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Sample records for aspergillus terreus accessory

  1. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Harris, Pernille

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules in...

  2. Heterologous expression of Aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Czermak, Peter

    2016-06-25

    Fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. They can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is Pectinex Ultra, which is produced with Aspergillus aculeatus. Here we used the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus Aspergillus terreus. A synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative β-fructofuranosidase ATEG 04996 (XP 001214174.1) from A. terreus NIH2624 was secreted as a functional protein into the extracellular medium. At 60°C, the purified A. terreus enzyme generated the same pattern of oligosaccharides as Pectinex Ultra, but at lower temperatures it also produced oligomers with up to seven units. We achieved activities of up to 986.4U/mL in high-level expression experiments, which is better than previous reports of optimised Aspergillus spp. fermentations. PMID:27084521

  3. Polyketides in Aspergillus terreus: biosynthesis pathway discovery and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ying; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of biosynthesis gene clusters, production improving methods, and bioactivity mechanisms is very important for the development of filamentous fungi metabolites. Metabolic engineering and heterologous expression methods can be applied to improve desired metabolite production, when their biosynthesis pathways have been revealed. And, stable supplement is a necessary basis of bioactivity mechanism discovery and following clinical trial. Aspergillus terreus is an outstanding producer of many bioactive agents, and a large part of them are polyketides. In this review, we took polyketides from A. terreus as examples, focusing on 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. terreus NIH 2624 genome. The biosynthesis pathways of nine PKS genes have been reported, and their downstream metabolites are lovastatin, terreic acid, terrein, geodin, terretonin, citreoviridin, and asperfuranone, respectively. Among them, lovastatin is a well-known hypolipidemic agent. Terreic acid, terrein, citreoviridin, and asperfuranone show good bioactivities, especially anticancer activities. On the other hand, geodin and terretonin are mycotoxins. So, biosynthesis gene cluster information is important for the production or elimination of them. We also predicted three possible gene clusters that contain four PKS genes by homologous gene alignment with other Aspergillus strains. We think that this is an effective way to mine secondary metabolic gene clusters. PMID:27455860

  4. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI; ADENIRAN EUNICE ADERONKE

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP), an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried...

  5. Optimization of cultivation conditions for the cellulase producer aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svistova, I.D.; Zherebtsov, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus was able to synthesize C1-cellulase, Cx-cellulase, endoglucanase and cellobiase in a synthetic minimal medium containing agricultural wastes (sawdust, straw, sugar beet pulp, barley husks, etc) as a sole source of C. The highest enzyme activity was observed with sugar beet pulp whereas the lowest activity occurrred with sawdust. Of various N sources tested, NaNO3 and peptone were most effective. Addition of corn meal, malt sprout, or protein-vitamin concentration (PVC) significantly stimulated enzyme biosynthesis. The optimum culture medium, determined by the mathematical method of experimental factor design was composed of sugar beet pulp 30, KH2PO4 1-4, NaNO3 7.5, and PVC 15 g/L.

  6. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  7. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Zinc Tolerance Efficiency of Aspergillus terreus Thorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipanwita; Chakraborty, A; Santra, S C

    2016-03-01

    The present study emphasizes the potential of gamma radiation in enhancing zinc tolerance of Aspergillus terreus. Gamma-exposed A. terreus could tolerate 1.13 times more Zn, reflecting higher growth (in terms of CFU) under Zn stress and enhanced Zn removal efficacies than their unirradiated counterparts. Radiation-induced upregulation of antioxidative system (SOD, CAT, GSH and MT) of A. terreus is responsible for radiation-induced enhancement of Zn tolerance. FTIR spectra reveals the involvement of functional groups in Zn biosorption; SEM study divulges the structural changes due to metal and gamma exposure and SEM-EDX depicts the Zn uptake by A. terreus (both in gamma-exposed and unexposed conditions). This work sheds light toward utilizing low doses of ionizing radiation for making more metal-tolerant fungi and the possible mechanisms adopted by A. terreus for being more metallo-resistant. PMID:26612034

  8. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404 and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542 were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP, an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried, ground, pre-treated with alkali and steam, re-dried and used as substrate in media containing mineral salt medium and inocula of A. niger and A. terreus. Fermentation was submerged at pH 5.0; 10% substrate concentration; 10 mL inocula size; temperature 250 C for five days with carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC as control. Optimization experiments were conducted by varying fermentation parameters. Results of physico-chemical analysis revealed carbohydrate 65.9%; sugars 22.60%; protein 5.38%; fibre 3.48%; fat 4.0% ash 4.02% and moisture 8.13%. Itaconic acid yield of 67.67+1.20 mg mL-1 and 70.67+2.60 mg mL-1 produced by A. niger and A. terreus from SPP respectively. The CMC yielded 3.00 +0.6 mg mL-1. Results of the optimization experiments showed higher yields of itaconic acid by A. niger and A. terreus to 112.67+5.20 mg mL-1 and 115.67+5.30 mg mL-1 from SPP respectively at pH 4.0; 10% substrate concentration; 5 mL inocula size on Day-5 of the fermentation. This represented an increase in product yield by both organisms and supports the potential use of this waste for the industrial production of itaconic acid.

  9. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  10. Mutagenesis and transformation of Aspergillus terreus based on the nitrate reductase pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Elza; Lima, Nelson; Mota, M

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is an efficient producer of different extracellular enzymes which are used in food industries. Thus, we are interested in developing a genetic transformation system based on the nitrate structural gene niaD. In order to develop this system the nitrate assimilation pathway in A. terreus was studied and spontaneous mutants defective in the genes required for nitrate assimilation were obtained on the basis of chlorate resistance. Of particular interest were ...

  11. Purification and properties of dihydrogeodin oxidase from Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, I; Iijima, H; Tsukita, S; Ebizuka, Y; Sankawa, U

    1987-01-01

    The last step of (+)-geodin biosynthesis is a phenol oxidative coupling, which is one of the most important reactions in biosynthesis of natural products. The enzyme named dihydrogeodin oxidase catalyzes the regio- and stereospecific phenol oxidative coupling reaction to form (+)-geodin from dihydrogeodin. The enzyme was purified from the cell-free extract of Aspergillus terreus, a (+)-geodin producer, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid treatment, and column chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, Hydroxyapatite, chromatofocusing, and Toyopearl HW-55S. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 153,000 by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55S column and 76,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer. The purified enzyme showed an intense blue color and had absorption maxima at 280 and 600 nm, which suggested it to be a blue copper protein. The copper content was found to be 8 atoms per subunit by atomic absorption analysis and no significant amount of other metals was detected by ICP emission spectrometry. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showed the presence of type 1 and type 2 copper atoms in the enzyme molecule. Sodium azide and ethylxanthate inhibited the enzyme activity, but potassium cyanide and diethyldithiocarbamate, both known as potent copper enzyme inhibitors, were not inhibitory. PMID:3032923

  12. Environmental and clinical epidemiology of Aspergillus terreus: data from a prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüping, M J G T; Gerlach, S; Fischer, G; Lass-Flörl, C; Hellmich, M; Vehreschild, J J; Cornely, O A

    2011-07-01

    Aspergillus terreus may be resistant to amphotericin B and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Local incidence is influenced by the density of airborne Aspergillus spp. spores which may in turn depend on meteorological factors. Once-weekly environmental samples were collected prospectively inside and outside the University Hospital of Cologne, Germany (UHC) and haematological patients were screened for nasal Aspergillus spp. colonisation and monitored for invasive fungal disease (IFD). RAPD (rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amphotericin B susceptibility testing were performed on all A. terreus isolates. A total of 4919 colony-forming units (cfu) were isolated (2212 indoors, 2707 outdoors). Further identification revealed A. fumigatus (73.5%), A. niger (4.3%), A. flavus (1.7%), A. terreus (0.2%) and non-Aspergillus fungi (20.3%). RAPD-PCR did not reveal clonal relationships between the A. terreus isolates. All A. terreus isolates displayed complete resistance to amphotericin. The B. Aspergillus spp. conidia exposure was lowest in June and highest in November inside and outside UHC. Conidia load correlated with the season and the relative humidity, with increasing spore counts during dry periods. One out of 855 nasal swabs was positive for A. niger. The patient did not develop IFD. A. terreus is unlikely to be a relevant pathogen at the UHC. Results from RAPD-PCR suggested a wide epidemiological variety of strains rather than a common source of contamination. Nasal swab surveillance cultures for early detection of Aspergillus spp. colonisation were not useful in identifying patients who may develop IFD. The risk of IFD at the UHC may increase in autumn and during dry periods. PMID:21440331

  13. Functional characterization of alcohol oxidases from Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A Kiran; Goswami, Pranab

    2006-10-01

    Short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO), and aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) activities were localized in the microsome of Aspergillus terreus during growth of the fungi on n-hexadecane. Zymogram analysis of the microsomes of n-hexadecane-grown cells in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed distinct bands, H4, H3, H2, and H1, in a sequence of their molecular weight (Mr) from high to low. The Mr of the isozymes corresponding to the bands H4, H3, and H2 were close to each other and were higher than 272 kDa. While, the Mr of the isozyme H1 was found to be approximately 48 kDa. H1 gave activity only as SCAO. Although the substrates for other bands were varied, strong (S), medium (M), and weak (W) activity for the bands were as follows: H2: SAO (S), AAO (S), LCAO (M), SCAO (S); H3: LCAO (S), SCAO (S); H4: SCAO (S), LCAO (W), SAO (W). The pH and temperature optima of these isozymes were found to be 8.5+/-0.5 and 30+/-1 degrees C, respectively. The stability of the isozymes was drastically decreased beyond 30 degrees C. The SAO showed 33% enantiomeric excess for the R(-)2-octanol over S(+)2-octanol, which may be correlated with the lower Michaelis-Menten constant (K (M)) values of the enzyme for the R(-)2-octanol than the S(+)2-octanol. The fluorescence emission spectra of the chromatographically purified SCAO at 443 nm excitation were similar to that obtained with authentic flavin adenine dinucleotide. PMID:16547701

  14. The mutagenic action of UV-light irradiation on aspergillus terreus in relation to antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four strains of cellulolytic fungi (i.e Penicillium oxalicum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma longibrachiatum) were tested for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and antibiotic action. these fungi were cultured on Czapek Dox's media with different cellulosic substrates. A. terreus. exhibited the highest cellulolytic activity and the highest level of anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. and Escherichia Coli, Ultraviolet light as a mutagenic treatment for A.terreus was investigated. Two treated isolates U.30.12 and U.60.10 were obtained after the treatment at dose 30 and 60 min., respectively with a higher antibiotic activity in comparison with the wild isolate. A compound of fifteen carbon atom of terrecylic acid was isolated from ethyl acetate extract using spectroscopic analysis

  15. Monoclonal Antibodies to Hyphal Exoantigens Derived from the Opportunistic Pathogen Aspergillus terreus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to...

  16. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of alpha-L-rhamnosides using recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Winter, K.; Šimčíková, Daniela; Schlack, B.; Weignerová, Lenka; Pelantová, Helena; Soetaert, W.; Desmet, T.; Křen, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 147, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 640-644. ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alpha-L-Rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Glycosylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  17. Biosynthetic Pathway of the Reduced Polyketide Product Citreoviridin in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-03-18

    Citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of F1-ATPase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. These potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. The identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans are reported. Two intermediates were isolated that allowed the proposal of the biosynthetic pathway of citreoviridin. PMID:26954888

  18. In vivo emergence of Aspergillus terreus with reduced azole susceptibility and a Cyp51a M217I alteration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken C; Jensen, Rasmus; Grif, Katharina;

    2012-01-01

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus terreus isolates was explored. Twenty related (MB) and 6 unrelated A. terreus isolates were included. CYP51A sequencing and RAPD genotyping was performed. Five MB isolates were itraconazole susceptible, whereas the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 15 MB...

  19. Biodegradación de compuestos fenólicos del alpechín con Aspergillus terreus

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    García Paeja, María P.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater degradation by Aspergillus terreus and under aerobic conditions at 28°C, was measured by the parameter of phenol content. We have explored the effect of different concentrations of olive mill wastewater upon the activity of Aspergillus terreus. Through HPLC, 10 phenol compounds (90% of the total phenolic content of the olive mill wastewater were identified.Se estudia la degradación de alpechines con Aspergillus terreus en condiciones de aerobiosis y temperatura de 28°C, utilizando como parámetro el contenido fenólico. Se analiza el efecto de la concentración de alpechín con Aspergillus terreus utilizando el mismo parámetro. Se han identificado por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia (CLAE 10 compuestos fenólicos que suponen el 90% del total del alpechín.

  20. Lovastatin Production by Aspergillus terreus Using Agro-Biomass as Substrate in Solid State Fermentation

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    Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542 for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF using rice straw (RS and oil palm frond (OPF was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source. Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P0.05. Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate.

  1. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. PMID:27133313

  2. Molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of calotropics (Ait.) latex on aspergillus terreus thom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On treating dense conidial suspensions of Aspergillus terreus Thom with different concentrations of Calotropis procera latex, for investigating the genotoxicity of the latter, it was found that latex of Calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. Survival percentage decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of auxotrophic mutants increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most auxotrophic mutants were amino acid requiring mutants. DNA and total protein contents of each mutant was significantly lower than wild type of Aspergillus terreus. RAPD demonstrated polymorphic genetic bands of electrophoretic products of PCR for all mutants compared with the wild type strain. SDS-PAGE results expressed a polymorphism of protein bands as well. All these results indicated the mutagenicity of the latex of Calotropis procera. (author)

  3. Recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are rich resources of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a variety of interesting biological activities. Recent advances in genome sequencing and techniques in genetic manipulation have enabled researchers to study the biosynthetic genes of these SMs. Aspergillus terreus is the well-known producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. This fungus also produces other SMs, including acetylaranotin, butyrolactones, and territram, with interesting bioactivities. This review ...

  4. Recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus in selective trimming of rutin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerstorferová, Daniela; Fliedrová, Barbora; Halada, Petr; Marhol, Petr; Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2012), s. 828-835. ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0662; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0767; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11010 Keywords : alpha-L-Rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Isoquercitrin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2012

  5. Enhanced production of pectinase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Bijay Kumar SETHI; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (SSF) and liquid static surface fermentation (LSSF) for biosynthesis of pectinase. Amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (BP), apple pomace (AP) and orange peels, banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.; Family: Musaceae) was most suita...

  6. Direct production of itaconic acid from liquefied corn starch by genetically engineered Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xuenian; Chen, Mei; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yueming; Li, Xia; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Itaconic acid is on the DOE (Department of Energy) top 12 list of biotechnologically produced building block chemicals and is produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production cost of itaconic acid is too high to be economically competitive with the petrochemical-based products. Itaconic acid is generally produced from raw corn starch, including three steps: enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch into a glucose-rich syrup by α-amylase and glucoamylase, fermentation...

  7. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, G.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding genes. This thesis describes the purification and characterisation of two accessory enzymes from Aspergillus , feruloyl esterase A (FaeA) andα-glucuronidase A (AguA), and the activities of these enz...

  8. Aspterpenacids A and B, Two Sesterterpenoids from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus terreus H010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoming; Chen, Yan; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Yayue; Lu, Yongjun; Chen, Dongni; Lin, Yongcheng; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-03-18

    Two new sesterterpenoids, aspterpenacids A (1) and B (2), with an unusual carbon skeleton of a 5/3/7/6/5 ring system were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus H010. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. A biogenetic pathway for 1 and 2 is proposed. Both 1 and 2 showed no significant antibacterial activity or cytotoxicity at 50 μM. PMID:26938636

  9. Recent advances in genome mining of secondary metabolites in Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Chia Chun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are rich resources of secondary metabolites (SMs with a variety of interesting biological activities. Recent advances in genome sequencing and techniques in genetic manipulation have enabled researchers to study the biosynthetic genes of these SMs. Aspergillus terreus is the well-known producer of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. This fungus also produces other SMs, including acetylaranotin, butyrolactones and territram, with interesting bioactivities. This review will cover recent progress in genome mining of SMs identified in this fungus. The identification and characterization of the gene cluster for these SMs, as well as the proposed biosynthetic pathways, will be discussed in depth.

  10. Spondylodiscitis Due to Aspergillus terreus in an Immunocompetent Host: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comacle, Pauline; Le Govic, Yohann; Hoche-Delchet, Cyril; Sandrini, Jeremy; Aguilar, Claire; Bouyer, Benjamin; Blanchi, Sophie; Penn, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Aspergillus terreus, a saprophytic fungus, is recognized as an emerging pathogen responsible for various infections in human beings. However, bone and joint involvement is uncommon. We report a rare case of A. terreus spondylodiscitis in a 20-year-old male with a past history of recurrent, incompletely treated pulmonary tuberculosis. Clinical signs at the time of admission included cough, low-grade fever, general weakness and left-sided back pain. Histological examination of spinal biopsy samples revealed lesions of necrosis, granulomatous inflammation and septate hyphae with acute-angle branching. A. terreus was recovered from culture. The patient received antifungal therapy with voriconazole plus caspofungin and underwent surgical debridement. Further investigations revealed no cause of primary immunodeficiency such as chronic granulomatous disease, severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome or disorders of the IL-12/IFNγ signaling pathway. Moreover, HIV serological tests resulted negative and the patient was not under immunosuppressive therapy. Unfortunately, owing to precarity and medication non-adherence, vertebral sequelae occurred. This new report emphasizes the need to consider a fungal infection in patients with spondylodiscitis, regardless of the immune status. PMID:27038797

  11. Removal of Lead from Wastewater Contaminated with Chemical Synthetic Dye by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyai Neeratanaphan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel isolated microorganisms have been demonstrated to efficiently remove lead from wastewater contaminated with chemical synthetic dye. In this study, the physical and chemical parameters of wastewater samples (including Pb concentrations were analyzed before and after treatment with microorganisms. The highest Pb concentration detected in wastewater was 0.788 mg/l. Investigations of the Pb tolerance and removal capacities of microorganism strains isolated from the wastewater sediment resulted in the selection of three fungal isolates (F102, F203 and F302. Interestingly, isolate F203 had a Pb tolerance of up to 100 mg/l. Using DNA barcoding and morphological characteristics, fungal isolate F203 was identified as Aspergillus terreus. Wastewater characteristics before treatment included a grayish black color with pH, TDS, BOD, COD and Pb concentrations higher than the Thailand standard values. Wastewater qualities after treatment with A. terreus showed definite improvement; however, the values of certain parameters were still higher than the allowed values based on the Thailand standard. The only improvement that fell within the allowed standard was the Pb concentration. Next, A. terreus was used for Pb adsorption in wastewater with an initial Pb concentration of 0.788 mg/l at time points corresponding to 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h of incubation. The results showed that A. terreus could adsorb and remove higher amounts of Pb from wastewater than the other fungal isolates. Time course adsorption analysis showed the remaining Pb concentrations as 0.788, 0.213, 0.162, 0.117, 0.100, 0.066, 0.042 and 0.032 mg/l, respectively; the percentage of Pb removal could be estimated as 0, 72.97, 79.44, 85.15, 87.31, 91.62, 94.67 and 95.94%, respectively. In conclusion, A. terreus possessed the ability to adsorb up to 96% of Pb from chemical synthetic dye within 168 h. Thus, A. terreus might be suitable for adaptation and use in Pb treatment.

  12. Expression of feruloyl esterase A from Aspergillus terreus and its application in biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai-Bing; Wang, Le; Liu, Yan; Zhai, Huan-Chen; Cai, Jing-Ping; Hu, Yuan-Sen

    2015-11-01

    Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are key enzymes involved in the complete biodegradation of lignocelluloses, which could hydrolyze the ester bonds between hemicellulose and lignin. The coding sequence of a feruloyl esterase A (AtFaeA) was cloned from Aspergillus terreus and the recombinant AtFaeA was constitutively expressed in Pichia pastoris. The SDS-PAGE analysis of purified AtFaeA showed two protein bands owing to the different extent of glycosylation, and the recombinant AtFaeA had an optimum temperature of 50°C and an optimum pH of 5.0. The substrate utilization and primary sequence identity of AtFaeA demonstrated that it is a type-A feruloyl esterase. The hydrolysis of corn stalk and corncob by xylanase from Aspergillus niger could be significantly improved in concert with recombinant AfFaeA. PMID:26282562

  13. Radioactive 32P incorporation in liver of mice fed with Aspergillus terreus contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of 32P during toxicosis due to Aspergillus terreus, a common food contaminant, reported to procedure the toxin terreic acid, in addition to few others, was studied in mice. Radioactive 32P was injected intraperitoneally to the control mice and the experimental ones, which were fed with Aspergillus terreus contaminated feed, as well as the toxin terreic acid. After 24 hrs, both control and experimental animals were sacrificed. 32P incorporation in various fractions of liver were studied. 0.5 cm3 of each fractions was spread on a planchette and dried at 60 deg C. 32P activity was measured using a thin end window Geiger Mueller tube connected to Panax-type 100 C counter. No corrections were necessary for self absorption. In mice, fed with the contaminated feed, more 32P got incorporated in the nucleic acid fraction than seen in protein, barium soluble and barium insoluble fractions, whereas 32P incorporation in lipid fraction was lower. (T.G.)

  14. Recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase of Aspergillus terreus immobilization in polyvinylalcohol hydrogel and its application in rutin derhamnosylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebroš, M.; Pilniková, A.; Šimčíková, Daniela; Weignerová, Lenka; Stloukal, R.; Křen, Vladimír; Rosenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2013), s. 329-334. ISSN 1024-2422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11010 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alpha-L-rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Immobilization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2013

  15. The Changes of Elements Composition in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus at Different Co2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ Concentrations Using X-rays Microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray microanalysis in electron microscope allows simultaneous detection and quantitative analysis of several elements so it contributes to understand the role of ions in physiological processes. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis used to detect the changes in elements levels in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus when allowing to grow on Czapek's Dox liquid media amended with different Co2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ concentrations and these changes may play a role in fungal uptake for these heavy metal ions. Results showed that Ca, Zn and Cu levels in both fungal isolates significantly decreased (P<0.05) when concentrations of used metal ions increased, also O, Na, Cl and K levels for A. niger and C and P for A. terreus recorded significant reduction (P<0.05) in their percentages. Also, the results revealed that, C and P for A. niger and O, Na, Mg, Cl and K levels for A. terreus significantly increased (P<0.05) as a result of increasing metal ions concentrations. Lack of Cd and Pb peaks in X-ray spectrum for A. terreus led this work to conclude that, A. niger was more effective than A. terreus in Co, Cd, Pb uptake into fungal biomass. The increase or decrease of levels of detected elements could be related to the difference between two fungal isolates in uptake certain heavy metal ion (Co, Cd, Pb)

  16. EVALUATION OF STRUCTURAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN ASPERGILLUS TERREUS BY THE ACTION OF ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBIOTIC COMPOUND FROM STREPTOMYCES SP. JF714876

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanagare Shankaravva S.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal compound obtained by Streptomyces sp. JF714876 was examined for its effect on morphological and biochemical alteration in Aspergillus terreus. Microscopic observation revealed swelling of hyphae with deformation and distortion in mycelial structure in presence of moderate concentration of antifungal compound. At high concentration, the compound exhibited fungicidal action. Antifungal treated Aspergillus terreus showed changes in its biochemical content such as, protein, carbohydrates, peroxidase, catalase and amylase as compared to untreated.

  17. Improving the yield of (+)-terrein from the salt-tolerant Aspergillus terreus PT06-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengying; Guo, Lei; Wang, Liping; Zhu, Guoliang; Zhu, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    (+)-Terrein has a potential application for drug discovery. To improve the yield of (+)-terrein, two-level Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology methods were used to optimize the condition of a salt-tolerant fungus, Aspergillus terreus PT06-2. As a result, the yield of (+)-terrein reached 8.20 ± 0.072 g/L in a 500-mL flask containing 150 mL optimal medium consisted of 13.1 % NaCl, 3.6 % starch, 2 % sodium glutamate, 0.05 % KCl, 3 % inoculum size, adjusting initial pH value to 5 with 10 % HCl and shaking for 18 days at 28 °C and 180 rpm. The production of (+)-terrein was 47.0 % higher than the highest production reported in shake flasks. The advantages of this optimization are uses of single carbon source and nitrogen source and easy separation and purification by recrystallization. The result exhibited the potential and advantages of A. terreus PT06-2 in industrial production of (+)-terrein by fermentation. PMID:27038947

  18. Enhancement of monacolin K production via intergeneric protoplast fusion between Aspergillus terreus and Monascus anka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhi; Lin Wen; Yu Ping; Song Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Intergenric protoplast fusion between Aspergillus terreus CA99 and Monascus anka M-3, the high and low producers of monacolin K respectively, was performed for enhancement of monacolin K production. The 24-hour-old mycelia of A. terreus CA99 and M. anka M-3 were treated with 0.5 % lywallzyme, 0.3 % snailase and 0.3 % cellulase at 34 ℃ for 5 h and at 30 ℃ for 3.5 h, and their protoplasts formation reached 1.76 × 107/mL and 1.68 × 107/mL respectively. Parental protoplasts were irradiated with a 30 W UVlight away from 30 cm for 3 min and then mixed. The mixture was incubated with 30% PEG 6000 for 15 min. The reviving fusants were isolated on the regeneration plates. Of the 363 fusants isolated, over 100 showed enhanced monacolin K production compared with the parental strain M. anka M-3. Ten of them produced monacolin K about 1.6-fold of that M. anka M-3 does and the monacolin K titer of two fusants (F49 and F104) increased by about 1-fold. The monacolin K yields of F49 and F104 were 460 μg/mL and 457 μg/mL respectively. In optimized fermentation medium, the monacolin K titer of F49 reached 1216 μg/mL.

  19. Biosynthetic Pathway for the Epipolythiodioxopiperazine Acetylaranotin in Aspergillus terreus Revealed by Genome-based Deletion Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Chiang, Yi Ming; Sanchez, James F.; Chang, ShuLin; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-04-15

    Abstract Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) are a class of fungal secondary metabolites derived from cyclic peptides. Acetylaranotin belongs to one structural subgroup of ETPs characterized by the presence of a seven-membered dihydrooxepine ring. Defining the genes involved in acetylaranotin biosynthesis should provide a means to increase production of these compounds and facilitate the engineering of second-generation molecules. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus produces acetylaranotin and related natural products. Using targeted gene deletions, we have identified a cluster of 9 genes including one nonribosomal peptide synthase gene, ataP, that is required for acetylaranotin biosynthesis. Chemical analysis of the wild type and mutant strains enabled us to isolate seventeen natural products that are either intermediates in the normal biosynthetic pathway or shunt products that are produced when the pathway is interrupted through mutation. Nine of the compounds identified in this study are novel natural products. Our data allow us to propose a complete biosynthetic pathway for acetylaranotin and related natural products.

