diagnosis. The performance of the MAP assay is comparable to that of the IHP assay and to those in previously reported studies evaluating commercial tests (galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).

  2. Evaluation of Analytical and Preliminary Clinical Performance of Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus When Testing Serum Specimens for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. Lewis; Perry, Michael D.; Moody, Adrian; Follett, Sarah A.; Morgan, Gillian; Barnes, Rosemary A.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a significant problem. PCR testing may aid diagnosis but is not yet included in disease-defining criteria due to a lack of standardization of assays and methodologies. This study investigated the analytical performance and the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Myconostica MycAssay Aspergillus PCR (MAP) assay compared to those of a validated in-house Aspergillus PCR (IHP) test when testing serum specimens. Serum specimens spiked with Aspergillus genomic DNA had a limit of detection equivalent to 5 genomes and a linear dynamic range of 5 to >5 × 104 genomes for both assays. When testing clinical specimens (n = 170), the MAP assay had a sensitivity of 60 to 70% and a specificity of 90.5 to 100%. The IHP assay had a sensitivity of 50 to 80% and a specificity of 100%. A commercially available Aspergillus PCR assay provides a methodology that is standardized and reagents that are quality controlled. This facilitates multicenter evaluation of the clinical utility of PCR diagnosis. The performance of the MAP assay is comparable to that of the IHP assay and to those in previously reported studies evaluating commercial tests (galactomannan enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). PMID:21450965

  3. Cross-allergenicity between Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata determined by radioallergosorbent test inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Sakamoto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus restrictus, an osmophilic fungus, is abundant in house dust. We have shown previously that the incidence of immediate hypersensitivity to A. restrictus is comparable to that for Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata in asthmatic children. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST inhibition was used to determine whether A. restrictus shares similar allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Mycelial mats of the three species cultivated on completely synthetic media were used for extract preparation. IgE antibodies to each fungus were measured with RAST using a polyvinyl chloride microplate as a solid phase. Analysis of a serum pool obtained from nine asthmatic children with a positive RAST to A. restrictus showed that A. restrictus inhibited the RAST to A. restrictus, A. fumigatus and A. alternata by more than 80%. Similar results were observed with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Additionally, when 13 serum samples with a positive RAST to A. restrictus were tested separately, A. restrictus substantially inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in all subjects tested. A. fumigatus and A. alternata inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in 10 and 8 of the samples studied, respectively. These findings indicate that A. restrictus shares allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. The allergenic cross-reactivity between A. fumigatus and A. alternata was also demonstrated.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  5. Bilateral pulmonary aspergilloma caused by an atypical isolate of Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z U; Kortom, M; Marouf, R; Chandy, R; Rinaldi, M G; Sutton, D A

    2000-05-01

    A case of bilateral pulmonary aspergilloma caused by an atypical isolate of Aspergillus terreus is described. The diagnosis was established by the presence of septate, dichotomously branched fungal elements in freshly collected bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum specimens and by repeated isolation of the fungus in culture. Specific precipitating antibodies against the A. terreus isolate were demonstrated in the patient's serum. The isolate was atypical as it failed to produce fruiting structures on routine mycological media, but it did so on extended incubation on potato flake agar and produced globose, relatively heavy-walled, hyaline accessory conidia (formerly termed aleurioconidia) on both vegetative and aerial mycelia. Also, it produced an intense yellow diffusing pigment in the medium. The report underscores the increasing importance of A. terreus in the etiology of pulmonary aspergillosis. It is suggested that A. terreus antigen be included in the battery of serodiagnostic reagents to facilitate the early diagnosis of infections caused by this species.

  6. Toolkit for visualization of the cellular structure and organelles in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buren, Emiel B J Ten; Karrenbelt, Michiel A P; Lingemann, Marit; Chordia, Shreyans; Deng, Ying; Hu, JingJing; Verest, Johanna M; Wu, Vincen; Gonzalez, Teresita J Bello; Heck, Ruben G A van; Odoni, Dorett I; Schonewille, Tom; Straat, Laura van der; Graaff, Leo H de; Passel, Mark W J van

    2014-12-19

    Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that is extensively used in industrial fermentations for protein expression and the production of organic acids. Inherent biosynthetic capabilities, such as the capacity to secrete these biomolecules in high amounts, make A. niger an attractive production host. Although A. niger is renowned for this ability, the knowledge of the molecular components that underlie its production capacity, intercellular trafficking processes and secretion mechanisms is far from complete. Here, we introduce a standardized set of tools, consisting of an N-terminal GFP-actin fusion and codon optimized eforRed chromoprotein. Expression of the GFP-actin construct facilitates visualization of the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas expression of the chromoprotein construct results in a clearly distinguishable red phenotype. These experimentally validated constructs constitute the first set of standardized A. niger biomarkers, which can be used to study morphology, intercellular trafficking, and secretion phenomena.

  7. Rapid reconstitution of biosynthetic machinery for fungal metabolites in Aspergillus oryzae: total biosynthesis of aflatrem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi; Fujii, Ryuya; Liu, Chengwei; Tanaka, Mizuki; Gomi, Katsuya; Dairi, Tohru; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2014-09-22

    Reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery for fungal secondary metabolites in Aspergillus oryzae provides an opportunity both for stepwise determination of the biosynthetic pathways and the total biosynthesis of fungal natural products. However, to maximize the utility of the reconstitution system, a simple and rapid strategy for the introduction of heterologous genes into A. oryzae is required. In this study, we demonstrated an effective method for introducing multiple genes involved in the biosynthesis of fungal metabolites by using the expression vectors pUARA2 and pUSA2, each of which contains two cloning sites. The successful introduction of all the aflatrem biosynthetic genes (seven genes in total) after two rounds of transformation enabled the total biosynthesis of aflatrem. This rapid reconstitution strategy will facilitate the functional analysis of the biosynthetic machinery of fungal metabolites. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Coconut oil induced production of a surfactant-compatible lipase from Aspergillus tamarii under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Shivakumar, Srividya; Shakya, Sujina; Sogane, Swathi Shankar

    2017-02-01

    Filamentous fungi are efficient producers of lipases. The present study focuses on identification of a potent lipolytic fungus and enhancement of lipase production through optimization of nutritional and cultural conditions under submerged fermentation. Molecular characterization of the fungus by 18S rDNA sequencing revealed its identity as Aspergillus tamarii with 98% homology. Maximum lipase production was noted in mineral salts medium supplemented with coconut oil (2.5%, v/v). A combination of ammonium chloride (2%, w/v) and tryptone (2%, w/v) facilitated maximum lipase production at pH 5 of the production medium. A carbon: nitrogen ratio of 1:4 led to significant (p oil stain removal activity of a commercially available detergent by 2.2-fold. The current findings suggest the potentiality of this fungal lipase to be used in detergent formulation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Biosynthetic Pathway for the Epipolythiodioxopiperazine Acetylaranotin in Aspergillus terreus Revealed by Genome-based Deletion Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Chiang, Yi Ming; Sanchez, James F.; Chang, ShuLin; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-04-15

    Abstract Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are a class of fungal secondary metabolites derived from cyclic peptides. Acetylaranotin belongs to one structural subgroup of ETPs characterized by the presence of a seven-membered dihydrooxepine ring. Defining the genes involved in acetylaranotin biosynthesis should provide a means to increase production of these compounds and facilitate the engineering of second-generation molecules. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus produces acetylaranotin and related natural products. Using targeted gene deletions, we have identified a cluster of 9 genes including one nonribosomal peptide synthase gene, ataP, that is required for acetylaranotin biosynthesis. Chemical analysis of the wild type and mutant strains enabled us to isolate seventeen natural products that are either intermediates in the normal biosynthetic pathway or shunt products that are produced when the pathway is interrupted through mutation. Nine of the compounds identified in this study are novel natural products. Our data allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for acetylaranotin and related natural products.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis and substrate specificity of GH2 beta-mannosidases from Aspergillus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, S.K.; Rosengren, A.; Klaubauf, S.; Kulkarni, T.; Karlsson, E.N.; de Vries, R.P.; Stalbrand, H.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of glycoside hydrolase family 2 including Aspergillus sequences and characterised beta-mannosidases from other organisms, clusters putative Aspergillus beta-mannosidases in two distinct clades (A and B). Aspergillus species have at least one paralog in each of the two clades.

  11. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sklenář

    2017-09-01

    The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  12. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Kim, Young Min; Youm, Yoon Seok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Jeong, Ae Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings.

  13. A colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species against caspofungin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Zwaaftink, R.B.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Meletiadis, J.; Verweij, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 45 Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (CAS) was assessed by the CLSI reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye MTT. Perfect agreement was found between

  14. Phylogeny of osmophillic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We addressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied multidis...

  15. Becoming a Facilitative Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Leaders often contribute to the consequences they complain about by using an approach termed unilateral control. The Facilitative Leadership Approach, with its core values of valid information, free and informed choice, internal commitment, and compassion, can counteract this phenomenon. (JOW)

  16. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Aspergillus niger--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2004-07-01

    A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger.

  17. Colonization of an intralobar pulmonary sequestration by Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambudio, Ríos A; Calvo, Roca M J; García, Polo L A; Lanzas, J Torres; Paricio, P Panilla

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus is an opportunistic fungus that usually colonizes preexisting lung cavities, especially tuberculous ones. Colonization of a pulmonary sequestration by this germ is exceptional, with just 14 cases reported in the world literature, most of them in Asia. A case is presented of a 48-year-old woman with pleuritic thoracic pain. Simple chest radiology revealed a lower right pulmonary tumor with clear margins and a calcium-type density. CT showed it to correspond to a 6 x 5-cm hypodense mass, which was enhanced at the periphery with intravenous contrast. Aspiration puncture yielded a greenish-yellow pus and the microscopic study strongly suggested Aspergillus, confirmed by culture as Aspergillus fumigatus. Surgery revealed an infected pulmonary sequestration at the lower right lobe, and a lobectomy was performed.

  18. Emerging pathogen Aspergillus calidoustus colonizes water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Kristensen, Ralf; Fristad, Rosa F; Skaar, Ida

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have changed the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Usti, and a novel species, Aspergillus calidoustus, has been erected. It was also demonstrated that clinical isolates previously identified as A. ustus actually belong to the emerging pathogen A. calidoustus. Aspergillus ustus were frequently isolated from Norwegian water systems, and due to the taxonomical progress, these waterborne strains could be identified more precisely. A MLST study including ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin sequences was conducted on 32 strains previously identified as A. ustus. All strains were identified as A. calidoustus, which was verified by physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of that A. calidoustus is able to colonize water distribution systems. In respect to the potential role of water systems as a source of nosocomial infections in patients with immunodeficiency, attention should be given to water systems in hospitals and other healthcare units, especially the heated-water installations. © 2011 ISHAM

  19. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  20. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  1. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in commercial Bulgur wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bertechini FARIA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aflatoxins are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic mycotoxins. The objective of this work was to study the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus in commercial Bulgur wheat in the city of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Thirty samples of commercial Bulgur wheat, acquired in the period of August 2011 to January 2012, were evaluated. The enumeration analysis showed that samples had up to 273.3 CFU of molds and 133.3 CFU of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus per gram of wheat. Forty-two monosporic isolates were obtained and identified as Aspergillus flavus. The isolates were analyzed regarding their aflatoxigenic potential by culture in coconut milk agar; hydroxide vapor exposure; chromatography; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting genes that code enzymes of the aflatoxins synthesis pathway. Some of the isolates were confirmed to be aflatoxin producers and several of them presented a genetic profile of aflatoxin synthesis. The obtained results demonstrated that Bulgur wheat A. flavus contamination is concerning.

  2. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Shah, Zia Ullah; Shah, Aamer Ali; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Khan, Afsar; Munir, Shahzad; Hasan, Fariha

    2017-06-01

    The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  4. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  5. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  6. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods...... of approximately 6% of the strains. None of the other species in the black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. One strain (NRRL 337), called the “food fungus”, because it is used for single cell protein based on cheap growth substrates, produced both fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Industrial citric acid producers...

  8. Emergence of hand contamination with Aspergillus during demolition work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunat, Lisiane; Ahmed-Lecheheb, Djihane; Hartemann, Philippe; Hunter, Paul R; Hautemanière, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Hand rubbing with hydro-alcoholic solutions prevent the exogenous nosocomial infection, but the hydro-alcoholic solutions were not sporicidal. A major program of demolition was organized on the area of the University Hospital of Nancy (France) between 2007 and 2010, and this period is often considered as a possible source of suspending Aspergillus spores. This study shows the emergence of Aspergillus on the hands of the medical students during demolition period despite the same quality of hand hygiene. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2001-01-01

    of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and pectin...... lyase A (pelA) and Agaricus bisporus 28S rRNA genes, which were used as probes in the RFLP analysis, revealed clear polymorphism between these two taxa. The A. niger pkiA and pelA probes placed six strains in an A. japonicus group and 12 isolates in an A. aculeatus group, which exhibited intraspecific...

  10. Aqueous extracts of Tulbaghia violacea inhibit germination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somai, Benesh Munilal; Belewa, Vuyokazi

    2011-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are important plant pathogens and causal agents of pre- and postharvest rots of corn, peanuts, and tree nuts. These fungal pathogens cause significant crop losses and produce aflatoxins, which contaminate many food products and contribute to liver cancer worldwide. Aqueous preparations of Tulbaghia violacea (wild garlic) were antifungal and at 10 mg/ml resulted in sustained growth inhibition of greater than 50% for both A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Light microscopy revealed that the plant extract inhibited conidial germination in a dose-dependent manner. When exposed to T. violacea extract concentrations of 10 mg/ml and above, A. parasiticus conidia began germinating earlier and germination was completed before that of A. flavus, indicating that A. parasiticus conidia were more resistant to the antifungal effects of T. violacea than were A. flavus conidia. At a subinhibitory extract dose of 15 mg/ml, hyphae of both fungal species exhibited increased granulation and vesicle formation, possibly due to increased reactivity between hyphal cellular components and T. violacea extract. These hyphal changes were not seen when hyphae were formed in the absence of the extract. Transmission electron microscopy revealed thickening of conidial cell walls in both fungal species when grown in the presence of the plant extract. Cell walls of A. flavus also became considerably thicker than those of A. parasiticus, indicating differential response to the extract. Aqueous preparations of T. violacea can be used as antifungal treatments for the control of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Because the extract exhibited a more pronounced effect on A. flavus than on A. parasiticus, higher doses may be needed for control of A. parasiticus infections.

  11. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  12. Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2009-01-01

    , splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window...... size on single local networks for training, to cover both donor and acceptor site information. We have applied NetAspGene to other Aspergilli, including Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger. Evaluation with independent data sets reveal that NetAspGene performs substantially...... better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene....

