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Sample records for aspergillus section nigri

  1. Genetic diversity of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri , using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the genetic diversity of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri using RAPD and VCG techniques. Results obtained revealed OPX 07 as the most informative of the tested RAPD markers generating 12 polymorphic bands while the least bands were generated by OPR 19. Of the 40 Aspergillus section ...

  2. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  3. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and

  4. Population dynamics of Aspergillus section Nigri species on vineyard samples of grapes and raisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using...

  5. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Astoreca

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption.

  6. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Petersen, Lene Maj; Lyhne, Ellen Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been repor...

  7. Diversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on the surface of Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Silva, Josué José da; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie

    2018-03-02

    This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B 2 (FB 2 ) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the grapes were also studied. Eighty-eight samples were collected from the main grape producing states in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (n=30), Pernambuco (n=21), São Paulo (n=21) and Paraná (n=16). The highest average contamination level by A. section Nigri occurred on the grapes from Pernambuco (66.3%). A total of 2042 A. section Nigri isolates was analyzed and clustered in three groups according to morphology characterization: A. section Nigri uniseriate (79.3%), A. niger "aggregate" (18.3%) and A. carbonarius (2.4%). In order to precisely identify the Aspergillus species, two hundred and forty-eight strains were subjected to DNA sequencing. Among the A. section Nigri uniseriate group, the following species were found: A. japonicus, A. uvarum, A. brunneoviolaceus, A. aculeatus and A. labruscus. Within the A. niger "aggregate", the following species were found: A.niger sensu stricto, A. welwitschiae and A. vadensis. Regarding mycotoxin-production capacity, 3.2% of the total A. section Nigri isolates (2042) were positive for OTA production and from A. niger "aggregate" (373) tested, 42.1% were FB 2 producers. However, none of the 88 grape samples were contaminated with these mycotoxins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Identification, classification and phylogeny of the Aspergillus section Nigri inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, K; Wang, L; Miyaji, M; Nishimura, K

    2001-06-25

    The partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 32 strains of 12 species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and sequenced directly. Using 402 nucleotide characters, nucleotide-based and amino acid-based phylogenetic trees were inferred and the genetic divergence among the species was evaluated. Based on analyses of the 402-bp nucleotide and 133-amino acid sequences, strains were divided into 11 DNA types and five amino acid types. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus awamori showed different amino acid sequences. A. niger clade included A. niger var. niger and Aspergillus ficuum. A. awamori clade included A. awamori, Aspergillus phoenicis, Aspergillus pulverulentus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus foetidus, and two varieties of A. niger, var. nanus and var. intermedius. Two varieties of A. niger will be reclassified. One strain of A. phoenicis and one strain of Aspergillus carbonarius were reidentified.

  9. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardiumoccidentale L.) from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamboni, Y.; Frisvad, J.C.; Hell, K.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Tamo, M.; Nielsen, K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smid, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of Aspergillus section Flavi and A. section Nigri in cashew nuts harvested in the Northern Guinea (NG) and Southern Sudanian (SS) agro-ecological zones of Benin. Also, the presence of aflatoxins was investigated. For detection of fungal

  10. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocsube, S.

    2011-01-01

    aurasperone B and pyranonigrin A. Aspergillus fijiensis is a uniseriate species related to A. aculeatinus, and was isolated from soil in Fiji, and from Lactuca saliva in Indonesia. This species is able to grow at 37 degrees C, and produces asperparalines and okaramins. Aspergillus indologenus was isolated...

  11. Occurrence and fumonisin B2 producing potential of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Larissa S; Correa, Benedito; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Phippen, Christopher B W; Frisvad, Jens C; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2017-02-01

    Bertholletia excelsa is the tree that produces Brazil nuts which have vast economic importance in the Amazon region and as an export commodity. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nut samples at different stages of its production chain and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0.273 to 0.994. A total of 1052 A. section Nigri strains were isolated from Brazil nuts and 200 strains were tested for their ability to produce FB2: 41 strains (20.5%) were FB2 producers with concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 37.25 mg/kg; 2 strains (1%) showed traces of FB2, less than the detection limit (0.08 mg/kg); and 157 (78.5%) were not FB2 producers. Although several samples showed high contamination by A. section Nigri, no sample was contaminated by FB2.

  12. Characterization of Aspergillus section Nigri group-maize interactions by a green fluorescent protein-tagging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochratoxin A, produced by some members of the Aspergillus section Nigri group, is a potent nephrotoxic and a potential carcinogenic mycotoxin. Two members of this group A. niger and A. carbonarius are notorious ochratoxin producers in plant substrates, including corn, coffee, grapes, onions, and pea...

  13. Occurrence and fumonisin B2 producing potential of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa S.; Correa, Benedito; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.

    2017-01-01

    Bertholletia excelsa is the tree that produces Brazil nuts which have vast economic importance in the Amazon region and as an export commodity. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Aspergillus section Nigri in Brazil nut samples at different stages of its production chain...... and to verify the toxigenic potential for fumonisin B2 (FB2) production of these isolates along with the presence of this mycotoxin in Brazil nut samples. The fungal infection ranged from 0 to 80% at the different stages of the harvest and processing chain and the water activity of the nuts from 0.273 to 0.......994. A total of 1052 A. section Nigri strains were isolated from Brazil nuts and 200 strains were tested for their ability to produce FB2: 41 strains (20.5%) were FB2 producers with concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 37.25 mg/kg; 2 strains (1%) showed traces of FB2, less than the detection limit (0.08 mg...

  14. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Petersen, Lene M.; Lyhne, E. Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23-dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time. PMID:24736731

  15. Diversity in secondary metabolites including mycotoxins from strains of aspergillus section nigri isolated from raw cashew nuts from benin, west africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Linnemann, Anita R.; Gezgin, Yué Ksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Rob; Smid, Eddy J.; Tamo, Manuele; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Hoof, Jakob Blñsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusin on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These sample showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence o aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity

  16. Variability among strains of Aspergillus section Nigri with capacity to degrade tannic acid isolated from extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Victoriano, F; Veana, F; Hernández-Castillo, F D; Aguilar, C N; Reyes-Valdés, M H; Rodríguez-Herrera, R

    2017-01-01

    Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that cause astringent flavor and turbidity in food. Tannase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of tannins and is used in food industry. This study was conducted to determine the genetic variability and the tannase alleles variation in fungal strains isolated from soil and plants at five extreme areas of Coahuila, México. Two screening assays under 1 and 20 % of tannic acid were performed, with the isolations. In these assays, it was possible to identify 756 and 128 fungal strains, respectively. The major fungal variability was observed in "Cuatro Ciénegas" with 26 strains. The microorganisms were distributed in 11 groups, which correspond to Aspergillus section Nigri. AN7 and AN1 groups showed the major number of isolates from "Paila" and "Cuatro Ciénegas" locations, respectively. In the last location, the major diversity and specific richness were found. But in "Ojo Caliente," tannase allele conservations were observed.