  20. Structures and antiviral activities of butyrolactone derivatives isolated from Aspergillus terreus MXH-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinhua; Zhu, Tianjiao; Gu, Qianqun; Xi, Rui; Wang, Wei; Li, Dehai

    2014-12-01

    A new butyrolactone derivative, namely butyrolactone VIII ( 1), and six known butyrolactones ( 2-7) were separated from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the fermentation broth of a fungus, Aspergillus terreus MXH-23. The chemical structures of these metabolites were identified by analyzing their nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Known butyrolactone derivatives contain an α, β-unsaturated γ-lactone ring with α-hydroxyl and γ-benzyl, and butyrolactone VIII ( 1) was the first butyrolactones contains α-benzyl and γ-hydroxyl on α, β-unsaturated lactone ring. All of the butyrolactone derivatives were tested for their anti-influenza (H1N1) effects. Derivatives 4 and 7 showed moderate antiviral activities while the newly-identified, derivative 1, did not.

  1. Fuzzy rule-based prediction of lovastatin productivity in continuous mode using pellets of Aspergillus terreus in an airlift reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kamakshi Gupta; Bodhisatta Maiti; Mishra, P. K.; Pradeep Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Lovastatin production using pellets of Aspergillus terreus was investigated in an airlift reactor. A fuzzy system has been developed for predicting the lovastatin productivity. Analysis of the effect of dilution rate and biomass concentration on the productivity of lovastatin was carried out and hence these were taken as inputs for the fuzzy system. The rule base has been developed using the conceptions of developmental processes in lovastatin production. The fuzzy system has been constructed...

  2. Butyrolactone I Quantification from Lovastatin Producing Aspergillus terreus Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry—Evidence of Signalling Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina K. Palonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus terreus is an industrially important filamentous fungus producing a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites, including lovastatin and itaconic acid. It also produces butyrolactone I which has shown potential as an antitumour agent. Additionally, butyrolactone I has been implicated to have a regulating role in the secondary metabolism and morphology of A. terreus. In this study, a quantitative time-course liquid chromatography—electrospray ionisation—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS analysis of butyrolactone I is reported for the first time in nine-day long submerged cultures of A. terreus. Butyrolactone I was fragmented in the mass analysis producing a reproducible fragmentation pattern of four main daughter ions (m/z 307, 331, 363 and 393 in all the samples tested. Supplementing the cultures with 100 nM butyrolactone I caused a statistically significant increase (up to two-fold in its production, regardless of the growth stage but was constitutive when butyrolactone I was added at high cell density during the stationary phase. Furthermore, the extracellular butyrolactone I concentration peaked at 48 h post inoculation, showing a similar profile as has been reported for bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Taken together, the results support the idea of butyrolactone I as a quorum sensing molecule in A. terreus.

  3. Deracemizacija (RS)-1-[(4-metilselanil)fenil]etanola i (RS)-1-[(4-etilselanil)fenil]etanola s pomoću sojeva Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Assis, Leonardo; Kagohara, Edna; Takeo Omori, Álvaro; Valdir Comasseto, João; Helgueira Andrade, Leandro; Meleiro Porto, André Luiz

    2007-01-01

    Sojevi plijesni Aspergillus terreus URM 3371 i A. terreus CCT 4083, izolirani u Brazilu, katalizirali su deracemizaciju (RS)-1-[(4-metilselanil)fenil]etanola (1) i (RS)-1-[(4-etilselanil)fenil]etanola (2). Upotrijebljene su cijele stanice plijesni različite mase (1-5 g), pri različitoj pH-vrijednosti (4 i 7) i temperaturi biotransformacije (20 i 32 °C), uz dodatak raznih aditiva (etanol, butanol, propanol i cikloheksanol) radi poboljšanja prinosa i selektivnosti proizvoda. Soj A. terreus URM ...

  4. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitun Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The alcohol oxidase (AOx cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of 7829.5 min-1 mM-1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application.

  5. Optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from Aspergillus terreus and its partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanmin; Yao, Lifeng; Fan, Chuanhui

    2015-12-10

    Figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries are about 4000,000 tons in 2011 and are increasing every year according to FAO statistics. However, there is not any report on pectin production by microbial with persimmon peel as the source. Optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture and partial characterization of pectin were carried out in the work. An optimum fermentation condition for pectin production was obtained through a central composite rotatable design in response surface methodology as follows: fermentation time, 30.09 h, temperature, 25.00 °C and the initial pH in the fermentation medium, 6.90, respectively and the pectin yield reached the maximal value 0.449 g/g. Persimmon peel pectin had highly methoxylated (62.51%), high galacturonic acid content (82.28%) than citrus pectin, and was classified as the highly methoxylated pectin, the results indicated that persimmon peel had potential good resources for pectin production. The investigation can make it available to utilize persimmon peel to produce high methoxyl pectin for food industry, pharmacy and cosmetic manufacture. PMID:26428166

  6. Fungus-Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Yokoyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were synthesized using a reduction of aqueous Ag+ ion with the culture supernatants of Aspergillus terreus. The reaction occurred at ambient temperature and in a few hours. The bioreduction of AgNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the AgNPs obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized AgNPs were polydispersed spherical particles ranging in size from 1 to 20 nm and stabilized in the solution. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH was found to be an important reducing agent for the biosynthesis, and the formation of AgNPs might be an enzyme-mediated extracellular reaction process. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs was systematically evaluated. The synthesized AgNPs could efficiently inhibit various pathogenic organisms, including bacteria and fungi. The current research opens a new avenue for the green synthesis of nano-materials.

  7. Characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Bijay Kumar; Nanda, Prativa Kumari; Sahoo, Santilata

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme production by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. The maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30°C for 96h. Among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. The crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme characterization confirmed that the purified lipase was most active at pH 6.0, temperature of 50°C, and substrate concentration of 1.5%. The enzyme was thermostable at 60°C for 1h, and the optimum enzyme-substrate reaction time was 30min. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and commercial detergents did not significantly affect lipase activity during 30-min incubation at 30°C. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum lipase activity was attained in the presence of Zn(2+), followed by Mg(2+) and Fe(2+). Lipase activity was not significantly affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (1mM) and the reducing, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited lipase activity. The remarkable stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors and metal ions makes this lipase unique and a potential candidate for significant biotechnological exploitation. PMID:26887237

  8. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  9. Feruloyl esterase production by Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808 and subsequent application to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; Moreira, C D; Torrado Agrasar, A; Domínguez, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE) were produced by Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808 from vine trimming shoots (VTS) and corn cob. Later, the fungal extracts thus obtained were used to enzymatically release ferulic acid (FA) from both substrates. Our findings showed a higher FAE activity in the enzymatic extracts produced on corn cob (0.070±0.004U/mL). Nevertheless, the enzymatic extracts produced on VTS demonstrated a better performance for FA release from both corn cob (2.05±0.01mg/g) and VTS (0.19±0.003mg/g). This result was probably because of the higher xylanase/FAE ratio determined in VTS extract. Therefore, an additional assay was carried out by supplementing corn cob extract with a commercial xylanase to test the influence of FAE/xylanase ratio in FA release. The results revealed the relevance of the FAE/xylanase ratio for an optimal FA release. PMID:27444329

  10. Hydrolysis of galacto-oligosaccharides in soy molasses by α -galactosidases and invertase from Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Pataro Reis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two α -galactosidase (P1 and P2 and one invertase present in the culture of Aspergillus terreus grown on wheat straw for 168 h at 28ºC were partially purified by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies. Optimum pH and temperatures for P1, P2 and invertase preparations were 4.5-5.0, 5.5 and 4.0 and 60, 55 and 65ºC, respectively. The K M app for Ï� -nitrophenyl-α -D-galactopyranoside were 1.32 mM and 0.72 mM for P1 and P2, respectively, while the K M app value for invertase, using sacarose as a substrate was 15.66 mM. Enzyme preparations P1 and P2 maintained their activities after pre-incubation for 3 h at 50ºC and invertase maintained about 90% after 6 h at 55 ºC. P1 and P2 presented different inhibition sensitivities by Ag+, D-galactose, and SDS. All enzyme preparations hydrolyzed galacto-ologosaccharides present in soymolasses.Duas α-galactosidases (P1 e P2 e uma invertase produzidas no sobrenadante da cultura do fungo Aspergillus terreus quando crescido por 168 h a 28ºC com farelo de trigo como fonte de carbono foram parcialmente purificadas por cromatografias de gel filtração e interação hidrofóbica. O pH e temperatura ótimos para as preparações P1, P2 e invertase foram entre 4,5-5,0, 5,5 e 4,0 e 60, 55 e 65ºC, respectivamente. O K M app para Ï�-nitrofenil-α-D-galactopiranosideo foi 1.32 mM e 0.72 mM para P1 e P2, respectivamente. O valor de K M app para invertase usando sacarose como substrato foi de 15,66 mM. As preparações enzimáticas P1 e P2 mantiveram suas atividades após 3 h de pré-incubação a 50 ºC e a invertase manteve cerca de 90% após 6 h a 55 ºC. P1 e P2 foram diferentemente sensíveis à inibição por Ag+, D-galactose e SDS. As preparações enzimáticas hidrolisaram os galactooligossacarídeos presentes em melaço de soja.

  11. Highly Active and Stable Large Catalase Isolated from a Hydrocarbon Degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsyayan, Preety; Goswami, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    A hydrocarbon degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (CAT) during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. A 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 10(5) U mg(-1) protein was achieved. The native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kDa with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kDa, which indicates that the native CAT protein is a homotetramer. The isoelectric pH (pI) of the purified CAT was 4.2. BLAST aligned peptide mass fragments of CAT protein showed its highest similarity with the catalase B protein from other fungal sources. CAT was active in a broad range of pH 4 to 12 and temperature 25°C to 90°C. The catalytic efficiency (K cat/K m ) of 4.7 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1) within the studied substrate range and alkaline pH stability (half-life, t 1/2 at pH 12~15 months) of CAT are considerably higher than most of the extensively studied catalases from different sources. The storage stability (t 1/2) of CAT at physiological pH 7.5 and 4°C was nearly 30 months. The haem was identified as haem b by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS). PMID:27057351

  12. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis. PMID:26603760

  13. IMMOBILIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A THERMOSTABLE β-GLUCOSIDASE FROM ASPERGILLUS TERREUS NRRL 265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina H. El-Ghonemy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Partially purified β-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus NRRL 265 was immobilized by entrapment in calcium-alginate beads. The activity of the free and immobilized enzymes as a function of pH, temperature, and periodic use were compared. Whey permeate, a by-product of cheese industry, was served as an inexpensive medium, which made the process economical and reduced the cost of enzyme production and also reduced the environmental pollution. The results indicated that, the immobilized β-glucosidase was retained about 73 % of the original activity exhibited by the free enzyme. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was improved by 5ºC after immobilization. Immobilized β-glucosidase was exhibited great thermal stability, whereas, at 70ºC, the free enzyme lost its activity after 30 min of incubation, while the immobilized enzyme showed more stability in comparison to the free form as it retained about 13.4 % of its initial activity under the same conditions. Moreover, the pH stability was improved following immobilization, whereas, the immobilized enzyme was stable in pH ranging from 4.0 to 7.0 with no change in activity, while its stability slightly decreases for more alkaline or acidic conditions (retaining 82.4 % and 67.4 % of the initial activity at pH 8.0 and 3.5, after 1 h of incubation. The results also indicated the possibility of reusing Ca alginate-immobilized β-glucosidase in industrial applications for 10 cycles with 53.7 % retained activity.

  14. Fuzzy rule-based prediction of lovastatin productivity in continuous mode using pellets of Aspergillus terreus in an airlift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakshi Gupta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lovastatin production using pellets of Aspergillus terreus was investigated in an airlift reactor. A fuzzy system has been developed for predicting the lovastatin productivity. Analysis of the effect of dilution rate and biomass concentration on the productivity of lovastatin was carried out and hence these were taken as inputs for the fuzzy system. The rule base has been developed using the conceptions of developmental processes in lovastatin production. The fuzzy system has been constructed on the basis of experimental results and operator’s knowledge. The values predicted for lovastatin productivity by the fuzzy system has been compared with the experimental data. The R squared value and mean squared error has been calculated to evaluate the quality of the fuzzy system. The performance measures show that the rule-based results of the fuzzy system is in accordance with the experimental results. The utilization of fuzzy system aided in the increase of lovastatin productivity by about 1.3 times when compared to previous empirical experimental results. Keywords: Lovastatin, airlift reactor, fuzzy rule-based system, Aspergillus terreus, continuous fermentation, pellets. Received: 27 November 2009 / Received in revised form: 18 January 2010, Accepted: 11 February 2010, Published online: 23 March 2010

  15. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Fuchs-Ocklenburg, Silvia; Kamp, Anja; Manohar, Cathrine Sumathi; Houbraken, Jos; Boekhout, Teun; De Beer, Dirk; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Background: A wealth of microbial eukaryotes is adapted to life in oxygen-deficient marine environments. Evidence is accumulating that some of these eukaryotes survive anoxia by employing dissimilatory nitrate reduction, a strategy that otherwise is widespread in prokaryotes. Here, we report on the...... anaerobic nitrate metabolism of the fungus Aspergillus terreus (isolate An-4) that was obtained from sediment in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea, a globally important site of oceanic nitrogen loss and nitrous oxide emission. Results: Axenic incubations of An-4 in the presence and absence...... dissimilatory nitrate reduction when oxygen is absent. In the currently spreading oxygen-deficient zones in the ocean, an as yet unexplored diversity of fungi may recycle nitrate to ammonium and nitrite, the substrates of the major nitrogen loss process anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and the potent greenhouse...

  16. Molecular epidemiology and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus species complex isolates in Delhi, India: evidence of genetic diversity by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallu Kathuria

    Full Text Available Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140 from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP. Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of

  17. Comparative study of toxicity of azo dye Procion Red MX-5B following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E J R; Corso, C R

    2014-10-01

    Azo dyes are an important class of environmental contaminants and are characterized by the presence of one or more azo bonds (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. Effluents containing these compounds resist many types of treatments due to their molecular complexity. Therefore, alternative treatments, such as biosorption and biodegradation, have been widely studied to solve the problems caused by these substances, such as their harmful effects on the environment and organisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biosorption and biodegradation of the azo dye Procion Red MX-5B in solutions with the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus. Decolorization tests were performed, followed by acute toxicity tests using Lactuca sativa seeds and Artemia salina larvae. Thirty percent dye removal of the solutions was achieved after 3 h of biosorption. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that removal of the dye molecules occurred without major molecular changes. The acute toxicity tests confirmed lack of molecular degradation following biosorption with A. niger, as toxicity to L. sativa seed reduced from 5% to 0%. For A. salina larvae, the solutions were nontoxic before and after treatment. In the biodegradation study with the fungus A. terreus, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy revealed molecular degradation and the formation of secondary metabolites, such as primary and secondary amines. The biodegradation of the dye molecules was evaluated after 24, 240 and 336 h of treatment. The fungal biomass demonstrated considerable affinity for Procion Red MX-5B, achieving approximately 100% decolorization of the solutions by the end of treatment. However, the solutions resulting from this treatment exhibited a significant increase in toxicity, inhibiting the growth of L. sativa seeds by 43% and leading to a 100% mortality rate among the A. salina larvae. Based on the present findings, biodegradation was effective in the decolorization of the samples, but generated

  18. Characterization of β-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng-Ying; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Sha; Nie, Xin-Zheng; Qian, Li-Chun

    2016-06-01

    An extracellular β-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kDa. The purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 65 °C and was very stable at 50 °C. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited good stability over pH 3.0-8.0 and possessed high tolerance towards pepsin and trypsin. The kinetic parameters Km (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant) and Vmax (maximal reaction velocity) for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) were 1.73 mmol/L and 42.37 U/mg, respectively. The Km and Vmax for cellobiose were 4.11 mmol/L and 5.7 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme efficiently converted isoflavone glycosides to aglycones, with a hydrolysis rate of 95.8% for daidzin, 86.7% for genistin, and 72.1% for glycitin. Meanwhile, the productivities were 1.14 mmol/(L·h) for daidzein, 0.72 mmol/(L·h) for genistein, and 0.19 mmol/(L·h) for glycitein. This is the first report on the application of A. terreus β-glucosidase for converting isoflavone glycosides to their aglycones in soybean products. PMID:27256679

  19. Production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus under SSF of banana peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Rehman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDE, in solid state fermentations. In this study, two fungal strains Aspergillus niger MS23 and Aspergillus terreus MS105 were screened for plant CWDE such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase using a novel substrate, Banana Peels (BP for SSF process. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to use BP as SSF substrate for plant CWDE production by co-culture of fungal strains. The titers of pectinase were significantly improved in co-culture compared to mono-culture. Furthermore, the enzyme preparations obtained from monoculture and co-culture were used to study the hydrolysis of BP along with some crude and purified substrates. It was observed that the enzymatic hydrolysis of different crude and purified substrates accomplished after 26 h of incubation, where pectin was maximally hydrolyzed by the enzyme preparations of mono and co-culture. Along with purified substrates, crude materials were also proved to be efficiently degraded by the cocktail of the CWDE. These results demonstrated that banana peels may be a potential substrate in solid-state fermentation for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes to be used for improving various biotechnological and industrial processes.

  20. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    Microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. The present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by Aspergillus terreus against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. The A. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. The ethyl acetate extracts showed lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae (LC50) and lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae (LC90) values of the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi (LC50 = 97.410, 102.551, 29.802, and 8.907; LC90 = 767.957, 552.546, 535.474, and 195.677 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 89.584, 74.689, 68.265, and 67.40; LC90 = 449.091, 337.355, 518.793, and 237.347 μg/ml), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 83.541, 84.418, 80.407, and 95.926; LC90 = 515.464, 443.167, 387.910, and 473.998 μg/ml). Pupicidal activity of mycelium extracts was tested against An. stephensi (LC50 = 25.228, LC90 = 140.487), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 54.525, LC90 = 145.366), and Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 10.536, LC90 = 63.762 μg/ml). At higher concentration (500 μg/ml), mortality starts within the first 6 h of exposure. One hundred percent mortality occurs at 24-h exposure. The overall result observed that effective activity against selected mosquito larvae and pupae after 24 h was a dose and time-dependent activity. These ensure that the resultant mosquito population reduction is substantial even where the larvicidal and pupicidal potential is minimal. The FTIR spectra of ethyl acetate extract reflect prominent peaks (3448.32, 3000.36, 2914.59, 2118.73, 1668.21, 1436.87, 1409.02, 954.33, 901.13, and 704.67 cm(-1)). The spectra showed a sharp absorption band at 1314.66 cm(-1) assigned to wagging vibration of

  1. A deficiency of manganese ions in the presence of high sugar concentrations is the critical parameter for achieving high yields of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaffa, Levente; Díaz, Rafael; Papp, Benedek; Fekete, Erzsébet; Sándor, Erzsébet; Kubicek, Christian P

    2015-10-01

    Itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid with a high potential as a platform for chemicals derived from sugars, is industrially produced by large-scale submerged fermentation by Aspergillus terreus. Although the biochemical pathway and the physiology leading to IA is almost the same as that leading to citric acid production in Aspergillus niger, published data for the volumetric (g L(-1)) and the specific yield (mol/mol carbon source) of IA are significantly lower than for citric acid. Citric acid is known to accumulate to high levels only when a number of nutritional parameters are carefully adjusted, of which the concentration of the carbon source and that of manganese ions in the medium are particularly important. We have therefore investigated whether a variation in these two parameters may enhance IA production and yield by A. terreus. We show that manganese ion concentrations obtain highest yields. Highest yields were also dependent on the concentration of the carbon source (D-glucose), and highest yields (0.9) were only obtained at concentrations of 12-20 % (w/v), thus allowing the accumulation of up to 130 g L(-1) IA. These findings perfectly mirror those obtained when these parameters are varied in citric acid production by A. niger, thus showing that the physiology of both processes is widely identical. Consequently, applying the fermentation technology established for citric acid production by A. niger citric acid production to A. terreus should lead to high yields of IA, too. PMID:26078111

  2. Microbial Production of Glycyrrhetic Acid 3-O-mono-βββ-D-glucuronide From Glycyrrhizin by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, H. A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among seven fungi (three Aspergilli and four Penicilli have been screened for production of glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-mono-β-D-glucuronide (GAMG from glycyrrhizin (GL, Aspergillus terreus was found to be the most potent GAMG producer. This strain was capable of expressing two intracellular β-D-glucuronidase forms, one responsible for partial hydrolysis of GL to GAMG and the other one for hydrolysis of GL to glycyrrhetic acid (GA. The highest yield of GAMG was achieved when the reaction mixture was incubated at pH 6 at 40 °C for 1 h using GL (0.1%, w/v as a substrate. The maximum hydrolytic activity for production of GAMG (396 U/mL was obtained using production medium composed of (g%, w/v: corn steep liquor 2.5, soybean flour 3.5, glucose 0.5 and CaCO3 0.5; pH 6.0. The medium was inoculated with 15% (v/v inoculum and incubated at 27 °C for 3 days. Under these optimal conditions, GAMG yield became about 2 times higher than GA yield and the cells bioconversion efficiency increased from 24.6 to 78.3%.

  3. Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 Using Pearl Millet and Its Structural Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Bijay K.; Jana, Arijit; Nanda, Prativa K.; DasMohapatra, Pradeep K.; Sahoo, Santi L.; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid state (SSF) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. One-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol) was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM) as substrate by SSF (19.19 ± 0.9 Ug−1) and also in presence of 1 mM magnesium sulfate, 0.025% (w/v) gibberellic acid, and 30 mg/100 ml (w/v) of vitamin E (~60-fold higher production of amylase) with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. The enzyme comprised of a typical secondary structure containing α-helix (12.2%), β-pleated sheet (23.6%), and β-turn (27.4%). Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications. PMID:27242841

  4. Controlled Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus terreus IF0 and Its Antibacterial Potential against Gram Negative Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eepsita Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of monodispersed nanoparticles, along with determination of potential responsible biomolecules, is the major bottleneck in the area of bionanotechnology research. The present study focuses on an ecofriendly, ambient temperature protocol for size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles, using the fungus Aspergillus terreus IF0. Gold nanoparticles were formed immediately, with the addition of chloroauric acid to the aqueous fungal extract. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM-EDX, and XRD analysis. Particle diameter and dispersity of nanoparticles were controlled by varying the pH of the fungal extract. At pH 10, the average size of the synthesized particles was in the range of 10–19 nm. Dialysis to obtain high and low molecular weight fraction followed by FTIR analysis revealed that biomolecules larger than 12 kDa and having –CH, –NH, and –SH functional groups were responsible for bioreduction and stabilization. In addition, the synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be selectively bactericidal against the pathogenic gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli.

  5. Optimization of CMCase production from sorghum straw by Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 under solid substrate fermentation using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibin, El Mubarak Musa; Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid Naseer; Abuelhassan, Nawal Noureldaim; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2013-11-01

    The cellulase production using sorghum straw as substrate by fungal culture of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1 was investigated in solid substrate fermentation (SSF). The optimum CMCase was achieved by testing most effective fermentation parameters which were: incubation temperature, pH and moisture content using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD). The carboxymethyl cellulase activity (CMCase) was measured as the defining factor. The results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the regression quadratic model was obtained. The model was found to be significant (p<0.05) and the effect of temperature (25-40°C) and pH (4-7) was found to be not significant on CMCase activity whereas the moisture content was significant in the SSF conditions employed. The high yield of predicted CMCase activity (0.2 U/ml) was obtained under the optimized conditions (temperature 40 □C, pH 5.4 and moisture content of 80%). The model was validated by applying the optimized conditions and it was found that the model was valid.

  6. IMPROVED CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Aspergillus terreus USING OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBRE AS SUBSTRATE IN A STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR THROUGH OPTIMIZATION OF THE FERMENTATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahriarinour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was performed to evaluate the effects of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT and initial pH on the production of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase, filter-paper hydrolase (FPase, and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus terreus in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor. Delignified oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibre was used as the main substrate under submerged fermentation. Growth of A. terreus and the production of three main components of cellulase were optimized by central composite design (CCD design. Statistical analysis of results showed that the individual terms of these two variables (DOT and pH had significant effects on growth and the production of all components of cellulase. Maximum growth (13.07 g/L and cellulase activity (CMCase = 50.33 U/mL, FPase = 2.29 U/mL and β-glucosidase = 15.98 U/ml were obtained when the DOT and initial culture pH were set at 55% and 5.5, respectively. A high proportion of β-glucosidase to FPase (8:1 in cellulase of A. terreus could be beneficial for efficient hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. The use of OPEFB as a main substrate would reduce the cost of fermentation for the production of cellulase.

  7. Characterization of purified α-amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Kumar Sethi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase was produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using both liquid static surface (LSSF and solid-state fermentation using pearl millet residues as substrate. The maximum production of α-amylase was noticed at 30°C incubated for 96h. The crude α-amylase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. Characterization of amylase confirmed that the purified α-amylase was found to be most stable at pH 5.0, 60°C temperature, and a substrate concentration of 1.25%. The enzyme was active for 40 min at 70°C with an optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time of 60 min. Amylase was compatible with all detergents tested having highest activity with Surf excel followed by Henko and Ariel. SDS and Tween 20 reduced the activity. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum α-amylase activity was attained in the presence of Ca2+, followed by Mg2+ and Mn2+. The activity of α-amylase was not considerably affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100. Amylase activity was accelerated in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not significantly (or slightly affect the activity and stability. Tween 20, urea (5%, and the reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited the activity of α-amylase. Owing to its noteworthy stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors, and metal ions, this α-amylase could be an impending enzyme for significant industrial exploitations.

  8. Effect of nutritional factors on cellulase enzyme and microbial protein production by Aspergillus terreus and its evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Neelakantan, S

    1982-01-01

    The biomass yield, cellulolytic activity, and protein recovery using Aspergillus terreus GN1 with alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse was studied using different levels (250-600 mg of N/L of broth) of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. e.g., cattle urine, urea, cornsteep liquor, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium iron sulfate, ammonium chloride, and sodium nitrate. Among different levels of alkali-treated bagasse substrate concentrations (0.5-4.0% w/v) tested, 1.0% substrate yielded the highest crude protein content, protein recovery, and cellulolytic activity. The biomass recovery with 1.0% substrate ranged from 290-380 mg/500 mg bagasse substrate in a 50-mL broth with a nitrogen level of 250-600 mg of N/L in all the sources except ammonium iron sulfate, which yielded 402-439 mg/500 mg bagasse substrate. However, crude protein content of biomass obtained with an ammonium iron sulfate nitrogen source was the lowest. Cornsteep liquor nitrogen source at the rate of 600 mg of N/L yielded the maximum crude protein of 32.9%, protein recovery of 22.2 g/100 g of bagasse, and carboxymethyl cellulase and filter paper enzyme activities of 1.1 and 0.09 units/mL, among the organic and inorganic nitrogen sources studied. In general, the organic nitrogen sources and inorganic nonammonium nitrogen sources were utilized preferentially for protein production over the inorganic ammonium nitrogen sources. The fermentation time required under optimum cultural and nutritional conditions for A. terreus GN1 was also evaluated. The crude protein content of the biomass increased gradually up to the seventh day of fermentation, but the protein recovery rate was high up to two or three days. It was observed that the cellulose utilization rate increased after an initial lag of one day up to the third day and gradually increased further, which corresponded positively with protein content, biomass protein recovery, and cellulase enzyme activity. On the seventh day of fermentation

  9. CYANOBACTERIAL BIOMASS AS N-SUPPLEMENT TO OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB FIBRE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS TERREUS IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shahriarinour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using dry biomass of a cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans, as nitrogen source supplement for improvement of cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus was studied in submerged fermentation using oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibre as a carbon source. For comparison, four other nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate, urea, peptone, and yeast extract were also tested. Growth and cellulase production were greatly enhanced in fermentation using biomass of cyanobacterium as the nitrogen source. The use of cyanobacterial biomass as a nitrogen source also reduced the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of CaCl2 to growth of A. terreus and cellulase production. The addition of 0.3 g L-1 CaCl2 to the medium containing OPEFB fibre and cyanobacterial biomass further enhanced the cellulase production, though growth remained unchanged. The final FPase, CMCase, and β-glucosidase obtained in fermentation using 10 g L-1 OPEFB fibre and 6 g/L cynaobacterial biomass with the addition of 3 mM CaCl2 was 0.97 U mL-1, 14.1 U mL-1, and 10.4 U mL-1, respectively.