  13. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...

  14. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.J.L.; Prathumpai, W.; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their

  15. Biosynthesis of phytases and phosphatases by Aspergillus niger 551

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARyw

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Key words: Aspergillus niger, phytase, phosphatase, amylase, protease, starch. ... biological production of phytases is of great significance in research. The researchers focus their attention mainly on finding appropriate strains and on their ... substrate, 200 μl of the enzyme extract and 200 μl 25 mMol of.

  16. Nutritional Evaluation of Graded Levels of Aspergillus-treated Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) goats were fed untreated (control diet A with 30% inclusion level) and Aspergillus treated diet, B (10%) and diet C (20%) in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake, digestibility, BW and growth rate. Fungus-treated rice husk appeared to be well ...

  17. Production and partial purification of glucoamylase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Glucoamylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses 1,4α and 1,6β-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides yielding glucose. Aspergillus niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were locally isolated from cassava peel dumpsite for the production of glucoamylase enzyme. A. niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were screened for their hyper.

  18. Production and partial purification of glucoamylase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucoamylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses 1,4α and 1,6β-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides yielding glucose. Aspergillus niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were locally isolated from cassava peel dumpsite for the production of glucoamylase enzyme. A. niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were screened for their hyper producing ability on ...

  19. Biomodification of palm shell activated carbon using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions using commercial untreated granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) and PSAC biomodified with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger biomass, respectively, was studied. The adsorption capacity of the three biosorbents was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments at ...

  20. Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger AM07 isolated from the soil. ... The crude amylase preparation of A. niger AM07 had temperature and pH optima activities at 60oC and 4.0 respectively. The optimum substrate concentration was 3 %. The action of the crude amylase of A. niger on raw tuber ...

  1. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  2. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    . We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and Gen...

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Sexual Sporulation Mutants of Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, K.; Heemst, van D.; Slakhorst, M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Heyting, C.

    2001-01-01

    For the genetic dissection of sexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans, we started a collection of ascosporeless mutants. After mutagenization of conidiospores with high doses of UV, we isolated 20 mutants with defects in ascospore formation. We crossed these mutants in two successive rounds with

  4. Effect Of Laboratory Produced Xylanase From Aspergillus niger On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of laboratory produced xylanase enzyme from Aspergillus niger on highly fibrous feeds and feedstuffs was investigated. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) from grass hay and rice husk (Oryza sativa) from crop by-product characterised with high fibre content served as substrates (Feeds and Feedstuffs) for the ...

  5. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and Biotechnology, Vol. 85, pp. 869-883. Bizukojc M. and Ledakowicz S. 2009. Physiological, morphological and kinetic aspects of lovastatin biosynthesis by. Aspergillus terreus. Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4, pp. 647–664. Casas Lopez J. L., Sanchez Perez J.A., Fernandez Sevilla J.M., Acien Fernandez F. G. et al. 2003.

  6. Dynamics of dsRNA mycoviruses in black Aspergillus population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 10% of all examined 668 representatives of black Aspergillus species, independent of worldwide location, were infected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses. These isometric viruses (25-40 nm diameter) contained a variety of often multiple segments of different dsRNA sizes

  7. Dynamics of dsRNA mycoviruses in black Aspergillus populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Approximately 10% of all examined 668 representatives of black Aspergillus species, independent of worldwide location, were infected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses. These isometric viruses (25-40 nm diameter) contained a variety of often multiple segments of different dsRNA sizes

  8. Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus flavus on stored lemon fruits. ... Erwinia chrysanthemi RK-67 and Bacillus subtilis RK-6 treatments reduced disease severity on both lemon cultivars. Furthermore, both the cell suspension and culture filtrates of Burkholderia cepacia strain RK- 277 reduced ...

  9. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Condiments Chemistry,Microbiology ,Technology.Academic Press,. San Fransisco,pp 35-305. Rasooli I, Abyaneh MR (2004).Inhibitory effects of thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food Control. 15: 479-483. Rivlin RS (2001). Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

  10. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... constraint of grain quality and sorghum production. Various ... respectively. Key words: Sorghum, Aspergillus flavus, AFB1, biological control. ..... J. Appl. Microbiol. 2: 297-306. Mishra HN, Chitrangada D (2003). A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 43(3): ...

  11. Lipoxygenase activity accelerates programmed spore germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory J. Fischer; William Bacon; Jun Yang; Jonathan M. Palmer; Taylor Dagenais; Bruce D. Hammock; Nancy P. Keller

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of...

  12. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products. These fungi were ...

  13. Cellulase production by wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste cellulosic materials (corncob, sawdust and sugarcane pulp) and crystalline cellulose induced cellulase production in wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from a wood-waste dump in Lagos, Nigeria. Cellulose-supplemented media gave the maximum ...

  14. Cellulase and Pectinase Production Potentials of Aspergillus Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of pectinase and cellulase by Aspergillus niger from corn cob was examined. The organism was screened for enzymatic activity using Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose (CMC) and Pectin as substrate. The result revealed a clear zone of inhibition in the agar plates. The organism was subjected to different optimum ...

  15. Biotransformations of (--Myrtenol and (--Nopol by Aspergillus tamarii MRC 72400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Yılmazer Keskin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biotransformation of (--myrtenol (1 and (--nopol (2 by Aspergillus tamarii MRC 72400 was described. The biotransformation of (--myrtenol (1 with A. tamarii for 7 days afforded (--p-menth-1-en-7,8-diol (3. The biotransformation of (--nopol (2 by A. tamarii for 7 days afforded (--7-hydroxymethyl-1-p-menthen-8-ol (4.

  16. Biosorption characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus in removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Key words: Biosorption, cadmium, Aspergillus fumigatus, industrial wastes, biomass. INTRODUCTION. Mobilization of heavy ... Removal of toxic heavy metals from industrial waste waters is essential from the stand point ... effects of cadmium include a number of acute and chro- nic disorders, such as itai-itai ...

  17. Extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus parasiticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The β-D-fructofuranosidases are enzymes with biotechnological potential that can be used in different industrial sectors as food and beverage. In this context, microorganisms are important producers of these biomolecules, especially filamentous fungi. The production of extracellular β-Dfructofuranosidase from Aspergillus ...

  18. The role of rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus in standing maize crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil and un-husked maize samples were collected from 29 different locations belonging to three distinct ecological zones (Swat, Hazara and Peshawar) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were evaluated for the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. The soil samples collected from Peshawar ...

  19. Genetic relationships among strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...

  20. Production of Aspergillus niger biomass from aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single cell protein) production was investigated. Aspergillus niger was grown in unsupplemented and supplemented (glucose or nitrogen sources [(NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NH4NO3 and KNO3]) BSG liquor by submerge fermentation on rotary ...

  1. Aflatoxin B 1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) producing potential of different strains of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from 1,200 stored rice grains collected from 43 locations in 20 rice growing states in India was investigated. Eighty-five strains of A. flavus were isolated from the discolored rice grains and tested for their AFB1 producing potential on ...

  2. Inhibiting Aspergillus flavus growth and degrading aflatoxin B1 by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, which has a negative effect on animal production and economic profits. In order to inhibit A. flavus growth and degrade aflatoxin, the optimal proportion of beneficial microbes such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala were selected.

  3. Optimization of chloroxylenol degradation by Aspergillus niger using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroxylenol is a very toxic phenolic derivative and it represents potential hazard towards human health and to the environment. Aspergillus niger, local isolate, is an efficient fungus to degrade 99.72% of 2 mg/L of chloroxylenol after 7 days of fermentation. It also has a high capacity to degrade 91.83% of higher ...

  4. epi-Aszonalenins A, B, and C from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Three new benzodiazepines have been isolated from an unusual chemotype of Aspergillus novofumigatus: epi-aszonalenins A, B, and C. The structures were elucidated by use of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR ESI MS. The relative configuration was established on the basis...

  5. Induction, characterization and genetic analysis of Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aspergillus flavus infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) results in the accumulation of aflatoxins in seeds, which are very harmful to humans and animals. Mutation breeding programs are an effective way of inducing resistant mutants. In this study, we induced a genetic variation by using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) ...

  6. Cellulase Production by Aspergillus flavus Linn Isolate NSPR 101 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagasse, corncob and sawdust were used as lignocellulosic substrates for the production of cellulase enzyme using Aspergillus flavus after ballmilling and pretreatment with caustic soda. From the fermentation studies, sawdust gave the best result with an enzyme activity value of 0.0743IU/ml while bagasse and corncob ...

  7. Optimization for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes and are capable of degrading lignocellulosic materials. Cellulases have wide range of applications. This work focuses on factors relevant for improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis of saw dust by using Aspergillus niger. Different cultural conditions were examined to assess their ...

  8. RNA interference-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus is a frequent contaminant of agricultural commodities such as corn, peanut, tree nuts and cottonseed. Ingestion of foods, especially corn, contaminated with aflatoxins has been implicated in acute toxicoses while chronic, low-level exposure can lead to...

  9. Aspergillus flavus infection on preserved Eel (Thysoidea macrurus)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.; Samuel, C.T.

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus was observed growing on a 2.1 m long specimen of eel (Thyrsoidea macrurus). Half of the eel was submerged in 5% formalin in a loosely covered specimen jar. The fungus grew on the eel skin as yellowish-green, heavily...

  10. Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Ozcelik, İlknur Ş; Hofmann, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi. It was the first Aspergillus species to have its genome sequenced, and automated gene prediction tools predicted 9,451 open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, of which less than 10% were assigned...

  11. Culture conditions for the production of a tannase of Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Key words: Tannin, tannase, tannic acid, methyl gallate, Aspergillus tamari IMI388810 (B), Oji River L.G.A.,. Enugu, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... the remaining tannins or its degradation products which are not detoxified by the ..... Chemistry and Significance of Condensed tannins. Ed. Hemingway. RW and ...

  12. Nitrogen supplements effect on amylase production by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of amylase by Aspergillus niger on three cassava whey media in liquid shake culture was compared. The supplemented cassava whey (SCW) medium exhibited gave amylase activity of 495 U/ml. Biomass cropped was 1.63 g/l in the SCW medium. Yeast extract employed as a nitrogen supplement increased ...

  13. Comparison of kinetic characteristics of xylanases from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAB

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Camacho NA, Aguilar OG (2003). Production, purification, and characterization of a low-molecular-mass xylanase from Aspergillus sp. and its application in baking. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 104: 159-171. Castellan G (1986). Fundamentos de físico-química. Livros Técnicos e. Científicos, Rio de Janeiro, ...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae Strain 3.042

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Chunling; Hou, LiHua; Zeng, Bin; Cao, Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40.

  15. Evaluation of the detection techniques of toxigenic Aspergillus isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These methods rely on using different types of coconut culture media, methylated â-cyclodextrin and ammonium hydroxide vapour tests. However, our results showed that use of these techniques were not sufficiently sensitive for all Aspergillus species and suggested a simple thin layer chromatography (TLC) as a sensitive ...

  16. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate

  17. Population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus following biocontrol treatment of corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. The field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Af...

  18. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet...

  19. Separation and identification of exo- and endoinulinase from Aspergillus ficuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wang; Zhengyu, Jin; Bo, Jiang; Xueming, Xu

    2003-08-01

    A new and convenient method was developed to separate and identify exo- and endoinulinase from Aspergillus ficuum by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eight protein bands were obtained. Three bands were identified as exoinulinase, and two bands were endoinulinase, by using TLC and HPLC. The five bands were all detected as glycoproteins with the sensitive periodic acid-silver stain.

  20. Maturation of conidia on conidiophores of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, Wieke R.; Tegelaar, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Golovina, Elena A.; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Conidia of Aspergillus niger are produced on conidiophores. Here, maturation of conidia on these asexual reproductive structures was studied. Pigmented conidia that had developed on conidiophores for 2, 5, and 8 days were similarly resistant to heat and were metabolically active as shown by CO2

  1. Assessment of Aspergillus niger biofilm growth kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 was grown on bubble minicolumns aerated with pure oxygen either as biofilm or free-mycelium submerged systems. Growth kinetics was followed by estimating biomass from released carbon dioxide using a titration method and mathematical models. Submerged cultures showed increased ...

  2. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.

  3. Emerging infections caused by non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A P; Chen, S C-A; Slavin, M A

    2016-08-01

    There are three broad groups of non-Aspergillus moulds: the mucormycetes, the hyalohyphomycetes and the phaeohyphomycetes. Infections with these pathogens are increasingly reported, particularly in the context of increasing use of immunosuppressant agents and improved diagnostics. The epidemiology of non-Aspergillus mould infections varies with geography, climate and level of immunosuppression. Skin and soft-tissue infections are the predominant presentation in the immunocompetent host and pulmonary and other invasive infections in the immunocompromised host. The more common non-Aspergillus moulds include Rhizopus, Mucor, Fusarium and Scedosporium species; however, other emerging pathogens are Rasamsonia and Verruconis species, which are discussed in this article. Outbreaks of non-Aspergillus mould infections have been increasingly reported, with contaminated medical supplies and natural disasters as common sources. Currently culture and other conventional diagnostic methods are the cornerstone of diagnosis. Molecular methods to directly detect and identify mould pathogens in tissue and body fluids are increasingly used. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under certain conditions Aspergillus plants and produce aflatoxin, one of the most highly carcinogenic natural substances known. An ongoing project seeks to reduce aflatoxin contamination of peanut (Arachis hypogae L.). This paper describes new research tools, which have been developed to reach this goal.

  5. Partially purified polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger (SA6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated from Aspergillus niger (A. niger) (SA6), partially purified and characterized. The PG showed two bands on SDS-PAGE suggesting an “endo and exo PG with apparent molecular weights of 35 and 40 KDa, respectively. It was purified 9-fold with a yield of 0.18% and specific activity of 246 ...

  6. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regard...

  7. Protective role of Aspergillus fumigatus melanin against ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanin content increased in Aspergillus fumigatus mycelium exposed to ultraviolet for 10 min but gradually decreased after 60 min of UV exposure. So, it can be concluded that melanin protects fungus for survival until 60 min which was obvious after studying conidia and mycelia by transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  8. Rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus as a Possible Contaminant of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemist

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Soil and un-husked maize samples were collected from 29 different locations belonging to three distinct ecological zones (Swat, Hazara and Peshawar) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were evaluated for the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. The soil samples collected.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... rice cultivars tested. Key words: Rice, Aspergillus flavus, AFB1. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food crop in India and the bulk of rice is grown in ... storehouse was a mixture of 10 sub-samples (200 g each). Such ..... estimated in 11 cultivars of rice and 6 cultivars of wheat.