  17. Aspergillus section Nigri em bulbos de cebola : ocorrência, identificação e produção de fumonisina B2 e ocratoxina A

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Bertoldo

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A cebola é atacada por várias doenças fúngicas no campo e pós-colheita, podendo persistir durante transporte, armazenamento e comercialização. No Brasil, as perdas anuais podem chegar a 50%. Uma das doenças é a do mofo preto, relacionada com os Aspergillus negros. Estes são comumente encontrados em alimentos. Algumas espécies de Aspergillus section Nigri são capazes de produzir micotoxinas, tais como ocratoxina A e fumonisina B2. A ocratoxina A é considerada nefrotoxica, teratogênica ...

  18. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Leo Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Linnemann, Anita R.

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the divers...

  19. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    in Costa Rica and produces large pink to greyish brown sclerotia. Aspergillus lacticoffeatus was found on coffee beans in Venezuela and Indonesia, and is an effective producer of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus piperis was isolated from black ground pepper and produces large yellow to pink brown sclerotia...

  20. Hydrolytic enzymes production by Aspergillus section Nigri in presence of butylated hydroxyanisole and propyl paraben on peanut meal extract agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Carla L; Landa, María F; Barberis, Mauricio G; Giaj-Merlera, Guillermo; Dalcero, Ana M; Magnoli, Carina E

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, food grade antioxidants are used safely as an alternative to traditional fungicides to control fungal growth in several food and agricultural products. In this work, the effect of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl paraben (PP) on two hydrolytic enzyme activity (β-d-glucosidase and α-d-galactosidase) by Aspergillus section Nigri species under different water activity conditions (aW; 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93) and incubation time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96h) was evaluated on peanut-based medium. The activity of two glycosidases, β-d-glucosidase and α-d-galactosidase, was assayed using as substrates 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranosido and 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranosido, respectively. The enzyme activity was determined by the increase in optical density at 405nm caused by the liberation of p-nitrophenol by enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Enzyme activity was expressed as micromoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute. The major inhibition in β-d-glucosidase activity of A. carbonarius and A. niger was found with 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.98 and 0.95 aW, respectively, whereas for α-d-galactosidase activity a significant decrease in enzyme activity with respect to control was observed in A. carbonarius among 5 to 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP in all conditions assayed. Regarding A. niger, the highest percentages of enzyme inhibition activity were found with 20mmoll(-1) of BHA or PP at 0.95 aW and 96h. The results of this work provide information about the capacity of BHA and PP to inhibit in vitro conditions two of the most important hydrolytic enzymes produced by A. carbonarius and A. niger species. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F; Linnemann, Anita R; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production.

  2. Study of Spanish Grape Mycobiota and Ochratoxin A Production by Isolates of Aspergillus tubingensis and Other Members of Aspergillus Section Nigri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angel; Mateo, Rufino; López-Ocaña, Laura; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2005-01-01

    The native mycobiota of five grape varieties grown in Spain has been studied. Four (Bobal, Tempranillo, Garnacha, and Monastrell) were red varieties and one (Moscatel) was white. The main fungal genera isolated were Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Aspergillus. The isolation frequency of Aspergillus spp. section Nigri in contaminated samples was 82%. Ochratoxin A (OTA) production was assessed using yeast extract-sucrose broth supplemented with 5% bee pollen. Cultures of 205 isolates from this section showed that 74.2% of Aspergillus carbonarius and 14.3% of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates produced OTA at levels ranging from 1.2 to 3,530 ng/ml and from 46.4 to 111.5 ng/ml, respectively. No Aspergillus niger isolate had the ability to produce this toxin under the conditions assayed. Identification of the A. niger aggregate isolates was based on PCR amplification of 5.8S rRNA genes and its two intergenic spacers, internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2, followed by digestion with restriction endonuclease RsaI of the PCR products. The restriction patterns were compared with those from strains of A. niger CECT 2807 and A. tubingensis CECT 20393, held at the Spanish Collection of Type Cultures. DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region of the OTA-producing isolates of A. tubingensis matched 99 to 100% with the nucleotide sequence of strain A. tubingensis CBS 643.92. OTA determination was accomplished by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA confirmation was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed that there are significant differences with regard to the isolation frequency of ochratoxinogenic fungi in the different grape varieties. These differences were uncorrelated to berry color. The ability of A. tubingensis to produce OTA and the influence of grape variety on the occurrence of OTA-producing fungi in grapes are described in this report for the first time. PMID:16085865

  3. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barberis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  4. Aspergillus labruscus sp. nov., a new species of Aspergillus section Nigri discovered in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Ferranti, Larissa S.; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson

    2017-01-01

    A novel fungal species, Aspergillus labruscus sp. nov., has been found in Brazil during an investigation of the fungal species present on the surface of grape berries (Vitis labrusca L.) for use in the production of concentrated grape juice. It seems to be associated to V. labrusca, and has never...

  5. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    contamination, a total of 100 kernels/sample (with disinfection) and 40 kernels/sample (without disinfection) were plated. Seventy samples from fourteen villages were used. Aflatoxins occurrence was analysed on 84 samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS...... predominant, in NG and SS zones (90.2% and 87.2%) respectively. When non disinfected kernels were plated, A. section Nigri was predominant in both NG and SS zones, with percentages of 89.7% and 93.4%, respectively. None of the 84 nuts samples were positive for natural occurrence of aflatoxins with a detection...

  6. Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-07-15

    Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, E.; Escobar Salazar, N.; Sepehrkhouy, S.; Meijer, M.; de Cock, H.; Haas, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being

  8. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger ‘aggregate’ represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus...

  9. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  10. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species ha...