  10. Assessing Capacity Of Aspergillus Niger And Aspergillus TERREUS For Co2+, Cd2+ And Pb2+ Uptake Using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbial removal of various cations could be useful for removal of toxic heavy metals from contaminated water. This study aims to investigate the uptake of metals in submerged culture of A. niger and A. terreus. The effect of Co2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the fungal growth was studied in Czapek's Dox media. Maximum growth for A. niger and A. terreus was obtained at 0.01 and 0.01 - 0.1 mM/L, respectively. The concentration higher than 5 and 10 mM/L inhibited the growth, respectively. The results showed the ability of both fungal isolates to remove the three tested metals from the cultural media with percentage of removal 96.4, 95.5 and 99.98% at 1mM/L for the three metals respectively for A. niger, and it was 99.2% at 5 mM/L for Co2+ and 97.3 and 99.9% at 1mM/L for Cd2+ and Pb2+ for A. terreus. The EDX analysis showed that A. niger was effective than A. terreus in accumulating Cd2+ and Pb2+ while both recorded low Co2+ uptake.

  11. Application of an Efficient Gene Targeting System Linking Secondary Metabolites to their Biosynthetic Genes in Aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Knox, Benjamin P.; Sanchez, James F.; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2013-07-19

    Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) are natural products biosynthesized by NRP synthetases. A kusA-, pyrG- mutant strain of Aspergillusterreus NIH 2624 was developed that greatly facilitated the gene targeting efficiency in this organism. Application of this tool allowed us to link four major types of NRP related secondary metabolites to their responsible genes in A. terreus. In addition, an NRP related melanin synthetase was also identified in this species.

  12. Escherichia coli N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase/Glucosamine-1-Phosphate-Acetyltransferase (GlmU) Inhibitory Activity of Terreic Acid Isolated from Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rashmi; Lambu, Mallikharjuna Rao; Jamwal, Urmila; Rani, Chitra; Chib, Reena; Wazir, Priya; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Chaubey, Asha; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Secondary metabolite of Aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, is a reported potent antibacterial that was identified more than 60 years ago, but its cellular target(s) are still unknown. Here we screen its activity against the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, Escherichia coli N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). An absorbance-based assay was used to screen terreic acid against the acetyltransferase activity of E. coli GlmU. Terreic acid was found to inhibit the acetyltransferase domain of E. coli GlmU with an IC50 of 44.24 ± 1.85 µM. Mode of inhibition studies revealed that terreic acid was competitive with AcCoA and uncompetitive with GlcN-1-P. It also exhibited concentration-dependent killing of E. coli ATCC 25922 up to 4× minimum inhibitory concentration and inhibited the growth of biofilms generated by E. coli. Characterization of resistant mutants established mutation in the acetyltransferase domain of GlmU. Terreic acid was also found to be metabolically stable in the in vitro incubations with rat liver microsome in the presence of a NADPH regenerating system. The studies reported here suggest that terreic acid is a potent antimicrobial agent and support that E. coli GlmU acetyltransferase is a molecular target of terreic acid, resulting in its antibacterial activity. PMID:26762501

  13. use of mutagens in the improvement of itaconic acid production by local isolate of aspergillus terreus ref from raw starchy materials and refused banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itaconic acid (IA) production by local isolate o/Aspergillus terreus RBF from different acid hydrolyzed starchy materials such as corn starch, potato flour, sweet potato flour and market refused banana fruits extract (MRBFex) was investigated. Both production and yield were highest on corn starch with values of 12.9 g/l and 25.44%, respectively. MRBFex was explored as a good substrate for IA production with yield of '20.42%. The efficiency of IA production by this wild type strain was improved by ultraviolet, chemical and mixed mutagenic treatments. Three high IA yielding mutants, NA2, NAUV24 and NASA56 were obtained by gradient plating. One of these mutants (NAUV24) was capable of producing about twice the yield of IA as the parent strain from acid hydrolyzed corn starch and/or MRBFex. Higher than 30 g/l of IA was produced by the mutant strain NAUV24 in flask fermentation from medium containing of 120 g/l (as sugar) of MRBFex

  14. Study on butyrolactones isolated from a sea hare-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus and their biological activities%1株海兔来源真菌Aspergillus terreus 丁内酯类化合物及其生物活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟晓凤; 边文涛; 刘敏; 王毓; 杨瑞云; 王长云; 邵长伦

    2014-01-01

    目的 在生物活性和化学方法指导下,从1株海兔来源真菌Aspergillus terreus (RA29-5)中分离鉴定海洋天然产物,并对其进行生物活性评价.方法 运用硅胶柱层析、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析和HPLC等方法分离纯化化合物,利用NMR等现代波谱分析方法,对化合物进行结构鉴定,并对化合物进行抗菌、卤虫致死和斑马鱼胚胎毒性活性评价.结果 鉴定了9个丁内酯类化合物(1~9)的结构;抗菌活性表明,除化合物6和9外,所有化合物对4株致病细菌白色葡萄球菌Staphylococcus epidermidis、金黄色葡萄球菌Staphylococcus aureus、蜡状芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis和四联球菌Tetragenococcus halophilus都显示一定的抗菌活性;化合物1~4和7均对真菌芒果叶枯菌Pestalotia mangierae显示抗菌活性;特别的,化合物7对测试的13株致病菌都具有广谱地抗菌活性,其MIC值在1.11~8.88μmol/L之间;此外,还对化合物的抗菌活性构效关系进行了初步探讨.结论海兔来源真菌A.terreus (RA29-5)可产生结构多样的丁内酯类化合物,该类化合物具有开发成抗菌剂的潜力.

  15. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Sukarti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO; production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl-glyceral produced contain essential fatty acids, i.e linoleic and linolenic acid.The objectives of this research was to study the influence of two mold strains of A. terreus and the C/N ratio of the growth medium consisting of cassava atarch and tofu processing waste on SCO production.This research consisted of two parts. The first part was a study on keeping methods of pure cultures of A. terreus, preparation of starter cultures, isolation of mold from the starter culture and preparation of fermentation media. The second part of the research was fermentation of A. terreus strain FNOC 6039 and FNOC 6040 on solid media made of tapioca and tofu waste having C/N ratios of 25/1, 30/1, 35/1, 40/1 and 45/1. Post-fermentation observations on the growth medium slabs consisted of moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content and SCO production.Both strain of A. terreus and C/N ratio affected moisture, starch, total sugars and protein content of the growth media. The A. terreus FNOC 6040 strain growth on a medium with C/N ratio of 45/1 was the most potential oil producer, i.e. 14,63% crude SCO. The oil was brownish yellow in color and has a slightly fishy aroma.

  16. Allergens/Antigens, Toxins and Polyketides of Important Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P.

    2011-01-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important specie...

  17. Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Person, A. K.; Chudgar, S. M.; Norton, B. L.; Tong, B. C.; Stout, J E

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolid...

  18. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. PMID:26658315

  19. Characterization ofβ-glucosidase from Aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavones%土曲霉来源的β-葡萄糖苷酶的酶学特性及其对大豆异黄酮的水解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-ying YAN; Wei XIA; Xiao-xu ZHANG; Sha CHEN; Xin-zheng NIE; Li-chun QIAN

    2016-01-01

    目的:分离纯化土曲霉来源的β-葡萄糖苷酶(At-Bgl),探究其酶学特性及其对大豆异黄酮的水解效果。  创新点:成功将At-Bgl分离纯化出来,并首次将分离纯化后的At-Bgl应用于水解大豆异黄酮糖苷。  方法:利用超滤、透析、阴离子交换柱层析和聚丙烯酰氨凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)等手段分离纯化土曲霉来源的β-葡萄糖苷酶(表1),并用解析电离串联飞行时间质谱技术(MALDI-TOF/TOF MS)鉴定蛋白条带。以对硝基苯基β-D-葡萄糖苷(pNPG)为底物进行酶学特性研究;以 pNPG和纤维二糖为底物,进行酶动力学参数研究(表2);以胃蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶模拟动物胃肠道酸性环境,进行酸耐受性研究。通过高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测At-Bgl对大豆异黄酮糖苷的水解效果(表3)。  结论:At-Bgl属糖苷水解酶第三家族(GH3),分子量约为120 kDa(图1),最适酶解条件为pH 5.0和65°C,具有良好的热稳定性和pH稳定性(图2),且胃蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶耐受性强(图3)。At-Bgl可将大豆异黄酮糖苷高效转化为异黄酮苷元(图4)。综上所述,At-Bgl在增强动物胃肠道对大豆异黄酮的水解方面具有重要应用价值。%An extracel ularβ-glucosidase produced by Aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kDa. The purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 65 °C and was very stable at 50 °C. Moreover, the enzyme exhibited good stability over pH 3.0–8.0 and possessed high tolerance towards pepsin and trypsin. The kinetic parameters Km (apparent Michaelis-Menten constant

  20. Molecular Genetic Characterization of Terreic Acid Pathway in Aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Jun; Sun, Wei-wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Wang, Clay C.

    2014-09-29

    Terreic acid is a natural product derived from 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA). A compact gene cluster for its biosynthesis was characterized. Isolation of the intermediates and shunt products from the mutant strains, in combined with bioinformatic analyses, allowed us to propose a biosynthetic pathway for terreic acid. Defining the pathway and the genes involved will facilitate the engineering of this molecule with interesting antimicrobial and antitumor bioactivities.

  1. Variability in Galactomannan detection by platelia Aspergillus EIA™ according to the Aspergillus species Variabilidade na detecção de galactomanana pelo Platelia Aspergillus EIA® de acordo com a espécie de Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the extent to which different Aspergillus species release galactomannan (GM in vitro. Marked variability was observed in GM reactivity between and within Aspergillus species, with A. terreus strains showing the highest GM indexes. The in vivo significance of these findings remains to be determined.O estudo objetivou investigar a liberação in vitro de galactomanana (GM em distintas espécies patogênicas de fungos do gênero Aspergillus. Grande variabilidade foi detectada tanto intra quanto inter espécies, sendo as cepas da espécie A. terreus relacionadas aos maiores índices de GM detectados. O significado in vivo destes achados permanece em aberto, porém merece investigação.

  2. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chinaputi, A.; Lim, S; Petcharat, V.; Chuenchit, S.; Pathanadech, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty sun-dried medicinal plants were obtained from fraditional drug stores in Songkhla Province, Thailand, and examined for Aspergillus and aflatoxin B1. 288 isolates of Aspergillus were obtaines by standard blotter plate and 25 species were identified. The most common species were A. niger with 99 isolates, A. Flavus 84 isolates, A. terreus 33 isolates, A. oryzae 25 isolates, A.nidulans (Emericella nidulans) 10 isolates, A fumigatus 9 isolates and A. chevalieri (Eurotium chevalieri) 8 isola...

  3. The activity of galanga (Alpinia galanga) rhizome extract against the growth of filamentous fungi Aspergillus spp. that produce aflatoxin and Fusarium moniliforme

    OpenAIRE

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI; TJAHJADI PURWOKO

    2008-01-01

    Galanga (Alpinia galanga L.) rhizome was known to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungi. The antifungal substances of galangal rhizome were found from their volatile oil. The objectives of this experiment were to study the ethanol extract of galangal rhizome against the growth of filamentous fungi Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus niger that produce mycotoxin, especially aflatoxin, based on biomass and colony area and to determinate minimum growth...

  4. Effect of serum components on biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuren, Tuya; Toyotome, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Muraosa, Yasunori; Yahiro, Maki; Wang, Dan-Ni; Watanabe, Akira; Taguchi, Hideaki; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. Serum promotes biofilm production by Aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other Aspergillus spp. have not been reported. We analyzed biofilm formation by five Aspergillus spp., i.e., A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), fetuin A, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. The antifungal susceptibility of A. fumigatus isolates that formed biofilms was also examined. All serum/serum proteins promoted the growth of all these fungal species; growth promotion was most evident with FBS, followed by fetuin A and BSA. This effect was most evident in case of A. fumigatus and least evident in case of A. terreus. Electron microscopy showed thick ECM layers surrounding fungal cell walls after culture with FBS, particularly in A. fumigatus. An increase in hyphal branching caused by fetuin A was the highest in case of A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Biofilm-forming A. fumigatus showed resistance to most antifungal agents, although a synergism of micafungin and amphotericin B was suggested. Our results indicate that serum promotes biofilm formation, including thick ECM, by many Aspergillus spp., particularly A. fumigatus, and that this may be closely related to its virulence. PMID:24858605

  5. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A...

  6. Studies of the Production of Fungal Polyketides in Aspergillus nidulans by Using Systems Biology Tools▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Andersen, Mikael R.; Grotkjaer, Thomas; Regueira, Torsten B.; Nielsen, Jens; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    Many filamentous fungi produce polyketide molecules with great significance as human pharmaceuticals; these molecules include the cholesterol-lowering compound lovastatin, which was originally isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The chemical diversity and potential uses of these compounds are virtually unlimited, and it is thus of great interest to develop a well-described microbial production platform for polyketides. Using genetic engineering tools available for the model organism Aspergillu...

  7. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  8. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Chung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxybenzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxybenzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  9. Painful accessory navicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-11-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice.

  10. The painful accessory navicular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  11. Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against aspergillus species and its interaction with common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-juan; CHEN Wei; XU Hui; WAN Zhe; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased in frequency in immunocompromised patients with a variety of diseases. The poor prognosis might be due to limited treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of ibuprofen against clinical isolates of aspergillus species, as well as its interaction with azoles or with amphotericin B or with micafungin.Methods Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against 10 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were tested with both disk diffusion assay and standard broth microdilution method. To determine whether ibuprofen combined with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, or micafungin had interactive effects on aspergillus spp., we used both disk diffusion assay and Chequerboard method.Results As for disk diffusion method, ibuprofen produced a zone of growth inhibition with diameters of (20.1±3.9) mm at 48 hours of incubation. As for broth microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of ibuprofen against aspergillus spp. were 1000-2000 μg/ml, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges of that was 2000-8000 μg/ml. For 2 of 5 isolates, when ibuprofen combined with itraconazole or voriconazole, the zones of growth inhibition were larger than those of the individual drug. The results of Chequerboard method showed that fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranges were 1.125-2.500.Conclusions Ibuprofen is active against aspergillus spp.. And ibuprofen does not affect the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B or micafungin against aspergillus spp..

  12. Sulfate assimilation in Aspergillus terreus: analysis of genes encoding ATP-sulfurylase and PAPS-reductase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schierová, M.; Linka, Marek; Pažoutová, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2000), s. 126-131. ISSN 0172-8083 Grant ostatní: GA UK(XC) 108/1994; GA UK(XC) 242/1997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A53/98:Z5-020-9ii Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2000

  13. Sulfate assimilation in Aspergillus terreus: analysis of genes encoding ATP-sulfurylase and PAPS-reductase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schierová, M.; Linka, Marek; Pažoutová, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2000), s. 126-131. ISSN 0172-8083 Grant ostatní: GA UK(XC) 108/1994; GA UK(XC) 242/1997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2000

  14. Aspernolides A and B, butenolides from a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, R.R.; DeSouza, C.; Tripathi, A.; Naik, C.G.

    were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. The absolute stereochemistry of aspernolides A (1) and B (2) was established by their preparation from the known butyrolactone I. Biogenetically aspernolides A and B must be derived from...

  15. Removal of Lead from Wastewater Contaminated with Chemical Synthetic Dye by Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    Lamyai Neeratanaphan; Sirirat Dechmon; Prasart Phonimdaeng; Prodpran Khamon; Somsak Intamat

    2015-01-01

    Novel isolated microorganisms have been demonstrated to efficiently remove lead from wastewater contaminated with chemical synthetic dye. In this study, the physical and chemical parameters of wastewater samples (including Pb concentrations) were analyzed before and after treatment with microorganisms. The highest Pb concentration detected in wastewater was 0.788 mg/l. Investigations of the Pb tolerance and removal capacities of microorganism strains isolated from the wastewater sediment resu...

  16. Spinal accessory nerve neurilemmoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neurilemmoma of the spinal accessory nerve extending from the lower brain stem to the high cervical region, without typical jugular foramen syndome is presented. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high cervical intradural extramedullary lesion in patients with lower cranial nerve(s) dysfunction. The value of intrathecal and intravenous contrast enhancement computed tomography (CT) myelogram is emphasized. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Distribution of Aspergillus species among apparently healthy birds in poultry farms in Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara N Kwanashie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wasconducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Aspergilllus species among apparently healthy birds in poultryfarms. Trachea swabs from 1500 birds in 52 commercial (10% of birds in eachpoultry farm visited poultry farms were collected for this study. Six speciesof Aspergillus were isolated wasisolated from 718 (47.87% of the birds viz: A. fumigatus made up 52.37% (376 of the Aspergillus isolates followed by A. flavus 21.87% (157, A.niger 11.42% (82, A. terreus8.64% (62, A. restrictus 2.79% (20and A. ochraceous 2.92% (21. Aspergillus species was found to occurthroughout the year in the farms though with a higher incidence during therainy season compared to the dry season.

  18. Accessory scrotum in the perineum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pananghat A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

  19. Accessory scrotum in the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Pananghat A Kumar; Pavai Arunachalam; Kumar, Prasanna N.

    2011-01-01

    A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

  20. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms that...... regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that...

  1. Paenibacillus terreus sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Dai, Wenjuan; Zhou, Zhijun; Wang, Guoxiang; Lin, Guoqing; Yan, Xixue; Zhao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, motile bacterium, designated D33T, was isolated from a forest soil sample. The strain grew optimally at 30-37 °C, pH 8.0 and with 1 % (w/v) NaCl. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed similarities lower than 97 % with respect to species of the genus Paenibacillus. Strain D33T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, and ribose and lower amounts of glucose and galactose as the whole-cell sugars. The major cellular fatty acid was anteiso-C15 : 0, and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was the only respiratory quinone. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, two glycolipids and an unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 51.1 mol%. The low DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain D33T and recognized species of the genus Paenibacillus, together with many phenotypic properties supported the classification of strain D33T as representative of a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus terreus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is D33T ( = KACC 18491T = DSM 100035T = CCTCC AB 2015273T). PMID:26493172

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption.

  4. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  5. Mycoflora and ochratoxin A producing strains of Aspergillus in Algerian wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, A; Mokrane, S; Mathieu, F; Lebrihi, A; Sabaou, N

    2008-02-29

    Wheat is a basic staple food for very large segments of the population of Algeria. The aim of this study is to analyse ochratoxin A (OTA)-producing mould and OTA-contaminated wheat. To evaluate the mycoflora and the potential for OTA production by Aspergillus strains, a total of 85 samples of wheat destined for human consumption were collected from two regions in Algeria (Tizi Ouzou and Setif) during the following phases: preharvest, storage in silos, and after processing. The mean value counts of fungi ranged from 275 to 1277 CFU g(-1). The dominant genus was Aspergillus, predominantly A. flavus, A. niger and A. versicolor. The other isolated species were A. ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. carbonarius, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, A. candidus and Aspergillus spp. The occurrence and the levels of the genus Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria and Mucor were substantially lower than those of Aspergillus. The storage in silos shows high levels of Aspergillus (66 to 84%), especially A. flavus, but A. niger and other fungi were isolated at relatively low percentages. Equal distribution of the fungal contamination into the bran, flour and semolina fractions was observed from Flour Mill and Semolina Mill. The genus Aspergillus remained present at high levels at several phases of the production process. In addition, the ability to produce OTA by 135 isolates belonging to eleven species of Aspergillus and 23 isolates of Penicillium spp. was analyzed using fluorescent detection-based HPLC. Thus, it was found that 51 isolates (32.3%) were ochratoxigenic. All isolated strains of A. ochraceus (12) and A. alliaceus (6) produced OTA at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 11.50 microg g(-1). Most of the A. carbonarius strains (80%) were OTA producers (0.01 to 9.35 microg g(-1)), whereas A. terreus (50%), A. niger (28%), A. fumigatus (40%), A. versicolor (18%) and Penicillium spp. (21.7%) were low level producers (0.01 to 0.07 microg g(-1)). The concentration of OTA was determined in 30

  6. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data. PMID:25616499

  7. Diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne Aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Firoozeh; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Aspergillus species isolated from Tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Thirty-eight Aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. A. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), A. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), A. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), A. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), A. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each A. nidulans, A. amstelodami, A. oryzae, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. flavipes and A. fumigatus were obtained by settle plate method which they were distributed in 18 out of 22 sampling sites examined. Fungal DNA was extracted from cultured mycelia of all Aspergillus isolates on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for amplification of gene fragments in RAPD-PCR using 11 primers. RAPD-PCR data was analyzed using UPGMA software. Resulting dendrogram of combined selected primers including PM1, OPW-04, OPW-05, P160, P54, P10 and OPA14 indicated the distribution of 12 Aspergillus species in 8 major clusters. The similarity coefficient of all 38 Aspergillus isolates ranged from 0.02 to 0.40 indicating a wide degree of similarities and differences within and between species. Taken together, our results showed that various Aspergillus species including some important human pathogenic ones exist in the outdoor air of Tehran by different extents in distribution and diversity and suggested inter- and intra-species genetic diversity among Aspergillus species by RAPD-PCR as a rapid, sensitive and reproducible method. PMID:27116962

  8. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  9. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host

  10. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    CERN Document Server

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  11. In vitro susceptibility testing of Candida and Aspergillus spp. to voriconazole and other antifungal agents using Etest: results of a French multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallié, M; Bastide, J M; Blancard, A; Bonnin, A; Bretagne, S; Cambon, M; Chandenier, J; Chauveau, V; Couprie, B; Datry, A; Feuilhade, M; Grillot, R; Guiguen, C; Lavarde, V; Letscher, V; Linas, M D; Michel, A; Morin, O; Paugam, A; Piens, M A; Raberin, H; Tissot, E; Toubas, D; Wade, A

    2005-04-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antifungal agent voriconazole were determined using the Etest and compared with those of amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole using 1986 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Voriconazole MICs were also compared with those of amphotericin B and itraconazole using 391 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. Voriconazole was found to have more potent activity and lower MIC values than amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. kefyr. Against C. glabrata and C. krusei, voriconazole was more active than either of the other two azole antifungals but had similar activity to amphotericin B. For species of Aspergillus, MIC values of voriconazole were lower than those of amphotericin B and itraconazole against A. fumigatus and A. flavus, and were similar to those of amphotericin B against A. niger. Against A. terreus, MIC values for voriconazole and itraconazole were similar. A. terreus is known to be resistant to amphotericin B, and this was reflected in higher MIC values compared with those of voriconazole and itraconazole. Voriconazole therefore compares very favourably with other antifungal agents against a large number of clinical isolates of Candida and Aspergillus spp. PMID:15784312

  12. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially...

  13. Regulation of Development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2010-01-01

    Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various pl...

  14. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Aspergillus terreus isolated from the seasonal oxygen minimum zone in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stief, P.; Fuchs-Ocklenburg, S.; Kamp, A.; Manohar, C.S.; Houbraken, J.; Boekhout, T.; deBeer, D.; Stoeck, T.

    , salterns, capybara droppings, lung of pocket mice, corn, cotton plants, milled rice, muesli, and wall paint [39]. The species has been reported from marine and associated habitats, such as mangroves and soft corals, and isolates from these habitats have... g L-1] + Glucose [10 g L-1]) supplemented with penicillin and streptomycin. Every few plate transfers, the antibiotics were omitted to avoid emergence and carry-over of resistant bacteria. Spores of the axenic isolate grown on agar plates were used...

  15. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs

  16. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  17. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  18. Enumeration and identification of Aspergillus group and Penicillium species in poultry feeds from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Dalcero, A M; Chiacchiera, S M; Miazzo, R; Saenz, M A

    1998-01-01

    A total of 180 samples of poultry feeds were collected during 1996 and 1997 from different factories in the south of the province of Córdoba-Argentina. They were examined for the occurrence of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus group species. Likewise, the capacity to produce aflatoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi group was determined. The predominant species of Aspergillus were A. flavus and A. parasiticus. For Penicillium spp., P. brevicompactum, P. purpurogenum and P. oxalicum were identified. Less frequently isolated were A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. orizae, A. parvulus, A. tamarii, A. terreus, and P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. minioluteum, P. pinophylum, P. restrictum, P. variable and others. The mean value counts ranged from 1 x 10(3) to 9.5 x 10(4) CFU/g for the Aspergillus spp. and from 1.2 x 10(3) to 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/g for the Penicillium spp. When cultured on autoclaved rice kernels for 1 week in the dark at 25 degrees C, mycotoxin production by strains of A. flavus was as follows: 21 of the 45 assayed strains (47%) produced aflatoxins. From them, 24% of the isolates produced AFB1 and AFB2 with levels from 181 to 14545 and 6 to 3640 micrograms/kg respectively. Only 10 strains produced AFB1 with levels from 10 to 920 micrograms/kg. Fifty percent of the A. parasiticus strain was toxicogenic; six aflatoxicogenic profiles were identified. Only 10% of the strains produced all of the aflatoxins. These results showed that a potential exists for the production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi and the Penicillium spp. They also suggested an association of mycotoxicosis with poultry feeds in Argentina. PMID:9850595

  19. New resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Vera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed and comprehensive genome annotation can be considered a prerequisite for effective analysis and interpretation of omics data. As such, Gene Ontology (GO annotation has become a well accepted framework for functional annotation. The genus Aspergillus comprises fungal species that are important model organisms, plant and human pathogens as well as industrial workhorses. However, GO annotation based on both computational predictions and extended manual curation has so far only been available for one of its species, namely A. nidulans. Results Based on protein homology, we mapped 97% of the 3,498 GO annotated A. nidulans genes to at least one of seven other Aspergillus species: A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. clavatus, A. terreus, A. oryzae and Neosartorya fischeri. GO annotation files compatible with diverse publicly available tools have been generated and deposited online. To further improve their accessibility, we developed a web application for GO enrichment analysis named FetGOat and integrated GO annotations for all Aspergillus species with public genome sequences. Both the annotation files and the web application FetGOat are accessible via the Broad Institute's website (http://www.broadinstitute.org/fetgoat/index.html. To demonstrate the value of those new resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus Aspergillus, we performed two case studies analyzing microarray data recently published for A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae. Conclusions We mapped A. nidulans GO annotation to seven other Aspergilli. By depositing the newly mapped GO annotation online as well as integrating it into the web tool FetGOat, we provide new, valuable and easily accessible resources for omics data analysis and interpretation for the genus Aspergillus. Furthermore, we have given a general example of how a well annotated genome can help improving GO annotation of related species to subsequently facilitate the

  20. Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Accessory Navicular

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, Matthew B.; Walton, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most symptomatic bones of the foot. Although it has been reported to be present in various members of the same family, there is a lack of knowledge about its inheritance pattern. We report two large pedigrees in which accessory navicular is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with incomplete penetrance.