  10. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  11. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  12. Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic activity of 24 selected bacterial strains detected by previous microbiological studies to Aspergillus flavus was tested in vitro and in vivo conditions. Within 24 strains, only ten strains showed remarkable inhibition zone (6-34 mm) against the pathogen in assays carried out in Petri plates. Both cell suspension and ...

  13. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    A novel 2,2 '-epoxy-terphenyllin, candidusin C, in addition to the well known secondary metabolites terphenyllin, 3-hydroxyterpenyllin and chlorflavonin, has been isolated from the chemically unexplored fungus Aspergillus campestris. The latter three are known secondary metabolites from Aspergill...

  14. Nutrient effects on production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucosidase) by Aspergillus niger on three media in liquid shake culture was compared. The culture filtrate of this organism exhibited relatively highest activity of all three enzymes and extracellular protein content at 7-day interval during the course of its ...

  15. Fermentatative production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was carried out using jatropha seed cake. Itaconic acid is commercially produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus terreus with molasses. Jatropha seed cake is one of the best carbon sources among various carbohydrates, because it is pure, inexpensive and available ...

  16. Onset of carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipphi, M.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Arst Jr., H.N.; Felenbok, B.

    2003-01-01

    The role of hexose phosphorylating enzymes in the signaling of carbon catabolite repression was investigated in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A D-fructose non-utilizing, hexokinase-deficient (hxkA1, formerly designated frA1) strain was utilized to obtain new mutants lacking either

  17. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... This study, therefore explored the potential use of certain biocontrol agents for the reduction of growth of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production in sorghum. Among all the biocontrol agents tested, culture filtrate of Rhodococcus erythropolis completely inhibited the A.

  18. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella): Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Sun, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this se...

  19. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  20. Evaluation of xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being present in relatively low amounts, pentosans and hemicelluloses play an important role in dough rheology and bread properties. The aim of this work is to understand how the xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. influence dough rheology, such as elasticity, extensibility, strength and stability.

  1. Culture conditions for the production of a tannase of Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Aspergillus tamarii IMI388810 (B) a tannic acid degrading fungus was isolated from soil inundated by effluent of a tannery at Oji River local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. It was identified by. CABI Bioscience, United Kingdom as A. tamarii with accession number of IMI 388810 (B). This fungus.

  2. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host. In Chapter 1, the use of microbial cell-factories for the

  3. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  4. Single cell protein extraction from orange wastes using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOW) and orange pulp wastes (OPW) using Aspergillus niger isolate No. 5 by solid state fermentation. Maximum protein enrichment of 52.48% and 46.50% were made using the substrates of SOW and OPW, respectively, on the seventh day of ...

  5. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    application. Key words: Lipase, purification, Aspergillus flavus PW2961, magnetic nanoparticles.______. Correspondence: sharafkareem@yahoo.co.uk ..... in solid state fermentation. Process Biochem. 38(5): 715-721. Okoli, C., Boutonnet, M., Mariey, L., Jaras, S. And Rajarao, G. (2011). Application of magnetic iron oxide ...

  6. Structure and activity of Aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrath, Aaron P; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Collyer, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (ANAO) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. We show here that in common with the related...

  7. Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Lee, M.; Kim, D.H.; Meijer, M.; Majoor, E.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5–5.5 μm)

  8. Ribotoxin genes in isolates of Aspergillus section Clavati.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Ribotoxins are ribosome inactivator proteins with high specificity against the sarcin/ricin domain of the 28S ribosomal RNA. We examined the presence of ribotoxin genes in isolates of species recently assigned to Aspergillus section Clavati using specific primer pairs. All species assigned to this

  9. Heavy metal biosorption potential of Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two isolates belonging to the predominant genera Aspergillus and Rhizopus isolated from agricultural field treated with sewage/ industrial effluents were selected for the biosorption potential evaluation of Cr and Cd. Pretreated, dead biomass of above fungi was used for bioadsorption experiment at pH value 4.5 with the ...

  10. Effects Of Solid State Fermentation By Aspergillus niger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fermentation and incubated for O (control), 4,8 and 10 days to evaluate the changes in crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid ... inoculation of Cassava peel meal (CPM) with Aspergillus niger, the crude protein increased from 3.50% to 7.0% and to 5.25% on inoculation with Rhizopus spp.

  11. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and thei...

  12. Efficient production of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokman, B.C.; Joosten, V.; Hovenkamp, J.; Gouka, R.J.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2003-01-01

    The heterologous production of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) was analysed in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori under control of the inducible endoxylanase promoter. Secretion of active ARP was achieved up to 800 mg l-1 in shake flask cultures. Western blot analysis showed that an

  13. Production of Xylanase from Aspergillus sydowii Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Xylanase from Aspergillus sydowii Isolated from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango) Fruit. ... The overall best enzyme productivities of 97.8 and 92.6 U/mg protein were achieved after 72 h in the medium containing orange peel and mango peel respectively. These levels were much higher than that achieved ...

  14. Expression and secretion of defined cutinase variants by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemeren, I.A. van; Beijersbergen, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Several cutinase variants derived by molecular modelling and site- directed mutagenesis of a cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi are poorly secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The majority of these variants are successfully produced by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori. However, the

  15. Oxidant and solvent stable alkaline protease from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in agricultural practices has necessitated the judicious use of agricultural wastes into value added products. In this study, an extracellular, organic solvent and oxidant stable, serine protease was produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9952 under solid state fermentation. Maximum protease yield was obtained ...

  16. Mannitol is required for stress tolerance in Aspergillus niger conidiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Bax, M.; Patel, H.; Flitter, S.J.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Vries, de R.P.; Kuyk, van P.A.; Visser, J.

    2003-01-01

    D-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15% of the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store

  17. Identification of resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection in cotton germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural resistance of in cottonseed to Aspergillus flavus infection has not been explored to date. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing -70 strain was used to assess the resistance of seed from thirty five35 cotton varieties including representatives from Gossypium arboreum, G. barbadense, a...

  18. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  19. A novel pig feed formulation containing Aspergillus niger CSA35 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel feed (CPFG) on the body weight gain and some selected biochemical parameters of pigs. Cassava peels treated with biomass of A. niger CSA35 for a period of three weeks to initiate enzymatic digestion of ...

  20. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  1. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out,

  2. Pectinolytic complex production by Aspergillus niger URM 4645 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... ... Yadav PK, Yadav D, Yadav KDS (2009). Purification and characterization of pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus terricola and its application in retting of natural fibers. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 159: 270-283. Zenebon O, Pascuet NS (2005). Métodos físico-químicos para análise de alimentos (4th ed.).

  3. From Teaching to Facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    A shift from teaching to learning is characteristic of the introduction of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in an existing school. As a consequence the teaching staff has to be trained in skills like facilitating group work and writing cases. Most importantly a change in thinking about teaching...

  4. Facilitating leadership team communication

    OpenAIRE

    Hedman, Eerika

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and describe how to facilitate competent communication in leadership teamwork. Grounded in the premises of social constructionism and informed by such theoretical frameworks as coordinated management of meaning theory (CMM), dialogic organization development (OD), systemic-constructionist leadership, communication competence, and reflexivity, this study seeks to produce further insights into understanding leadership team communicati...

  5. Facilitation of Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  6. Comparison of fermentation profiles between lupine and soybean by Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae in solid-state culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the possibilities of using lupine as a soybean replacement in fermented foods, fermentation profiles of lupine and soybean by Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae, respectively, in a solid-state culture were compared. Biomass, spore concentration, oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide

  7. Mindfulness for group facilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Krohn, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that mindfulness techniques can be used for enhancing the outcome of group performance. The word mindfulness has different connotations in the academic literature. Broadly speaking there is ‘mindfulness without meditation’ or ‘Western’ mindfulness which involves active...... thinking and ‘Eastern’ mindfulness which refers to an open, accepting state of mind, as intended with Buddhist-inspired techniques such as meditation. In this paper, we are interested in the latter type of mindfulness and demonstrate how Eastern mindfulness techniques can be used as a tool for facilitation....... A brief introduction to the physiology and philosophy of Eastern mindfulness constitutes the basis for the arguments of the effect of mindfulness techniques. The use of mindfulness techniques for group facilitation is novel as it changes the focus from individuals’ mindfulness practice...

  8. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  9. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Chung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxybenzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxybenzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  10. Aspergillus otitis in small animals--a retrospective study of 17 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Elizabeth C; Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus spp. are saprophytic opportunistic fungal organisms and are a common cause of otomycosis in humans. Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing Aspergillus otitis in dogs and cats. To characterize signalment, putative risk factors, treatments and outcomes of a case series of dogs and cats with Aspergillus otitis. Eight dogs and nine cats diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis. A retrospective review of medical records from 1989 to 2014 identified animals diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis based on culture. All dogs weighed greater than 23 kg. The most common putative risk factors identified in this study were concurrent diseases, therapy causing immunosuppression or a history of an otic foreign body. Aspergillus otitis was unilateral in all study dogs and most cats. Concurrent otitis media was confirmed in three dogs and one cat, and suspected in two additional cats. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common isolate overall and was the dominant isolate in cats. Aspergillus niger and A. terreus were more commonly isolated from dogs. Animals received various topical and systemic antifungal medications; however, otic lavage under anaesthesia and/or surgical intervention increased the likelihood of resolution of the fungal infection. Aspergillus otitis is uncommon, typically seen as unilateral otitis externa in cats and larger breed dogs with possible risk factors that include immunosuppression and otic foreign bodies; previous antibiotic usage was common. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. [Indoor fungal exposure: What impact on clinical and biological status regarding Aspergillus during cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, D; Deneuville, E; Frain, S; Chevrier, S; Belaz, S; Roussey, M; Gangneux, J-P

    2015-06-01

    The sources of exposure during diseases due to Aspergillus fungi in cystic fibrosis patients are still poorly explored. We assessed home fungal exposure in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and analysed its impact on the presence of Aspergillus biological markers, the colonisation of airways, as well as the sensitization and Aspergillus serology. Between March 2012 and August 2012, 34 patients benefited from a visit performed by a home environment medical adviser including sampling for mycological analysis. The number of colonies of Aspergillus was not significantly different in the various sampling sites (P=0.251), but the number of non-Aspergillus colonies was much higher in the kitchen (P=0.0045). Subsequently, home fungal exposure was compared between the groups "absence of Aspergillus-related markers" and "presence of Aspergillus-related markers". Home exposure to Aspergillus (P=0.453) and non-Aspergillus (P=0.972) flora was not significant between the 2 groups. Within this series of 34 patients that should be expanded, we note an absence of clear relationship between home exposure and the Aspergillus-linked markers in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. This result should be taken into account regarding too restrictive hygiene advices provided to families, given the fact that fungal exposure can also results from activities performed away from home. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  13. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  14. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B[sub 1] and G[sub 1] with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author).

  15. Cadmium biosorption by Aspergillus niger; Biossorcao de cadmio pelo Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmilson@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)

  16. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The studentcentred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4 universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  17. Essence: Facilitating Software Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2008-01-01

      This paper suggests ways to facilitate creativity and innovation in software development. The paper applies four perspectives – Product, Project, Process, and People –to identify an outlook for software innovation. The paper then describes a new facility–Software Innovation Research Lab (SIRL......) – and a new method concept for software innovation – Essence – based on views, modes, and team roles. Finally, the paper reports from an early experiment using SIRL and Essence and identifies further research....

  18. Aspergillus endocarditis presenting as acute right lower limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ghosh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrigendum: On 31/10/2013 the name of the author K. Shah was corrected to read K. Saha.Aspergillus endocarditis is an 2nd most common cause of endocarditis having poor prognosis. We report a rare case of fungal endocarditis following cardiac valve replacement presenting as acute pain in the right lower limb. Embolism and endocarditis were primarily detected by CT angiography and echocardiography respectively. Diagnosis was established by histopathology and culture of the emboli and was confirmed later by isolation of the Aspergillus species from the resected valve tissue. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.9002   Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 502-504

  19. Decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X J; Du, Z Y; Chen, Z

    2001-10-01

    The decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum has been studied. It was found that Aspergillus ficuum could effectively decolorize Direct Black 22 especially when grown as pelleted mycelia. Results showed that the media containing Direct Black 22 at 50 mg/L could be decolorized by 98.05% of the initial color in 24 h. The optimum pH and temperature of decolorization are 4.0 and 33 degrees C respectively. Aeration was quite beneficial to decolorization. Medium composition and the concentration of Direct Black 22 could affect the rate of decolorization. The dye degraded products assayed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and macroscopic observation showed that the decolorization of Direct Black 22 by mycelial pellets includes two important processes: bioadsorption and biodegradation. The degradation experiment agree with the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation.

  20. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... are described here, A. cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. neobridgeri, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. steynii, and A. westerdijkiae. Twelve species of section Circumdati produce mellein, 17 produce penicillic acid and 17 produce xanthomegnins. Eight species consistently produce large amounts of ochratoxin...... A: Aspergillus cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. westerdijkiae, A. sulphurous, and Neopetromyces muricatus. Two species produce large or small amounts of ochratoxin A, but less consistently: A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum. Ochratoxin production in these species...

  1. [Aspergillus species in hospital environments with pediatric patients in critical condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana; Cattana, María; Rojas, Florencia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Clarisa; Vergara, Marta; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus is a group of opportunistic fungi that cause infections, with high morbimortality in immunosuppressed patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent species in these infections, although the incidence of other species has increased in the last few years. To evaluate the air fungal load and the diversity of Aspergillus species in hospitals with pediatric patients in critical condition. The Intensive Care Unit and Burns Unit of a pediatric hospital were sampled every 15 days during the autumn and spring seasons. The air samples were collected with SAS Super 100(®) and the surface samples were collected by swab method. The UFC/m(3) counts found exceeded the acceptable levels. The UFC/m(3) and the diversity of Aspergillus species found in the Intensive Care Unit were higher than those found in the Burns Unit. The fungal load and the diversity of species within the units were higher than those in control environments. The use of both methods -SAS and swab- allowed the detection of a higher diversity of species, with 96 strains of Aspergillus being isolated and 12 species identified. The outstanding findings were Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus parasiticus, due to their high frequency. Aspergillus fumigatus, considered unacceptable in indoor environments, was isolated in both units. Aspergillus was present with high frequency in these units. Several species are of interest in public health for being potential pathogenic agents. Air control and monitoring are essential in the prevention of these infections. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  3. Studies on the Production of Pectinase from Tamarind Kernel Powder by Submerged Fermentation using Aspergillus Species,and Optimization of Medium Using Design Expert

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, R.; JagadeeshBabu, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Six strains of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 505, Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 510, Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 1027, Aspergillus niger NCIM 548, Aspergillus niger NCIM 616 and Aspergillus awamorii NCIM 885) were compared for their capacity to produce exo-pectinase in submerged fermentation (SMF) from a new substrate (tamarind kernel powder; TKP). Maximum pectinolytic activity was reached at 72 h of growth, the best fungal strain being A. foetidus NCIM 505. Different types of car...