  11. Parámetros cinéticos como herramienta para la caracterización de aislados de Aspergillus sección Nigri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvina Sobrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Aspergillus dentro de la sección Nigri son importantes en procesos biotecnológicos, así como en el biodeterioro. Bajos condiciones de cultivo controladas, la velocidad de crecimiento es una característica de las especies de hongos y algunos autores utilizan la medida del diámetro de las colonias como herramienta de identificación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la velocidad de crecimiento obtenida por la Microbiología Predictiva puede ser utilizada como herramienta para la caracterización de aspergilos negros. Se construyeron las curvas de crecimiento de 5 aislados de aspergilos negros obtenidos de alimentos y ambiente de industria láctea. Estos aislados, también fueron estudiados por sus características morfológicas y estudios de microscopía electrónica. Se identificaron como A. awamori, A. niger (2 aislados, A. foetidus y A. carbonarius. Las velocidades máximas de crecimiento en medio Agar Extracto de Malta a 25 ºC fueron: 3,51; 4,85; 4,52; 12,73; y 5,84 mm/día, respectivamente. A foetidus fue el único que presentó fase de latencia y alcanzó el mayor radio. Con la ayuda de la Microbiología Predictiva se pudieron separar A. awamori de A. foetidus, pero las diferencias no fueron significativas (p > 0,05 para los otros aislados. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron diferenciar a A. carbonarius. Los datos cinéticos por sí solos no fueron suficientes para diferenciar especies cercanas.

  12. Parámetros cinéticos como herramienta para la caracterización de aislados de Aspergillus sección Nigri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Silvina Sobrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Aspergillus dentro de la sección Nigri son importantes en procesos biotecnológicos, así como en el biodeterioro. Bajos condiciones de cultivo controladas, la velocidad de crecimiento es una característica de las especies de hongos y algunos autores utilizan la medida del diámetro de las colonias como herramienta de identificación. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar si la velocidad de crecimiento obtenida por la Microbiología Predictiva puede ser utilizada como herramienta para la caracterización de aspergilos negros. Se construyeron las curvas de crecimiento de 5 aislados de aspergilos negros obtenidos de alimentos y ambiente de industria láctea. Estos aislados, también fueron estudiados por sus características morfológicas y estudios de microscopía electrónica. Se identificaron como A. awamori, A. niger (2 aislados, A. foetidus y A. carbonarius. Las velocidades máximas de crecimiento en medio Agar Extracto de Malta a 25 ºC fueron: 3,51; 4,85; 4,52; 12,73; y 5,84 mm/día, respectivamente. A foetidus fue el único que presentó fase de latencia y alcanzó el mayor radio. Con la ayuda de la Microbiología Predictiva se pudieron separar A. awamori de A. foetidus, perolas diferencias no fueron significativas (p > 0,05 para los otros aislados. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron diferenciar a A. carbonarius. Los datos cinéticos por sí solos no fueron suficientes para diferenciar especies cercanas.

  13. D-Galactose uptake is nonfunctional in the conidiospores of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fekete, E.; de Vries, R.P.; Seiboth, B.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Sandor, E.; Metz, B.; Kubicek, C.P.; Karaffa, L.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri), including Aspergillus niger, as well as many other Ascomycetes fail to germinate on d-galactose as a sole carbon source. Here, we provide evidence that the ability of A. niger to transport d-galactose is growth stage dependent, being

  14. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...... on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and beta-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  15. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Cervini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic ap....... christenseniae, A. novoguineensis, A. subnutans, A. transcarpathicus and A. wisconsinensis. A dichotomous key for the identification is provided....

  16. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Cervini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Species belonging to Aspergillus section Cervini are characterised by radiate or short columnar, fawn coloured, uniseriate conidial heads. The morphology of the taxa in this section is very similar and isolates assigned to these species are frequently misidentified. In this study, a polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data, temperature profiles and partial BenA, CaM and RPB2 sequences to examine the relationships within this section. Based on this taxonomic approach the section Cervini is resolved in ten species including six new species: A. acidohumus, A. christenseniae, A. novoguineensis, A. subnutans, A. transcarpathicus and A. wisconsinensis. A dichotomous key for the identification is provided.

  17. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergillus...... uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two...... atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523(T)=CBS 127591(T)= ITEM 4834(T)= IBT26606(T)....

  18. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60% were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%. These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds.

  19. Comments on "Screening and identification of novel ochratoxin A-producing fungi from grapes. Toxins 2016,8,833" - in reporting ochratoxin A production from strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium and talaromcyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    Recently a species in the genus Talaromyces, a uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri and an isolate each of two widespread species, Penicillium rubens and P. commune, were reported to produce ochratoxin A. This claim was based on insufficient biological and chemical data. We propose a l...

  20. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta

    2007-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis...... and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found...... to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  1. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from suspe...

  2. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella): Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Sun, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this se...

  3. Ribotoxin genes in isolates of Aspergillus section Clavati.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Ribotoxins are ribosome inactivator proteins with high specificity against the sarcin/ricin domain of the 28S ribosomal RNA. We examined the presence of ribotoxin genes in isolates of species recently assigned to Aspergillus section Clavati using specific primer pairs. All species assigned to this

  4. Species of Aspergillus section Aspergillus from clinical samples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, João P Z; Sutton, Deanna A; Gené, Josepa; García, Dania; Wiederhold, Nathan; Guarro, Josep

    2017-10-09

    The diversity of Aspergillus species in clinical samples is continuously increasing. Species under the former name Eurotium, currently accommodated in section Aspergillus of the genus Aspergillus, are xerophilic fungi widely found in the human environment and able to grow on substrates with low water activity. However, their prevalence in the clinical setting is poorly known. We have studied the presence of these species in a set of clinical samples from the United States using a multilocus sequence analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA, and fragments of the genes β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM), and polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2). A total of 25 isolates were studied and identified as follows: A. montevidensis (44%), A. chevalieri (36%), A. pseudoglaucus (8%), and A. costiformis (4%). A new species Aspergillus microperforatus is also proposed, which represented 8% of the isolates studied and is characterized by uniseriate conidial heads, subglobose to pyriform vesicles, rough conidia, globose to subglobose cleistothecia, and lenticular and smooth ascospores. The in vitro antifungal activity of eight clinically available antifungals was also determined against these isolates, with the echinocandins and posaconazole having the most potent activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... are described here, A. cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. neobridgeri, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. steynii, and A. westerdijkiae. Twelve species of section Circumdati produce mellein, 17 produce penicillic acid and 17 produce xanthomegnins. Eight species consistently produce large amounts of ochratoxin...... A: Aspergillus cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. westerdijkiae, A. sulphurous, and Neopetromyces muricatus. Two species produce large or small amounts of ochratoxin A, but less consistently: A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum. Ochratoxin production in these species...

  6. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogeny of osmophillic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We addressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied multidis...

  8. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of Maize and Groundnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus popula...