  1. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  2. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...

  3. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  4. Melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Cooray, Sadani N.; Clark, Adrian J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The melanocortin receptor family consists of 5 members which belong to the GPCR superfamily. Their specific ligands, the melanocortins are peptide hormones which are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. It is now recognised that certain GPCRs require accessory proteins for their function. Like these GPCRs the melanocortin receptor family is also known to be associated with accessory proteins that regulate their function. ...

  5. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species ha...

  6. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  7. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Saffar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015 and presence of accessory spleen recorded. Tissue from the accessory spleen was also subjected to routine histological processing and slide prepared by haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS Accessory spleen was present in two cadavers near the splenic hilum. One was 3.9 cm in the long axis and weighed about 48.4 grams, while the other was 1.2 cm in long axis and weighed about 12.5 grams. One had a separate arterial branch from the main splenic artery; that it was splenic tissue was confirmed histologically. DISCUSSION The presence of accessory spleen is considered to be due to embryonic non-fusion of the splenic aggregate with the main mass. CONCLUSION Though accessory spleen in itself pose no clinical problems, its significance cannot be undermined. Surgeons and radiologists are advised to look for and rule out the presence of accessory spleen, especially while evaluating a case of abdominal and perineal pathology, else it may be wrongly diagnosed as malignant tumour or enlarged lymph node leading to grave consequences.

  8. Comparison of Etest with Modified Broth Microdilution Method for Testing Susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. to Voriconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M. C.; Morilla, D.; Valverde, A.; Chávez, M.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Claro, R.; Ramírez, M.; Mazuelos, E. Martín

    2003-01-01

    We compared the Etest with a broth microdilution method, performed according to a modified National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guideline (M38-A), for determining the in vitro susceptibility of 77 isolates of Aspergillus spp. (26 A. fumigatus, 21 A. flavus, 10 A. terreus, 9 A. niger, 5 A. nidulellus, 4 A. glaucus, and 2 A. flavipes isolates). Overall, there was 92.2% agreement between both methods when Etest MICs were read at 24 h and 83.1% agreement when both methods were read at 48 h. When Etest MICs were read at 24 h, the agreement was >90% for all species tested except for A. fumigatus (84.6%). When Etest MICs were read at 48 h, the agreement ranged from 50 to 100%. The poorest agreement was seen with A. glaucus (50%) and A. fumigatus (65%). Where a discrepancy was observed between Etest and the reference method, the Etest MIC was generally higher. The Etest appears to be a suitable alternative procedure for testing the susceptibility of Aspergillus spp. to voriconazole. PMID:14605181

  9. Studies on Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies were conducted on conidia of Aspergillus flavus Link (aflatoxin producing) and Aspergillus flavus oryzae (non-toxigenic) strains isolated and identified in this laboratory. These strains differed in resistance to heat and gamma radiation, the toxigenic strain being more resistant to both treatments. Results of tests on dose-modifying factors indicated that composition, temperature and pH of suspending media affected radiation resistance. On the other hand, the size of the initial population and the age of the conidia did not influence the radiation resistance of either strain. Studies on thermal inactivation of the conidia suggested that the temperature employed was more important than the time of heat treatment. Conidia of both strains showed a synergistic effect of combined heat and radiation treatments, although a heat-radiation sequence was more effective than a radiation-heat sequence. (author)

  10. Pituitary aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907

  11. Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

    2014-01-01

    Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

  12. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  13. Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J

    1980-01-01

    A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified.

  14. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves are closely related anatomically, and to a certain extent, functionally. We present an overview of their anatomy, highlighting the important clinical and imaging implications. The main pathologic lesions arising from these nerves are also discussed and the imaging features reviewed.

  15. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Cheng Kang [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: ongck22@hotmail.com; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-05-15

    The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves are closely related anatomically, and to a certain extent, functionally. We present an overview of their anatomy, highlighting the important clinical and imaging implications. The main pathologic lesions arising from these nerves are also discussed and the imaging features reviewed.

  16. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  17. Mrap2 Accessory Linked to Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tiemin; Elmquist, Joel K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors are critical modulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Companion studies published in Science (Asai et al., 2013; Sebag et al., 2013) establish a role for melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (Mrap2) in regulating melanocortin receptor activity and in the development of obesity in zebrafish, rodents, and humans.

  18. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  19. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  1. Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, A.; Prieto, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve.
METHOD—Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people an...

  2. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal; Chunli Deng

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the ano...

  3. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Teller, Philip J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  4. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  5. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    OpenAIRE

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they...

  6. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  7. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  9. Cloning and characterization of novel methylsalicylic acid synthase gene involved in the biosynthesis of isoasperlactone and asperlactone in Aspergillus westerdijkiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus westerdijkiae is the main producer of several biologically active polyketide metabolites including isoasperlactone and asperlactone. A 5298 bp polyketide synthase gene ''aomsas'' has been cloned in Aspergillus westerdijkiae by using gene walking approach and RACE-PCR. The predicted amino acid sequence of aomsas shows an identity of 40-56% with different methylsalicylic acid synthase genes found in Byssochlamys nivea, P. patulum, A. terreus and Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Based on the reverse transcription PCR and kinetic secondary metabolites production studies, aomsas expression was found to be associated with the biosynthesis of isoasperlactone and asperlactone. Moreover an aomsas knockout mutant ''aomsas'' of A. westerdijkiae, not only lost the capacity to produce isoasperlactone and asperlactone, but also 6-methylsalicylic acid. The genetically complemented mutant aomsas restored the biosynthesis of all the missing metabolites. Chemical complementation through the addition of 6-methylsalicylic acid, aspyrone and diepoxide to growing culture of aomsas mutant revealed that these compounds play intermediate roles in the biosynthesis of asperlactone and isoasperlactone. (author)

  10. Synergistic action of recombinant accessory hemicellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes to Trichoderma reesei cellulase on rice straw degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laothanachareon, Thanaporn; Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Suwannarangsee, Surisa; Eurwilaichitr, Lily; Champreda, Verawat

    2015-12-01

    Synergism between core cellulases and accessory hydrolytic/non-hydrolytic enzymes is the basis of efficient hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. In this study, the synergistic action of three recombinant accessory enzymes, namely GH62 α-l-arabinofuranosidase (ARA), CE8 pectin esterase (PET), and GH10 endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XYL) from Aspergillus aculeatus expressed in Pichia pastoris to a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase (Accellerase® 1500; ACR) on hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated rice straw was studied using a mixture design approach. Applying the full cubic model, the optimal ratio of quaternary enzyme mixture was predicted to be ACR:ARA:PET:XYL of 0.171:0.079:0.100:0.150, which showed a glucose releasing efficiency of 0.173 gglc/FPU, higher than the binary ACR:XYL mixture (0.122 gglc/FPU) and ACR alone (0.081 gglc/FPU) leading to a 47.3% increase in glucose yield compared with that from ACR at the same cellulase dosage. The result demonstrates the varying degree of synergism of accessory enzymes to cellulases useful for developing tailor-made enzyme systems for bio-industry. PMID:26433794

  11. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  12. Imaging of the symptomatic type Il accessory navicular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type Il accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucle...

  15. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers. PMID:24970007

  16. Comparison of the activities of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole against clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Misra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive fungal infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. Aims: To evaluate the susceptibility pattern of our isolates against amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole and to compare the antifungal activities of these agents with each other against the Aspergillus species tested. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed to include clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus species. Materials and Methods: 420 sputum samples, 70 bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, 160 oral washings, and 47 environmental samples were collected. Direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide and lactophenol cotton blue mounts followed by culture on Sabourad`s dextrose agar (SDA was done. Susceptibility testing was performed by the broth microdilution technique as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standards (M-38A. Additionally, all the isolates were also tested by the colorimetric microdilution technique using Alamar Blue dye. Statistical Analysis: It was done by the Chi-square test and Z-test using SPSS statistical software version 12.0. Results and Conclusion: Twenty-seven isolates (47.3% were recovered from patients with chronic bronchial asthma followed by fibrocavitary pulmonary tuberculosis in 9 (15.7%, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA in 6 cases (10.5%, bronchiectasis in 3 (5.2%, bronchogenic carcinoma in 5 (8.7% and those receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer 7 (12.2%. Thirteen environmental isolates were also included in the study. The most common isolate was A. fumigatus 28 (40%, followed by A. niger 22 (31%, A. flavus 13 (19%, and A. terreus 7(10%. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Among the three agents tested, voriconazole exhibited lowest MICs (≤1 μg/ml against all Aspergillus species.

  17. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... This generic type of device includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot catheter, catheter punch... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In general. The tax attaches with respect to parts and accessories for articles specified...

  1. Torsion of Pedunculated Accessory Liver Lobe with Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Kamlesh K.; Gomes, Rachel M.; Bhagvat, Vikrant

    2012-01-01

    Accessory lobes of the liver are very uncommon and rarely symptomatic. We report the occurrence of torsion and infarction of a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver with acute cholecystitis. The speculated possibilities of the coexistent pathologies and its management are discussed.

  2. Preparatory production of quercetin-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside using alkali-tolerant thermostable alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weignerová, Lenka; Marhol, Petr; Gerstorferová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 115, JUL 2012 (2012), s. 222-227. ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0767; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : lsoquercitrin * Quercetin-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside * Rutin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.750, year: 2012

  3. Prevalence and mechanism of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus in a referral chest hospital in Delhi, India and an update of the situation in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha eChowdhary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus causes varied clinical syndromes ranging from colonization to deep infections. The mainstay of therapy of Aspergillus diseases is triazoles but several studies globally highlighted variable prevalence of triazole resistance, which hampers the management of aspergillosis. We studied the prevalence of resistance in clinical A. fumigatus isolates during 4 years in a referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India and reviewed the scenario in Asia and the Middle East. Aspergillus species (n=2117 were screened with selective plates for azole resistance. The isolates included 45.4% A. flavus, followed by 32.4% A. fumigatus, 15.6% Aspergillus species and 6.6% A. terreus. Azole resistance was found in only 12 (1.7% A. fumigatus isolates.These triazole resistant A. fumigatus (TRAF isolates were subjected to (a calmodulin and β tubulin gene sequencing (b in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing against triazoles using CLSI M38-A2 (c sequencing of cyp51A gene and real-time PCR assay for detection of mutations and (d microsatellite typing of the resistant isolates. TRAF harbored TR34/L98H mutation in 10 (83.3% isolates with a pan-azole resistant phenotype. Among the remaining 2 TRAF isolates, one had G54E and the other had three non-synonymous point mutations. The majority of patients were diagnosed as invasive aspergillosis followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The Indian TR34/L98H isolates had a unique genotype and were distinct from the Chinese, Middle East and European TR34/L98H strains. This resistance mechanism has been linked to the use of fungicide azoles in agricultural practices in Europe as it has been mainly reported from azole naïve patients. Reports published from Asia demonstrate the same environmental resistance mechanism in A. fumigatus isolates from two highly populated countries in Asia i.e., China and India and also from the neighboring Middle East.

  4. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... exemptions for experimental use of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio (72 FR 28871, May 23, 2007) (FRL-8129... Findings In the Federal Register of March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9596) (FRL-8811-2), EPA issued a notice pursuant..., 2003 (68 FR 41541) (FRL-7311-6). Those health effects data were the basis for establishing...

  5. Aspergillus infections in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jill; Brunel, Shan F; Warris, Adilia

    2016-07-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities. PMID:27177733

  6. Aspergillus mediastinitis after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Caballero

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The clinical features of postoperative Aspergillus mediastinitis may be paucisymptomatic, emphasizing the need for a low index of suspicion in cases of culture-negative mediastinitis or in indolent wound infections. In addition to surgical debridement, the central component of antifungal therapy should include amphotericin B or voriconazole.

  7. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipas

  8. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  9. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  10. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  11. The association of hallux limitus with the accessory navicular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D Lee; Averett, Ryan; Sanders, Stephanie

    2002-06-01

    Hallux limitus is one of the most prevalent, debilitating disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and it has many proposed etiologies. This article reviews these etiologies, focusing primarily on the pes planus foot. The pes planus foot type is often associated with symptomatic hallux limitus and the accessory navicular. This article discusses this correlation, although a causal relationship has not been proven. The prevalence and classification of the accessory navicular are also discussed. Clinical cases involving symptomatic hallux limitus occurring concomitantly with an accessory navicular are reviewed, including radiographic findings, symptoms, and surgical treatment. PMID:12070237

  12. Perineal Accessory Scrotum with Congenital Lipoma: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of accessory scrotum in a 1-year-old boy is reported because of its rarity. A boy presented with a tumor mass attached with scrotum-like skin on its tip in the right side of perineum between the scrotum and anus. Both testes had descended into the scrotum. There was no other urological anomaly. Histological findings of the tumor indicated perineal lipoma, and the scrotum-like portion accessory scrotum. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypothesis regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

  13. Ochratoxin A-Produktion durch Aspergillus ochraceus

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlencoert, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A, one of the 5 most important mycotoxins in food safety, is produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium strains growing on grain, grapes and coffee. OTA biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. depends more on the complex interaction of diverse environmental conditions than on a single growth factor or even the genetic ability to produce OTA. No apparent connection between biomass and OTA production was observed. OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus could be controlled by the pH of...

  14. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  15. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars

    Filamentous fungi are extensively used in the fermentation industry for synthesis of numerous products. One of the most important, is the fungus Aspergillus niger, used industrially for production of organic acids, and homologous as well as heterologous enzymes. This fungus has numerous of advant...... fumonisin production, identified. These formed the basis for the subsequent examinations, which resulted in the identification of azelaic acid, a plant hormone and a very potent fumonisin inducer....

  16. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  17. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipases. In contrast to polysaccharide-degrading enzyme networks, not much is known about the signaling and regulatory processes that control lipase expression and activity in fungi. This project was ai...

  18. Asexual Sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Thomas H; Wieser, Jenny K.; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    1998-01-01

    The formation of mitotically derived spores, called conidia, is a common reproductive mode in filamentous fungi, particularly among the large fungal class Ascomycetes. Asexual sporulation strategies are nearly as varied as fungal species; however, the formation of conidiophores, specialized multicellular reproductive structures, by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has emerged as the leading model for understanding the mechanisms that control fungal sporulation. Initiation of A. nid...

  19. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Heddergott, C.; Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J P

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VO...

  20. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories.... Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart...

  1. Accessory Fissures of the liver: CT and sonographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auh, Y.H.; Rubenstein, W.A.; Zirinsky, K.; Kneeland, J.B.; Pardes, J.C.; Engel, I.A.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1984-09-01

    Invaginations of the liver by the diaphragm form accessory fissures that may mimic the major hepatic fissures on sectional images. Accessory fissures are most common in the superior right hepatic lobe. Their average incidence on computed tomographic (CT) scans is 25%. Their frequency increases with age, approaching 70% in the seventh and eighth decades. Their depth may equal or exceed 2 cm in one-third of cases. Multiple accessory fissures may mimic pathologic liver nodules on CT and may be associated with diaphragmatic scalloping or eventration on the chest film. When only parts of these fissures are seen sonographically, they may be mistaken for echogenic liver lesions. The differentiation of accessory fissures from the major hepatic fissures, from pathologic lesions, and from sonographic pseudofissure artifacts is discussed.

  2. Accessory Fissures of the liver: CT and sonographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invaginations of the liver by the diaphragm form accessory fissures that may mimic the major hepatic fissures on sectional images. Accessory fissures are most common in the superior right hepatic lobe. Their average incidence on computed tomographic (CT) scans is 25%. Their frequency increases with age, approaching 70% in the seventh and eighth decades. Their depth may equal or exceed 2 cm in one-third of cases. Multiple accessory fissures may mimic pathologic liver nodules on CT and may be associated with diaphragmatic scalloping or eventration on the chest film. When only parts of these fissures are seen sonographically, they may be mistaken for echogenic liver lesions. The differentiation of accessory fissures from the major hepatic fissures, from pathologic lesions, and from sonographic pseudofissure artifacts is discussed

  3. PAINFUL ACCESSORY NAVICULAR IN CHILDREN – CASE PRESENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    RE Iacob; Daniela Iacob

    2010-01-01

    Accessory bones, called sesamoid bones, may be occasionally located in the foot. Such a situation is seen in the case of accessory navicular. Its presence is mostly asymptomatic, in some cases in teenagers and adults and more rarely before this age, leading to pains in the leg. This paper presents the case of a 10 year girl experiencing such a pathology that was managed surgically.

  4. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan; Sivaram Bojja; Madabhushi Chakravarthy Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferior...

  5. An incidental finding of the accessory inferior thyroid artery

    OpenAIRE

    Sedy J

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of an incidental finding of the right accessory inferior thyroid artery, emerging from the thyrocervical trunk together with a typical inferior thyroid artery, present in a normal position. On the left side, only single inferior thyroid artery was present. Only one inferior thyroid vein was found on each side. The accessory inferior thyroid artery entered the thyroid gland approximately 1 cm above the normal inferior thyroid, above the superior parathyroid gland. Although acc...

  6. Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Containing Multiple Calcifed Foci: Unusual Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Aghaghazvini; Habib Mazaher; Hashem Sharifian; Shirin Aghaghazvini

    2009-01-01

    "nIntroduction: Schwannomas are benign neural tumors which arise from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the accessory nerve are rare lesions. The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI schwannomas relates to their location and extent: intracranial, jugular foramen, upper neck, or cervical spine. The extra cranial form is the least common reported. Calcified accessory schwannoma is rare. These lesions most often occur in the third to sixth decades of life. These tumors are slightly more...

  7. Mammographic appearance of accessory breast tissue in the axilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the mammographic appearance of accessory breast tissue in the axilla. Methods: In the past 3 years, 7562 women were underwent bilateral screen-film mammography. All of the mediolateral oblique (MLO) films were reviewed retrospectively to look for whether there was accessory breast tissue and what the mammographic features were like. Radiographically the accessory tissue resembled the main normal breast glandular tissue but was separated from it. Results: Of the 7652 case, accessory breast tissue in the axilla was detected in 161 cases. The prevalence was 2%. The age ranged from 17 to 70 years (mean, 39 years). 38% of them were found in the bilateral axilla, 42% only in the right, and 20% only in the left. The dimensions on the right ranged from 0.7 to 8.0 cm (mean, 3.5 cm), and that on the left ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 cm (mean, 3.3 cm). There were four types among the accessory breast tissue: patchy type was the most (35%), then the branched type (26%), mixed type (20%), and mass-like type (19%). 3 cases were proved by pathology. Conclusion: It is important that the radiologist be familiar with the mammographic appearance of accessory breast tissue in the axilla in order that they could be distinguished from other pathological changes

  8. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  9. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  10. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines. PMID:27391523

  11. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Gomes; Roberto da Silva; Alcides Serzedello

    1998-01-01

    Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of a...

  12. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  13. MEKANISME PRODUKSI MINYAK SEL TUNGGAL DENGAN SISTEM FERMENTASI PADAT PADA MEDIA ONGGOK-AMPAS TAHU DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPANG ASPERGILLUS TERREUS [The Production Mechanism of Single Cell Oil from Aspergillus terreus in a Solid Fermentation System Using a Mixture of Tapioca and Tofu Waste Media

    OpenAIRE

    Tati Sukarti; Marleen Herudiyanto; Carmencita Tjahjadi; Debby M Sumanti

    2005-01-01

    Fat is an important nutrient for health. Considering the ever-increasing annual demand for cooking oil as a result of the rapid increase in population new sources of poly-unsaturated fats must be searched for.One potential source is the Single Cell Oil (SCO); production of SCO does not require vast areas of land, production time is relatively short and is not affected by enviromental conditions. Moreover, product synthesis and production volume can be easily controlled; Moreover, the tri-acyl...

  14. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia;

    2008-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergill...... atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523(T)=CBS 127591(T)= ITEM 4834(T)= IBT26606(T)....

  15. Research on Real-Time Quantitative PCR Technology of Common Aspergillus Species%常见曲霉菌的实时定量PCR诊断技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武学成; 龚文胜

    2012-01-01

    Objective The detected method of real-time quantitative PCR technology on common Aspergillus Species was developed. Methods The employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes, directed to the conservative internal transcribed spacer 2(ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA from A, terreus, A flavus, A. Fumigatus, A. Terreus, A. Nidulans and A niger were designed. Five kinds of common Aspergillus Species were detected by the quantitative real-time PCR and common PCR technology. Results DNA from each Aspergillus species for which DNA probes were designed produced am-plicons of approximately 350bp in size. Melting temperature of A, terreus, A. Flavus, A. Fumigatus,A terreus, A. Nidulajis and A. Niger was respectively 57℃ ± 0. 12℃ , 59℃ ± 0. 13℃ , 63℃ ± 0. 17℃ , 66°C ± 0. 15℃ , 66℃ ± 0. 14℃ and 68℃± 0. 12°C by melting peak analysis for five different Aspergillus spp. The minimum reaction concentration of DNA response template of A terreus, A flavus, A fumigatus, A nidulans and A niger was respectively 82. 4, 621. 3, 51. 2, 520. 8 and 19. 5 fg/μl by sensitivity analysis of common Aspergillus species. Conclusion The developed technology of real-time quantitative PCR is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important common Aspergillus species, which was a new option in invasive aspergillosis diagnosis.%目的 建立常见曲霉菌的实时定量PCR诊断技术.方法 针对黄曲霉菌、烟曲霉菌、构巢曲霉菌、黑曲霉菌和土曲霉菌内转录间隔区2(internal transcribed spacer 2,ITS2)保守基因设计引物和探针,通过普通PCR扩增其ITS2基因片段,作为实时定量PCR反应模板,通过实时定量扩增和分析其解链曲线来鉴定常见曲霉菌,同时分析该方法灵敏度.结果 真菌通用引物扩增五种常见曲霉菌ITS2基因DNA片段,大小为350 bp左右.实时定量PCR分析和探针解链曲线分析结果显示土曲霉解链温度(melting temperature

  16. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...... analysis. The sequence data used to delimitate subgeneric taxa included partial calmodulin, rDNA and RNA polymerase gene sequences. In our phylogenic structure of Aspergillus extrolite data of the various Aspergillus taxa collected from ex-type cultures and numerous other isolates are also discussed. A new...... subgeneric classification is proposed which includes 8 subgenera and 22 sections within the Aspergillus genus. Characteristics of these taxa are shortly discussed in this chapter....

  17. Putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomee, JFC; Kauffman, HF

    2000-01-01

    Various putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus have been studied over the past decades. A. fumigatus gliotoxin is a potent inhibitor of the mucociliary system. Several fungal metabolites interfere with phagocytosis and opsonization including toxins, 'conidial inhibitory factor', 'A. fum

  18. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  19. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Pedro M.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S.; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F.; Ohm, Robin A.; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs...

  20. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia. PMID:26920167

  1. Forearm soft tissue mass caused by an accessory muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Milena, G.; Ruiz Santiago, F.; Canadillas Barea, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Chamorro Santos, C. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain)

    2001-08-01

    We present a case of forearm soft tissue mass caused by an accessory muscle, distal and deep to flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Imaging studies, mainly magnetic resonance and ultrasound, allow a specific diagnosis, and obviate unnecessary surgery. In this case, the symptoms associated with ulnar compression led to surgery and confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical unit... to destroy tissue during surgical procedures by applying extreme cold. (2) Cryosurgical unit with a... and accessories is a device intended to destroy tissue during surgical procedures,...

  3. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  4. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  5. Cancer of the accessory breast - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left infra mammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligo biopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. (authors)

  6. Accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum, physically separated from the thyroid gland, is reported. The mediastinal thyroid was incidentally discovered during the preoperative evaluation of a patient with breast carcinoma. The extreme rarity of the case is outlined

  7. [Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D; Tebbenjohanns, J; Jung, W; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1993-04-16

    Various parameters relating to the radio-frequency ablation of accessory pathways were studied in 53 patients (27 males, 26 females: mean age 38.5 [14-64] years) with a history of paroxysmal tachycardia (over 1 month to 50 years), shown to be caused by an accessory pathway (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). In all patients the following values were obtained: (1) number of procedures necessary to achieve permanent blockage of the accessory pathway (1-4); (2) duration of each procedure (45-420 min); (3) duration of fluoroscopy (5-102 min); (4) number of necessary radio-frequency applications (1-48); and (5) cumulative energy per procedure. To ablate left-lateral pathways (n = 10) required fewer procedures, shorter duration per procedure, shorter fluoroscopy time, fewer current applications and less total energy than coagulation of right-sided pathways (n = 10). Those various parameters were greatest for ablation of septal and para-septal pathways (n = 9). Pathways which conducted only retrogradely (n = 15) were more difficult to ablate than those with anterograde conduction (n = 38). There were two complications. In one case a tension pneumothorax occurred after faulty puncture of the subclavian vein; in the other, the left ventricle was perforated causing an acute tamponade which required pericardiocentesis with subsequent suture closure of the perforation. It is concluded that, in principle, all accessory pathways, regardless of their conduction potential and site, can be ablated by a radio-frequency current. PMID:8472633

  8. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... States after importation of certain handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of... certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594 trademark; the...

  9. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of activity at pH 4.5 and 7.0. A. flavipes RNases were more sensitive to temperature: 50% of the initial activity was lost after 1 hour at 70ºC. After this heat treatment, RNase of A. sulphureus lost 30% of this activity and that of A. fischeri only 16%. The nucleotides released by enzimatic hydrolysis of RNA were separated by ion exchange chromatography in a AG-1X8-formiate column and identified by paper chromatography. This procedure indicated that the raw enzymatic extract of Aspergillus flavipes is able to hydrolyze RNA, releasing 3'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 4.5 and 3' and 5'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 7.0 and 8.5. This result suggests that this strain produces two different types of RNase, one acidic and other alcaline, with different specificities.A produção de ribonucleases extracelulares pelos fungos Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus e A. fischeri foi estudada em meio semi-sintético por períodos de 24 a 144 horas, em "shaker" a 30ºC. Após o cultivo, o meio foi separado da massa micelial por filtração, sendo o filtrado utilizado como solução enzimática bruta. As três espécies produziram maior quantidade de biomassa e ribonuclease após 96 horas de cultivo. O estudo das RNases como extrato enzimático bruto demonstrou que existe grande similaridade entre as enzimas das três espécies, com temperaturas ótimas de 55ºC e dois picos de atividade a pH 4,5 e a pH 7,0. A RNAse produzida pelo fungo A. flavipes demonstrou ser mais

  10. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-30

    Progress in a program for optimizing automotive accessory systems to achieve greater vehicle fuel economy and improved accessory performance is reported. The major technical accomplishments during this reporting period were: all candidate advanced air conditioning concepts were evaluated; advanced air conditioning and hybrid accessory drive component trade-studies were completed; improved alternator, water pump and power steering system concepts were evaluated; the vehicle integrated accessory systems trade-study was completed; and the technical summary report for the Phase V Automotive Accessory Systems Optimization Program was initiated. (LCL)

  11. Neuroimaging features of cerebral aspergillus abscess: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Bai

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Cerebral aspergillus abscesses possess some degree neuroimaging features on traditional CT/MR imaging. Combined with patient's clinical history, CT/MRI examination could facilitate early diagnosis of aspergillus abscesses in central nervous system.