  4. Diketopiperazines produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus Brazilian strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Niege A.J.C; Pupo, Monica T.; Carvalho, Ivone; Campo, Vanessa L. Campo; Bastos, Jairo K. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: jkbastos@fcfrp.usp.br; Duarte, Marta Cristina T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2005-11-15

    Seven diketopiperazines, corresponding to the cycles (L)-Pro-(L)-Phe, (L)-Pro-Gly, (L)-Pro- (L)-Pro, (L)-Pro-(L)-Val, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Leu, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Phe, and (L)-Pro-(L)-Leu, were isolated from the Aspergillus fumigatus fermentation broth. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were determined on the basis of NOESY experiments and by using a modified version of Marfey's method using HPLC, respectively. (author)

  5. Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara Srikanth Reddy; Devi Chendira Penmmaiah; Alugolu Rajesh; Madhusudan Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. ...

  6. Biosynthesis of phytases and phosphatases by Aspergillus niger 551

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the Aspergillus niger 551 strain to produce phytases and phosphatases in 24 days shake cultures at a pH adjusted to 5.5 and a changing (uncontrolled) pH, in a medium containing 0.5% of glucose and 4% of starch. The fermentation process of the culture performed ...

  7. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa. The optimal ...

  8. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Zomorodian, K.; Pourshahid, S; Sadatsharifi, A; Mehryar, P; Pakshir, K.; Rahimi, MJ; Monfared, AA

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in ...

  9. Aspergillus tamarii keratitis in a contact lens wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cuadros

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Keratitis produced by Aspergillus tamarii has been previously described associated to an ocular injury. We report a case in a contact lens wearer with a history of previous bilateral myopic LASIK ablation, bilateral intracorneal rings and vitrectomy and scleral buckling in his left eye. The fungus could be quickly identified combining phenotype, microscopy and mass spectrometry. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin, oral voriconazole, and topical amphotericin and natamycin and voriconazole was needed for corneal preservation.

  10. Visual failure in allergic aspergillus sinusitis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, I. S.; Billson, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    We present a case of rapid progressive unilateral visual loss in a 69-year-old woman who presented with facial pain, ipsilateral proptosis and restriction of eye movements, and nasal symptoms suggestive of sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic aspergillus sinusitis was made on the basis of local histopathology and systemic features. Over a three-week period vision deteriorated to bare perception of light but showed a dramatic improvement to a level of 6/9 central vision on systemic steroid thera...

  11. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moi...

  12. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    . flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different...... species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...

  13. Optimization of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    H.R Samadlouie; Sh Gharanjik

    2015-01-01

    Among the various fungal strains screened for citric acid production, Aspergillus niger is known to produce considerable amounts of citric acid and other organic acids when cultivated in submerge fermentation. In this study, optimization of the medium components was carried out using "one-factor-at-a-time" and response surface methods (RSM). One-factor-at-a-time indicated that the amount of citric acid production was increased along with the increasing of agitation speed (from 150 to 200 rpm)...

  14. Aconitase and citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, C P; Röhr, M

    1985-01-01

    In view of the often-cited theory that citric acid accumulation is caused by an inhibition of aconitase activity, the equilibrium of the reaction of aconitase was investigated by comparing in vivo steady-state concentrations of citrate and isocitrate in Aspergillus niger grown under various citric acid-producing conditions. With the equilibrium catalyzed by the A. niger enzyme in vitro, similar values were obtained. The validity of our in vivo measurements was verified by the addition of the ...

  15. Interference of Griseofulvin with the Segregation of Chromosomes at Mitosis in Diploid Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, A.; Georgopoulos, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    Low concentrations of the antibiotic griseofulvin were found to cause increased frequencies of somatic segregation due to chromosome nondisjunction in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans. PMID:4600705

  16. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    .... To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional...

  17. Production and Purification of Peroxidase from Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Jebor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditions were the isolated of Aspergillus niger from soil and growth in synthetic medium, it gave high titer of peroxidase activity, the fructose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, after 12 days of incubation, incubation temperature 25 °C and pH = 6.5. Peroxidase purified in four purification steps; precipitation with 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate, step of dialysis, the third by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose and fourth by gel filtration throughout Sephadex G-100. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 150U/mg with 7.75 folds. The peroxidase was shown to have molecular weight of 40kDa in SDS-PAGA and about 40kDa in gel filtration.The optimum pH and temperature for peroxidase activity 7 and 35 C0 respectively.

  18. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The obje......Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products....... The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have...... isolation of 47 black Aspergilli, who all turned out to be A. acidus and did not produce neither ochratoxin or fumonisins, no significant risk from these toxins were associated with this intake. Single kernel analysis of maize showed that fumonisins were present in 15% of the kernels at varying...

  19. Could we predict airborne Aspergillus contamination during construction work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilmis, B; Thepot-Seegers, V; Angebault, C; Weiss, E; Alaabouche, I; Bougnoux, M-E; Zahar, J-R

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infection. Hospital outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis have been associated with demolition and building construction. This study was designed to examine the impact of meteorologic factors and different periods of work on outdoor fungal airborne concentrations. The study was conducted at Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, a 650-bed teaching care hospital recently involved in a large construction program, including renovation, construction, and demolition. During the work phases, prospective external air samplings were performed 3 times a week, and meteorologic parameters were collected every day. Two hundred and one samples were collected. Aspergillus spp were found in 80.1% of samples, with a median concentration of 16 colony forming units (CFU)/m3. A significant increase in the colony count of molds occurred after demolition. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with overall fungi concentration were the type of work construction and temperature. Elevated Aspergillus spp concentrations (>20 CFU/m3) were associated with higher temperature. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance. According to our results we suggest that demolition work should be performed during the winter and fall seasons. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Sadatsharifi, Arman; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  1. Aspergillus Pericarditis with Tamponade in a Renal Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus pericarditis is a rare and life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients. It has nonspecific clinical manifestations that often mimic other disease entities especially in patients who have extensive comorbidities. Diagnosis is oftentimes delayed and rarely done antemortem. A high degree of suspicion in immunocompromised patients is necessary for evaluation and timely diagnosis. This is a case of Aspergillus pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in a renal transplant patient with liver cirrhosis. Two months after transplant, he developed decompensation of his cirrhosis from hepatitis C, acute cellular rejection, and Kluyvera bacteremia, followed by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE bacteremia. Four months after transplant, the patient presented with lethargy and fluid overload. He subsequently developed shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. An echocardiogram showed pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. He had emergent pericardiocentesis that showed purulent drainage. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Amphotericin B was initiated when the pericardial fluid grew mold that was later identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient quickly decompensated and expired.

  2. Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Speth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion.

  3. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  4. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult. This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection. Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications. The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis.

  5. Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kubátová, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro- and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supplemented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguishable in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species.

  6. Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion. PMID:22927844

  7. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  8. Toward elucidation of genetic and functional genetic mechanisms in corn host resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan eShan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species in the Aspergillus genus, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Contamination of aflatoxins in corn profusely happens at pre-harvest stage when heat and drought field conditions favor A. flavus colonization. Commercial corn hybrids are generally susceptible to A. flavus infection. An ideal strategy for preventing aflatoxin contamination is through the enhancement of corn host resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. Constant efforts have been made by corn breeders to develop resistant corn genotypes. Significantly low levels of aflatoxin accumulation have been determined in certain resistant corn inbred lines. A number of reports of quantitative trait loci (QTLs have provided compelling evidence supporting the quantitative trait genetic basis of corn host resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Important findings have also been obtained from the investigation on candidate resistance genes through transcriptomics approach. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms will provide in-depth understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and hence facilitate the breeding of corn with resistance to A. falvus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

  9. The loss of the inducible Aspergillus carbonarius MFS transporter MfsA leads to ochratoxin A overproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Sempere, A; Martínez-Culebras, P V; González-Candelas, L

    2014-07-02

    Ochratoxin A (OTA), a nephrotoxic compound produced by certain Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins in food commodities. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main source of OTA in wine, grape juice and dried vine fruits. Although many studies have focused on OTA production by A. carbonarius, little is known about the genes related to OTA production and transport. We have found a transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MfsA) which is highly expressed with a 102-fold induction in an ochratoxigenic A. carbonarius strain compared to a low OTA producer strain. The encoding mfsA gene shows similarity to the multidrug efflux transporter flu1 from Candida albicans. A high number of putative transcription factor binding sites involved in the response to stress were identified within the promoter of mfsA. Phenotypical analysis of ΔmfsA deletion mutants revealed that the loss of mfsA leads to a slight growth reduction and increased OTA production. We therefore hypothesize that MfsA could be a stress response transporter whose disruption could cause an increase in oxidative stress together with a stimulation of mycotoxin production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study......, and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...

  11. Water relations of Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, xerophilic fungi isolated from Indonesian dried fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, K A; Hocking, A D

    1988-08-01

    The water relations of four xerotolerant fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, isolated from dried salt fish, were examined at 25 degrees C, on media in which water activity (aW) was controlled by NaCl or a glucose/fructose mixture. All fungi were less tolerant of NaCl than glucose/fructose at low aW. P. variotii grew 2 to 3 times faster on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl. The minimum aW permitting germination varied from 0.753 for E. amstelodami and, 0.776 for A. candidus and A. sydowii to 0.793 for P. variotii. At low aW germination was not always followed by growth. In most cases the minimum for growth was 0.02 aW units above that for germination.

  12. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobus M. Visagie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified. Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species of section Aspergillus were made using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit. Morphological observations were made from cultures grown under standardized conditions. Aspergillus mallochii does not grow at 37 °C and produces roughened ascospores with incomplete equatorial furrows. Aspergillus megasporus produces large conidia (up to 12 µm diam and roughened ascospores with equatorial furrows. Echinulin, quinolactacin A1 & A2, preechinulin and neoechinulin A & B were detected as major extrolites of A. megasporus, while neoechinulin A & B and isoechinulin A, B & C were the major extrolites from A. mallochii.

  13. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  14. Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  15. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunashree B. Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentations (SSF for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  16. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  17. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified....... Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species...

  18. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Helen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth.

  19. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  20. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doobay, Ravi; Sun, Lili; Shah, Amish; Masuta, Pardeep; Shepherd, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as "crack dancing." It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never "crack danced" before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest "crack dancing" is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with "crack dancing." The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for "crack dancing." There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the "crack dance."

  1. SSRI Facilitated Crack Dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Doobay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Choreoathetoid movement secondary to cocaine use is a well-documented phenomenon better known as “crack dancing.” It consists of uncontrolled writhing movements secondary to excess dopamine from cocaine use. We present a 32-year-old male who had been using cocaine for many years and was recently started on paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI for worsening depression four weeks before presentation. He had been doing cocaine every 2 weeks for the last three years and had never “crack danced” before this episode. The authors have conducted a thorough literature review and cited studies that suggest “crack dancing” is associated with excess dopamine. There has never been a documented case report of an SSRI being linked with “crack dancing.” The authors propose that the excess dopaminergic effect of the SSRI lowered the dopamine threshold for “crack dancing.” There is a communication with the Raphe Nucleus and the Substantia Nigra, which explains how the SSRI increases dopamine levels. This is the first documented case of an SSRI facilitating the “crack dance.”

  2. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A J; Morris, T A; Jin, B; Saint, C P; Kelly, J M

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes.

  3. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.; Coassin, S.; Haun, M.; Binder, U.; Kronenberg, F.; Haas, H. de; Jank, M.; Maurer, E.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Lass-Florl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem

  4. Aspergillus hancockii sp. Nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitt, John I.; Lange, Lene; Lacey, Alastair E.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations...

  5. GalX regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruben, B.S.; Zhou, M.; de Vries, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Galactose catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by at least two regulators, GalR and GalX. In Aspergillus niger only GalX is present, and its role in d-galactose catabolism in this fungus was investigated. Phenotypic and gene expression analysis of a wild type and a galX disruptant

  6. D-Galactose uptake is nonfunctional in the conidiospores of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, E.; de Vries, R.P.; Seiboth, B.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Sandor, E.; Metz, B.; Kubicek, C.P.; Karaffa, L.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri), including Aspergillus niger, as well as many other Ascomycetes fail to germinate on d-galactose as a sole carbon source. Here, we provide evidence that the ability of A. niger to transport d-galactose is growth stage dependent, being

  7. Aspergillus is monophyletic: Evidence from multiple gene phylogenies and extrolites profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsubé, S.; Perrone, G.; Magistà, D.; Houbraken, J.; Varga, J.; Szigeti, G.; Hubka, V.; Hong, S.-B.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    Abstract Aspergillus is one of the economically most important fungal genera. Recently, the ICN adopted the single name nomenclature which has forced mycologists to choose one name for fungi (e.g. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, etc.). Previously two proposals for the single name nomenclature in

  8. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  9. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  10. Periprosthetic hip joint infection with Aspergillus terreus: A clinical case and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal periprosthetic joint infections due to Aspergillus species are rare but are associated with significant cost and morbidity. We present a case of Asperigillus terreus prosthetic joint infection of the hip. The patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of systemic antifungals along with surgical management. Keywords: Fungal prosthetic joint infection, Aspergillus terreus

  11. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Petersen, Lene Maj; Lyhne, Ellen Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been repor...

  12. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  13. Use of prophylactic voriconazole for three months after lung transplantation does not reduce infection with Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, Nete; Jensen, Claus; Tvede, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This was a retrospective study analyzing the mortality and incidence of Aspergillus infection and invasive disease, comparing patients given voriconazole for 3 months following transplantation to patients not given prophylaxis.......This was a retrospective study analyzing the mortality and incidence of Aspergillus infection and invasive disease, comparing patients given voriconazole for 3 months following transplantation to patients not given prophylaxis....

  14. Reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Brickwedde, A.; Zeijl, C. van; Punt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid

  15. Description of a cellulose-binding domain and a linker sequence from Aspergillus fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, M; Ebbelaar, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; van der Valk, H

    A family I cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and a serine- and threonine-rich linker peptide were cloned from the fungi Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein comprising GST and a peptide linker with the CBD fused to its C-terminus, was

  16. Population genetics as a tool for understanding toxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which is aflatoxin. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populations...