  9. Aspergillus section Nidulantes (formerly Emericella: Polyphasic taxonomy, chemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus section Nidulantes includes species with striking morphological characters, such as biseriate conidiophores with brown-pigmented stipes, and if present, the production of ascomata embedded in masses of Hülle cells with often reddish brown ascospores. The majority of species in this section have a sexual state, which were named Emericella in the dual name nomenclature system. In the present study, strains belonging to subgenus Nidulantes were subjected to multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer region (ITS, partial β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2 sequences. Nine sections are accepted in subgenus Nidulantes including the new section Cavernicolus. A polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of section Nidulantes. Based on this approach, section Nidulantes is subdivided in seven clades and 65 species, and 10 species are described here as new. Morphological characters including colour, shape, size, and ornamentation of ascospores, shape and size of conidia and vesicles, growth temperatures are important for identifying species. Many species of section Nidulantes produce the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. The most important mycotoxins in Aspergillus section Nidulantes are aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, emestrin, fumitremorgins, asteltoxins, and paxillin while other extrolites are useful drugs or drug lead candidates such as echinocandins, mulundocandins, calbistrins, varitriols, variecolins and terrain. Aflatoxin B1 is produced by four species: A. astellatus, A. miraensis, A. olivicola, and A. venezuelensis.

  10. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium, and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were identified using calmodulin gene sequencing. Of these, 163 isolates were subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS rDNA, partial β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2 genes. Colony characteristics were documented on eight cultivation media, growth parameters at three incubation temperatures were recorded and micromorphology was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy to illustrate and characterize each species. Many specific extrolites were extracted and identified from cultures, including echinulins, epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important mycotoxins in the strict sense, such as sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin were not detected despite previous reports on their production in this section. Adopting a polyphasic approach, 31 species are recognized, including nine new species. ITS is highly conserved in this section and does not distinguish species. All species can be differentiated using CaM or RPB2 sequences. For BenA, Aspergillus brunneus and A. niveoglaucus share identical

  11. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A J; Hubka, V; Frisvad, J C; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Meijer, M; Varga, J; Demirel, R; Jurjević, Ž; Kubátová, A; Sklenář, F; Zhou, Y G; Samson, R A

    2017-09-01

    Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly the genus Eurotium) includes xerophilic species with uniseriate conidiophores, globose to subglobose vesicles, green conidia and yellow, thin walled eurotium-like ascomata with hyaline, lenticular ascospores. In the present study, a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were identified using calmodulin gene sequencing. Of these, 163 isolates were subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS rDNA, partial β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes. Colony characteristics were documented on eight cultivation media, growth parameters at three incubation temperatures were recorded and micromorphology was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy to illustrate and characterize each species. Many specific extrolites were extracted and identified from cultures, including echinulins, epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important mycotoxins in the strict sense, such as sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin were not detected despite previous reports on their production in this section. Adopting a polyphasic approach, 31 species are recognized, including nine new species. ITS is highly conserved in this section and does not distinguish species. All species can be differentiated using CaM or RPB2 sequences. For BenA, Aspergillus brunneus and A. niveoglaucus share identical sequences. Ascospores

  12. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sklenář

    2017-09-01

    The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  13. Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species...... (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B2 (from A. niger...... for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker...

  14. Keratitis caused by the recently described new species Aspergillus brasiliensis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human infections caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis have not yet been reported. We describe the first two known cases of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis. Case presentations A 49-year-old Indian Tamil woman agricultural worker came with pain and defective vision in the right eye for one month. Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Indian Tamil woman presented with a history of a corneal ulcer involving the left eye for 15 days. The fungal strains isolated from these two cases were originally suspected to belong to Aspergillus section Nigri based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics. Molecular identification revealed that both isolates represent A. brasiliensis. Conclusion The two A. brasiliensis strains examined in this study were part of six keratitis isolates from Aspergillus section Nigri, suggesting that this recently described species may be responsible for a significant proportion of corneal infections caused by black Aspergilli. The presented cases also indicate that significant differences may occur between the severities of keratitis caused by individual isolates of A. brasiliensis.

  15. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Jurjević, Željko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species found worldwide in soils and rhizospheres, indoor and cave environments, as endophytes, food contaminants and occasionally as human pathogens. They produce many extensively studied bioactive secondary metabolites and biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The taxa were revised based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from four loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, RPB2, ITS rDNA), two PCR fingerprinting methods, micro- and macromorphology and physiology. Section Flavipedes includes three known and seven new species: A. ardalensis, A. frequens, A. luppii, A. mangaliensis, A. movilensis, A. polyporicola and A. spelaeus. The name A. neoflavipes was proposed for Fennellia flavipes a distinct species from its supposed asexual state A. flavipes. Aspergillus iizukae, A. frequens and A. mangaliensis are the most common and widely distributed species, whereas A. flavipes s. str. is rare. A dichotomous key based on the combination of morphology and physiology is provided for all recognized species. Aspergillus section Jani is established to contain A. janus and A. brevijanus, species previously classified as members of sect. Versicolores, Terrei or Flavipedes. This new section is strongly supported by phylogenetic data and morphology. Section Jani species produce three types of conidiophores and conidia, and colonies have green and white sectors making them distinctive. Accessory conidia found in pathogenic A. terreus were found in all members of sects. Flavipedes and Jani. Our data indicated that A. frequens is a clinically relevant and produces accessory conidia during infection. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and...

  17. Diagnosis of filamentous fungi on tissue sections by immunohistochemistry using anti-aspergillus antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sundaram; Uppin, Shantveer G; Uppin, Megha S; Pamidimukkala, Umabala; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Identification based on histology alone has limitations as Aspergillus species share morphology with other filamentous fungi. Differentiation of Aspergillus species from hyalohyphomycetes and dematiaceous fungi is important as the antifungal susceptibility varies among different species and genera. Given these problems, ancillary techniques are needed to increase specificity. Our aim was to study the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with anti-Aspergillus antibody in the identification of Aspergillus species and to differentiate them from other filamentous fungi. Fifty formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections including 47 from cases of culture proven filamentous fungi, 3 from colonies of cultures of hyalohyphomycetes, and 11 smears from cultures were subjected to IHC studies using polyclonal rabbit anti-Aspergillus antibody (Abcam, UK) after antigen retrieval. The IHC on tissue sections was positive in 88% cases involving culture proven Aspergillus species. There was no cross reactivity with Mucorales species, Candida species, dematiaceous fungi and hyalohyphomycetes. Hence immunohistochemistry can be used as an ancillary technique for the diagnosis of Aspergillus species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biodiversity of species of Aspergillus section Fumigati in semi-desert soils in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusiano, Gustavo E; Piontelli, Eduardo; Fernández, Mariana S; Mangiaterra, Magdalena L; Cattana, María E; Kocsubé, Sándor; Varga, János