  12. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  13. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, N.-T.; Jou, I.-M.; Lee, B.-F.; Yao, W.-J.; Tu, D.-G.; Wu, P.-S

    2000-05-01

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  14. Symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones: Findings of Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The accuracy of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing symptomatic accessory navicular bones has not been well studied. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the results and use of scintigraphy in symptomatic and asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen patients with a total of 13 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic accessory navicular bones were included in the study. We used a scoring system to grade the scintigraphic abnormalities. The patients' symptoms and scintigraphic findings were recorded. RESULTS: Though focally increased radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in all symptomatic accessory naviculars, half of the asymptomatic accessory navicular bones had the same manifestations. The scoring system was of no value in differentiating symptomatic from asymptomatic accessory navicular bones. CONCLUSION: Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive but not a specific tool for diagnosing a symptomatic accessory navicular. Chiu, N.-T. (2000)

  15. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; T. D. C. P. Gunasekara; Bulugahapitiya, U.; K. N. P. Ranasinghe; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; M M Weerasekara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  17. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferiorly to the upper cervical canal. The radiological features have been detailed. The diagnostic dilemma was due to its midline posterior location mimicking a fourth ventricular lesion like medulloblastoma and ependymoma. Total excision is the ideal treatment for these tumors. A brief review of literature with tabulations of the variants has been listed.

  18. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Accessory Parotid Gland: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Somdipto; Nayak, Umanath K; Buggavetti, Rahul; Sekhar, Shobana

    2016-05-01

    The accessory parotid gland is salivary gland tissue separated from the main gland at a variable distance. This gland is histologically similar to the main gland, but has a higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the main gland. Regarding the various malignant neoplasms, studies have shown higher incidences of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with less than 2% being adenoid cystic carcinoma. We present a case of swelling in the midcheek region that, after clinical examination, was diagnosed as a case of neoplasm of the accessory parotid gland. On the basis of auxiliary investigations including intraoperative frozen section, it was concluded that it was adenoid cystic carcinoma, grade I, and after wide surgical resection, the tumor was removed without undergoing superficial parotidectomy. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and was followed for 14 months without any recurrence or substantial facial asymmetry. PMID:26851989

  19. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Rossen, L.; Hoor-Suykerbuyk, M.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nine Aspergillus japonicus isolates and 10 Aspergillus aculeatus isolates by using molecular and biochemical markers, including DNA sequences of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and secondary-metabolite profiles. The DNA sequence of...... the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and...

  20. Accessory Navicular Bone Mimicking Navicular Fracture after Ankle Sprain

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Çidem; Murat Uludağ; Kerem Gün; Ülkü Akarırmak

    2011-01-01

    An accessory navicular bone (ANB) is present in 10-30% of normal feet. A morphological classification of ANB on the basis of the radiographic appearance distinguishes three types. Most symptomatic ANBs are of type 2. Although the diagnosis and treatment of sprained ankle are generally straightforward, together with an ANB, it might be misdiagnosed as a fracture. We present a 20-year-old male with type 2 ANB who was misdiagnosed as navicular fracture following sprained ankle. Turk J Phys Med...

  1. Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Containing Multiple Calcifed Foci: Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Aghaghazvini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Schwannomas are benign neural tumors which arise from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the accessory nerve are rare lesions. The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI schwannomas relates to their location and extent: intracranial, jugular foramen, upper neck, or cervical spine. The extra cranial form is the least common reported. Calcified accessory schwannoma is rare. These lesions most often occur in the third to sixth decades of life. These tumors are slightly more common in women. "nCase presentation: We present a 37-year-old woman with a painless right posterior neck space mass which gradually appeared during one year. Except for mild numbness of the overlying skin of the mentioned mass, there were no other associated symptoms. Examination confirmed a 25 × 18mm, firm, mobile, non tender lump in the right posterior neck. Ultrasonography revealed a 30×20 mm hypo-echoic mass with multiple calcified foci and in color Doppler mild vascularity was detected. On contrast-enhanced CT scan of the neck a 30×18mm heterogeneous enhancing mass with multiple calcified foci (on non contrast cuts was found posterior to the neck vessels and had displaced them anteriorly. No surrounding fat stranding or any other gross pathology was evident in the other neck spaces. "nAccording to the above findings, lymphadenopathy due to TB or less possibly, fungal infection, hemangioma, lymphangiomam, schwannoma were our differential diagnosis. Mass resection and histopathology revealed schwannoma of the accessory nerve with an unusual calcification presentation. No evidence of recurrence was detected after one year. "nDiscussion: The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI Schwannomas relates to their location and extent. The interesting point of this case was the unusual manifestation of accessory nerve schwannoma, not only because of its rarity but also because of its unusual calcification presentation and symptom-free appearance.  

  2. Importing home decorating accessories from India to Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ruuska, Jenni

    2011-01-01

    The commissioner of this thesis is a start-up company interested in importing home decorating accessories from India to Finland. There are two main goals of this thesis: firstly, to discover how importing from India would happen in practice, and secondly, to investigate what are the fairs the commissioner should visit in India. Thus, the theoretical framework includes following areas: logistics, consisting of money transfer and transportation; customs duties, discussing for instance the tarif...

  3. Comparison of murine hepatic accessory cells and splenic dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory cells are required for proliferation and antibody synthesis of B lymphocytes and proliferation of T lymphocytes in primary immune responses in vitro. The obligatory cells derived from the spleen are referred to as dendritic cells. Accessory cells were isolated from normal adult livers which were functionally interchangeable with splenic DC. Both hepatic accessory cells (AC) and splenic DC adhere firmly to plastic culture dishes or wells within 2 hr; but hepatic AC, unlike splenic DC, do not detach during 22 hr additional incubation. Hepatic AC, unlike splenic DC, are not lysed or inactivated by monoclonal antibody 33D1 and C'. Hepatic AC and splenic DC are similarly sensitive to irradiation in vivo and insensitive to irradiation in vitro. Hepatic AC are separated with cells which are predominantly phagocytic and FcR+ and contain nonspecific esterase. Both hepatic AC and splenic DC are suppressed or eliminated by activation of NK cells in vivo, a phenomenon prevented by prior elimination of NK cells

  4. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  5. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes - right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  6. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  7. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; Gunasekara, T. D. C. P.; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Ranasinghe, K. N. P.; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; Weerasekara, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients’ toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P onychomycosis. Aspergillus species were most commonly isolated n = 180 (71%) followed by dermatophytes, yeasts, and other molds n = 75 (29%). Of the patients having Aspergillus onychomycosis, 149 (83%) were in the > age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63%) had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation. PMID:26693433

  8. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives of...... the wild molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. All four species are classified to the A. flavus group. Strains of the A. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological similarity. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic, whereas wild molds...... are associated with the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Thus, reliable identification of individual strains is very important for application purposes. This review considers the pheno- and genotypic markers used in the classification of A. flavus group strains and specifically in the identification of A...

  9. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Lysková, P.; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Skořepová, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2014), s. 565-576. ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus candidus * Aspergillus tritici * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  10. Study of effect ultraviolet radiation on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the results of ultraviolet radiation effects on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus to reach the quality control standards are presented. The purpose was to test the effect of ultraviolet radiation in 254 nanometer wavelength for fungi decontamination with respect to the exposure time of radiation and the distance between samples and radiation source. The ultraviolet radiation effects on plates containing Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi were studied in the exposure time duration of 30, to 360 seconds of a fixed distance, and also for variable distances from 10 to 40 cm at a given exposure time. It is shown that in the exposure time of more than 360 second the ultraviolet radiation exposure highly decreases the number of Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi colonies. By reducing the distance, the number of colonies decreases and it is minimized at a 10 cm distance in the time exposure of 360 second. The above results show that the ultraviolet radiation is an effective method for food decontamination and can be used in industry

  11. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  12. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...

  13. Organic acid production by Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de

    2006-01-01

    . Specielt Aspergillus niger er interessant i forbindelse med produktion af organiske syrer, idet denne organisme tolerer lavt pH, kan give høje produktudbytter, og kan give høje produktiviteter som allerede illustreret i anvendelsen af denne organisme i produktionen af citronsyre. Disse faktorer gør A...

  14. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...

  15. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  16. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  17. MR Imaging Findings of Painful Type II Accessory Navicular Bone: Correlation with Surgical and Pathologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. Materials and Methods The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on th...

  18. Reliable Sex and Strain Discrimination in the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Tolokh, Illya I.; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mou...

  19. BILATERAL ACCESSORY BREAST TISSUE PRESENTING AS MASS IN AXILLA WITH LEAKING MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breasts are an uncommon entity. They may present as asymptomatic masses or cause symptoms such as pain or restriction of arm movements even some time milk leaks from accessory breast. It may prove to be diagnostic challenge if found in locations along or outside the mammary line. We report a very rare case of an ectopic bilateral accessory breast presenting as mass in axilla with leaking milk in lactating young female. FNAC was diagnostic tool

  20. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Azad; Seyed Mohsen Seyed Aliakbar; Majid Tavassoli; Mohammad Reza Jafar Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Me...

  1. Frequency of Syncope in Patients with Accessory Atrioventricular Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aslani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Syncope in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is related to rapid reciprocating tachycardia or rapid ventricular response over the accessory pathway during atrial fibrillation (AF. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the frequency of syncope in patients with WPW syndrome. Methods: We reviewed the records of 150 consecutive patients with WPW syndrome.Results: There were 20 patients (13.3% who reported at least one episode of syncope and 130 patients (86.7% without such a history.Conclusion: Syncope is relatively frequent in patients with WPW. Patient with WPW syndrome who has experienced this symptom should be thoroughly evaluated.

  2. Accessory breast tissue in axilla masquerading as breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Shikha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic or accessory breast tissue is most commonly located in the axilla, though it may be present anywhere along the milk line. Development is hormone dependent, similar to normal breast tissue. These lesions do not warrant any intervention unless they produce discomfort, thus their identification and distinction from other breast pathologies, both benign and malignant, is essential. We report a case with locally advanced breast cancer who presented with an ipsilateral axillary mass following surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Subsequent evaluation with excision biopsy showed duct ectasia in axillary breast tissue and the patient was continued on hormone therapy with tamoxifen.

  3. Accessory auricles with ectopic digit a new association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25- year -old male had accessory auricles at birth and developed ectopic digit since 1 year. As this association could not be traced in literature, it is being reported. Ectopic digit in the present case was differentiated from supernumerary digit because of late onset at the age of 24 years, ruccurence after surgery, unilateral appearance, had origin from central depression of a well defined, round plaque on the distal inter-phalangeal joint of left thumb and had curvature simulating cutaneous horn. X-ray thumb did not reveal any bone formation in this ectopic digit.

  4. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  5. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and...

  6. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos;

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  7. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species......, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...

  8. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauones, Salem [Centre hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal (CHUM), Department of Radiology, Hopital Saint-Luc, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Moraux, Antoine [Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France)

    2015-09-15

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  9. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.

  10. The accessory coracobrachialis muscle: ultrasound and MR features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To present the prevalence, clinical relevance, and ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the accessory coracobrachialis (ACB) muscle. We present an US prospective study of the ACB muscle over a 2-year period. Five of the eight patients with suspected ACB on US were subsequently examined by MRI. An ACB muscle was demonstrated by US in eight patients (eight shoulders), including seven females, one male, with mean age 39 years, over 770 (664 patients) consecutive shoulder US examinations referred to our institution yielding a prevalence of 1.04 %. In dynamic US assessment, one case of subcoracoid impingement secondary to a bulky ACB was diagnosed. No thoracic outlet syndrome was encountered in the remaining cases. MRI confirmed the presence of the accessory muscle in five cases. ACB muscle is a rarely reported yet not uncommon anatomic variation of the shoulder musculature encountered only in eight of 664 patients referred for shoulder US study. Its US and MRI appearance is described. One of our patients presented with subcoracoid impingement related to the presence of an ACB. (orig.)

  11. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shioi Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

  12. Behaviour of bentonite accessory minerals during the thermal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, David; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros-QuantiSci, Barcelona (Spain); Benbow, Steven; Takase, Hiro [Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-15

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the accessory minerals in the bentonite as a result of the thermal event exerted by the spent fuel in the near field. Three different modelling approaches have been used and the results compared between them. The three different approaches have been calculated using two Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) solver: DYLAN (Model-1) and the Nag DAE solver, d02ngf (Model-2) and the third approach (Model-3) using the last version of PHREEQC. The results from these calculations indicate the feasibility of the modelling approach to model the migration of bentonite accessory minerals and relevant aqueous species throughout the thermal gradient. These calculations indicate that the migration of quartz and quartz polymorphs is a lesser problem. The aqueous speciation of Ca in the bentonite pore water is fundamental in order to define the potential migration of anhydrite during the thermal stage. If CaSO{sub 4}(aq) is the predominant aqueous species, then anhydrite dissolves at the initial groundwater migration times through bentonite. However, if Ca{sup 2+} is considered to be the dominant Ca species at the bentonite pore water, then anhydrite migrates towards the clay/granite interface. This is the main difference in the chemical systems considered in the three model approaches used in this work. The main process affecting the trace mineral behaviour in bentonite is cation exchange. This process controls the concentration of calcium, which results in a direct control of the calcite precipitation-dissolution.

  13. Forest haulage accessories for agricultural tractors in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin is a review of hydraulic timber cranes, forest trailers and skidding grapples and winches available on the Finnish markets in autumn 1995 as accessories for mounting onto agricultural tractors. The information is mainly based on the responses of the manufacturers and distributors to a mail questionnaire. Ten producers make timber cranes and a total of 46 crane models are presented. Nearly all the cranes can be mounted onto either the 3-point hitching device, the connecting rail of a trailer/sled, or directly onto the tractor frame. The net lifting force of the cranes varies in between 19.9 - 40.0 kNm. The maximum reach of the cranes varies between 4.3 and 9.8 m. The mechanical twin-lever system has almost entirely replaced the conventional six-lever operating type. Electro-hydraulic pre-control is included in the accessories available for many of the cranes. There are twelve producers and 37 models of forestry trailers, with eight including power transmission. All these trailers are of the bogie type. Their carrying capacity varies between 6 000 - 12 500 kilos. Five manufacturers produce six models of 3-point hitchable hydraulic skidding grabbles were listed. all are provided with a frame joint easing the job of grasping and skidding of timber. Skidding winches mountable onto the 3-point hitching device are of three producers and seven models. The tractive force varies between 28 and 60 kN. All are provided with a disc clutch

  14. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when...... comparing with or without the presence of Pseudomonas. Conclusion: All Aspergilli tested, with the exception of A. fumigatus, triggered the upregulation of phenazine-1-carboxamide and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly no changes in secondary metabolite profiles were...

  15. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Wijesuriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients' toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63% had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation.

  16. 21 CFR 878.4200 - Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. 878.4200 Section 878.4200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Introduction/drainage catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. An introduction/drainage catheter is...

  17. 77 FR 27663 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Accessories, Inc. High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Aeronautical Accessories, Inc. (AAI) high landing gear forward crosstube assemblies... crosstubes. The proposed actions are intended to prevent failure of a crosstube, collapse of the landing...

  18. 77 FR 67261 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Forward Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Accessories, Inc. (AAI) high landing gear forward crosstube assemblies (crosstubes) installed on Agusta S.p.A..., collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of control of the helicopter. DATES: This AD is...

  19. 77 FR 5420 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Accessories Inc. High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for the Aeronautical Accessories Inc. (AAI) High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft... proposed actions are intended to prevent failure of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear,...

  20. 77 FR 37768 - Airworthiness Directives; Aeronautical Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Accessories, Inc., High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Accessories, Inc. (AAI), High Landing Gear Aft Crosstube Assembly (aft crosstube) installed on certain Bell... failure of a crosstube, collapse of the landing gear, and subsequent loss of control of the...

  1. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion

  2. Ex Vivo Preparations of the Intact Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, Wayne I.; Hammen, Gary F.; Meeks, Julian P.

    2014-01-01

    The mouse accessory olfactory system (AOS) is a specialized sensory pathway for detecting nonvolatile social odors, pheromones, and kairomones. The first neural circuit in the AOS pathway, called the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), plays an important role in establishing sex-typical behaviors such as territorial aggression and mating. This small (

  3. ACCESSORY FUNCTIONING BREAST TISSUE AS A LARGE MASS IN THE AXILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Accessory breasts are an uncommon entity & more un common when it is functioning. They may present as asymptomatic mass al ong the mammary ridge or symptoms evident during menarche, menstruation, pregnancy & l actation. We report a case of unilateral accessory breast in right axilla which was secretin g milk on day 3rd postpartum

  4. The posterior triangle and the painful shoulder: spinal accessory nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, W W; Twyman, R. S.; Donell, S. T.; Birch, R

    1996-01-01

    Forty-three cases of accessory nerve injury referred to the Peripheral Nerve Injury Unit have been reviewed. Accessory nerve injury results in a characteristic group of symptoms and signs. Referral for treatment is usually delayed, the average time being 11.3 months. Surgical treatment resulted in improvement of symptoms in almost all cases.

  5. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4400 - Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and....4400 Electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories. (a) Identification. An electrosurgical cutting and coagulation device and accessories is a device intended to remove tissue and...

  7. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambhekar Kedar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion.

  8. 76 FR 24522 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ...,519,828. 76 FR 585-6 (Jan. 5, 2011). The complainant named as respondents T&T Handbag Industrial Co... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  9. Restriction endonuclease analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnie, J P; Coke, A.; Matthews, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a genome based DNA fingerprinting system for Aspergillus fumigatus mould. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 21 isolates obtained from eight patients with an aspergilloma. This was with a freeze-dried mycelial extract fragmented in liquid nitrogen. DNA was subsequently purified by phenol-chloroform extraction followed by ultracentrifugation on a caesium chloride gradient. The DNA was restricted by EcoRI and Xba I. RESULTS: All isolates were identical when cut by EcoRI; Xba I del...

  10. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani; Nandigam Srujana; Guntur Preethi; Tandale Swati

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of co...

  11. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of copper nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy.

  12. L-histidine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Polkinghorne, M A; Hynes, M J

    1982-01-01

    Histidase activity rather than uptake of L-histidine is the limiting factor for the utilization of histidine as the sole nitrogen source for Aspergillus nidulans. Histidine cannot act as the sole carbon source, and evidence is presented indicating that this is attributable to an inability to convert histidine to L-glutamate in vivo. It has been shown that this fungus lacks an active urocanase enzyme and that histidine is quantitatively converted to urocanate, which accumulates in the extracel...

  13. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H.

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melani...

  14. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The fol...

  15. Pectinolytic activity of Aspergillus section Nigri strains

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, M. H. C.; Ottoni, C. A.; Santos, C.; Moreira, K.; Lima, Nelson; Motta, Cristina Souza

    2012-01-01

    Pectinases are a heterogeneous group of related enzymes that hydrolyze pectic substances present mostly in plants. Pectinases are produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Filamentous fungi are good producers of pectinolytic enzymes (e.g., exopolygalacturonase (exo-PG) and endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) and Aspergillus niger is the most commonly used fungal species for industrial production of pectinolytic enzymes. The application of pectinolytic enzymes plays an importa...

  16. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  17. Fast Image Retrieval of Textile Industrial Accessory Based on Multi-Feature Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文忠; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    A hierarchical retrieval scheme of the accessory image database is proposed based on textile industrial accessory contour feature and region feature. At first smallest enclosed rectangle[1] feature (degree of accessory coordination) is used to filter the image database to decouple the image search scope. After the accessory contour information and region information are extracted, the fusion multi-feature of the centroid distance Fourier descriptor and distance distribution histogram is adopted to finish image retrieval accurately. All the features above are invariable under translation, scaling and rotation. Results from the test on the image database including 1,000 accessory images demonstrate that the method is effective and practical with high accuracy and fast speed.

  18. Role of nuclear medicine imaging in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 10% of healthy population has one or more accessory spleens. The most common location is the hilum of the spleen or area near the tail of the pancreas. The radiological appearance of accessory spleens in oncologic patients who underwent splenectomy can be misinterpreted as a recurrence, especially in the case of compensatory growth of an accessory spleen in successive radiological examinations. We present the cases of three patients who underwent splenectomy for gastric carcinoid, gastric adenocarcinoma and cancer of the left adrenal gland, respectively. CT examination and/or PET-CT scan revealed suspicious findings in the left upper abdomen. In one patient, the dimensional increase of this finding in successive examinations was initially considered suggestive for cancer recurrence. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-nanocolloid was able to confirm the presence of an accessory spleen in all these patients. Splenic scintigraphy is an economical, accessible and accurate tool in differential diagnosis of accessory spleens in patients after splenectomy

  19. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However,...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1106-5 - Maintenance and tests of liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. 75.1106-5 Section 75.1106-5... liquefied and nonliquefied compressed gas cylinders; accessories and equipment; requirements. (a) Hose lines, gages, and other cylinder accessories shall be maintained in a safe operating condition. (b)...

  1. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Clarissa [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Demondion, Xavier [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Laboratoire d’Anatomie, Faculté de Médecine de Lille, 59037, Lille (France); Abreu, Evandro [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France); Marchiori, Edson [Serviço de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Universitadade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de janeiro (Brazil); Cotten, Hervé [Anatomie et cytologie pathologiques, Bd de la Liberté, 59000, Lille (France); Cotten, Anne, E-mail: anne.cotten@chru-lille.fr [Service de Radiologie et d’Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Centre de Consultations et d’Imagerie de l’Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU, 59037, Lille (France)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications.

  2. Anatomical study of spinal accessory nerve using ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications

  3. New Scopes, New Accessories, New Stents for Interventional Endoscopic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Christopher G; Siddiqui, Uzma D

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances have rapidly expanded the therapeutic potential of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Innovations in stent technology; directed adjunctive therapy for pancreatic tumors, including radiofrequency ablation and fiducial marker placement; advanced imaging modalities, including needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy; and new echoendoscopes, such as the forward-viewing linear echoendoscope, are emerging as safe and effective tools and devices for providing a broad range of treatments and therapies previously not thought possible. In this review, we summarize and discuss the new echoendoscopes, accessories, and stents for interventional EUS and highlight the recent literature on technical and therapeutic efficacy. The therapeutic role and indications for EUS are rapidly evolving well beyond its current limits as new EUS-specific designed tools are designed, and ultimately, should help achieve the goal of improving patient outcomes. PMID:26855923

  4. Accessory liver lobe of the gallbladder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    The accessory liver lobe (ALL) of the gallbladder wall is rare, mentioned by Meckel since 1822. We present two cases of ALL occurring in two adult women. The ALLs were diagnosed at microscopic examination of cholecystectomy specimens for lithiasic cholecystitis and were located at the gallbladder body level. They measured 0.5 and 1.1 cm and were pediculated from the gallbladder serosa. Luschka duct complexes were seen in the adjacent subserosa in one of the cases. The main clinical relevance of ALL of the gallbladder resides in the differential diagnosis with a lymph node and in the risk of peroperative hemorragia or bile leakage by sectioning of the connecting blood vessels and/or bile duct. Intraparietal ALL may interfere with dysmotility, possibly resulting in bile stagnation and stone formation. PMID:27147442

  5. An accessory skull suture mimicking a skull fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedijk, J E F; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V; Maat, G J R; Maes, A; van Rijn, R R; de Boer, H H

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the sudden and unexpected death of a five-and-a-half-month-old boy. As in every Dutch case of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach was used. This included post-mortem radiography, showing a linear discontinuity of the parietal bone. Originally this was interpreted as a skull fracture, but autopsy indicated no signs of mechanical trauma. Instead the defect was defined as a unilateral accessory suture of the parietal bone. The initial erroneous diagnosis had severe adverse consequences and thus every health care professional or forensic specialist dealing with paediatric mechanical traumas should be cautious of this rare anomaly. PMID:26860068

  6. Clonality and sex impact aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populatio...

  7. The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aspergillus is a large economically important genus of fungi. In agriculture, some of the 250 species in this genus cause disease in plants and animals and some also produce poisons (mycotoxins) in foods and feeds. Aspergillus is a major killer of immunosuppressed people, such as diabeti...

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); M.G. Netea (Mihai); J. Sugui (Janyce); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Warris (Adilia); K.J. Kwon-Chung (Kyung); B. Jan Kullberg (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced

  9. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  10. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta;

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740...

  11. The population genomics of mycotoxin diversity in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins, and especially the aflatoxins, are an enormous problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic known natural compound. The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aspergillus flavus and A. par...

  12. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.; Cabral, D.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces......Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... aflatoxins G(1) and G(2), aflavarins, aflatrem, aflavinines, parasiticolides and paspaline. This species also includes several isolates previously assigned to A. flavus group II and three Australian soil isolates. A. arachidicola produces aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2), kojic acid, chrysogine and...

  13. Dynamic computed tomography findings of an accessory spleen in the pelvis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroshi; Ojima, Yasutomo; Sumitani, Daisuke; Okajima, Masazumi

    2016-12-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old man with an accessory spleen in the pelvis. He visited our outpatient clinic because of abdominal discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced mass (40 mm in diameter) in the pelvis. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult even after magnetic resonance imaging and colonoscopy. The patient underwent surgery for suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor or malignant lymphoma of the rectum. Intraoperative findings showed a mass in the pelvis and a long cord-like tissue reaching the mass and arising from the great omentum; the mass was excised. Histopathologic examination indicated that the mass was splenic tissue, and feeding vessels were found in the cord-like tissue, which were determined to be derived from the left gastroepiploic artery and vein. Thus, we diagnosed it as an accessory spleen in the pelvis. An accessory spleen is not rare and can occur anywhere in the abdominal cavity. However, an accessory spleen in the pelvis is an infrequent finding, and only 9 other cases of an accessory spleen in the pelvis have been reported. Therefore, it is very difficult to make a correct diagnosis preoperatively. However, 7 of the 9 cases (77.8 %) of a pelvic accessory spleen had vascular pedicles from the great omentum or splenic hilum as feeding vessels; hence, determining the feeding blood vessels on dynamic CT may be useful for diagnosing an accessory spleen in the pelvis. Additionally, if the accessory spleen is symptomatic or has a vascular pedicle, surgeons should attempt to resect the accessory spleen in the pelvis using minimally invasive laparoscopy. PMID:26970956

  14. Deleterious effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells (ADH) for antigen and mitogen-induced responses, and production by ADH of the amplifying cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) were examined. Responder lymphocytes were rendered accessory cell dependent by treatment of nonadherent cells with OKIal + complement. UV-B depressed accessory function of ADH in a dose-dependent manner. UV-B decreased accessory function of ADH for tetanus toxoid-induced responses and phytohaemagglutinin-induced responses. UV-B also decreased accessory activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells for a PPD-reactive T cell line. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity of supernatants of ADH was assayed on C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes. Pretreatment of ADH with UV-B decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1 activity. Lysates of UV-B irradiated, LPS-stimulated ADH had no discernible IL-1 activity. Addition of IL-1 partially restored accessory activity of UV-B irradiated ADH for lymphocyte responses to TT. Exposure of ADH to TT or PHA for 30 min before irradiation blocked the inhibitory effect of UV-B on accessory activity. Thus, low doses of UV-B are deleterious to accessory function and to production of IL-1 by ADH. Interference with production of cytokines and with initial interactions of accessory cells with antigen and mitogen may be critical to the effects of UV-B on immunoregulatory function of ADH. (author)

  15. Invasive ductal carcinoma arising from dense accessory breast visualized with 99mTc-MIBI breast-specific γ imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Sung, Sun Hee; Moon, Byung In; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2014-08-01

    Primary accessory breast cancer is extremely rare, and the diagnostic efficacy of Tc-MIBI breast-specific γ imaging (BSGI) has not been reported elsewhere. We present a case of primary carcinoma arising from dense accessory breast that was visualized with BSGI. A 43-year-old female patient with a palpable axillary mass underwent mammography, which showed dense parenchyma on both of the anatomic and accessory breasts with no abnormality. Subsequent BSGI showed no abnormal uptake in bilateral anatomic breasts, but focal abnormal uptake was noted in the accessory breast. Permanent pathologic evaluation confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma (not otherwise specified type) of the accessory breast. PMID:24445272

  16. Cloning and Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and the closely related A. rambellii. A. och...

  17. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  18. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen; Lima Francieli Arrias de; Pedrinho Sophia Renata Fazzano; Lenartovicz Veridiana; Souza Cristina Giatti Marques de; Peralta Rosane Marina

    1999-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v) starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10) and temperature (from 25 to 42oC). Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamy...