  17. Fatal fungal endocarditis by Aspergillus udagawae: an emerging cause of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Atsuko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Matsuda, Yoko; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Takashi; Tanaka, Jun; Misawa, Yoshiki; Nakano, Yuta; Asami, Ryoko; Chida, Koji; Kikuchi, Ken; Arai, Tomio

    Aspergillus udagawae has morphological similarities to Aspergillusfumigatus; however, it shows a low susceptibility to common antifungal drugs and poor in vitro sporulation. We present the first reported case of infectious endocarditis caused by A. udagawae. An awareness of this newly described Aspergillus species is vital for further clarification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Gouka, R.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding VHHs were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting VHH fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA

  19. Additional notes on species of Aspergillus, Eurotium and Emericella from Egyptian desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Mouchacca, J

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus floriformis, A. pseudodeflectus, Eurotium xerophilum (st. con. A. xerophilus) and Emericella purpurea (st. con. A. purpureus) are described and illustrated as new species. In addition the morphology of strains identified as Aspergillus melleus, A. caespitosus and A. versicolor is discussed.

  20. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    in Costa Rica and produces large pink to greyish brown sclerotia. Aspergillus lacticoffeatus was found on coffee beans in Venezuela and Indonesia, and is an effective producer of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus piperis was isolated from black ground pepper and produces large yellow to pink brown sclerotia...

  1. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. RESULTS: The

  2. Aspergillus species in indoor environments and their possible occupational and public health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Hedayati, MT; Hedayati, N; Ilkit, M; Syedmousavi, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus, which consists of a few hundred opportunistic mold species found in various climatic conditions, causes diseases including localized infections, fatal diseases, allergic responses, and inhaled conidia in humans. Herein, we present an overview of the most common diseases and allergic infections caused by Aspergillus species and their associated health hazards in various indoor environments worldwide. PMID:28681011

  3. Enhanced itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger using genetic modification and medium optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus niger was selected as a host for producing itaconic acid due to its versatile and tolerant character in various growth environments, and its extremely high capacity of accumulating the precursor of itaconic acid: citric acid. Expressing the CAD gene from Aspergillus terreus

  4. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T). Asperg......Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  5. OPTIMASI MEDIA FERMENTASI Aspergillus oryzae, PENGHASIL ANTIJAMUR PATOGEN BUAH KAKAO Phytophthora palmivora Fermentation Medium Optimization of Aspergillus oryzae, Antifungals Producer for Cacao Pathogen Phytophthora palmivora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahma, Rizka Aulia; Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Sunaryanto, Rofiq; Yunianta, Yunianta

    2015-01-01

    ...s (Phytophtora palmivora) that capable of reducing the amount of cacao production each year. This study follows up a previous study that had found compounds that are actively against at Phytophtora palmivora from Aspergillus oryzae metabolites...

  6. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus

  7. A young immunocompetent patient with spontaneous Aspergillus empyema who developed severe eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Kudo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus empyema is usually reported as a complication of surgical procedures, and spontaneous cases are quite rare. Here, we describe the case of a 16-year-old man who suddenly developed dyspnea despite previously being healthy. Chest computed tomography showed multiple mass-containing cavity lesions, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion in the left thorax. Within 2 weeks, Aspergillus fumigatus grew from his pleural effusion, thus he was diagnosed with Aspergillus empyema. He also developed severe eosinophilia after admission, and was treated with anti-fungal drugs. Although there are many factors that can cause eosinophilia, we suspect that infection with Aspergillus fumigatus was the major cause of the eosinophilia in this patient. The lack of bronchial symptoms and lesions were not consistent with a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. As far as we know, this is the first case of spontaneous Aspergillus empyema resulting in severe eosinophilia.

  8. Methyl Red Decolorization Efficiency of a Korea Strain of Aspergillus sp. Immobilized into Different Polymeric Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang-Min

    2017-07-01

      Intensive research studies have revealed that fungal decolorization of dye wastewater is a promising replacement for the current process of dye wastewater decolorization. The authors isolated an Aspergillus sp. from the effluent of a textile industry area in Korea and assessed the effects of a variety of operational parameters on the decolorization of methyl red (MR) by this strain of Aspergillus sp. This Aspergillus sp. was then immobilized by entrapment in several polymeric matrices and the effects of operational conditions on MR decolorization were investigated again. The optimal decolorization activity of this Aspergillus sp. was observed in 1% glucose at a temperature of 37 °C and pH of 6.0. Furthermore, stable decolorization efficiency was observed when fungal biomass was immobilized into alginate gel during repeated batch experiment. These results suggest that the Aspergillus sp. isolated in Korea could be used to treat industrial wastewaters containing MR dye.

  9. Post-operative Aspergillus mediastinitis in a man who was immunocompetent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfanos Stylianos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aspergillus spp. infections mainly affect patients who are immunocompromised, and are extremely rare in immunocompetent individuals. Case presentation Aspergillus post-operative mediastinitis is considered to be a devastating infection, usually affecting patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with specific predisposing factors. We describe the case of an immunocompetent 68-year-old Caucasian man with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, who underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and developed post-operative mediastinitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The environmental control did not reveal the source of A. flavus infection and, despite combined antifungal therapy, our patient died as a result of septic shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusion Aspergillus mediastinitis mainly affects patients after cardiosurgery operations with predisposing factors, and it is unusual in patients who are immunocompetent. The identification of the Aspergillus spp. source is often difficult, and there are no guidelines for the administration of pre-emptive therapy in this population of at-risk patients.

  10. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2.

  11. Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Cory A.; Brown, Stacy D.; Hayman, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system. PMID:23983696

  12. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  13. Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS. Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system.

  14. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation.

  15. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingyu; Affeldt, Katharyn J; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-10-13

    Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE) of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Luo et al.

  16. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neelkamal; Staab, Janet F; Marr, Kieren A

    2010-02-17

    Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H)1-T(H)17) and destructive allergic (T(H)2) immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins) participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown. To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H)2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17) to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H)1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein), Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase), Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase) and Asp f22 (enolase). Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals. Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  17. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelkamal Chaudhary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H1-T(H17 and destructive allergic (T(H2 immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown.To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17 to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein, Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase, Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and Asp f22 (enolase. Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals.Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  18. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have been performed to study L-[S-35] methionine incorporation and protein secretion kinetics in Aspergillus oryzae. Pulse experiments confirmed the mechanism of methionine uptake reported previously for Penicillium chrysogenum (Benko et al., 1967). Pulse......-chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...

  19. Pyopneumothorax Secondary to Aspergillus Infection: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Saheer, S; Singh, Abhijjeet; Hassan, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    A 32 -year- old male presented with complaints of fever, dry cough, breathlessness and right sided chest pain of two months duration. Chest radiograph showed right sided hydropneumothorax which revealed frank pus on diagnostic thoracocentesis, for which tube thoracostomy was done. Despite vigorous broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, postural drainage and chest physiotherapy, there was no clinical improvement. Further work up included serology, pleural fluid culture, closed as well as thoracoscopic guided pleural biopsy revealed growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Patient was prescribed antifungal medication (Voriconazole) and subsequent thoracotomy with right sided pneumonectomy showed good clinical recovery. PMID:23226822

  20. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Growth of Aspergillus Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12.0. 100. Table 2: Effect of Total Darkness Regime on the Linear Growth of Aspergillus Species Isolated from. Stored Millet Grains. (. )2. O E E. -. DAYS. (. )2. O E. E. -. ∑. A. species. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 17.62. A. candidus. 0.01. 1.61. 1.04. 0.47. 0.05. 0.66. 1.17. A flavus. 0.016. 0.001 0.027 0.302 0.123 0.017 0.252. A fumigatus.

  1. Emergence of the Molds Other than Aspergillus in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sana; Perfect, John R

    2017-09-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs); although Aspergillus remains the most common IFI caused by molds, other fungi, such as Mucorales, dematiaceous molds, and Fusarium spp, are being seen with increasing frequency. Presentations can vary, but sinopulmonary and disseminated infections are common. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is rudimentary. Fungal cultures and histopathology remain the backbone of diagnostics, as no good serologic markers are available. Polymerase chain reaction tests are being developed but currently remain investigational. Management of these infections is usually multidisciplinary, requiring surgical debridement along with antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number......, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer...

  3. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  4. Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity.

  5. Resistencia ao brometo de etidio em aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elizabeth Scarazzatti Frau

    1985-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo isolar e ana-lisar geneticamente mutantes de Aspergillus nidulans resistentes ao Brometo de Etídio (BE), bem como estudar os efeitos da riboflavina em relação a toxicidade do BE. Foram isolados mutantes espontâneos e induzidos. Dos mutantes isolados espontaneamente apenas 3 continuaram a apresentar resistência, sendo 1 da linhagem A e 2 da linhagem biAl methGl. Os outros mutantes (16) foram obtidos por indução com luz ultravioleta. Destes apenas 9...

  6. Immobilization of Aspergillus ficuum phytase: product characterization of the bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Phillippy, B Q

    1988-01-01

    Aspergillus ficuum phytase was covalently immobilized on Fractogel TSK HW-75 containing 2-oxy-l-alkylpyridinium salts. A packed-bed bioreactor was constructed with the immobilized phytase. An HPLC ion-exchange method was used to analyze the enzymatic products of the bioreactor. Immobilized fungal phytase was able to hydrolyze myo-inositol Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri-, and diphosphates. When the substrate solution was recirculated for 5 hr in the bioreactor about 50% inorganic orthophosphate was released and myo-inositol-diphosphate and mono-phosphate were the only remaining products.

  7. Dioxomorpholines and Derivatives from a Marine-Facultative Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Cuevas, Manuel A; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Sánchez-Castellanos, Mariano; Menéndez, Daniel; Raja, Huzefa A; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; González, María Del Carmen; Figueroa, Mario

    2017-08-25

    Two new dioxomorpholines, 1 and 2, three new derivatives, 3-5, and the known compound PF1233 B (6) were isolated from a marine-facultative Aspergillus sp. MEXU 27854. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 and 2 was elucidated by comparison of experimental and DFT-calculated vibrational circular dichroism spectra. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 were noncytotoxic to a panel of human cancer cell lines with different functional status for the tumor-suppressor protein p53, but were inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-reversing multidrug resistance in a doxorubicin-resistant cell line.

  8. On the safety of Aspergillus niger - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, E.; Dunn-Coleman, N.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste treatment. In the last two decades, A. niger has been developed as an important transformation host to over-express food enzymes. Being pre-dated by older names, the name A. niger has been conserved for economical and information......Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug...

  9. Adsorption of indigo carmine on dead biomass of aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Karina Oliveira; Monteiro, Carlo Rannyêr Lopes; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Gomes, Raimundo Bemvindo; Buarque, Hugo Leonardo de Brito

    2008-01-01

    As indústrias têxteis geram efluentes ricos em corantes durante toda a sua cadeia produtiva. Neste estudo, ensaios cinéticos foram realizados utilizando biomassas mortas de Aspergillus niger, diferentemente tratadas, como adsorvente para a remoção de índigo carmim a partir de soluções aquosas. Ensaio cinético com carvão ativado comercial também foi realizado para comparação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a biomassa fúngica sem tratamento algum foi capaz de remover 95% do índigo carmim da ...

  10. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  11. Lumazine peptides from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-03-12

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  12. beta-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eMouyna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, beta-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of beta(1-3glucans, it is expected that beta-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of beta-1,3-glucan modifying enzyme in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis.

  13. Xylanases from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus niveus and Aspergillus ochraceus produced under solid-state fermentation and their application in cellulose pulp bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betini, J H A; Michelin, M; Peixoto-Nogueira, S C; Jorge, J A; Terenzi, H F; Polizeli, M L T M

    2009-10-01

    This study describes the production of xylanases from Aspergillus niveus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus under solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial residues as substrates. Enzyme production was improved using a mixture of wheat bran and yeast extract or peptone. When a mixture of corncob and wheat bran was used, xylanase production from A. niger and A. ochraceus increased by 18%. All cultures were incubated at 30 degrees C at 70-80% relative humidity for 96 h. For biobleaching assays, 10 or 35 U of xylanase/g dry cellulose pulp were incubated at pH 5.5 for 1 or 2 h, at 55 degrees C. The delignification efficiency was 20%, the brightness (percentage of ISO) increased two to three points and the viscosity was maintained confirming the absence of cellulolytic activity. These results indicated that the use of xylanases could help to reduce the amount of chlorine compounds used in cellulose pulp treatment.

  14. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4μg/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of ergot alkaloids with conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Christine M; Kenaley, Shawn C; Rittenour, William R; Panaccione, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that affect the nervous and reproductive systems of exposed individuals through interactions with monoamine receptors. They have been studied more widely in ergot fungi and grass endophytes but also are found in Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic human pathogen that reproduces and disseminates exclusively through conidia. The ergot alkaloids festucla-vine and fumigaclavines A, B and C are present in or on conidia of A. fumigatus. Cultures of the fungus that are free of conidia are difficult to obtain, obscuring comparisons of conidia versus vegetative hyphae as sources of the ergot alkaloids. To create conidiation-deficient strains of A. fumigatus we manipulated the bristle A gene (brlA), which controls vesicle formation or budding growth necessary for conidiation in Aspergillus spp. Disruption of brlA in A. fumigatus, via homologous recombination, resulted in a nonconidiating mutant that produced bristle-like structures instead of conidiophores and conidia. Moreover the disrupted strain failed to produce ergot alkaloids as verified by HPLC analyses. Complementation with a wild-type allele restored conidiation and ergot alkaloid production. These results suggest that ergot alkaloids are not produced within the vegetative mycelium of the fungus and are associated directly with conidiation.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Approach in Designing Thermostable Aspergillus niger Xylanase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau, N. D.; Sianturi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dynamics methods we have applied as a tool in designing thermostable Aspergillus niger Xylanase, by examining Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and The Stability of the Secondary Structure of enzymes structure at its optimum temperature and compare with its high temperature behavior. As RMSD represents structural fluctuation at a particular temperature, a better understanding of this factor will suggest approaches to bioengineer these enzymes to enhance their thermostability. In this work molecular dynamic simulations of Aspergillus niger xylanase (ANX) have been carried at 400K (optimum catalytic temperature) for 2.5 ns and 500K (ANX reported inactive temperature) for 2.5 ns. Analysis have shown that the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) significant increase at higher temperatures compared at optimum temperature and some of the secondary structures of ANX that have been damaged at high temperature. Structural analysis revealed that the fluctuations of the α-helix and β-sheet regions are larger at higher temperatures compared to the fluctuations at optimum temperature.