    The distribution of Aspergillus species in soil has been widely studied all over the world. The aim of this study was the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of species Aspergillus belonging to section Fumigati present in soils from two Argentinian semi-desert areas having different geological conditions. Altogether, 23 isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati were recovered and identified using a polyphasic approach including phenotypic and molecular identifications. Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto and Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis had the highest frequency, of occurrence while isolates closely related to Aspergillus udagawae and Aspergillus felis were rarely observed. A. fumigatiaffinis and isolates closer to A. udagawae were isolated for the first time from Argentinian soils and this is the first report on the occurrence of species belonging to the A. felis clade in South America. Recent scientific interests in biodiversity, as well as the increasing importance of aspergilli as causative agents of human and animal diseases increase the need to understand the diversity and occurrence of these fungi in nature. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Constitutive expression of fluorescent protein by Aspergillus var. niger and Aspergillus carbonarius to monitor fungal colonization in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin Rene; Glenn, Anthony Elbie; Hinton, Dorothy Mae; Bacon, Charles Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius are two species in the Aspergillus section Nigri (black-spored aspergilli) frequently associated with peanut (Arachis hypogea), maize (Zea mays), and other plants as pathogens. These infections are symptomless and as such are major concerns since some black aspergilli produce important mycotoxins, ochratoxins A, and the fumonisins. To facilitate the study of the black aspergilli-maize interactions with maize during the early stages of infections, we developed a method that used the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP) and the monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) to transform A. niger and A. carbonarius, respectively. The results were constitutive expressions of the fluorescent genes that were stable in the cytoplasms of hyphae and conidia under natural environmental conditions. The hyphal in planta distribution in 21-day-old seedlings of maize were similar wild type and transformants of A. niger and A. carbonarius. The in planta studies indicated that both wild type and transformants internally colonized leaf, stem and root tissues of maize seedlings, without any visible disease symptoms. Yellow and red fluorescent strains were capable of invading epidermal cells of maize roots intercellularly within the first 3 days after inoculation, but intracellular hyphal growth was more evident after 7 days of inoculation. We also tested the capacity of fluorescent transformants to produce ochratoxin A and the results with A. carbonarius showed that this transgenic strain produced similar concentrations of this secondary metabolite. This is the first report on the in planta expression of fluorescent proteins that should be useful to study the internal plant colonization patterns of two ochratoxigenic species in the Aspergillus section Nigri. © 2013.

  20. Influence of the pesticides glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri strains isolated from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Magnoli, Carina E

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was undertake to determine the effect of glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on the lag phase and growth rate of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains growing on soil extract medium at -0.70, -2.78 and -7.06 MPa. Under certain conditions, the glyphosate concentrations used significantly increased micelial growth as compared to control. An increase of about 30% was observed for strain AN 251 using 5 and 20 mg L(-1) of glyphosate at -2.78 MPa. The strains behaved differently in the presence of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. A significant decrease in growth rate, compared to control, was observed for all strains except AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 mg L(-1). This strain showed a significant increase in growth rate. With regard to atrazine, significant differences were observed only under some conditions compared to control. An increase in growth rate was observed for strain AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 and 10 mg L(-1) of atrazine. By comparison, a reduction of 25% in growth rate was observed at -7.06 MPa and higher atrazine concentrations. This study shows that glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine affect the growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains under in vitro conditions.

  1. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    A novel 2,2 '-epoxy-terphenyllin, candidusin C, in addition to the well known secondary metabolites terphenyllin, 3-hydroxyterpenyllin and chlorflavonin, has been isolated from the chemically unexplored fungus Aspergillus campestris. The latter three are known secondary metabolites from Aspergill...

  2. Molecular characterization of black Aspergillus species from onion and their potential for ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherbawy, Youssuf; Elhariry, Hesham; Kocsubé, Sándor; Bahobial, Abdulaziz; Deeb, Bahig El; Altalhi, Abdulla; Varga, János; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2015-05-01

    Onion bulbs can become contaminated with various molds during the storage period, the most important causal agents being black aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri). Taxonomic studies have revealed that this group of Aspergillus contains many species that cannot be reliably identified using standard morphological methods. Therefore, it is necessary to define the fungus causing this problem in the onion exactly, especially since some species assigned to section Nigri are well known as ochratoxin and/or fumonisin producers. Sixty fungal isolates belonging to 10 fungal genera were isolated from 40 onion samples originated from the Taif region in Saudi Arabia. Black aspergilli were detected in 37 onion samples. Using primer pairs (awaspec and Cmd6) designed based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data, 37 isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. The ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 contents of the onion samples were examined. No ochratoxins were detected in the collected samples, while fumonisin B2 was detected in 37.5% of the onion samples. Eighteen of 37 isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae were recognized as potential producers for fumonisin B2. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions designed to detect biosynthetic genes of fumonisins confirmed these results.

  3. Aspergillus alabamensis, a New Clinically Relevant Species in the Section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balajee, S. A.; Baddley, J. W.; Peterson, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins enolase (enoA), beta-tubulin (benA), and calmodulin (calM) of a large number of isolates within the section Terrei, genus Aspergillus, revealed the presence of a new cryptic species within this section...

  4. Evolutionary relationships in Aspergillus section Fumigati inferred from partial beta-tubulin and hydrophobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiser, D.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taylor, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Members of Aspergillus section Fumigati are important animal pathogens and food contaminants. There is considerable variation among the 16 currently recognized species in this section, particularly in their mating systems: five are known to be strictly mitosporic, nine are homothallic, and two ar...

  5. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T). Asperg......Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  6. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  7. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobus M. Visagie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified. Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species of section Aspergillus were made using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit. Morphological observations were made from cultures grown under standardized conditions. Aspergillus mallochii does not grow at 37 °C and produces roughened ascospores with incomplete equatorial furrows. Aspergillus megasporus produces large conidia (up to 12 µm diam and roughened ascospores with equatorial furrows. Echinulin, quinolactacin A1 & A2, preechinulin and neoechinulin A & B were detected as major extrolites of A. megasporus, while neoechinulin A & B and isoechinulin A, B & C were the major extrolites from A. mallochii.

  8. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in the Brazilian peanut production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Ligia Manoel; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Pelegrinelli Fungaro, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    A total of 119 samples of peanut were collected throughout the peanut production chain in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The peanut samples were directly plated for determination of percentages of infection and a polyphasic approach was used to identify Aspergillus section Flavi species. Further, the p...