  19. Aspergillus endophthalmitis in orthotopic liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Hamid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a patient with drug-induced liver failure who developed endogenous endophthalmitis after liver transplantation. Our patient′s clinical course was so fulminant that the eye was lost in less than 1 month, without any response to therapy. Recognition of this infection is important because many patients die of disseminated Aspergillus infection, which may be detected early with bedside funduscopic examination by an ophthalmologist. Probably if the patient had referred to us earlier, it may have been possible to save the eye.

  20. Scleral buckle infection with aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaimed Manal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a case of scleral buckle infection with Aspergillus flavus in a tertiary eye center in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective case report of a 28-year-old Saudi male who presented with a six-month history of conjunctival injection and discharge from the left eye which had undergone uncomplicated conventional retinal detachment surgery, at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the form of cryopexy, subretinal fluid drainage and scleral buckle (grooved segmental sponge and circumferential band with sleeve for a macula on retinal detachment four years earlier. A diagnosis of infected extruded scleral buckle was made and the buckle was removed. Results: The infected scleral buckle was removed under local anesthesia with administration of sub-conjunctival irrigation of 50 mg solution of Vancomycin, and sub-conjunctival injection of 25mg of Vancomycin. Post operative microbiological studies revealed infection with silver staining of moderate Aspergillus flavus hyphae. Visual acuity of the left eye improved from 20/200 before surgery to 20/60 in the two years follow-up visit. Conclusion: This case report indicates the importance of considering infection with multiple organisms - including fungal ones - in cases of scleral buckle infections in our population.

  1. Aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-dong; HU Xiao-peng; YIN Hang; WANG Wei; ZHANG Xin; MA Lin-lin; WANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungal infections are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplants.The present study aimed to investigate the aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients, and its diagnosis as well as treatment.Methods Approximately 2000 cases of renal transplants were retrospectively studied and we focused on cases hospitalized during August 1, 2005 and February 1, 2007, as the study period. The clinical database and electronic records were analyzed. Recently published literature was reviewed.Results There was more diabetes and hypertension in the infected group than in the non-infected group (86% vs 62% and 57% vs 39%, respectively). Eighty-six percent of recipients from the infected group had delayed graft function. Seven cases with aspergillus pneumonia were identified based on either fungal culture or radiology. Of the 7 cases, 4 died in a few days after diagnosis. Liposomal amphotericin B was used as a first-line therapy.Conclusions Incidences of fungal infection are increasing among renal transplant recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical steps in curing aspergillosis.

  2. Expression of accessory molecules and cytokines in acute EAE in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laman, J.D.; Meurs, M. van; Schellekens, M.M.; Boer, M. de; Melchers, B.; Massacesi, L.; Lassmann, H.; Claassen, E.; Hart, B.A. 't

    1998-01-01

    Accessory molecules and cytokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in rodent models, and are potential targets for immunotherapy. Evaluation of such experimental therapies requires appropriate animal models. Therefo

  3. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMucignat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromone. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system, and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived, and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

  4. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    OpenAIRE

    Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Redaelli, Marco; Caretta, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromones. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the diff...

  5. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  6. Migration and Labour mobility in the Leather Accessories Manufacture in India

    OpenAIRE

    Jesim Pais

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation and the policies thereafter have lead to a definite increase in production and export from the leather accessories industry in India. The focus of this paper is on migration and labour mobility in the leather accessories manufacture in Dharavi, Mumbai. The core data for the paper are from field surveys conducted in the industry in Dharavi, Mumbai, in 2000–2001, roughly 10 years after the economic reforms of the 1990s were initiated.

  7. Loss of Function of the Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein 2 Is Associated with Mammalian Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, M; Ramachandrappa, S.; Joachim, M.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, R.; Nuthalapati, N.; V. Ramanathan; Strochlic, D. E.; Ferket, P.; Linhart, K.; Ho, C.; Novoselova, T. V.; Garg, S.; Ridderstrale, M.; Marcus, C

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) modulate signaling of melanocortin receptors in vitro. To investigate the physiological role of brain-expressed Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2), we characterized mice with whole body and brain-specific targeted deletion of Mrap2, both of which develop severe obesity at a young age. Mrap2 interacts directly with Melanocortin 4 Receptor (Mc4r), a protein previously implicated in mammalian obesity, and it enhances Mc4r-mediated...

  8. Diagnostic difficulties and therapeutic choices in intrapancreatic accessory spleen: case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Massani M; Maccatrozzo P; Morana G; Fabris L; Ruffolo C; Bonariol L; Pauletti B; Bassi N

    2016-01-01

    Marco Massani,1 Paola Maccatrozzo,1 Giovanni Morana,2 Luca Fabris,3 Cesare Ruffolo,1 Luca Bonariol,1 Bruno Pauletti,1 Nicolò Bassi1 1IV Department of Surgery, Regional Center for HPB Surgery, 2Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Regional Hospital of Treviso, Treviso, 3Molecular Medicine Department, University Hospital, Padua, Italy Introduction: Accessory spleen has a worldwide prevalence of 10%–30% and is defined as intrapancreatic accessory spleen (IPAS) when it locates w...

  9. Activity Regulates Functional Connectivity from the Vomeronasal Organ to the Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    OpenAIRE

    Hovis, Kenneth R.; Ramnath, Rohit; Dahlen, Jeffrey E.; Romanova, Anna L.; LaRocca, Greg; Bier, Mark E.; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is specialized for the detection of chemicals that identify kin and conspecifics. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), residing in the vomeronasal organ, project axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synapses with principle neurons, known as mitral cells. The organization of this projection is quite precise and is believed to be essential for appropriate function of this system. However, how this precise connectivity is established...

  10. Accessory renal arteries in a Caribbean population: a computed tomography based study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Peter B.; Cawich, Shamir O.; Shah, Sundeep D; Aiken, William; McGregor, Roy G; Brown, Hilary; Gardner, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The commonest variation to the classic anatomic description of renal arterial supply is the presence of accessory renal arteries. The incidence varies widely according to ethnicity. There is no data on the prevalence of these anomalies in persons of Caribbean ethnicity. Methods All CT scans done over two years from July 1, 2010 to June 30, 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The anatomy of the renal arterial supply was reported from these studies and the anatomy of accessory ren...

  11. Digital Branding and Multichannel Marketing : Engaging German Millennials : Lumi Accessories LTD

    OpenAIRE

    Astikainen, Pauliina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create a multichannel marketing handbook for Lumi Accessories LTD. Lumi is a leading leather handbag, shoe, and accessories designer brand in Finland, which has strong ecological and sustainable values. The handbook was created especially for the marketing team to guide how digital branding can increase brand awareness among German Millennials so that the awareness of the new Lumi store will increase in Berlin. The aim was to identify measurable objectives, e...

  12. Accessory soleus muscle: a case report and clinical applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Paganini Mayer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in leg muscle are uncommon. Literature on this subject is scarce, but when those variations are reported they may cause alterations in joint mechanics or cause some discomfort in the leg and foot. The accessory soleus muscle (ASM is considered an unusual anatomical variation, with an  incidence of 0.5-6.0% in the population through studies in cadavers. During routine preparation of study material in the dissection room of the anatomy laboratory of the Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória/ES – Brazil, an ASM was found in the right inferior limb of a male cadaver fixed in 10% formalin. This supernumerary muscle was 3 cm wide, 9 cm long and 1 cm thick in its most voluminous part, in typical penniform fibers arrangement. It was located in the posteromedial region of the ankle, anterior to the Achilles tendon and posterior to the deep muscles of the leg compartment. Its anterior face covered the tibial nerve and the posterior tibial vessels, while its lower half was covered by the flexor retinaculum into the tarsal tunnel. Reports in the literature show possible compression of a neurovascular bundle because of its intimal position within the tarsal tunnel, which could result in ischemic compartment syndrome.

  13. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  14. Cummins MD & HD Accessory Hybridization CRADA -Annual Report FY15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deter, Dean D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    There are many areas of MD and HD vehicles that can be improved by new technologies and optimized control strategies. Component optimization and idle reduction need to be addressed, this is best done by a two part approach that includes selecting the best component technology, and/or architecture, and optimized controls that are vehicle focused. While this is a common focus in the light duty industry it has been gaining momentum in the MD and HD market as the market gets more competitive and the regulations become more stringent. When looking into systems optimization and idle reduction technologies, affected vehicle systems must first be considered, and if possible included in the new architecture to get the most benefit out of these new capabilities. Typically, when looking into idle reduction or component optimization for MD/HD, the vehicle s accessories become a prime candidate for electrification or hybridization. While this has already been studied on light duty vehicles (especially on hybrids and electric vehicles) it has not made any head way or market penetration in most MD and HD applications. If hybrids and electric MD and HD vehicles begin to break into the market this would be a necessary step into the ability to make those vehicles successful by allowing for independent, optimized operation separate from the engine.

  15. Rock sealing - large scale field test and accessory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience from the pilot field test and the basic knowledge extracted from the lab experiments have formed the basis of the planning of a Large Scale Field Test. The intention is to find out how the 'instrument of rock sealing' can be applied to a number of practical cases, where cutting-off and redirection of groundwater flow in repositories are called for. Five field subtests, which are integrated mutually or with other Stripa projects (3D), are proposed. One of them concerns 'near-field' sealing, i.e. sealing of tunnel floors hosting deposition holes, while two involve sealing of 'disturbed' rock around tunnels. The fourth concerns sealing of a natural fracture zone in the 3D area, and this latter test has the expected spin-off effect of obtaining additional information on the general flow pattern around the northeastern wing of the 3D cross. The fifth test is an option of sealing structures in the Validation Drift. The longevity of major grout types is focussed on as the most important part of the 'Accessory Investigations', and detailed plans have been worked out for that purpose. It is foreseen that the continuation of the project, as outlined in this report, will yield suitable methods and grouts for effective and long-lasting sealing of rock for use at stategic points in repositories. (author)

  16. Aspergillus in the lung: diverse and coincident forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus has traditionally been regarded as belonging to one of the following, apparently distinct, entities: saprophytic aspergilloma; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); and invasive aspergillosis (IPA); which may be further categorised as angioinvasive, acute or chronic airway invasive [1]. It is not always obvious that there is overlap between these entities, and that in any given patient more than one Aspergillus-related pathological process can co-exist [2]. The aim of this article is to review the clinical and imaging features of the main categories of Aspergillus-related pulmonary disease and, in particular, to highlight the overlap between them. (orig.)

  17. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  18. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kim, Eun Kyung [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients.

  19. MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone: correlation with surgical and pathologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone and to correlate these with the surgical and pathologic findings. The MR images of 17 patients with medial foot pain and surgically proven type II accessory navicular abnormalities were reviewed. The changes of signal intensity in the accessory navicular, synchondrosis and adjacent soft tissue, the presence of synchondrosis widening, and posterior tibial tendon (PTT) pathology on the T1-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted images were analyzed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings. The fat-suppressed T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in the accessory navicular bones and synchondroses in all patients, and in the soft tissue in 11 (64.7%) of the 17 patients, as well as synchondrosis widening in 3 (17.6%) of the 17 patients. The MR images showed tendon pathology in 12 (75%) of the 16 patients with PTT dysfunction at surgery. The pathologic findings of 16 surgical specimens included areas of osteonecrosis with granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and destruction of the cartilage cap. The MR imaging findings of painful type II accessory navicular bone are a persistent edema pattern in the accessory navicular bone and within the synchondrosis, indicating osteonecrosis, inflammation and destruction of the cartilage cap. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction was clinically evident in most patients

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  2. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav;

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from...... secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents...... suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were...

  3. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  4. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  5. Nonfunctionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a Strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a Disrupted aflR Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Yu, Jiujiang; Abe, Keietsu; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.; Koyama, Yasuji

    2002-01-01

    Aspergillus sojae belongs to the Aspergillus section Flavi but does not produce aflatoxins. The functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene (aflRs) was examined by transforming it into an ΔaflR strain of A. parasiticus, derived from a nitrate-nonutilizing, versicolorin A (VERA)-accumulating strain. The A. parasiticus aflR gene (aflRp) transformants produced VERA, but the aflRs transformants did not. Even when aflRs was placed under the control of the amylase gene (amyB) promoter of Aspergillus or...

  6. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  7. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  8. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.;

    2005-01-01

    The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination ...

  9. Nutrient environment influences competition among Aspergillus flavus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures of Aspergillus flavus populations, shaped by intraspecific competition, influence the incidences and severities of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrie...

  10. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena;

    2011-01-01

    . Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species......Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger ‘aggregate’ represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus...... mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these...

  11. Infrahyoid and accessory motoneurons in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, T; Satoda, T; Tashiro, T; Sugimoto, T; Matsushima, R; Mizuno, N

    1990-01-15

    The segmental and topographical organization of motoneurons innervating the infrahyoid (IH) and the spinal accessory (AC) muscles was studied in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method after application of HRP to the peripheral nerve branches supplying the IH and AC muscles. IH motoneurons constitute two distinct slender cell columns, a longer medial and a shorter lateral one. The medial cell column extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the lower levels of the second cervical (C2) cord segment. In the medial column, motoneurons supplying the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles are distributed at the medullary and C1 levels, while those innervating the omohyoid muscle are primarily distributed at the C2 level. The lateral cell column consists of motoneurons supplying the thyrohyoid muscle and extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the middle levels of the C1 cord segment. Axons of thyrohyoid motoneurons follow a dorsomedially directed bent emergent course, making a hairpin turn. AC motoneurons supplying the sternocleidomastoid (SC) and trapezius (TZ) muscles form a single slender cell column extending from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C6 cord segment. SC motoneurons are distributed from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C3 cord segment, while TZ motoneurons are distributed from the upper levels of the C2 cord segment to the lower levels of the C6 cord segment. At the levels of the C2 and C3 cord segments, both SC and TZ motoneurons are distributed in the AC cell column; the cluster of SC motoneurons is located dorsomedial to that of TZ motoneurons. PMID:2152765

  12. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-01-01

    Electron Microscope. The disclosure includes the process to make the composite and also the variety of products in automobile accessories.

  13. Anatomic landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Marcelo D; Furlan, Julio C; Teixeira, Gilberto V; Friguglietti, Celso U M; Kulcsar, Marco A V; Magalhães, Roberto P; Ferraz, Alberto R; Brandão, Lenine G

    2009-05-01

    This anatomical study examines the anatomic topography and landmarks for localization of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN) during surgical dissections in 40 fresh human cadavers (2 females and 38 males; ages from 22 to 89 years with a mean of 60 years). In the submandibular region, the SAN was found anteriorly to the transverse process of the atlas in 77.5% of the dissections. When the SAN crossed the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, the mean distance from the point of crossing to the tendon of the muscle was 1.75 +/- 0.54 cm. Distally, the SAN crossed between the two heads of the SCM muscle in 45% of the dissections and deep to the muscle in 55%. The SAN exited the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a point superior to the nerve point with a mean distance between these two anatomic parameters of 0.97 +/- 0.46 cm. The mean overall extracranial length of the SAN was 12.02 +/- 2.32 cm, whereas the mean length of the SAN in the posterior triangle was 5.27 +/- 1.52 cm. There were 2-10 lymph nodes in the SAN chain. In conclusion, the nerve point is one of the most reliable anatomic landmarks for localization of the SAN in surgical neck dissections. Although other anatomic parameters including the transverse process of the atlas and the digastric muscle can also be used to localize the SAN, the surgeon should be aware of the possibility of anatomic variations of those parameters. Similar to previous investigations, our results suggest that the number of lymph nodes of the SAN chain greatly varies. PMID:19373901

  14. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed;

    2012-01-01

    including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are...... publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten...... polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols....

  15. Microbial transformation of curcumol by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Tian-Xian; Qiu, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Curcumol is a representative index component for the quality control of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling, an antivirus and anticancer drug in China. Microbial transformation of curcumol (1) by Aspergillus niger AS 3.739 yielded two products. Their structures were elucidated as 3alpha-hydroxycurcumol (2) and 3alpha-(4'-methoxy-succinyloxy)-curcumol (3) by extensive spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS. Among them, 3 is a new compound. Esterification of the substrate with succinic acid is a novel reaction in the field of microbial transformation of natural products. Compound 2, the major transformation product of 1, was a high regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation product and showed significant antiviral effects. PMID:23513713

  16. Aspergillus: a primer for the novice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J W

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus is a genus of molds named after the morphological structure that bears asexual spores, the aspergillum, which resembles a liturgical device. This genus contains several species of positive or negative economic importance in industry, agriculture and medicine. The majority of aspergilli, including most species of economic importance, are known to reproduce only by asexual spores. Genome projects have been completed for A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae; several other species are also being sequenced. The data from these genome projects have been useful in elucidating aspects of phylogeny, the evolution of sexuality and the extent of secondary metabolite diversity. To date, however, the impact on drug discovery, diagnosis of aspergillosis, and our understanding of fungal pathogenesis has been less pronounced. PMID:19253144

  17. Synthesis of lead nanoparticles by Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, K V; Kumar, N Sunil; Sangameswaran, B B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the current demand to develop green technologies in material synthesis, a natural process in the synthesis of lead particles by Aspergillus species to suit such technology is reported. The fungal strain was grown in medium containing different concentrations of lead (0.2-1.5 mM) to determine its resistance to heavy metals. The organism was found to utilize some mechanism and accumulate lead particles outside and inside the cell. The extracellular presence of lead particles in the range of 1.77-5.8 microm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of particles of lead in the 5-20 nm size range was found on the cell surface, in the periplasmic space and in the cytoplasm and was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22708348

  18. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10 and temperature (from 25 to 42oC. Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamylase, were separated by ion exchange chromatography. Both partially purified enzymes had optimal activities at pH values between 4.5 and 6.0 and were stable under acid conditions (pH 4.0-7.0. The enzymes exhibited optimal activities at temperatures between 50o and 60o C and were stable for more than ten hours at 55oC.

  19. Studies on Aspergillus Flavus Link. Isolated From Maize in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Houshyar-Fard Mahmoud; Rouhani Hamid; Falahati-Rastegar Mahrokh; Mahdikhani-Moghaddam Esmat; Malekzadeh-Shafaroudi Saeed; Probst Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus flavus population structure from maize kernels was examined. During 2011, samples were collected from two main grain maize production areas in Iran (Fars and Ardebil provinces), shortly before harvest. One-hundred nine A. flavus isolates were recovered on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicole (DRBC) agar and Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus medium (AFPA) and grouped into morphotypes and Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs) based on morphological (e.g. sclerotia production), p...

  20. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Kuijpers, A.F.A.; Samson, R.A.

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... A: Aspergillus cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. westerdijkiae, A. sulphurous, and Neopetromyces muricatus. Two species produce large or small amounts of ochratoxin A, but less consistently: A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum. Ochratoxin production in these species...

  1. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of th...

  2. Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, T. M.; Andrewski, M. D.; Roossinck, M J; Keller, N P

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppre...

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Melanin Modulates Host Cytokine Response

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Louis; Netea, Mihai; SUGUI, JANYCE; Vonk, Alieke; van de Sande, Wendy; Warris, Adilia; Kwon-Chung, Kyung; Jan Kullberg, Bart

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine response. The albino conidia induced significantly more proinflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as compared to melanised wild-type conidia. Blocking ...

  4. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of op...

  5. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati Dali; A. B. D. Rauf Patong; M.Noor Jalaluddin; Pirman; Baharuddin Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  6. Utilization of Low-Cost Ellagitannins for Ellagic Acid Production and Antimicrobial Phenolics Enhancing By Aspergillus awamorii and Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal strains, Aspergillus awamorii A9, Aspergillus awamorii A23 and Aspergillus oryzae O2, were selected out of ten fungal strains for their activeness in converting pomegranate peel ellagitannins into ellagic acid. When pomegranate peel was fermented by Aspergillus awamorii A9, the highest yields of ellagic acid (7.93±0.23 mg/g solid substrate) and total soluble phenolics (14.61±0.36 mg/g solid substrate) were produced at 5 and 10 days of incubation, respectively. Also, blue berry pomace, red grape pomace, strawberry pomace were evaluated as low cost ellagitannin sources for ellagic acid and soluble phenolics production. The antimicrobial activity of soluble phenolics extracted from fermented pomegranate peel and strawberry pomace was tested against two food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). This study also revealed that 3 kGy enhanced the activity of antimicrobial phenolics

  7. Incremental value of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in 3-phase bone scintigraphy of an accessory navicular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Sachin; Karunanithi, Sellam; Agarwal, Krishan Kant; Kumar, Ganesh; Roy, Shambo Guha; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Accessory navicular bone is one of the supernumerary ossicles in the foot. Radiography is non diagnostic in symptomatic cases. Accessory navicular has been reported as a cause of foot pain and is usually associated with flat foot. Increased radio tracer uptake on bone scan is found to be more sensitive. We report a case highlighting the significance of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in methylene diphosphonate bone scan in the evaluation of symptomatic accessory navicula...

  8. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a patient with an atypically located accessory pathway in the left lateral mitral annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Fernández-López, Xesús A; González-Melchor, Laila; García-Seara, Javier; Martínez-Sande, Jose Luis; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT) is an uncommon form of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia due to an accessory pathway characterized by slow and decremental retrograde conduction. The majority of accessory pathways in PJRT are located in the posteroseptal zone. Few cases of atypical location have been described. We report a case of PJRT in a 72-year-old woman in whom the accessory pathway was located in the left lateral region and treated by radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID:26749575

  9. Motoneuron organisation of the muscles of the spinal accessory complex of the sheep investigated with the fluorescent retrograde tracer technique.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Clavenzani; Scapolo, P A; Callegari, E; Barazzoni, A M; Petrosino, G.; Lucchi, M L; Bortolami, R

    1994-01-01

    Retrograde transport of the fluorescent tracers Diamidino Yellow dihydrochloride and Fast Blue was used to determine the location of the spinal nucleus of the accessory nerve in the sheep. We also considered whether in this species the sternocephalic, brachiocephalic, omotransversarius and trapezius muscles, i.e. the muscles of the spinal accessory complex, are supplied by more than one population of motoneurons. The spinal accessory nucleus extends as a single column of neurons from C1 to C7...

  10. The Aspergillus Genome Database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the Aspergillus research community

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Chibucos, Marcus C; Costanzo, Maria C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Inglis, Diane O.; Lotia, Adil; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Sherlock, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the Aspergilli. AspGD combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of Aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple Aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring ...

  11. Localization of an accessory helicase at the replisome is critical in sustaining efficient genome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Gupta, Milind K; Rudolph, Christian J; Bell, Hazel; Lloyd, Robert G; McGlynn, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Genome duplication requires accessory helicases to displace proteins ahead of advancing replication forks. Escherichia coli contains three helicases, Rep, UvrD and DinG, that might promote replication of protein-bound DNA. One of these helicases, Rep, also interacts with the replicative helicase DnaB. We demonstrate that Rep is the only putative accessory helicase whose absence results in an increased chromosome duplication time. We show also that the interaction between Rep and DnaB is required for Rep to maintain rapid genome duplication. Furthermore, this Rep-DnaB interaction is critical in minimizing the need for both recombinational processing of blocked replication forks and replisome reassembly, indicating that colocalization of Rep and DnaB minimizes stalling and subsequent inactivation of replication forks. These data indicate that E. coli contains only one helicase that acts as an accessory motor at the fork in wild-type cells, that such an activity is critical for the maintenance of rapid genome duplication and that colocalization with the replisome is crucial for this function. Given that the only other characterized accessory motor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrm3p, associates physically with the replisome, our demonstration of the functional importance of such an association indicates that colocalization may be a conserved feature of accessory replicative motors. PMID:20923786

  12. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Species in the anamorph genus Aspergillus are associated with several teleomorphic genera in the Eurotiales and the most important mycotoxin producers are concentrated in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati. A new genus, Neopetromyces, is proposed for the recently described Petromyces muricatus, beca...

  13. The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal s

  14. An exploration study to find important factors influencing on brand in car accessory market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplying car accessory is one of the most important growing industries in the world. Every year, millions of cars are produced and people need to have the access to necessary car accessory. In this paper, we present an exploration study to detect important factors influencing car accessory market. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale consists of 16 questions, distributes it among 200 experts and analyses it using factor analysis. Cronbach alpha and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy are calculated as 0.823 and 0.863, which validate the overall questionnaire. The results indicate that there are three influencing factors including brand capability, brand characteristics and consumers’ believe.