  17. Viriditoxin Production by Aspergillus viridi-nutans and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, E. B.; Milburn, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Bioproduction of viriditoxin on various substrates by strains of the Aspergillus fumigatus group was determined under several incubation conditions. Aspergillus viridi-nutans strains NRRL 4365 and 576 produced the largest quantities of toxin, A. brevipes gave reduced yields, and there was no detectable synthesis by isolates of four related species. After 30 days in static culture at 20 C on various autoclaved agricultural commodities, optimal yields of 440 and 380 mg of toxin were observed per kilogram of sorghum and rice. Toxin levels were reduced on corn, rye, and wheat (40-200 mg/kg); yields were low on cottonseed, barley, and oats. Incubation at 10 C restricted biosynthesis of viriditoxin, and no toxin accumulated on substrates maintained at 5 C for 120 days. In a liquid, yeast extract-sucrose medium, maximal mycotoxin production developed in shake flasks; after 156 h, 10 mg of toxin accumulated per gram of mycelium. Viriditoxin produced in submerged culture was associated with the mycelium; less than 1% was detected in the filtered broth after 156 h of incubation. PMID:4582816

  18. Aspergillus infection in urinary tract post-ureteric stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the urinary tract are usually encountered following prolonged antibiotic use, instrumentation and indwelling urinary catheters. These type of infections are mostly seen in immuno-compromised patients. Candida is the most common among the fungal infections of urinary tract followed by Aspergillus infection. Here is a case report of a 26 year old diabetic female who presented with abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting. She had undergone double-J stenting 15-20 days back. The cause of the symptoms was not detected till the patient underwent C.T Scan-KUB with excretory urography which showed the displaced D-J stent. Then on performing replacement of D-J stent, cystoscopy was done and the tissue sample was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. On Microbiological examination, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the tissue, which was culprit behind the disease. Patient was then treated with anti-fungal drugs, following which she gradually improved.

  19. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella: Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this section have a sexual state, which were named Emericella in the dual name nomenclature system. In the present study, strains belonging to subgenus Nidulantes were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer region (ITS, partial β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2 sequences. Nine sections are accepted in subgenus Nidulantes including the new section Cavernicolus. A polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of section Nidulantes. Based on this approach, section Nidulantes is subdivided in seven clades and 65 species, and 10 species are described here as new. Morphological characters including colour, shape, size, and ornamentation of ascospores, shape and size of conidia and vesicles, growth temperatures are important for identifying species. Many species of section Nidulantes produce the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. The most important mycotoxins in Aspergillus section Nidulantes are aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, emestrin, fumitremorgins, asteltoxins, and paxillin while other extrolites are useful drugs or drug lead candidates such as echinocandins, mulundocandins, calbistrins, varitriols, variecolins and terrain. Aflatoxin B1 is produced by four species: A. astellatus, A. miraensis, A. olivicola, and A. venezuelensis.

  20. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Astoreca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  2. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail: antun@eq.ufrj.br, E-mail: gimenes@eq.ufrj.br [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  3. Evolutionary Relationships among Aspergillus Species Producing Economically Important Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycotoxins are produced by aspergilli, which contaminate our foods and feeds. Economically the most important of these mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. Recent studies indicate that these compounds can be produced by a number of unrelated Aspergillus species. Evolutionary relationships among sections involving these mycotoxin producing species (Aspergillus sections Circumdati, Flavi, Nigri, Fumigati and Clavati were evaluated using phylogenetic analysis of -tubulin and ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetically unrelated species were found to produce the same mycotoxins. For example, aflatoxins have been produced under laboratory conditions by species belonging to three different sections, while ochratoxin A (OA and patulin have been produced by a variety of unrelated species. Based on this observation, mycotoxin-producing abilities of the isolates were lost (or gained several times during the evolution of the genus. Previous studies revealed that biosynthetic genes of several mycotoxins are clustered in the genome, leading to the idea that these clusters could be horizontally transferred as a unit to unrelated species, leading to the biosynthesis of the same mycotoxins in phylogenetically unrelated fungi. Such a mechanism could also explain the widespread occurrence of ochratoxin and patulin production in aspergilli. The organisation of biosynthetic genes of patulin and ochratoxins is unknown. Research is in progress in our laboratory to clarify the genetic background of biosynthesis of these mycotoxins, and to develop biosynthetic gene based probes for the molecular detection of these mycotoxin producing organisms.

  4. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eVicentefranqueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections.

  5. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-13

    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  6. Diagnosis of filamentous fungi on tissue sections by immunohistochemistry using anti-aspergillus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sundaram; Uppin, Shantveer G; Uppin, Megha S; Pamidimukkala, Umabala; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Identification based on histology alone has limitations as Aspergillus species share morphology with other filamentous fungi. Differentiation of Aspergillus species from hyalohyphomycetes and dematiaceous fungi is important as the antifungal susceptibility varies among different species and genera. Given these problems, ancillary techniques are needed to increase specificity. Our aim was to study the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with anti-Aspergillus antibody in the identification of Aspergillus species and to differentiate them from other filamentous fungi. Fifty formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections including 47 from cases of culture proven filamentous fungi, 3 from colonies of cultures of hyalohyphomycetes, and 11 smears from cultures were subjected to IHC studies using polyclonal rabbit anti-Aspergillus antibody (Abcam, UK) after antigen retrieval. The IHC on tissue sections was positive in 88% cases involving culture proven Aspergillus species. There was no cross reactivity with Mucorales species, Candida species, dematiaceous fungi and hyalohyphomycetes. Hence immunohistochemistry can be used as an ancillary technique for the diagnosis of Aspergillus species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Biodiversity of species of Aspergillus section Fumigati in semi-desert soils in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusiano, Gustavo E; Piontelli, Eduardo; Fernández, Mariana S; Mangiaterra, Magdalena L; Cattana, María E; Kocsubé, Sándor; Varga, János

    The distribution of Aspergillus species in soil has been widely studied all over the world. The aim of this study was the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of species Aspergillus belonging to section Fumigati present in soils from two Argentinian semi-desert areas having different geological conditions. Altogether, 23 isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati were recovered and identified using a polyphasic approach including phenotypic and molecular identifications. Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto and Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis had the highest frequency, of occurrence while isolates closely related to Aspergillus udagawae and Aspergillus felis were rarely observed. A. fumigatiaffinis and isolates closer to A. udagawae were isolated for the first time from Argentinian soils and this is the first report on the occurrence of species belonging to the A. felis clade in South America. Recent scientific interests in biodiversity, as well as the increasing importance of aspergilli as causative agents of human and animal diseases increase the need to understand the diversity and occurrence of these fungi in nature. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Den gode facilitator af refleksionsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia

    2009-01-01

    præsenteres i det følgende afsnit, og forfatteren argumenterer for begrebet facilitator af refleksionsarbejde. Herefter udfoldes rollen som facilitator ifølge Ghay og Lillyman. De har fokus på positive praksisoplevelser og tillidsfulde relationer. Gillie Boltons teoretiske og praktiske referenceramme...

  9. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  10. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Budroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182, which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli.

  11. Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis.

  12. Aspergillus and Penicillium in the Post-genomic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and a whole genus genome sequencing project in progress for Aspergillus. This book highlights some of the changes in the studies into these fungi, since the availability of genome sequences. The contributions vary from insights in the taxonomy of these genera, use of genomics for forward genetics and genomic...... in Penicillium and Aspergillus and a promise of many more things to come. An essential reference for everyone working with Aspergillus and Penicillium and other filamentous fungi and the book is also recommended reading for everyone with an interest in fungal genomics....

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115 bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships.

  14. Construction of a Shuttle Vector for Heterologous Expression of a Novel Fungal α-Amylase Gene in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yanchen; Mao, Youzhi; Yin, Xiaolie; Gao, Bei; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-07-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae is a well-known expression host used to express homologous and heterologous proteins in a number of industrial applications. To facilitate higher yields of proteins of interest, we constructed the pAsOP vector to express heterologous proteins in A. oryzae. pAsOP carries a selectable marker, pyrG, derived from Aspergillus nidulans, and a strong promoter and a terminator of the amyB gene derived from A. oryzae. pAsOP transformed A. oryzae efficiently via the PEG-CaCl2-mediated transformation method. As proof of concept, green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in A. oryzae transformed by pAsOP-GFP. Additionally, we identified a novel fungal α-amylase (PcAmy) gene from Penicillium sp. and cloned the gene into the vector. After transformation by pAsOPPcAmy, the α-amylase PcAmy from Penicillium sp. was successfully expressed in a heterologous host system for the first time. The α-amylase activity in the A. oryzae transformant was increased by 62.3% compared with the untransformed A. oryzae control. The PcAmy protein produced in the system had an optimum pH of 5.0 and optimum temperature of 30°C. As a cold-adapted enzyme, PcAmy shows potential value in industrial applications because of its high catalytic activity at low temperature. Furthermore, the expression vector reported in this study provides promising utility for further scientific research and biotechnological applications.

  15. Expression and Activity Analysis of Fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lihong; Chen, Liping; Chen, Yongsen; Zhang, Nu; Han, Yawei

    2017-08-01

    The fructosyltransferase gene was isolated and cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The gene was 1368 bp, which encoded a protein of 455 amino acids. To analyze the activity of the expressed fructosyltransferase, the pET32a-fructosyltransferase recombined plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The fructosyltransferase gene was successfully expressed by Isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction. The molecular weight of the expression protein was about 45 kDa. The optimal conditions of protein expression were 25 °C, 0.1 mM IPTG, and 8 h of inducing time. The optimal concentration of urea dealing with inclusion body was 2.5 M. The expressed protein exhibited a strong fructosyl transfer activity. These results showed that the expressed fructosyltransferas owned transferase activity, and could catalyze the synthesis of sucrose-6-acetate.

  16. Enhanced production of fructosyltransferase in Aspergillus oryzae by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghai; Duan, Mengjie; Liu, Yalan; Fan, Sen; Lin, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    To breed Aspergillus oryzae strains with high fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity using intraspecific protoplast fusion via genome-shuffling. A candidate library was developed using UV/LiCl of the conidia of A. oryzae SBB201. By screening for enzyme activity and cell biomass, two mutants (UV-11 and UV-76) were chosen for protoplast fusion and subsequent genome shuffling. After three rounds of genome recombination, a fusion mutant RIII-7 was obtained. Its FTase activity was 180 U g-1, approximately double that of the original strain, and RIII-7 was genetically stable. In fermentation culture, FTase activity of the genome-shuffled strain reached a maximum of 353 U g-1 using substrate-feeding method, and this value was approximately 3.4-times higher than that of the original strain A. oryzae SBB201. Intraspecific protoplast fusion of A. oryzae significantly enhanced FTase activity and generated a potentially useful strain for industrial production.

  17. Aspergillus oryzae nrtA affects kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the role of the nitrate transporter-encoding gene (nrtA) of Aspergillus oryzae by gene disruption. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that homologous recombination occurred at the resident nrtA locus. Real-time PCR showed that the nrtA gene was strongly inducible by NaNO3. The nrtA disruptant did not exhibit normal growth when nitrate was available as the sole nitrogen source. These results indicate that NrtA is essential for nitrate uptake in A. oryzae. Kojic acid (KA) production was inhibited by the addition of a small amount of sodium nitrate. The nrtA-disrupted strain was deficient in the uptake of nitrate. As a result, KA production in this strain was not considerably affected by the presence of nitrate.

  18. Optimization of cellulase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, D V; Patil, S G; Bastawde, K B

    1991-07-01

    Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207 produces high levels of extracellular beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities in submerged fermentation. Among the nitrogen sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, and corn-steep liquor were the best for the production of cellulolytic enzymes by A. niger. The optimum pH and temperature for cellulase production were 3.0-5.5 and 28 degrees C, respectively. The cellulase complex of this strain was found to undergo catabolite repression in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glycerol at all concentrations caused catabolite repression of cellulase production. The addition of glucose (up to 1% concentration) enhanced the production of cellulolytic enzymes, but a higher concentration of glucose effected the pronounced repression of enzymes. Generally the growth on glucose- or glycerol-containing medium was accompanied by a sudden drop in the pH of the fermentation medium to 2.0.

  19. Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger Using Pineapple Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid state fermentation was developed for citric acid production from pineapple waste by Aspergillus niger KS-7. The medium was supplemented with different concentration of glucose, sucrose, ammonium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. It was found that pineapple waste with 15% (w/v sucrose and ammonium nitrate (0.25% w/v gave the optimum citric acid secretion (60.61 g/kg in the presence of methanol (2% v/v when fermented for 5 days at 30 °C with the initial moisture content of 65%. The yield was more than 90% based on the amount of fermentable sugar consumed. These results present the use of pineapple peel as a cheap medium for the production of commercially valuable organic acid by A. niger.

  20. Improving cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Arentshorst, Mark; Allijn, Iris E; Ram, Arthur F J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gelber, Isabelle Benoit

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the potential of adaptive evolution as a tool in generating strains with an improved production of plant biomass degrading enzymes. An Aspergillus niger cellulase mutant was obtained by adaptive evolution. Physiological properties of this mutant revealed a five times higher cellulose production than the parental strain. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of noxR, encoding the regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, was reduced in the mutant compared to the parental strain. Subsequent analysis of a noxR knockout strain showed the same phenotypic effect as observed for the evolution mutant, confirming the role of NoxR in cellulose degradation. Adaptive evolution is an efficient approach to modify a strain and activate genes involved in polysaccharide degradation.

  1. In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

    2014-09-01

    Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen β-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these β-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

  2. Contribution of arginase to manganese metabolism of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keni, Sarita; Punekar, Narayan S

    2016-02-01

    Aspects of manganese metabolism during normal and acidogenic growth of Aspergillus niger were explored. Arginase from this fungus was a Mn[II]-enzyme. The contribution of the arginase protein towards A. niger manganese metabolism was investigated using arginase knockout (D-42) and arginase over-expressing (ΔXCA-29) strains of A. niger NCIM 565. The Mn[II] contents of various mycelial fractions were found in the order: D-42 strain niger mycelia harvested from acidogenic growth media contain substantially less Mn[II] as compared to those from normal growth media. Nevertheless, acidogenic mycelia harbor considerable Mn[II] levels and a functional arginase. Altered levels of mycelial arginase protein did not significantly influence citric acid production. The relevance of arginase to cellular Mn[II] pool and homeostasis was evaluated and the results suggest that arginase regulation could occur via manganese availability.