  9. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene. Most strains of Aspergillus were found to belong to the following sections: Aspergillus (n = 220), Flavi (n = 213), and Nigri (n = 54). The most commonly identified species were A. oryzae (n = 183), A. pseudoglaucus (Eurotium repens) (n = 81), A. chevalieri (E. chevalieri) (n = 62), A. montevidensis (E. amstelodami) (n = 34), A. niger (n = 21), A. tamari (n = 15), A. ruber (E. rubrum) (n = 15), A. proliferans (n = 14), and A. luchuensis (n = 14); 25 species were identified from 533 Aspergillus strains. Aspergillus strains were mainly found during the high temperature fermentation period in the later steps of Meju fermentation. PMID:26539037

  10. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenář, F; Jurjević, Ž; Zalar, P; Frisvad, J C; Visagie, C M; Kolařík, M; Houbraken, J; Chen, A J; Yilmaz, N; Seifert, K A; Coton, M; Déniel, F; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Samson, R A; Peterson, S W; Hubka, V

    2017-09-01

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in

  11. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Hubka, Vit; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    , epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important...... mycotoxins in the strict sense, such as sterigmatocystin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin were not detected despite previous reports on their production in this section. Adopting a polyphasic approach, 31 species are recognised, including nine new species. ITS is highly conserved in this section and does...

  12. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2007-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N. pseud...

  13. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, A.J.; Hubka, Vit; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    using morphological characters, extrolites, physiological characters and phylogeny was applied to investigate the taxonomy of this section. Over 500 strains from various culture collections and new isolates obtained from indoor environments and a wide range of substrates all over the world were...... media, growth parameters at three incubation temperatures were recorded and micromorphology was examined using light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy to illustrate and characterise each species. Many specific extrolites were extracted and identified from cultures, including echinulins......, epiheveadrides, auroglaucins and anthraquinone bisanthrons, and to be consistent in strains of nearly all species. Other extrolites are species-specific, and thus valuable for identification. Several extrolites show antioxidant effects, which may be nutritionally beneficial in food and beverages. Important...

  14. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Brazilian rice: From field to market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsurayama, Aline M.; Martins, Ligia Manoel; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2018-01-01

    The guarantee of the high quality of rice is of utmost importance because any toxic contaminant may affect consumer health, especially in countries such as Brazil where rice is part of the daily diet. A total of 187 rice samples, from field, processing and market from two different production...... systems, wetland from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, dryland, from the state of Maranhão and market samples from the state of São Paulo, were analyzed for fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi and the presence of aflatoxins. Twenty-three soil samples from wetland and dryland were also analyzed....... A total of 383 Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from rice and soil samples. Using a polyphasic approach, with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular data (beta-tubulin gene sequences), five species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. novoparasiticus, A...

  15. Investigation of a 6-MSA Synthase Gene Cluster in Aspergillus aculeatus Reveals 6-MSA-derived Aculinic Acid, Aculins A-B and Epi-Aculin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus aculeatus, a filamentous fungus belonging to the Aspergillus clade Nigri, is an industrial workhorse in enzyme production. Recently we reported a number of secondary metabolites from this fungus; however, its genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites is vast...

  16. Aspergillus parasiticus communities associated with sugarcane in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas: implications of global transport and host association within Aspergillus section Flavi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, N P; Cotty, P J

    2014-05-01

    In the Rio Grande Valley of Texas (RGV), values of maize and cottonseed crops are significantly reduced by aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops is the product of communities of aflatoxin producers and the average aflatoxin-producing potentials of these communities influence aflatoxin contamination risk. Cropping pattern influences community composition and, thereby, the epidemiology of aflatoxin contamination. In 2004, Aspergillus parasiticus was isolated from two fields previously cropped to sugarcane but not from 23 fields without recent history of sugarcane cultivation. In 2004 and 2005, A. parasiticus composed 18 to 36% of Aspergillus section Flavi resident in agricultural soils within sugarcane-producing counties. A. parasiticus was not detected in counties that do not produce sugarcane. Aspergillus section Flavi soil communities within sugarcane-producing counties differed significantly dependent on sugarcane cropping history. Fields cropped to sugarcane within the previous 5 years had greater quantities of A. parasiticus (mean = 16 CFU/g) than fields not cropped to sugarcane (mean = 0.1 CFU/g). The percentage of Aspergillus section Flavi composed of A. parasiticus increased to 65% under continuous sugarcane cultivation and remained high the first season of rotation out of sugarcane. Section Flavi communities in fields rotated to non-sugarcane crops for 3 to 5 years were composed of history averaged only 0.2% A. parasiticus. The section Flavi community infecting RGV sugarcane stems ranged from 95% A. parasiticus in billets prepared for commercial planting to 52% A. parasiticus in hand-collected sugarcane stems. Vegetative compatibility assays and multilocus phylogenies verified that aflatoxin contamination of raw sugar was previously attributed to similar A. parasiticus in Japan. Association of closely related A. parasiticus genotypes with sugarcane produced in Japan and RGV, frequent infection of billets by these genotypes

  17. Mycotoxin production and evolutionary relationships among species of Aspergillus section Clavati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, János; Rigó, Krisztina; Molnár, János; Tóth, Beáta; Szencz, Szilvia; Téren, József; Kozakiewicz, Zofia

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus clavatus is a commonly encountered fungus in the environment, producing a number of mycotoxins including patulin, kojic acid, cytochalasins and tremorgenic mycotoxins. A. clavatus belongs to Aspergillus section Clavati together with six other species, all of which possess clavate-shaped vesicles. Patulin production was analysed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, while a primer pair developed for the detection of an iso-epoxydon dehydrogenase gene involved in the biosynthesis of patulin in penicillia was used to detect the ability of patulin production in the isolates examined. A good correlation was observed between patulin producing properties, and the presence of an iso-epoxydon dehydrogenase gene fragment among the isolates tested. A. longivesica was found for the first time to produce patulin. Ribotoxin production was also examined using a PCR-based approach. Ribotoxins were detected for the first time in an A. pallidus and a Hemicarpenteles acanthosporus isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of intergenic transcribed spacer sequence data indicated that most isolates belong to two main clades that have also been identified earlier based on 26 S rDNA sequence data. A. pallidus isolates clustered together with A. clavatus strains. Although A. clavatus isolates produced highly homogeneous random amplified polymorphic DNA profiles, phylogenetic analysis of these data let us cluster A. clavatus isolates into distinct clades. Correlations were not observed between either patulin or ribotoxin production, and the taxonomic position of the isolates tested, indicating that patulin and ribotoxin producing abilities were lost several times during evolution of Aspergillus section Clavati. Although patulin was earlier found to inhibit mycovirus replication, one of the mycovirus carrying isolates also produced patulin, and both carried the iso-epoxydon dehydrogenase gene.