  15. Male breast cancer originating in an accessory mammary gland in the axilla: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Jun; Masuda, Norikazu; Kodama, Yoshinori; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Mizutani, Makiko; Kuriyama, Keiko; Mano, Masayuki; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland is an extremely rare tumor. A 61-year-old male patient presented with a hard mass measuring 85 mm × 51 mm in the left axilla. Incisional biopsy histopathologically showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast carcinoma originating in an accessory mammary gland. Systemic examinations revealed no evidence of malignant or occult primary lesion in the bilateral mammary glands or in other organs. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed for the locally advanced axillary tumor and reduced the tumor to 55 mm in size, and, then, he could undergo complete resection with a negative surgical margin in combination with reconstructive surgery to fill the resulting skin defect with a local flap of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The patient has presented with no metastatic lesion in four years since the operation. This unusual case shows that neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an effective and tolerated therapy for advanced accessory breast cancer in the axilla. PMID:23251170

  16. CASE REPORT: A RARE CASE OF ACCESSORY NIPPLE (POLYTHELIA PRESENTING AS PAPILLARY ADENOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekappa C

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the Accessory breast nipple are a rare entity. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from accessory nipple. A 24 - year - old woman presented with the complaint of pain and bleeding from accessory nipple since 4 months in right breast. Physical examination confirmed a well - defined nipp le in the milk line 5 cm below right nipple. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for nipple neoplasms

  17. Relative contribution of expectancy and immediate arousal to the facilitatory effect of an auditory accessory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Del-Fava

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An auditory stimulus speeds up a digital response to a subsequent visual stimulus. This facilitatory effect has been related to the expectancy and the immediate arousal that would be caused by the accessory stimulus. The present study examined the relative contribution of these two influences. In a first and a third experiment a simple reaction time task was used. In a second and fourth experiment a go/no-go reaction time task was used. In each of these experiments, the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms for one group of male and female volunteers (G Fix. For another group of similar volunteers (G Var the accessory stimulus preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 25% of the trials, by 1000 ms in 25% of the trials and was not followed by the target stimulus in 50% of the trials (Experiments 1a and 1b or preceded the target stimulus by 200 ms in 6% of the trials and by 1000 ms in 94% of the trials (Experiments 2a and 2b. There was a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus for G Fix in the four experiments. There was also a facilitatory effect of the accessory stimulus at the 200-ms stimulus onset asynchrony for G Var in Experiments 1a and 1b but not in Experiments 2a and 2b. The facilitatory effects observed were larger in the go/no-go task than in the simple task. Taken together, these results suggest that expectancy is much more important than immediate arousal for the improvement of performance caused by an accessory stimulus.

  18. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  19. Sporogenic Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Development of Aspergillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Ana M.; Hinze, Lori L.; Gardner, Harold W.; Keller, Nancy P

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased ...

  20. Accessory lobe of the right liver mocking a pulmonary tumor in an adult woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yuka; Sakakura, Noriaki; Uchida, Tatsuo; Suyama, Motokazu

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of an accessory lobe of the liver in the right thoracic cavity with the past history of breast cancer. A 66-year-old woman underwent thoracotomy owing to a slowly growing suspected lung tumor identified by computed tomography. The intraoperative findings revealed an accessory lobe of the liver. If this possibility had been considered, the correct diagnosis could have been achieved using computed tomography with multi-directional scanning, so that an unnecessary operation could have been avoided. PMID:22618988

  1. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  2. Sexual structures in Aspergillus: morphology, importance and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, David M

    2009-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus comprises a few hundred species sharing a common asexual spore forming structure, the aspergillum. Approximately one-third of these species also produce a sexual stage, all but five of which are known to be homothallic. Sexual stages associated with Aspergillus fall into approximately ten different genera, reflecting a tremendous degree of phylogenetic and biological diversity. Sexual stages in Aspergillus are plectomycetous, typical for the order in which it resides, the Eurotiales. Theoretically, a homothallic Aspergillus species can produce both asexual conidia and sexual ascospores in both clonal and recombinant fashion, although the actual significance of these potential modes of reproduction is unclear. Aspergillus species with known sexual stages tend to be minor players in infections of humans, perhaps because of their tendency to produce fewer asexual spores compared to their non-teleomorphic congeners. The discovery of population genetic and genomic evidence for sex in species with no known sexual stage indicates that no assumptions can be made about the clonal versus recombinant life histories of a species based on its known mitotic and/or meiotic reproductive modes. PMID:18608901

  3. Overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawi, H; Khanh, N Q; Gassen, H

    2000-10-01

    One of the major problems with the production of biotechnologically valuable proteins has been the purification of the product. For Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several techniques for the purification of intracellular proteins, but these are time consuming and often result in poor yields. Purification can be considerably facilitated, if the product is secreted from the host cell. In the work presented, we have constructed an expression vector (pSGNH2) for the secretion of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; EC 5.3.4.1) from Aspergillus niger, in which the retention signal His-Asp-Glu-Leu (H-D-E-L) was modified to Ala-Leu-Glu-Gln (A-L-E-Q) via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The PDI gene was placed under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter. This expression vector was transformed into A. niger NRRL3, resulting in PDI secretion into the medium. The catalytic activity of overexpressed PDI from A. niger was indistinguishable from that of PDI isolated from bovine liver. With further strain improvement and optimization of culture conditions, it could be possible to raise the PDI production to the bioprocessing scale. PMID:10977899

  4. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Klejnstrup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols.

  5. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  6. Apical control of conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiartzabal-Arano, Elixabet; Perez-de-Nanclares-Arregi, Elixabet; Espeso, Eduardo A; Etxebeste, Oier

    2016-05-01

    The infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). After the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. Under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, asexual development or conidiation is induced by the upstream developmental activation (UDA) pathway. UDA proteins transduce signals from the tip, the polarity site of hyphae, to nuclei, where developmental programs are transcriptionally activated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this tip-to-nucleus communication mechanism, emphasizing its dependence on hyphal polarity. Future approaches to the topic will also be suggested, as stimulating elements contributing to the understanding of how apical signals are coupled with the transcriptional control of development and pathogenesis in filamentous fungi. PMID:26782172

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Kim, Young Min; Youm, Yoon Seok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Jeong, Ae Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings.

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings

  9. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathoorn Erik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 μg/ml. Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri.

  10. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  11. 15 CFR 742.11 - Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories, n.e.s. 742.11 Section 742.11 Commerce and....11 Specially designed implements of torture, thumbscrews, and thumbcuffs; and parts and accessories... cooperation from like-minded countries in maintaining controls on implements of torture, at this time...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-4 - Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. 48.4061(a)-4 Section 48.4061(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Parts or accessories sold on or in connection with chasis, bodies, etc. (a) In general. The tax...

  13. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the ...... to attenuate unwanted side effects resulting from oxygen limitation during industrial fermentations with A. niger.......The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  14. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process

  15. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  16. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  17. Aspergillus sellar abscess: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus sellar abscess is a very rare form of fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS. In this report, we describe the successful treatment of a patient with aspergillus sellar abscess. A 65-year-old woman presented with headache, nasal discharge and decreased visual acuity. The diagnosis of sellar mass was made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination. The computed tomography (CT scan revealed sellar enlargement and sellar floor bony destruction. After hospitalization the patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Histopathological examination of the sellar mass revealed aspergillosis. Postoperatively, amphotericine-B and itraconazole therapy was started. During a six-month follow-up, the patient′s headache and inertia disappeared, visual acuity improved. Aspergillus sellar abscess must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a sellar mass. The correct diagnosis of pituitary aspergillosis can only be achieved by histopathological examination. Surgical intervention and antifungal therapy should be considered the optimal treatment.

  18. Biosorption potency of Aspergillus niger for removal of chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger isolated from soil and effluent of leather tanning mills had higher activity to remove chromium. The potency of Aspergillus niger was evaluated in shake flask culture by absorption of chromium at pH 6 and temperature 30 degrees C. The results of the study indicated removal of more than 75% chromium by Aspergillus niger determined by diphenylcarbazide colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry after 7 days. Study of microbial Cr(VI) reduction and identification of reduction intermediates has been hindered by the lack of analytical techniques that can identify the oxidation state with subcellular spatial resolution. Therefore, removal of chromium was further substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which indicated an accumulation of chromium in the fungal mycelium. PMID:16874547

  19. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  20. Diversity and specificity of microsatellites within Aspergillus section Fumigati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs are the genetic markers of choice for studying Aspergillus fumigatus molecular epidemiology due to its reproducibility and high discrimination power. However, the specificity of these markers must be investigated in a group of isolates from closely related species. The aim of this work was to test a microsatellite-based PCR multiplex previously designed for A. fumigatus in a set of species belonging to section Fumigati, namely Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus novofumigatus, Aspergillus unilateralis, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartorya fischeri, Neosartorya hiratsukae, Neosartorya pseudofischeri and Neosartorya udagawae. Results The reference A. fumigatus strain ATCC 46645 was easily genotyped in standard conditions showing a final electrophoretic profile of 8 expected peaks corresponding to each microsatellite locus. Inversely, no peaks were observed for all other species from section Fumigati, with an exception for marker MC6b in A. unilateralis. By screening the genome sequence of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181, the results showed that MC3, MC6a and MC7 might be employed for N. fischeri genotyping since these markers present several repeats of each motif. The accumulation of insertions and deletions was frequently observed in the genomic regions surrounding the microsatellites, including those where the A. fumigatus primers are located. The amplification of microsatellite markers in less stringent amplification conditions resulted in a distinct electrophoretic profile for species within section Fumigati. Conclusions Therefore, the microsatellite-based PCR multiplex allow simple identification of A. fumigatus and, with a slight modification of temperature conditions, it also allows discriminating other pathogenic species within section Fumigati, particularly A. fumigatiaffinis, N. fischeri and N. udagawae.

  1. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W. Peterson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species

  2. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  3. Upstream and Downstream Regulation of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus†

    OpenAIRE

    Mah, Jae-Hyung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in A. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, GpaA (Gα), AfFlbA (RGS), AfFluG, and AfBrlA, previously studied in Aspergillus nidulans. Expression analyses of gpaA, AfflbA, AffluG, AfbrlA, and AfwetA thr...

  4. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocsube, S.;

    2011-01-01

    based on either beta-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-gamma-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces...... and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or beta...

  5. Normal and accessory fissures of the lung: Evaluation with contiguous volumetric thin-section multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to use volumetric, 1.25 mm collimation MDCT read as softcopy and using a 2D and 3D viewer tool, to establish the frequency of normal and accessory fissures, the continuity of the fissures, whether the fissures are visible as a thin line, a hypovascular region, or both, and also to establish the interobserver agreement of readers. 150 consecutive MDCT examinations were retrospectively assessed. Interobserver agreement for each of these fissures was evaluated using the Kappa statistic. All subjects had a right and a left major fissure. 96.7% of subjects also had a right minor fissure. 40% had an accessory fissure, the most common, the left minor in 16% of subjects. Most of the three usual fissures were continuous, whereas fewer than half of accessory fissures were continuous. The majority (54-100%) of normal and accessory fissures were visualized as a thin line. There was substantial to excellent interobserver agreement on the presence or absence of fissures their continuity (k = 0.96), and fair to excellent agreement on fissure morphology (k = 0.37-1.0). The prevalence of fissures on MDCT, equivalent to autopsy studies, visualizing fissures as a thin line and high interobserver agreement is probably due to the high sensitivity of MDCT, secondary to thin-section volumetric imaging.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4061(b)-2 - Definition of parts or accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... motors, and other automobile parts or accessories. (c) Materials of a general use—(1) General rule. The term “parts or accessories” also does not include material such as glass, cloth, leather, matting linoleum, and other materials sold in rolls or by the foot, such as brake lining, tape, binding,...

  7. Dissociation between Anterograde and Retrograde Conduction during Transvenous Cryoablation of Parahissian Accessory Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Paparella, G.; Chierchia, G.B.; Sarkozy, A.; Asmundis, C. de; Muller-Burri, S.A.; Yazaki, Y.; Capulzini, L.; Brugada, P.

    2011-01-01

    Ablation of parahissian accessory pathways (APs) is a challenging procedure because of the high risk to provoke "iatrogenic" atrioventricular (AV) nodal block. The feasibility and safety of cryoablation (CA) have been already demonstrated both in patients with AV nodal reentry tachycardia and in tho

  8. Giant accessory breast: a rare occurrence reported, with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Bharati; Subramaniam, Narayana; Chandrashekhar, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Polymastia, or the presence of supranumerary breasts, occurs in 2-6% of the female population, the spectrum of the disorder ranging between a small mole and a fully functional ectopic breast. They are often asymptomatic but require treatment when symptomatic or if they harbour malignancy. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman with an accessory breast in the left inframammary fold, which increased in size over the decade following her first pregnancy, to reach a size almost three times that of her right breast. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration and ultrasound was suggestive of accessory breast tissue, distinct from the left breast. Intraoperatively, a 14×10×8 cm accessory breast was found in the inframammary fold, distinct from the left breast and having an accessory nipple areola complex as well. A simple mastectomy was performed with trimming and rotation of the inframammary flap. The patient was happy with the cosmetic outcome. This article also reviews the literature and covers classification of polymastia, diagnostic complexities and challenges associated with surgery. PMID:26542818

  9. 29 CFR 1919.28 - Unit proof tests-cranes and gear accessory thereto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1919.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... with gear accessory thereto, shall be tested with a proof load which shall exceed the safe working load as follows: Safe working load Proof load Up to 20 tons 25 percent in excess. 20-50 tons 5 tons...

  10. 21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878... surgical procedures to provide power to operate various accessories or attachments to cut hard tissue or... controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of...

  11. Hyperviscosity of semen in patients with male accessory gland infection:direct measurement with quantitative viscosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Aagata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the viscosity of semen in patients with male accessory gland infection is related to the extension of the inflammatory process to the various glands. To achieve this, viscosity was assessed by quantitative viscosimeter and the results were expressed in centipoise (cps). The study was conducted on 30 infertile patients with clinical evidence of male accessory gland infection and a mean age of 29.0 ± 4.0 years. Their semen viscosity was evaluated through quantitative viscometer. All patients showed an increase of viscosity evaluated according to WHO criteria, while this parameter was normal in all controls. Semen viscosity of patients with male accessory gland infection (28.6 ± 2.2 cps) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in the controls (10.7 ± 0.6 cps). Significantly increasing values were observed in patients with involvement of multiple gland inflammation (prostatitis accessory gland infection. PMID:21919943

  12. Surgical treatment of a comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone in a thoroughbred horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in a case ofa comminuted articular fracture of the accessory carpal bone of a thoroughbred chaser are described, and its surgical treatment and aftercare are detailed. The horse made an uneventful recovery and successfully returned to racing

  13. 21 CFR 876.4730 - Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4730 Manual gastroenterology-urology surgical instrument and accessories. (a)...

  14. Normal and accessory fissures of the lung: Evaluation with contiguous volumetric thin-section multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, Paul, E-mail: pcronin@med.umich.ed [Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gross, Barry H.; Kelly, Aine Marie; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carlos, Ruth C. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to use volumetric, 1.25 mm collimation MDCT read as softcopy and using a 2D and 3D viewer tool, to establish the frequency of normal and accessory fissures, the continuity of the fissures, whether the fissures are visible as a thin line, a hypovascular region, or both, and also to establish the interobserver agreement of readers. 150 consecutive MDCT examinations were retrospectively assessed. Interobserver agreement for each of these fissures was evaluated using the Kappa statistic. All subjects had a right and a left major fissure. 96.7% of subjects also had a right minor fissure. 40% had an accessory fissure, the most common, the left minor in 16% of subjects. Most of the three usual fissures were continuous, whereas fewer than half of accessory fissures were continuous. The majority (54-100%) of normal and accessory fissures were visualized as a thin line. There was substantial to excellent interobserver agreement on the presence or absence of fissures their continuity (k = 0.96), and fair to excellent agreement on fissure morphology (k = 0.37-1.0). The prevalence of fissures on MDCT, equivalent to autopsy studies, visualizing fissures as a thin line and high interobserver agreement is probably due to the high sensitivity of MDCT, secondary to thin-section volumetric imaging.

  15. Accessory roots and root canals in human anterior teeth: a review and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H M A; Hashem, A A

    2016-08-01

    Anterior teeth may have aberrant anatomical variations in the number of roots and root canals. A review of the literature was conducted using appropriate key words in major endodontic journals to identify the available reported cases as well as experimental and clinical investigations on accessory roots and root canals in anterior teeth. After retrieving the full text of related articles, cross-citations were identified, and the pooled data were then discussed. Results revealed a higher prevalence in accessory root/root canal variations in mandibular anterior teeth than in maxillary counterparts. However, maxillary incisor teeth revealed the highest tendency for accessory root/root canal aberrations caused by anomalies such as dens invaginatus and palato-gingival groove. Primary anterior teeth may also exhibit external and internal anatomical variations in the root, especially maxillary canines. Therefore, dental practitioners should thoroughly assess all teeth scheduled for root canal treatment to prevent the undesirable consequences caused by inadequate debridement of accessory configurations of the root canal system. PMID:26174943

  16. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2006-01-01

    This is complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters.

  17. Accessory enzymes influence cellulase hydrolysis of the model substrate and the realistic lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fubao Fuebiol; Hong, Jiapeng; Hu, Jinguang; Saddler, Jack N; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Zhenyu; Shen, Song

    2015-11-01

    The potential of cellulase enzymes in the developing and ongoing "biorefinery" industry has provided a great motivation to develop an efficient cellulase mixture. Recent work has shown how important the role that the so-called accessory enzymes can play in an effective enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, three newest Novozymes Cellic CTec cellulase preparations (CTec 1/2/3) were compared to hydrolyze steam pretreated lignocellulosic substrates and model substances at an identical FPA loading. These cellulase preparations were found to display significantly different hydrolytic performances irrelevant with the FPA. And this difference was even observed on the filter paper itself when the FPA based assay was revisited. The analysis of specific enzyme activity in cellulase preparations demonstrated that different accessory enzymes were mainly responsible for the discrepancy of enzymatic hydrolysis between diversified substrates and various cellulases. Such the active role of accessory enzymes present in cellulase preparations was finally verified by supplementation with β-glucosidase, xylanase and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases AA9. This paper provides new insights into the role of accessory enzymes, which can further provide a useful reference for the rational customization of cellulase cocktails in order to realize an efficient conversion of natural lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:26320713

  18. Transrectal ultrasonographic characterization of the accessory sex glands, pelvic urethra, and ureters in normal geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnobrich, Maria Raymond; Turner, Regina Orstaglio; Belcher, Carolyn Niles; Slack, JoAnn

    2016-01-15

    Transrectal ultrasound of the internal urogenital tract may be used to aid in the diagnosis of reproductive tract and urinary tract pathology in both stallions and geldings. Abnormalities of the accessory sex glands of geldings are uncommon, although prostatic masses have recently been described in adult geldings presenting with dysuria, stranguria, and/or hematuria. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic features and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra in clinically normal geldings. Eleven healthy geldings with no history of urogenital tract pathology were evaluated by a single observer experienced in ultrasound of the stallion accessory sex glands. The ultrasonographic appearance, relative anatomic relationships and sizes of the accessory sex glands, caudal ureters, and pelvic urethra were investigated using both rectal linear array and microconvex array transducers. Summary statistics including mean, standard error, confidence intervals, and range were calculated for each structure. There were no statistically significant differences in measurements between the left and right sides of paired structures or between measurements obtained with different transducers. Fluid was present in the seminal vesicles of 7 of 9 subjects. Midline cysts of the urethra as well as bulbourethral gland and prostatic cysts were identified. The normal reference ranges defined in this study will be useful in the clinical evaluation of geldings with suspected internal urogenital tract pathology. PMID:26483314

  19. Automatic Inspection and Processing of Accessory Based on Vision Stitching and Spectral Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yang Chang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates automatic inspection and processing of the stem accessories based on vision stitching and spectral illumination. The vision stitching mainly involves algorithms of white balance, scale-invariant feature transforms (SIFT and roundness for whole image of automatic accessory inspection. The illumination intensities, angles, and spectral analyses of light sources are analyzed for image optimal inspections. The unrealistic color casts of feature inspection is removed using a white balance algorithm for global automatic adjustment. The SIFT is used to extract and detect the image features for big image stitching. The Hough transform is used to detect the parameters of a circle for roundness of the bicycle accessories. The feature inspections of a stem contain geometry size, roundness, and image stitching. Results showed that maximum errors of 0°, 10°, 30°, and 50° degree for the spectral illumination of white light LED arrays with differential shift displacements are 4.4, 4.2, 6.8, and 3.5 %, respectively. The deviation error of image stitching for the stem accessory in x and y coordinates are 2 pixels. The SIFT and RANSAC enable to transform the stem image into local feature coordinates.

  20. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  1. Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus em cavidade pleural Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Silva Guazzelli; Cecília Bittencourt Severo; Leonardo Santos Hoff; Geison Leonardo Fernandes Pinto; José Jesus Camargo; Luiz Carlos Severo

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar os casos de 6 pacientes com bola fúngica (BF) na cavidade pleural por Aspergillus fumigatus. MÉTODOS: Entre 1980 e 2009, foram diagnosticados 391 pacientes com BF aspergilar no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (RS). O diagnóstico de BF na cavidade pleural foi definido com exames de imagem demonstrando derrame e espessamento pleural com nível líquido; exame micológico direto demonstrando hifas septadas, consistentes com Aspergillus sp.; e cultura positiva para A...

  2. Investigating Consumer Insight by Using Completion Techniques: A Case Study of a Motorcycle Accessory Shop in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With almost 10% of the world’s motorcycles in use in Thailand, this indicates that Thailand is a big market for motorcycle accessories in the world. This qualitative research aims to investigate consumer insight by using completion techniques (sentence completion and story completion. Three respondents were deployed by using accidental sampling. Respondents were recruited to complete questionnaires when they entered the motorcycle accessory shop and were reported as male, currently studying, and at least 12 years old. The research was conducted in a motorcycle accessory shop in Sakon Nakhon province, Thailand. From the results of the story completion tests, all participants agreed to take part in a promotion which gave a 10% discount for membership card holders. They came to the motorcycle accessory shop by the recommendation of friends (positive Word-Of-Mouth. Moreover, consumers are satisfied when a seller can give them information or suggestions on motorcycle accessories as well as providing good after-sales service. When motorcycle accessory shoppers are satisfied with a motorcycle accessory shop, they will return to the shop and hence demonstrate consumer loyalty.

  3. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores: Strain typing and protein identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Miroslav; Pešlová, Kateřina; Žabka, Martin; Hajdúch, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 280, 1-3 (2009), s. 162-168. ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aspergillus * spore * protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  4. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    candidus and therefore a large number of Aspergilli were screened for production of these compounds to see whether they could be regarded as chemotaxonomical indicators of section membership in the monotypic Aspergillus section Candidi. The results indicated that A. campestris and A. taichungensis should...

  5. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have been performed to study L-[S-35] methionine incorporation and protein secretion kinetics in Aspergillus oryzae. Pulse experiments confirmed the mechanism of methionine uptake reported previously for Penicillium chrysogenum (Benko et al., 1967). Pulse...

  6. Genetic relationships among strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.; Iamanaka, B.T.; Sartori, D.; Schaoavaloff, M.E.; Fungaro, M.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...

  7. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their...

  8. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  9. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  10. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.;

    2003-01-01

    dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  11. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytop

  12. Genetic Analysis of the TOR Pathway in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgibbon, Gregory J.; Morozov, Igor Y; Jones, Meriel G.; Caddick, Mark X.

    2005-01-01

    We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism.

  13. Study on radiation sterilization of aspergillus niger pectinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of radiation sterilization of aspergillus niger pectinase liquid by 60Co γ-rays was reported. When absorbed dose was from 1 to 25 kGy, enzyme activity didn't reduce. When absorbed dose was 15 kGy. There are no active strains in the enzyme liquid; and enzyme activity of the enzyme liquid preserved had better preserved effect

  14. Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-12-01

    Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

  15. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  16. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  17. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  18. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, an

  19. Production of Aspergillus niger beta-mannosidase in Pichia pastoris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliedrová, Barbora; Gerstorferová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2012), s. 159-164. ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/0321; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Keywords : Beta-mannosidase * Aspergillus niger * Cloning Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2012

  20. Novofumigatonin, a New Orthoester Meroterpenoid from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille; Fristrup, Peter; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2008-01-01

    Novofumigatonin (1), a new metabolite, has been isolated from Aspergillus novofumigatus. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined from HR ESI MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration was assigned using vibrational circular...

  1. epi-Aszonalenins A, B, and C from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille;

    2006-01-01

    Three new benzodiazepines have been isolated from an unusual chemotype of Aspergillus novofumigatus: epi-aszonalenins A, B, and C. The structures were elucidated by use of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR ESI MS. The relative configuration was established on the basis ...

  2. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  3. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus niger Strain An76

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Weili; Cheng, Zhi; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Lin; Gao, Peiji; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has become one of the most important fungi in industrial biotechnology, and it can efficiently secrete both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and organic acids. We report here the 6,074,961,332-bp draft sequence of A. niger strain An76, and the findings provide important information related to its lignocellulose-degrading ability.

  5. Incremental value of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in 3-phase bone scintigraphy of an accessory navicular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accessory navicular bone is one of the supernumerary ossicles in the foot. Radiography is non diagnostic in symptomatic cases. Accessory navicular has been reported as a cause of foot pain and is usually associated with flat foot. Increased radio tracer uptake on bone scan is found to be more sensitive. We report a case highlighting the significance of single photon emission tomography/computed tomography in methylene diphosphonate bone scan in the evaluation of symptomatic accessory navicular bone where three phase bone scan is equivocal

  6. AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS NRRL 3357 AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SRRC 143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasiticus grown in yeast extract su...

  7. .i.Aspergillus baeticus./i. sp. nov. and .i.Aspergillus thesauricus./i. sp. nov., two species in section .i.Usti./i. from Spanish caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vít; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2012), s. 2778-2785. ISSN 1466-5026 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 607812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. * Aspergillus thesauricus sp.nov. * Spanish caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2012

  8. Photosynthetic accessory pigments - Evidence for the influence of phycoerythrin on the submarine light field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    Upwelled water-leaving spectral radiances and the submarine light-field source are theorized to have the physical scattering and absorption effects of photosynthetic accessory pigments. A laser is employed to induce phycoerythrin pigment fluorescence, and the presence of the photosynthetic accessory pigment is measured in oceanic waters with a spectral fluorescence method. Experimental data from active-passive correlation spectroscopy demonstrate that water-leaving spectral radiances of about 600 nm are highly correlated with phycoerythrin pigment fluorescence. Because the data on the phycoerythrin and chlorophyll fluorescences are entered randomly in the correlation the results are considered unambiguous. An estimate of the photopigment is derived that agrees with measurements of its laser-induced fluorescence.

  9. The accessory soleus muscle: a case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of histologically proven accessory soleus muscle simulating of a soft tissue tumour in a young male is reported. The radiological features are demonstrated and reviewed. It is shown that CT scanning is more informative for the soft tissues, revealing the size and extent of the mass as well as its density. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is considered superior to CT in distinguishing soft tissue tumours from normal muscle. Like CT, it demonstrates a muscle-shaped mass that is iso-intense with normal muscle on all imaging sequences with identical T1 and T2 relaxation times. Ultrasound also reveals normal appearing muscle bundles with characteristic internal architecture. It is concluded that the role of diagnostic imaging in management of accessory soleus muscle is dual: Firstly, the radiological features are often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis without biopsy. Secondly, in symptomatic patients, imaging plays a role in planning surgery. 19 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  11. Terminal phalangeal accessory ossification center of the thumb: an additional radiographic finding in Larsen syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple joint dislocations, vertebral anomalies and dysmorphic facies. Both autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms of the disorder have been proposed. Individuals with autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome have characteristic ''cylindrical-shape'' thumbs caused by broad, shortened phalanges. Autosomal-dominant Larsen syndrome results from heterozygosity for mutations in filamin B, a cytoskeletal protein involved in multicellular processes. We report here a patient with a duplicated or accessory distal thumb phalanx and multiple large joint dislocations who was shown to be heterozygous for a filamin B mutation predicting the amino acid substitution G1691S. This adds a new radiographic finding, duplicated or accessory distal phalanx, to the radiographic abnormalities seen in this rare dominant disorder. (orig.)