  3. Azole preexposure affects the Aspergillus fumigatus population in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanio, Alexandre; Cabaret, Odile; Sitterlé, Emilie; Costa, Jean-Marc; Brisse, Sylvain; Cordonnier, Catherine; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between the azole preexposure of 86 patients and the genotype, azole susceptibility, and cyp51A polymorphisms of 110 corresponding Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was explored. Isolates carrying serial polymorphisms (F46Y and M172V with or without N248T with or without D255E with or without E427K) had higher itraconazole MICs (P = 0.04), although <2 μg/ml using the EUCAST methodology, were associated with two genetic clusters (P < 0.001) and with voriconazole preexposure of patients (P = 0.016). Voriconazole preexposure influences the distribution of A. fumigatus isolates with selection of isolates carrying cyp51A polymorphisms and higher itraconazole MICs.

  4. Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 μs, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...... of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono-and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from...

  6. Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

  7. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kuklin, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  8. Structure and activity of Aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Aaron P; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Collyer, Charles A; Bakhuis, Janny G; van den Berg, Marco; Sein, Arjen; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian; Weiss, Anthony S; Guss, J Mitchell

    2011-06-28

    Aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (ANAO) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. We show here that in common with the related enzyme from the yeast Pichia pastoris, ANAO can promote the cross-linking of tropoelastin and oxidize the lysine residues in α-casein proteins and tropoelastin. The crystal structure of ANAO, the first for a fungal enzyme in this family, has been determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The enzyme is a dimer with the archetypal fold of a copper-containing amine oxidase. The active site is the most open of any of those of the structurally characterized enzymes in the family and provides a ready explanation for its lysine oxidase-like activity.

  9. Aspergillus ficuum phytase: complete primary structure elucidation by chemical sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Dischinger, H C

    1993-04-30

    The primary structure of Aspergillus ficuum phytase was deduced from overlaps in peptide sequences. The unglycosylated enzyme is a 441 residue protein with a molecular mass of 48.5-KDa, as calculated from the total covalent structure. The estimated pl of the protein is about 4.76. Of the 19 Asn residues, 9 were found to be glycosylated. The phytase consists of 37% non-polar, 42% polar, 11.5% acidic, and 9.5% basic amino acids. The putative active site of the enzyme containing the sequence RHG is located at the N-terminal region of the molecule and shows homology to the active site of both microbial and mammalian acid phosphatases, and phosphoglycerate mutase.

  10. Differences in the active site environment of Aspergillus ficuum phytases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Sethumadhavan, K

    1998-02-13

    While Aspergillus ficuum phytaseA (phyA) was rapidly inactivated by 1,2-cyclohexanedione and phenylglyoxal, both specific modifiers of arginine, phytaseB (phyB) showed a markedly different behavior. First, phyB was totally insensitive to 1,2-cyclohexanedione even in the presence of 0.2 M guanidinium hydrochloride; second, the enzyme showed a great deal of resistance to inactivation by phenylglyoxal. Taken together, these results indicate that the chemical environment of the active site of phyB is very different from that of the active site of phyA. Despite sequence similarities of the active site region in these two proteins, their differential behavior to arginine modifiers indicates that other parts of the protein play a role in the active site formation. We expected some differences in the structure since the proteins have dissimilar kinetic parameters and pH optima.

  11. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingsong, E-mail: xhwjs@163.co [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China) and Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hu Xinjiang [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie Shuibo [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Bao Zhenglei [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L{sup -1}. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  12. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    . fumigatus sensu stricto species. A. lentulus including isolates from clinical origin, Korean soil and from a dolphin Clustered into an isolated group based on beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences, differing from A. fumigalus by morphological characters, growth temperature and extrolite profile......The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination...... of strains, considered as A. fumigatus earlier, showed that they could be divided into four groups including A. fumigatus sensu stricto, A. lentulus and two new species. The intraspecific genetic variability within A. fumigatus sensu stricto was low, the sequence differences among 23 strains of the species...

  13. Use of Aspergillus niger for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1983-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste material remaining after apple brandy distillation was investigated. Different cellulolytic fungi were tested for their ability to convert the waste organic substances into microbial biomass. An Aspergillus niger strain was chosen as the most convenient microorganism. By growing this mold on the apple slop the following results were obtained: filtration time was shortened by 30 times, reduction of the chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase in the range of 50-80% depending on the substrate dilution and a dry filter cake enriched with fungal biomass to about 12 g/l containing up to 22% raw proteins and certain amounts of cellulolytic enzymes in the filtrate. The influence of the initial pH, the salt addition and the dilution of the substrate were studied as well. 12 references.

  14. Lipoxygenase Activity Accelerates Programmed Spore Germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Fischer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS to germling (GL and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. Overexpression of loxB (OE::loxB increases germination with rapid advance to the GL stage. However, deletion of loxB (ΔloxB or its signal peptide only delays progression to the SS stage in the presence of arachidonic acid (AA; no delay is observed in minimal media. This delay is remediated by the addition of the oxygenated AA oxylipin 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE that is a product of human Alox5. We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments.

  15. Effect of maltose on glucoamylase formation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, L L; Georgi, C E; Lineback, D R

    1972-09-01

    Low levels of glucoamylase are produced when Aspergillus niger is grown on sorbitol, but substitution of the latter by glucose, maltose, or starch results in greater formation of glucoamylase as measured by enzymatic activity. Both glucoamylase I and glucoamylase II are formed in a yeast extract medium; however, glucoamylase I appears to be the only form produced when ammonium chloride is the nitrogen source. Maltose or isomaltose (1.4 x 10(-4)m), but no other disaccharides or monosaccharides, dextrins, dextrans, or starches, stimulated glucoamylase formation when added to mycelia pregrown on sorbitol-ammonium salts. The induction of glucoamylase by maltose was independent of sulfate concentration but showed a dependency on low pH and the absence of utilizable carbon sources.

  16. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  17. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  18. Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Hubertus

    2014-10-01

    Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections.

  19. The Effectiveness of Antifungal Controlling Aspergillus Niger Growth on Plasterboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parjo Umi Kalthsom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good indoor environmental quality is desired for a healthy indoor environment. The microbial growth under indoor environments contribute to the poor indoor environmental quality that can cause various of health problems. In this study, the applications of three types of antifungals to prevent microbial migration, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the coating-bio resistance in remediation of indoor fungal using three types of antifungals with different types of wall finishing materials. The treatment was exposed to optimum temperature and relative humidity at 30°C and 90% respectively. The potassium sorbate, zinc salicylate and calcium benzoate are tested against Aspergillus niger which is collected from indoor rooms. This study has revealed the growth of A. niger are more affected by the potassium sorbate on thick wallpaper, which is the percentage growth are 47%.

  20. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...... truncated, cytosolic targeted, fumarases (Fum1s and FumRs) from S. cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively, and the cytosolic soluble fumarate reductase (Frds1) from S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of these genes in their native strain backgrounds has been reported to lead to alterations...... in the intracellular cytosolic dicarboxylate concentrations. It was found that all the transformant strains had enhanced yield and productivities of citrate compared with the wild-type strain. The transformants also had the ability to produce citrate in trace-manganese-contaminated medium, where the wild type...

  1. Pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma with Aspergillus versicolor infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Rathiymaler; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Mazlan, Mazlina; Lung Than, Leslie Thian

    2018-03-01

    Papillary adenocarcinoma of the lungs is the most common primary lung adenocarcinoma, with the feature of papillary-like structure formation by cells. A dog was presented with the primary complaint of vomiting, hyporexia and increased respiratory effort. Thoracic radiography revealed increased soft tissue radiopacity of the right cranial lung lobe suggestive of possible consolidation or collapsed lung lobe, with generalised miliary nodular pattern throughout the other lung fields. The dog was euthanized humanely and necropsy was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of primary pulmonary lung neoplasm (papillary adenocarcinoma) with Aspergillus versicolor infection identified through fungal culture and PCR. There have been several reports on humans and dogs with fungal infections that often mimic or coexist with pulmonary neoplasm. This is the first documented report of A. versicolor isolated from a lung neoplasm in a dog in Malaysia.

  2. Carbon sources effect on pectinase production from Aspergillus japonicus 586

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on the pectinesterases, endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activities from Aspergillus japonicus 586 was evaluated in liquid media (Manachini solutions supplemented with different substrate concentrations. The culture medium was inoculated with 5.10(6 spores/ml and mantained under agitation (140 rpm, at 30°C, during 122 h. The enzyme evaluation was carried out 24 h after filtration. The crude extract from A. japonicus 586 indicated that the best enzymatic activities were afforded in the presence of 0.5% pectin (pectinesterease, 0.2% pectin and 0.2% glycerol (endopolygalacturonase, and 0.5% pectin associated to 0.5% glucose (exopolygalacturonase. Carbon sources concentration, isolated or associated, significantly affects the pectinesterase, and endo- and exopolygalacturonase activities. Pectin, glucose and saccharose, when added to the culture medium in high concentrations, exhibited a repression effect on all the analyzed enzymes.

  3. Keratitis by Aspergillus flavus infection after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Pacini Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report a case of keratis infection after cataract phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in a 65-year-old female patient. The patient initially underwent cataract surgery on the right eye. Intraocular inflammation appeared on the second post-operative day and was initially treated as Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS. The inflammation was reduced and vision improved initially but very aggressive and progressive keratitis destroyed the cornea due to the delay in correct diagnosis. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from a biopsy.The infection was treated with antifungal agents and loss of the eye was avoided by total corneal transplantation associated with Gundersen conjunctiva cover. To restore the lost vision, a second penetrating corneal graft with removal of the conjunctiva cover was performed 17 months later. The final best-corrected vision was 20/40 but prognosis for long-term graft survival is poor.

  4. Approaches for Comparative Genomics in Aspergillus and Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian; Brandl, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The number of available genomes in the closely related fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium is rapidly increasing. At the time of writing, the genomes of 62 species are available, and an even higher number is being prepared. Fungal comparative genomics is thus becoming steadily more powerful...... and applicable for many types of studies. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of comparative genomics in these fungi, along with recommended methods. The chapter describes databases for fungal comparative genomics. Based on experience, we suggest strategies for multiple types...... of comparative genomics, ranging from analysis of single genes, over gene clusters and CaZymes to genome-scale comparative genomics. Furthermore, we have examined published comparative genomics papers to summarize the preferred bioinformatic methods and parameters for a given type of analysis, highly useful...

  5. Learning to Facilitate (Online) Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Peter; Bull, Susan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    We describe an approach to teaching collaboration skills directly by building on competences for meeting facilitation. (Online) meetings provide a rich arena to practice collaboration since they can serve multiple purposes: learning, problem solving, decision making, idea generation and advancement...

  6. Elusive Origins of the Extra Genes in Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Nora; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    The genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae revealed unexpectedly that this species has approximately 20% more genes than its congeneric species A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Where did these extra genes come from? Here, we evaluate several possible causes of the elevated gene number. Many gene families are expanded in A. oryzae relative to A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but we find no evidence of ancient whole-genome duplication or other segmental duplications, either in A. oryzae or in the common ancestor of the genus Aspergillus. We show that the presence of divergent pairs of paralogs is a feature peculiar to A. oryzae and is not shared with A. nidulans or A. fumigatus. In phylogenetic trees that include paralog pairs from A. oryzae, we frequently find that one of the genes in a pair from A. oryzae has the expected orthologous relationship with A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and other species in the subphylum Eurotiomycetes, whereas the other A. oryzae gene falls outside this clade but still within the Ascomycota. We identified 456 such gene pairs in A. oryzae. Further phylogenetic analysis did not however indicate a single consistent evolutionary origin for the divergent members of these pairs. Approximately one-third of them showed phylogenies that are suggestive of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from Sordariomycete species, and these genes are closer together in the A. oryzae genome than expected by chance, but no unique Sordariomycete donor species was identifiable. The postulated HGTs from Sordariomycetes still leave the majority of extra A. oryzae genes unaccounted for. One possible explanation for our observations is that A. oryzae might have been the recipient of many separate HGT events from diverse donors. PMID:18725939

  7. Elusive origins of the extra genes in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Khaldi

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae revealed unexpectedly that this species has approximately 20% more genes than its congeneric species A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Where did these extra genes come from? Here, we evaluate several possible causes of the elevated gene number. Many gene families are expanded in A. oryzae relative to A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but we find no evidence of ancient whole-genome duplication or other segmental duplications, either in A. oryzae or in the common ancestor of the genus Aspergillus. We show that the presence of divergent pairs of paralogs is a feature peculiar to A. oryzae and is not shared with A. nidulans or A. fumigatus. In phylogenetic trees that include paralog pairs from A. oryzae, we frequently find that one of the genes in a pair from A. oryzae has the expected orthologous relationship with A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and other species in the subphylum Eurotiomycetes, whereas the other A. oryzae gene falls outside this clade but still within the Ascomycota. We identified 456 such gene pairs in A. oryzae. Further phylogenetic analysis did not however indicate a single consistent evolutionary origin for the divergent members of these pairs. Approximately one-third of them showed phylogenies that are suggestive of horizontal gene transfer (HGT from Sordariomycete species, and these genes are closer together in the A. oryzae genome than expected by chance, but no unique Sordariomycete donor species was identifiable. The postulated HGTs from Sordariomycetes still leave the majority of extra A. oryzae genes unaccounted for. One possible explanation for our observations is that A. oryzae might have been the recipient of many separate HGT events from diverse donors.

  8. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  9. Aspergillus niveus Blochwitz 4128URM: new source for inulinase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niveus Blochwitz 4128 URM isolated from sunflower rhizosphere demonstrated a new source of inulinase. The enzyme was produced in culture medium containing inulin as substrate in the concentrations: 10, 15 and 20g L-1. Maximum enzyme activity was obtained in medium containing 20g L-1 inulin. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by ion charge (DE-32 and molecular exclusion (Sephadex chromatography. The results showed the optimal pH and temperature of inulinase from crude extract were 4.0 and 4.8 and 45ºC, respectively. The enzyme was purified 34.65 fold with yield of 53.63%. A. niveus 4128URM can be used in the inulinase production with use in the food industries.Aspergillus niveus 4128URM isolado de rizosfera de girassol demonstrou ser uma nova fonte de inulinase. A enzima foi produzida em meio de cultura contendo inulina como substrato nas concentrações de 10, 15 e 20 g L-1. Atividade máxima da enzima foi obtida em meio contendo 20 g L-1 de inulina. A enzima foi parcialmente purificada utilizando precipitação com sulfato de amônio, seguida por cromatografia de troca iônica (DE-52 e exclusão molecular (Sephadex. Os resultados mostraram o pH e temperatura ótima da inulinase do extrato bruto foi 4,0 e 4,8 e 45ºC, respectivamente. A enzima foi purificada 34,65 vezes com rendimento de 53,63%. A. niveus 4128URM pode ser utilizado na produção de inulinase com perspectivas de uso na indústria de alimentos.