  18. Evolutionary Relationships among Aspergillus Species Producing Economically Important Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Several mycotoxins are produced by aspergilli, which contaminate our foods and feeds. Economically the most important of these mycotoxins are aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. Recent studies indicate that these compounds can be produced by a number of unrelated Aspergillus species. Evolutionary relationships among sections involving these mycotoxin producing species (Aspergillus sections Circumdati, Flavi, Nigri, Fumigati and Clavati were evaluated using phylogenetic analysis of -tubulin and ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Phylogenetically unrelated species were found to produce the same mycotoxins. For example, aflatoxins have been produced under laboratory conditions by species belonging to three different sections, while ochratoxin A (OA and patulin have been produced by a variety of unrelated species. Based on this observation, mycotoxin-producing abilities of the isolates were lost (or gained several times during the evolution of the genus. Previous studies revealed that biosynthetic genes of several mycotoxins are clustered in the genome, leading to the idea that these clusters could be horizontally transferred as a unit to unrelated species, leading to the biosynthesis of the same mycotoxins in phylogenetically unrelated fungi. Such a mechanism could also explain the widespread occurrence of ochratoxin and patulin production in aspergilli. The organisation of biosynthetic genes of patulin and ochratoxins is unknown. Research is in progress in our laboratory to clarify the genetic background of biosynthesis of these mycotoxins, and to develop biosynthetic gene based probes for the molecular detection of these mycotoxin producing organisms.

  19. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and aflatoxins in Brazilian rice: From field to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurayama, Aline M; Martins, Ligia M; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Silva, Josué J; Frisvad, Jens C; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2018-02-02

    The guarantee of the high quality of rice is of utmost importance because any toxic contaminant may affect consumer health, especially in countries such as Brazil where rice is part of the daily diet. A total of 187 rice samples, from field, processing and market from two different production systems, wetland from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, dryland, from the state of Maranhão and market samples from the state of São Paulo, were analyzed for fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi and the presence of aflatoxins. Twenty-three soil samples from wetland and dryland were also analyzed. A total of 383 Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from rice and soil samples. Using a polyphasic approach, with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular data (beta-tubulin gene sequences), five species were identified: A. flavus, A. caelatus, A. novoparasiticus, A. arachidicola and A. pseudocaelatus. This is the first report of these last three species from rice and rice plantation soil. Only seven (17%) of the A. flavus isolates produced type B aflatoxins, but 95% produced kojic acid and 69% cyclopiazonic acid. Less than 14% of the rice samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, but two of the market samples were well above the maximum tolerable limit (5μg/kg), established by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sklenář, F.; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.

    2017-01-01

    a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β......-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies......Cl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect...

  1. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    OpenAIRE

    Visagie,Cobus; Yilmaz,Neriman; Renaud,Justin; Sumarah,Mark; Hubka,Vit; Frisvad,Jens; Chen,Amanda; Meijer,Martin; Seifert,Keith

    2017-01-01

    Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called E...

  2. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro.

  3. Aspergillus sect. Aeni sect. nov., a new section of the genus for A.karnatakaensis sp. nov. and some allied fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    The new species Aspergilluskarnatakaensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. All three isolates of this species were isolated from Indian soil; two from soil under a coconut palm in a coffee plantation in Karnataka, and one from soil in the Machrar river bed in Bansa district. This species is closely related to, but clearly distinct, from A. aeneus based on β-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Sequences of the ITS region of these two species are identical. Aspergillus karnatakaensis produced terrein, gregatins, asteltoxin, karnatakafurans A and B and the unknown metabolite, provisionally named NIDU. Aspergillus karnatakaensis belongs to a well-defined clade within Aspergillus subgenus Nidulantes together with eight other species including A. aeneus, A. crustosus, A. eburneocremeus, A. heyangensis, and the teleomorph producing-species Emericella bicolor, E. discophora, E. spectabilis, and E. foeniculicola. This clade is placed in a new section, Aspergillus sect. Aenei sect. nov. All teleomorph species assigned to this section are able to produce sterigmatocystin.

  4. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified....... Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species...

  5. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A and their Aspergillus causal species in Tunisian cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ines; Cruz, Alejandra; González-Jaén, Maria Teresa; Said, Salem

    2017-03-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and ochra toxin A (OTA) was studied in 65 samples of stored and freshly harvested wheat, barley and maize collected in Tunisia. The mycotoxins were simultaneously extracted and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Determination of AF-producing (section Flavi) and OTA-producing Aspergillus species (sections Nigri and Circumdati) was conducted in these samples by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that most of maize samples were contaminated with AFs, data after storage showing lower values than those collected at harvest. All contaminated maize samples contained AFG1 and AFG2, among which 27.78% also had AFB1 and AFB2. This AFs pattern was consistent with the A. parasiticus toxin profile. A. flavus however showed the highest frequency in maize but was also found in barley and wheat where no AFs were detected. In contrast, OTA was neither found in maize nor in barley and only one wheat sample contained OTA. A. niger was the only OTA-producing species detected.

  6. ASPERGILLUS NIGER ASPERGILLUS NIGER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Additives such as low molecular weight alcohols, trace metals, phytate, lipids etc have been reported to stimulate citric acid production. Hence the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulating the metabolic activity of activity of Aspergillus niger for the purpose of improved citric acid production from ...

  7. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin R.; Hinton, Dorothy M.; Bacon, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  8. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin R; Hinton, Dorothy M; Bacon, Charles W

    2010-04-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards.

  9. Ochratoxin production and taxonomy of the yellow aspergilli (Aspergillus section Circumdati)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Varga, J.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    the section Circumdati is revised and 27 species are accepted, introducing seven new species: A. occultus, A. pallidofulvus, A. pulvericola, A. salwaensis, A. sesamicola, A. subramanianii and A. westlandensis. In addition we correctly apply the name A. fresenii (≡ A. sulphureus (nom. illeg.)). A guide...

  10. Aspergillus: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in the genus Aspergillus possess versatile metabolic activities that impact our daily life both positively and negatively. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae are closely related fungi. While the former is able to produce carcinogenic aflatoxins and is an etiological agent of aspergill...