  12. Accessory belly of piriformis, as a cause of superior gluteal neurovascular entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimple Bansal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection on 50 years old male cadaver, an accessory belly of piriformis was observed. This accessory belly was superior and parallel to the main piriformis muscle. This was associated with emergence of superior gluteal nerve and superior gluteal artery between the two bellies. Piriformis muscle and its relation to sciatic nerve has been suggested as a cause of piriformis syndrome. But interestingly in the present case, superior gluteal nerve was interposed between two bellies that may help the clinicians to establish a rare yet important cause of piriformis syndrome and a rare cause of undiagnosed chronic pain in gluteal region. As superior gluteal artery was also interposed, so this rare variation holds interest to surgeons especially in isolated buttock claudication despite otherwise normal vascular investigations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 296-298

  13. Endovascular glue embolization of dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery: A contralateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Rajsrinivas; Goel, Gaurav; Gupta, Vipul; Narang, Karanjit Singh; Anand, Saurabh; Jha, Ajaya Nand

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare with a reported prevalence of 0.5-4.6%. Likewise, anomalous arterial patterns are uncommon in the cerebral circulation. Recognition of these variations and knowledge of vascular territory forms the key to managing pathological conditions associated with these anomalous vessels. Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of type-3 accessory middle cerebral artery (aMCA) has not been reported in the pediatric age group. In addition to type-3 aMCA, the child in this case report had an ipsilateral type-1 aMCA with cortical supply. We describe the patterns of accessory MCA and their vascular territory, state the perplexity involved in deciding the best management strategy, and describe the technical approach we undertook to catheterize this small caliber recurrent artery (type-3 aMCA) originating at an acute angle from the anterior cerebral artery. PMID:26508091

  14. Differentiation and accumulation of fluids in A-type granites: Evidence from accessory mineral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Laoshan A-type granite is a highly evolved granite body. The study on accessory minerals indicates that there exist differentiation and accumulation of fluids during the late stage of evolution of the granite. The released fluids are rich in rare-earth elements (REE),high-field- strength elements (HFSE,such as Nb,Ta,Zr,Hf,Th,U,and Y) and volatiles (F,P,CO2,etc.). Owing to the presence of fluid,accessory mineral assemblages have changed during the evolution of A-type granite,and are especially characterized by large amounts of independent REE-Nb-Y-Th minerals present in the late facies. Late-accumulation of fluids may be of the general feature of A-type granites,at least of highly evolved ones.

  15. Sclerotic fibroma (storiform collagenoma)-like stroma in a fibroadenoma of axillary accessory breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Bernal, José Fernando; González-Vela, María Carmen; De Grado, Mauricio; Garijo, María Francisca

    2012-08-01

    Accessory breast tissue is a subcutaneous remnant persisting after normal embryological development of the breast. It occurs most frequently in the axilla. Fibroadenomas in axillary breast tissue are rare. We report the case of a 29-year-old female patient who presented a fibroadenoma arising in the accessory breast tissue of the right axillary fossa. The neoplasm showed foci of sclerotic fibroma-like stroma. The patient had no signs of Cowden's syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, a lesion of this kind has not been previously reported. This stromal change suggests an uncommon involutional phase of the fibroadenoma with production of sclerotic and hypocellular collagen. The lesion should be differentiated from extraneural perineuroma, from the changes in fibroadenomas in Cowden's syndrome, from sclerosing lobular hyperplasia (fibroadenomatoid mastopathy) and from pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia. PMID:22804110

  16. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Fourth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-30

    The program objective is to evolve and define an accessory drive system that will minimize system power consumption of driven accessories on an internal combustion engine in a passenger automobile. The initial three program phases established concept feasibility, determined potential fuel savings, and selected a drive system design for concept mechanization. During this quarter the major program accomplishments were: selection of candidate belt-drive concepts; completion of Phase III baseline vehicle drive systems physical and operational envelopes; completion of analysis for a mechanically controlled direct-operated belt drive with input programming; and completion of design layout and analysis for a hydromechanically controlled, servo-operated belt drive with output-speed sensing. (LLL)

  17. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  18. Magnetocardiographic non-invasive localization of accessory pathways in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome by a multichannel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismüller, P; Abraham-Fuchs, K; Schneider, S; Richter, P; Kochs, M; Hombach, V

    1992-05-01

    Electrical activity can be localized by magnetocardiography (MCG) non-invasively. In this study a 37-SQUID (Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device) sensor multi-channel system (KRENIKON) was used to assess the potential of magnetocardiography to localize accessory pathways with a multichannel system. Seven WPW patients were studied by means of magnetocardiography. Prior to the MCG recordings, the site of the accessory pathway had been determined in all patients by invasive catheter mapping. MR images of the heart were used for anatomical correlation. The magnetocardiographic localization of the accessory pathway corresponded with catheter mapping within 2.1 cm on average (total range: 0-5 cm). This is thus, a promising new method for non-invasive localization of accessory pathways in WPW patients. PMID:1618202

  19. Finding an Export Market for a Small Finnish Boating Accessories Web-Shop : A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Technological developments and regional integration have increased the amount of inter-national business transactions. Organizations of all sizes now have a possibility to take advantage of international business opportunities. By internationalizing firms can find new sources of growth and innovation, and escape unfavorable home market conditions. This thesis is an empirical study of potential export markets. The thesis is a case study of a small Finnish boating accessories web-shop. The thes...

  20. An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    N. Omar; Alvi, F.; M. S. Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Alt...

  1. Atrial flutter in the fetus and young infant: an association with accessory connections.

    OpenAIRE

    Till, J; WREN, C.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To highlight the association between atrial flutter and accessory connections in the fetus and young infant. DESIGN--A retrospective review from January 1985 to January 1990. PATIENTS--Fetuses, neonates, and young infants with atrial flutter. RESULTS--Four fetuses and five infants presented with atrial flutter. In two fetuses and one infant sinus rhythm returned spontaneously. The other six required cardioversion. Three of them developed orthodromic atrioventricular re-entry tachyc...

  2. Partial restoration of blink reflex function after spinal accessory-facial nerve anastomosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Danziger, N; Chassande, B; Lamas, G.; Fligny, I; Soudant, J; Willer, J C

    1995-01-01

    Functional motor control requires perfect matching of the central connections of motoneurons with their peripheral inputs. It is not known, however, to what extent these central circuits are influenced by target muscles, either during development or after a lesion. Surgical interventions aimed at restoring function after peripheral nerve lesions provide an opportunity for studying this interaction in the mature human nervous system. A patient was studied in whom the spinal accessory nerve was...

  3. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Wendy; Unda, Nancy; Camacho, Francisco J.; Sánchez, María; Corona, Rebeca; Arzate, Dulce Ma.; Díaz, Néstor F.; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  4. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Portillo; Díaz, Néstor F.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  5. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  6. Brachymetatarsia with accessory navicular in right foot: A rare coincidental finding

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Praveen Kumar; Pawar, Inder; Beniwal, Sandeep Kumar; Verma, Raaghav R.

    2016-01-01

    A 33 years old female patient presented with posttraumatic pain in the right foot for which radiographs of the right foot was advised. No fracture was detected on radiographs and patient was managed conservatively on medications and posterior splint immobilization. We found coincidentally a short fourth metatarsal and an accessory navicular bone in the right foot radiographs. After 3 weeks of immobilization, she underwent mobilization of the right foot, weight bearing and intensive physiother...

  7. Interaction of Proteus mirabilis urease apoenzyme and accessory proteins identified with yeast two-hybrid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S R; Mobley, H L

    2001-02-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with complicated urinary tract infections, produces a metalloenzyme urease which hydrolyzes urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. The apourease is comprised of three structural subunits, UreA, UreB, and UreC, assembled as a homotrimer of individual UreABC heterotrimers (UreABC)(3). To become catalytically active, apourease acquires divalent nickel ions through a poorly understood process involving four accessory proteins, UreD, UreE, UreF, and UreG. While homologues of UreD, UreF, and UreG have been copurified with apourease, it remains unclear specifically how these polypeptides associate with the apourease or each other. To identify interactions among P. mirabilis accessory proteins, in vitro immunoprecipitation and in vivo yeast two-hybrid assays were employed. A complex containing accessory protein UreD and structural protein UreC was isolated by immunoprecipitation and characterized with immunoblots. This association occurs independently of coaccessory proteins UreE, UreF, and UreG and structural protein UreA. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, UreD was found to directly interact in vivo with coaccessory protein UreF. Unique homomultimeric interactions of UreD and UreF were also detected in vivo. To substantiate the study of urease proteins with a yeast two-hybrid assay, previously described UreE dimers and homomultimeric UreA interactions among apourease trimers were confirmed in vivo. Similarly, a known structural interaction involving UreA and UreC was also verified. This report suggests that in vivo, P. mirabilis UreD may be important for recruitment of UreF to the apourease and that crucial homomultimeric associations occur among these accessory proteins. PMID:11157956

  8. Accessory lobe of the liver mimicking a mass in the left adrenal gland. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare anomaly which we have diagnosed in a patient by CT. The lesion appeared as a soft-tissue-density mass with the same density as the liver and attached to the liver. Radionuclide liver scintigraphy helped to confirm the diagnosis. The object of this report is to draw attention to this rare entity since it can cause diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  9. Production of Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksis, M; Conn, T L; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B

    1997-01-01

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is a recently identified toxin of Vibrio cholerae. Preliminary studies using crude toxin extracts in animal models indicate that Ace increases transcellular ion transport, which is proposed to contribute to diarrhea in cholera. The lack of purified toxin has hindered elucidation of the mechanism of action of Ace. In this study, ace was cloned and was expressed in and secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Secreted toxin constituted 50% of the...

  10. Accessory Olfactory Bulb Function is Modulated by Input from the Main Olfactory Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Slotnick, Burton; Restrepo, Diego; Schellinck, Heather; Archbold, Georgina; Price, Stephen; Lin, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    While it is now established that sensory neurons in both the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ may be activated by both general and pheromonal odorants, it remains unclear what initiates sampling by the VNO. Anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was used to determine that adequate intranasal syringing with zinc sulfate interrupted all inputs to the main olfactory bulb but left intact those to the accessory olfactory bulb. Adult male treated mi...

  11. Histone modifications rather than the novel regional centromeres of Zymoseptoria tritici distinguish core and accessory chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schotanus, Klaas; Soyer, Jessica; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Happel, Petra; Smith, Kristina M.; Freitag, Michael; Stukenbrock, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Supernumerary chromosomes have been found in many organisms. In fungi, these “accessory” or “dispensable” chromosomes are present at different frequencies in populations and are usually characterized by higher repetitive DNA content and lower gene density when compared to the core chromosomes. In the reference strain of the wheat pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici, eight discrete accessory chromosomes have been found. So far, no functional role has been assigned to these chromosomes; h...

  12. RFID-enabled real-time manufacturing for automotive part and accessory suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, GQ; Qu, T.; Y. Zhang; Yang, HD

    2010-01-01

    Automotive part and accessory manufacturers (APAMs) at the lower tiers of the automotive vertical have been following leading vehicle assemblers in adopting RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and ubiquitous computing technologies, aiming to alleviate their advanced manufacturing systems. RFID-enabled real-time traceability and visibility facilitate the implementation of advanced strategies such as Just-In-Time (JIT) lean / responsive manufacturing and mass customization (MC). Being typical...

  13. The consumer behaviour of german honor students regarding garment and accessories

    OpenAIRE

    Coudouratzis, J.; Abreu, Maria José

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the consumer behaviour of german honor students concerning branded clothes and accessories. The data acquisition was done by developing a questionnaire, which was sent to three different universities in Germany The attention has been turned to identify a correlation between branded clothes and the development of a personal identity. According to the results of the realised survey there is no correlation.

  14. Unusual presentation of multiple fibroadenomas in bilateral breasts and axillary accessory breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong-Rong; Bevan, Scott; Sun, Ping; Lu, Jim Z; Peng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case with a total of 50 fibroadenomas simultaneously presented in bilateral breasts and left axillary accessory breast, up to 8 cm in size, in a 20 year-old Chinese woman. The histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of the fibroadenomas are described and possible underlying pathogenesis is discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first case with such a large number of bilateral multiple breast fibroadenomas in a young female reported in the literature. PMID:22553423

  15. Anatomic and clinical rationale of the V-sign to detect accessory axillary breast tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraynsingh, Vijay; Cawich, Shamir O; Maharaj, Ravi; Dan, Dilip; Hassranah, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The potential for breast cancer to present with lymphatic metastases, has instilled anxiety when women present with axillary masses. We discuss a simple and reliable clinical sign that can help clinicians to distinguish between axillary nodal metastases and accessory axillary breast tissue. Awareness and recognition of the "V-sign" can allay anxiety in women with accessary axillary breast tissue and prevent costly investigations in most cases. PMID:24591849

  16. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 7a Accessory Protein Is a Viral Structural Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng; Ito, Naoto; Tseng, Chien-Te K.; Makino, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCoV) 7a protein is one of the viral accessory proteins. In expressing cells, 7a protein exhibits a variety of biological activities, including induction of apoptosis, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, inhibition of host protein translation, and suppression of cell growth progression. Analysis of SCoV particles that were purified by either sucrose gradient equilibrium centrifugation or a virus capture assay, in...

  17. THE INVESTIGATION INTO CREATING AN ONLINE ACCESSORIES BRAND FOR THE LUXURY WOMENSWEAR MARKET: SAYSH BOUTIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a combination of a subject based study and an enterprise based study, which has attempted to analyse the process to set up as a successful online luxury accessories brand, catering for the UK womenswear market. The subject side will be based on research, aiming to understand and investigate the online retail elements required to develop an online store for the business. Additionally, customisation in retail will be investigated in order to develop a business model for t...

  18. A rare congenital anomaly of nose — Accessory nose : Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, N. Radha; Kumar, Benjamin Rajendra; Srinivas, K; Akurati, Lenin

    2006-01-01

    We describe a 21 year old man who was found to have an opening on his external nose since birth. No other clinical and radiological abnormalities were demonstrable elsewhere in his body. The opening is on the lower part of the nose one cm. away from the midline on right side, clinically looking like a sinus. Histological examination of the excised tract showed an organoid structure that was consistent with an“Accessory nose.”

  19. Typology of the arteries in the human scalenus region, with special reference to the accessory ascending cervical artery.

    OpenAIRE

    Su WD; Ohtsuka A; Taguchi T; Murakami T.

    2000-01-01

    The accessory ascending cervical artery (Murakami et al., 1996), which arises from the subclavian artery and ascends between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles, was studied in 87 Japanese adult cadavers (174 sides), with special attention being given to its origin, distribution, and relationship to other arteries at the cervical or scalenus region. In 154 sides (88.5%), the accessory ascending cervical artery was found to originate from the subclavian artery behind the scalenus anterior...

  20. Rare association in a female DSD case of phallus, accessory phallic urethra, perineal lipoma and anterior ectopic anus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, Santosh Kumar; Mahajan, Jai Kumar; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Garge, Saurabh; Vaiphei, Kim; Rao, Kattragadda L

    2013-02-01

    Disorders of sex differentiation (DSD) are a heterogeneous and broad spectrum group of diseases with a varied appearance. Presence of an accessory phallus with a phallic urethra in association with a normal vagina in a female is an extremely uncommon anomaly. We present a rare case of a genotypically female child with a normal urethra and vagina in association with a phallus, accessory phallic urethra, perineal lipoma and anterior ectopic anus. PMID:22836203

  1. Retromolar Canal Associated with Age, Side, Sex, Bifid Mandibular Canal, and Accessory Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiographs of Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Capote, Ticiana Sidorenko de O.; Marcela de Almeida Gonçalves; Juliana Álvares Duarte Bonini Campos

    2015-01-01

    Background. The retromolar canal (RMC) is an anatomical variation that can cause complications in dental procedures. Method. The RMC was evaluated according to age, sex, and presence of accessory mandibular canal and accessory mental foramen, on both sides in 500 panoramic radiographs, belonging to individuals at the age of 7 to 20 years. The associations of interest were studied through Fisher's Exact Test and Pearson's Chi-Square Test, and the correlation was studied through Pearson's Corre...

  2. Accessory Breast Cancer Occurring Concurrently with Bilateral Primary Invasive Breast Carcinomas: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The development of accessory breast tissue, which is found anywhere along the milk line, is attributed to the failure of milk line remnants to regress during embryogenesis. Primary tumors may arise from any ectopic breast tissue. Accessory breast cancer occurring concurrently with primary invasive breast cancer is extremely rare. Two such cases were reported in this article. One was a 43-year-old Chinese female who exhibited bilateral breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise sp...

  3. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  4. Reliable sex and strain discrimination in the mouse vomeronasal organ and accessory olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Illya I; Fu, Xiaoyan; Holy, Timothy E

    2013-08-21

    Animals modulate their courtship and territorial behaviors in response to olfactory cues produced by other animals. In rodents, detecting these cues is the primary role of the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We sought to systematically investigate the natural stimulus coding logic and robustness in neurons of the first two stages of accessory olfactory processing, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). We show that firing rate responses of just a few well-chosen mouse VNO or AOB neurons can be used to reliably encode both sex and strain of other mice from cues contained in urine. Additionally, we show that this population code can generalize to new concentrations of stimuli and appears to represent stimulus identity in terms of diverging paths in coding space. Together, the results indicate that firing rate code on the temporal order of seconds is sufficient for accurate classification of pheromonal patterns at different concentrations and may be used by AOS neural circuitry to discriminate among naturally occurring urine stimuli. PMID:23966710

  5. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  6. The use of microdebrider for the treatment of accessory axillary breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy, Sun Mingfa; Jack, Chong Si; Vincent, Yeow Kok Leng; Evan, Woo Kok Yen

    2012-11-01

    Accessory axillary breast tissue can be fairly common occurring in 2-6% of women. Treatment modalities thus far include direct excision as well as liposuction. While direct excision allows for accessible and adequate tissue resection, it results in long unsightly scars and the creation of significant amount of dead space. This may be complicated by seroma and haematoma formation. Liposuction is not without its drawbacks either. It is often very difficult to remove fibro-glandular breast tissue resulting in inadequate excision, thus leaving behind a visible core of breast tissue. This has led some surgeons to use a combination of direct excision and liposuction to manage accessory axillary breast tissue. Hence, we present the use of the microdebrider for sharp and precise excision of accessory axillary breast tissue. This day procedure can be performed through a single 5-mm incision which is well hidden in the axillary skin folds while allowing the operator the amount of control needed to accurately remove fibro-glandular breast tissue and restore an aesthetically pleasing contour to the axilla. PMID:22735506

  7. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  8. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B[sub 1] and G[sub 1] with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author).

  9. Expression of an alpha-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R A; Power, R F G

    2002-02-01

    A gene encoding alpha-galactosidase activity was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC686 and separately placed under the control of transcriptional elements regulating alpha-amylase expression in Aspergillus oryzae and glucoamylase expression in A. awamori. Following transformation of both A. oryzae and A. awamori with their respective expression vectors, induction of heterologous alpha-galactosidase from positively selected clones was effected through the addition of soluble starch (10% wt/vol) to the growth medium. Upon induction in A. oryzae, a transcriptional instability resulted in degradation of mRNA encoding heterologous alpha-galactosidase, thus preventing expression of the active enzyme. The use of a gene fusion strategy in A. awamori overcame this instability and resulted in stable expression of S. cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase. Subsequent to initial (shake flask) experiments, a series of scale-up and optimisation studies led to heterologous expression of the recombinant enzyme in batch fermentation at 51 U mg(-1) total extracellular protein. This was higher than previously published works, which reported extracellular levels of heterologous alpha-galactosidase up to 38 U mg(-1) total protein. Analysis of crude extracts of the fermentation medium revealed significant differences between the activity parameters reported previously in the literature for this enzyme and those observed here. The recombinant enzyme exhibited thermostability properties not previously reported for S. cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase, a trait which would make it suitable for use in processes requiring high temperatures. PMID:12074058

  10. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B1 and G1 with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author)

  11. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  12. Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental and applied Aspergillus research with a focus on new molecular tools, te...

  13. In Vitro Interactions between Target of Rapamycin Kinase Inhibitor and Antifungal Agents against Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Ding, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhun; Wu, Qingzhi; Zeng, Tongxiang; Sun, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In vitro interactions of INK128, a target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase inhibitor, and antifungals, including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, against Aspergillus spp. were assessed with the broth microdilution checkerboard technique. Our results suggested synergistic effects between INK128 and all azoles tested, against multiple Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus isolates. However, no synergistic effects were observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B or caspofungin. No antagonism was observed for any combination. PMID:26976874

  14. Immunosuppressive Compounds Exhibit Particular Effects on Functional Properties of Human Anti-Aspergillus TH1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tramsen, Lars; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Roeger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Klingebiel, Thomas; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Whereas adoptive immunotherapy transferring donor-derived anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells has been shown to be beneficial for HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis, little is known about the impact of commonly used immunosuppressants on the functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells were coincubated with different concentrations of methyl...

  15. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  16. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  17. Decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum has been studied. It was found that Aspergillus ficuum could effectively decolorize Direct Black 22 especially when grown as pelleted mycelia. Results showed that the media containing Direct Black 22 at 50 mg/L could be decolorized by 98.05% of the initial color in 24 h. The optimum pH and temperature of decolorization are 4.0 and 33 ℃ respectively. Aeration was quite beneficial to decolorization. Medium composition and the concentration of Direct Black 22 could affect the rate of decolorization. The dye degraded products assayed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and macroscopic observation showed that the decolorization of Direct Black 22 by mycelial pellets includes two important processes: bioadsorption and biodegradation.The degradation experiment agree with the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation

  18. Biosorption of Cadmium by Fungal Biomass of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI YANG; JIAN-LONG WANG; ZHI XING

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by waste fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger, originated from citric acid fermentation industry. Methods Batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. The Cd2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) HITACHI 180-80. Results The biosorption achieved equilibrium within 30 min. The adsorption isotherm could be described by Freundlich adsorption model, and the constants KF and 1/n were determined to be 2.07 and 0.18, respectively, and the correlation efficiency was 0.97. The optimal pH for Cd adsorption was 6.0. The cadmium-laden biomass could be effectively regenerated using 0.1 N HCl. Conclusion The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, a by-product of fermentation industry, is a potential biosorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

  19. Different species of Aspergillus involved in ungual pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years non dermatophyte fungi (NDF are often described as responsible for onychomycosis. The problem related to these fungi concern their identification and treatment. Nowadays a number of Aspergillus were observed in this kind of pathologies but the identification at level of species is frequently omitted. In this work we analysed 26 cases of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus, belonging to 8 different species. The identification were based on micro- and macro-morphological characteristics; physiological characters; and molecular analysis (B-tubulin gene. 3 species are very interesting: A. perii, a species recently described; A.nominus, never described before in onychomycosis, and A.melleus, likely a new opportunistic fungus involved in medical mycology. Though the identification of these fungi is an additional workload for the laboratory of medical mycology, there is the need to increase the number of identified NDF in order to improve the management of onychomycosis.

  20. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  1. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang-qiang; LI Li; ZHU Min; ZHANG Chao-ying; WANG Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infections caused by opportunistic organisms which have been known as etiologic agents of disease become more and more frequent.Aspergillus spp. is one of the agents. Fungi of aspergillus genus are widely distributed in nature, particularly in the soil and in the decomposed vegetation. They are frequent opportunist pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The most frequent causative organisms that cause cutaneous aspergillosis are A.fumigatus and A.flavus.1-3 In this report, we present a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis manifested by ulceration of the shank due to A. flavus. The patient had no deficiency of immunological status and severe disease associated with fungal infection. Excellent response was shown to anti-fungal therapy.

  2. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf;

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded...... as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species...... were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios...

  3. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The...... objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have....... Sixty-six A. niger strains were isolated and screened for a fumonisin production, and 77 % produced fumonisin on agar media. Worst-case scenarios were made by inoculation of A. niger on grapes and solidified the thought that a potential fumonisin production/contamination in grapes and derived products...

  4. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper;

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods...... ever used in biotechnology could produce fuminisins B2, B4 & B6. The strains could be subdivided into two clades (representing A. niger and the “phylospecies” A. awamori), and there were fumonisin producers in both clades. Ochratoxin A was also produced by strains in both clades, but only...... of approximately 6% of the strains. None of the other species in the black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. One strain (NRRL 337), called the “food fungus”, because it is used for single cell protein based on cheap growth substrates, produced both fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Industrial citric acid producers...

  5. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I.; de Groot, M.J.L.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out......, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general...... dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  6. Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2009-01-01

    , splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window...... better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene....

  7. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: bho@ufpr.br; Souza Filho, Jose Dias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11{beta},13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16{beta}-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  8. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Júnior L.M.; Macedo G.R.; Duarte M.M.L.; Silva E.P.; Lobato A.K.C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was als...

  9. Protein secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Weenink, Xavier Oswin

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms, which represent a separate taxonomic group organisms within the fungal kingdom, apart from the yeasts. These fungi always need a substrate to grow on, this can be living or dead material. Fungi possess the capacity to secrete high levels of enzymes. Because of this specific property, fungi are already used for centuries as miniature factories for the production of extracellular proteins. Aspergillus niger is an attractive organism beca...

  10. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  11. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor, Marko J; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 α-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory ...

  12. Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, William J.; Cramer, Robert A; Perfect, B. Zachary; Asfaw, Yohannes G.; Sauer, Theodor C.; Najvar, Laura K.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Thomas F. Patterson; Benjamin, Daniel K., Jr.; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demonstrate that a mutant of A. fumigatus lacking the calcineurin A (cnaA) catalyt...

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae Vacuolar Protein Sorting Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Ohneda, Mamoru; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) system in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which has unique cell polarity and the ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, was evaluated by using mutants that missort vacuolar proteins into the medium. Vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as a vacuolar marker. Twenty dfc (dim EGFP fluorescence in conidia) mutants with reduced intracellular EGFP fluorescence in conidia were isolated by ...

  14. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, A

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytoplasmic genes are genes that are located in the cell cytoplasm and not in the cell nucleus where most genes are situated. The cytoplasmic genes investigated in this research are the genomes of mitochondria and virus...

  15. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  16. Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus f...

  17. crnA encodes a nitrate transporter in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Unkles, S.E.; Hawker, K L; Grieve, C; Campbell, E I; Montague, P.; Kinghorn, J R

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Aspergillus nidulans crnA gene for the transport of the anion nitrate has been determined. The crnA gene specifies a predicted polypeptide of 483 amino acids (molecular weight 51,769). A hydropathy plot suggests that this polypeptide has 10 membrane-spanning helices with an extensive hydrophilic region between helices six and seven. No striking homology was observed between the crnA protein and other reported membrane proteins of either prokaryotic or eukaryotic...

  18. Nutrient Environments Influence Competition among Aspergillus flavus Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehl, Hillary L.; Cotty, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus, shaped in part by intraspecific competition, influence the likelihood and severity of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but the influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrients on competition between genotypes of A. flavus have not been investigated. Competition between paired A. flavus isolates on agar media was affected by varying concentrations of carbon...

  19. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya KARACA; Merih KIVANÇ

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13) dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with dif...

  20. Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Beernaert, Lies Angèle; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. Immunosup...