  10. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  11. Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe. However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2, B(4, and B(6 were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins.

  12. [Comparison of genomes between Aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhao, Fu-Yong; Hsiang, Tom; Yu, Zhi-He

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the Internet. An expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. Each complete gene set of the query genome Aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual FASTA files with Seqverter and then compared separately against each filamentous ascomycete genome using Standalone BLASTN. The result indicated that the number of matches reflected the evolutional relationships of the filamentous ascomycetes analysed. Of 10,560 genes in Aspergillus nidulans genome, 924 had match sequences with other 30 filamentous ascomycetes ones. The number of homology sequences were 6, 3, 6, and 6 at E-values in the range of 10(-5) to 0.1, 10(-30) to 10(-5), 10(-100) to 10(-30) and 0 to 1000(-100), respectively. Six homologs at E-values ranging from 10(-5) to 0.1 and 3 at E-values ranging from 10(-30) to 10(-5) were variable, while the 6 at E-values ranging from 0 to 10(-100) were highly conserved based on the alignments using ClustalX. Six homologs were relatively conserved at E-values in the range of 10(-100) to 10(-30), which can be used in phylogeny of these filamentous ascomycetes in this study.

  13. Trade facilitation: a conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...

  14. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    ...) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁...

  15. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  16. Rewiring a secondary metabolite pathway towards itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hossain, A.H.; Li, A.; Brickwedde, A.; Wilms, L.; Caspers, M.; Overkamp, K.; Punt, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The industrially relevant filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely used in industry for its secretion capabilities of enzymes and organic acids. Biotechnologically produced organic acids promise to be an attractive alternative for the chemical industry to replace petrochemicals.

  17. Population dynamics of Aspergillus section Nigri species on vineyard samples of grapes and raisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using...

  18. Exploring azole antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus with special reference to resistance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhary, A.; Sharma, C.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitously distributed opportunistic pathogen, is the global leading cause of aspergillosis. Azole antifungals play an important role in the management of aspergillosis. However, over a decade, azole resistance in A. fumigatus isolates has been increasingly reported with

  19. Genetically shaping morphology of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus glaucus for production of antitumor polyketide aspergiolide A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cai, Menghao; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Wei; Shen, Wei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Zhou, Weiqiang; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aims to genetically shape shear resistant morphology of shear-sensitive filamentous fungus Aspergillus glaucus to make it adapt to bioreactor so as to establish an efficient fermentation process...

  20. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and...

  1. Potential involvement of Aspergillus flavus laccases in peanut invasion at low water potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus (Link) accumulates aflatoxins in peanuts, mainly affecting immature kernels during drought. Peanut invasion by A. flavus induces synthesis of phytoalexins, mostly stilbenoids, as a plant defense mechanism. Fungal laccases are often related to pathogenicity, and among other subst...

  2. Comparative histological and transcriptional analysis of maize kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides infect maize kernels and contaminate them with the mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Combined histological examination of fungal colonization and transcriptional changes in maize kernels at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation (...

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-07-15

    Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the ...

  5. Screening‐based discovery of Aspergillus fumigatus plant‐type chitinase inhibitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockhart, Deborah E.A; Schuettelkopf, Alexander; Blair, David E; van Aalten, Daan M.F

    2014-01-01

    .... necessitates urgent characterisation of new antifungal targets. Here we describe the discovery of novel, low micromolar chemical inhibitors of Aspergillus fumigatus family 18 plant‐type chitinase A1 ( Af ChiA1) by high...

  6. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts | Irkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allium cepa L.) and leek (Allium porrum L.) were investigated against Aspergillus niger. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of aqueous, ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were determined by ...

  7. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of knowledge on the fundamental biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species. Furthermore, with the availability of these models, the engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia is moving from traditional approaches, such as random mutagenesis, to a systems metabolic engineering approach. Here we review the recent......Recently genome sequence data have become available for Aspergillus and Pichia species of industrial interest. This has stimulated the use of systems biology approaches for large-scale analysis of the molecular and metabolic responses of Aspergillus and Pichia under defined conditions, which has...... resulted in much new biological information. Case-specific contextualization of this information has been performed using comparative and functional genomic tools. Genomics data are also the basis for constructing genome-scale metabolic models, and these models have helped in the contextualization...

  8. Enzymatic Synthesis of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Glycerol Esters Using Type A Feruloyl Esterase from Aspergillus niger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TSUCHIYAMA, Moriyasu; SAKAMOTO, Tatsuji; TANIMORI, Shinji; MURATA, Shuichi; KAWASAKI, Haruhiko

    2007-01-01

    We found that hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) glycerol esters such as 1-sinapoyl glycerol and 1-p-coumaroyl glycerol can be synthesized through a direct esterification reaction using a type A feruloyl esterase from Aspergillus niger...

  9. Improving the extraction conditions of endoglucanase produced by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pirota, R. D. P. B; Miotto, L. S; Delabona, P. S; Farinas, C. S

    2013-01-01

    ...) on the recovery of endoglucanases produced by Aspergillus niger cultivated under SSF. Statistical analysis revealed that only the solid to liquid ratio had a significant influence on endoglucanase extraction...

  10. Comparative genomic analysis identified a mutation related to enhanced heterologous protein production in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng-Jie; Katayama, Takuya; Maruyama, Jun-Ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Genomic mapping of mutations using next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the identification of genes contributing to fundamental biological processes, including human diseases. However, few studies have used this approach to identify mutations contributing to heterologous protein production in industrial strains of filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae. In a screening of A. oryzae strains that hyper-produce human lysozyme (HLY), we previously isolated an AUT1 mutant that showed higher production of various heterologous proteins; however, the underlying factors contributing to the increased heterologous protein production remained unclear. Here, using a comparative genomic approach performed with whole-genome sequences, we attempted to identify the genes responsible for the high-level production of heterologous proteins in the AUT1 mutant. The comparative sequence analysis led to the detection of a gene (AO090120000003), designated autA, which was predicted to encode an unknown cytoplasmic protein containing an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold domain. Mutation or deletion of autA was associated with higher production levels of HLY. Specifically, the HLY yields of the autA mutant and deletion strains were twofold higher than that of the control strain during the early stages of cultivation. Taken together, these results indicate that combining classical mutagenesis approaches with comparative genomic analysis facilitates the identification of novel genes involved in heterologous protein production in filamentous fungi.

  11. Enhanced itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger using genetic modification and medium optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Li An; Pfelzer Nina; Zuijderwijk Robbert; Punt Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Aspergillus niger was selected as a host for producing itaconic acid due to its versatile and tolerant character in various growth environments, and its extremely high capacity of accumulating the precursor of itaconic acid: citric acid. Expressing the CAD gene from Aspergillus terreus opened the metabolic pathway towards itaconic acid in A. niger. In order to increase the production level, we continued by modifying its genome and optimizing cultivation media. Results Base...

  12. In vivo confocal microscopy appearance of Fusarium and Aspergillus species in fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Jaya Devi; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Larke, Natasha; Macleod, David; Srikanthi, Palepu; Lanjewar, Shruti; Shah, Manisha; Lalitha, Prajna; Elakkiya, Shanmugam; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Clinical outcomes in fungal keratitis vary between Fusarium and Aspergillus spp, therefore distinguishing between species using morphological features such as filament branching angles, sporulation along filaments (adventitious sporulation) or dichotomous branching may be useful. In this study, we assessed these three features within Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images from culture-positive Fusarium and Aspergillus spp keratitis participants. Prospective observational cohort study in Aravind Eye Hospital (February 2011-February 2012). Eligibility criteria: age ≥18 years, stromal infiltrate ≥3 mm diameter, Fusarium or Aspergillus spp culture-positive. previous/current herpetic keratitis, visual acuity 80% corneal thinning. IVCM was performed and images analysed for branch angle, presence/absence of adventitious sporulation or dichotomous branching by a grader masked to the microbiological diagnosis. 98 participants were included (106 eligible, 8 excluded as no measurable branch angles); 68 were positive for Fusarium spp, 30 for Aspergillus spp. Mean branch angle for Fusarium spp was 59.7° (95% CI 57.7° to 61.8°), and for Aspergillus spp was 63.3° (95% CI 60.8° to 65.8°), p=0.07. No adventitious sporulation was detected in Fusarium spp ulcers. Dichotomous branching was detected in 11 ulcers (7 Aspergillus spp, 4 Fusarium spp). There was very little difference in the branching angle of Fusarium and Aspergillus spp. Adventitious sporulation was not detected and dichotomous branching was infrequently seen. Although IVCM remains a valuable tool to detect fungal filaments in fungal keratitis, it cannot be used to distinguish Fusarium from Aspergillus spp and culture remains essential to determine fungal species. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus niger after bilateral lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enora Atchade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is usually considered to be a low virulence fungus, not commonly reported to cause invasive infections. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger was diagnosed in a 43-year-old woman following bilateral lung transplantation. Intravenous voriconazole failed to control progression of the disease. Despite salvage therapy with a combination of voriconazole and caspofungin for 23 days, the patient developed massive hemoptysis leading to death. The authors report the clinical features and treatment of this case.

  14. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of meroterpenoid yanuthone D in Aspergillus Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Petersen, Lene Maj; Klitgaard, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We have elucidated the mode of biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid compound Yanuthone D in Aspergillus niger. We have successfully deleted all cluster genes, and identified a number of intermediates. Structures of the intermediates were solved using a combined approach comprising classical 1D- and ......-NMR and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this study we have confirmed that Yanuthone D is of meroterpenoid origin, and we have identified an unexpected precursor, which has not before been reported for Aspergillus niger....

  16. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Tivkaa Amande; Bukola Adebayo-Tayo; Uduak Ndubuisi-Nnaji; Benjamin Ado

    2013-01-01

    Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase produc...

  17. [Medium optimization for antagonistic Streptomyces S24 and its inhibition on Aspergillus flavus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qisheng; Liu, Xunli; Zhang, Nan; Song, Zhen; Qiu, Nianquan; Zhang, Benfeng; Guo, Hui; Lü, Changxu; Yu, Jian

    2011-02-01

    Streptomyces S24 has broad spectrum against Aspergillus spp. in food and feed, such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Asperegillus alutacells. The objective of this study was to improve the production of antifungal substances produced by S24 and to test their inhibitory effects on Aspergillus flavus. By using one-factor-at-a-time experiment and orthogonal design method, we optimized the fermentation medium. The composition of an optimized medium for the production of antifungal substances contained (g/L): starch soluble, 10; Glucose, 40; yeast extract, 8; soybean powder, 24; KH2PO4 4; and CaCO3 0.8. As a result, the productivity of antifungal substances could reach to 10 235.45 microg/mL, and this value was 2.81 times higher than that of initial medium before optimization. Additionally, inhibitory effects of the products on Aspergillus flavus were analyzed. Antagonistic tests indicated that the antifungal substances greatly inhibited mycelium growth and spores germination of Aspergillus flavus. We observed through microscope that the mycelia grew abnormally, such as contorting, bulging, vacuole increasing and the cytoplasmic contents inside effusing and the spores appeared unusual, such as gathering, deforming, cytoplasmic contents inside effusing and fracturing.

  18. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Aspergillus spp. FROM THE WATER USED FOR REHABILITATION OF MAGELLANIC PENGUINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanice Rodrigues Poester

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the main cause of mortality in captivity penguins. The infection occurs mainly by conidia inhalation of the Aspergillus genus, however, the fungus can also be dispersed by water. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate water quality of the pool where the rehabilitated penguins remain at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos in Rio Grande city, Brazil, searching for the presence of the fungus Aspergillus spp. Water samples were collected weekly during a ten-month period and processed within six hours, applying the technique of filtrating membrane, with incubation at 25 ºC and 37 ºC during seven days. Of the forty samples analyzed, thirty-two were positive for the presence of Aspergillus genus, from these 60% correspond to A. fumigatus. Some variables significantly interfered on the isolation of Aspergillus genus and/or Aspergillus fumigatus specie, such as incubation temperature, seasonality and population density. This study showed Aspergillus spp. is present in the water, being one of the possible sources of infections for penguins in rehabilitation.

  19. Antimycotic activity of 5'-prenylisoflavanones of the plant Geoffroea decorticans, against Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Emma N; Sampietro, Diego A; Sgariglia, Melina A; Soberón, José R; Vattuone, Marta A

    2009-06-01

    The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), (3R)-5,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (1) and (3R)-7-2'-3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-5'-prenylisoflavanone (2) isolated from Geoffroea decorticans was evaluated against four different species of Aspergillus. Their effect was compared with that displayed by synthetic products. The antifungal activity was assayed by bioautography, hyphal radial growth, hyphal extent and microdilution in liquid medium. The percentage of hyphal radial growth inhibition produced by EE varied between 18.4+/-0.1 and 39.6+/-0.2 for Aspergillus nomius VSC23 and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively; and the same value for 1 and 2 were between 31.2+/-0.1-60.8+/-1.5 and 28.9+/-0.7-57.2+/-0.6 for Aspergillus flavus (IEV 018) and Aspergillus nomius 13137, respectively. The values of MIC/MFC determined for EE, 1 and 2 were compared with the actions of ascorbic and sorbic acids, and clotrimazole. The sequence of antifungal potency was clotrimazole>1>2>ascorbic acid>sorbic acid>EE. Consequently, EE as well as the purified substances from Geoffroea decorticans would be used as biopesticides against Aspergillus species. The cytotoxicity was evaluated.

  20. SAMPLING OF SPORES OF ASPERGILLUS SPP. IN AIR AT DEPARTMENT OF HEMATOLOGY IN LJUBLJANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ocvirk

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invasive aspergillosis is the most f requent and the most greatly feared infectious complication in neutropenic hematological patients. In order to prevent exogeneous aspergillus infection in such patients, their environment should be as free as possible from aspergillus spores, i.e. considerably below 1,0 CFU/m3.Methods. With the air sampling at different points of Haematology Department in the Ljubljana Clinical Center we wished to compare concentration of spores of Aspergillus spp. and to define an efficacy of hygienic-sanitary measures at those points.Results. Air sampling revealed that there is no essential difference in concentration of spores of Aspergillus spp. between external and internal air and also among different spaces at Haematology Department. The concentration of spores of Aspergillus spp. varied between 0.0 and 19.2 CFU/m3.Conclusions. Concentrations of spores of Aspergillus spp. in different units of Haematology Department are extremely high and unacceptable. This is probably the consequence of the different external and internal environment factors. However, we may conclude that the most influential factor is unfiltered air.