  11. Prospecting for the incidence of genes involved in ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Brazilian strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Sartori, Daniele; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2016-03-16

    Aspergillus niger "aggregate" is an informal taxonomic rank that represents a group of species from the section Nigri. Among A. niger "aggregate" species Aspergillus niger sensu stricto and its cryptic species Aspergillus welwitschiae (=Aspergillus awamori sensu Perrone) are proven as ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 producing species. A. niger has been frequently found in tropical and subtropical foods. A. welwitschiae is a new species, which was recently dismembered from the A. niger taxon. These species are morphologically very similar and molecular data are indispensable for their identification. A total of 175 Brazilian isolates previously identified as A. niger collected from dried fruits, Brazil nuts, coffee beans, grapes, cocoa and onions were investigated in this study. Based on partial calmodulin gene sequences about one-half of our isolates were identified as A. welwitschiae. This new species was the predominant species in onions analyzed in Brazil. A. niger and A. welwitschiae differ in their ability to produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2. Among A. niger isolates, approximately 32% were OTA producers, but in contrast only 1% of the A. welwitschiae isolates revealed the ability to produce ochratoxin A. Regarding fumonisin B2 production, there was a higher frequency of FB2 producing isolates in A. niger (74%) compared to A. welwitschiae (34%). Because not all A. niger and A. welwitschiae strains produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, in this study a multiplex PCR was developed for detecting the presence of essential genes involved in ochratoxin (polyketide synthase and radHflavin-dependent halogenase) and fumonisin (α-oxoamine synthase) biosynthesis in the genome of A. niger and A. welwitschiae isolates. The frequency of strains harboring the mycotoxin genes was markedly different between A. niger and A. welwitschiae. All OTA producing isolates of A. niger and A. welwitschiae showed in their genome the pks and radH genes, and 95.2% of the nonproducing

  12. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  13. What Does Genetic Diversity of Aspergillus flavus Tell Us About Aspergillus oryzae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae belong to Aspergillus section Flavi. They are closely related and are of significant economic importance. The former species has the ability to produce harmful aflatoxins while the latter is widely used in food fermentation and industrial enzyme production. ...

  14. Organization of the ampullary organs of the African knife fish Xenomystus nigri (Teleostei: Notopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J M; Bullock, T H

    1987-06-01

    Ampullary organs are found on the head and body of the African knife fish Xenomystus nigri. Each organ consists of a duct connecting the basally located sensory cells with the surrounding water. The sensory epithelium is found in a chamber situated in the basal part of the epidermis, which most often is somewhat depressed into the dermis. Each organ contains four to eight sensory cells separated from each other by supporting cells. Both sensory and supporting cells are surrounded by mantle cells. Apically, the pear-shaped sensory cells have a tuft of 40 to 60 microvilli and between these a short cilium; basally they are innervated by one large afferent nerve ending. No efferent endings have been observed.

  15. Identification and functional analysis of two Golgi-localized UDP-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohae; Tefsen, Boris; Heemskerk, Marc J; Lagendijk, Ellen L; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; van Die, Irma; Ram, Arthur F J

    2015-11-02

    Galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. The incorporation of Galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by Golgi-localized Galf transferases. The nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (UDP-Galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the Golgi by a dedicated nucleotide sugar transporter. Based on homology with recently identified UDP-Galf-transporters in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans, two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger were found. Their function and localization was determined by gene deletions and GFP-tagging studies, respectively. The two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in A. niger are homologous to each other and are predicted to contain eleven transmembrane domains (UgtA) or ten transmembrane domains (UgtB) due to a reduced length of the C-terminal part of the UgtB protein. The presence of two putative UDP-Galf-transporters in the genome was not unique for A. niger. From the twenty Aspergillus species analysed, nine species contained two additional putative UDP-Galf-transporters. Three of the nine species were outside the Aspergillus section nigri, indication an early duplication of UDP-Galf-transporters and subsequent loss of the UgtB copy in several aspergilli. Deletion analysis of the single and double mutants in A. niger indicated that the two putative UDP-Galf-transporters (named UgtA and UgtB) have a redundant function in UDP-Galf-transport as only the double mutant displayed a Galf-negative phenotype. The Galf-negative phenotype of the double mutant could be complemented by expressing either CFP-UgtA or CFP-UgtB fusion proteins from their endogenous promoters, indicating that both CFP-tagged proteins are functional. Both Ugt proteins co-localize with each other as well as with the GDP

  16. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces...... and parasiticolide, and some strains produce aspergillic acid. The type strain of A. arachidicola is CBS 117610(T) =IBT 25020(T) and that of A. minisclerotigenes is CBS 117635(T) =IBT 27196(T). The Mycobank accession numbers for Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. and Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov...

  17. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially...

  18. Catalogação das espécies potencialmente toxigênicas das Aspergillus : ocorrência, taxonomia polifásica, distribuição e preservação

    OpenAIRE

    Aline de Souza Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O gênero Aspergillus é um grupo de fungos que possui diversas espécies produtoras de micotoxinas, distribuídas principalmente em três seções denominadas de Nigri, Flavi e Circumdati. Estudos para isolamento destas espécies estão sendo executados para se conhecer a micobiota e atuar na prevenção e redução da contaminação dos alimentos, principalmente por micotoxinas, como também são úteis nas descobertas de novas espécies. A identificação de fungos, como o gênero Aspergillus sp foi, po...

  19. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Wijesuriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients' toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63% had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogunkanmi, L.A.. Vol 18, No 4 (2017) - Articles Genetic diversity of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri, using RAPD and VCG techniques. Abstract PDF · Vol 18, No 4 (2017) - Articles Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling attribute of Sirna on the OTA producing strains of Aspergillus section ...

  1. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin-producing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    . DNA sequences were obtained from up to four loci to conduct phylogenetic analysis of sect. Nidulantes and other species in subgenus Nidulantes. Comparisons of phenetic characters were made. Our goal was to recognize monophyletic taxa for section Nidulantes as well as the other taxa in the subgenus....... Phylogenetic analysis indicated that sections Versicolores and Aenei formed subclades in the larger clade containing the type species of section Nidulantes. In order to maintain monophyly in section Nidulantes, we synonymized sects. Versicolores and Aenei with sect. Nidulantes. In place of sections, we have...... identified six subclades in sect. Nidulantes that also have shared phenetic character sets that allow for easier morphological identification of species. Earlier reports showed that standard β-tubulin primers can occasionally amplify the tubC gene rather than the benA gene they were designed for. We show...

  2. Diversity of carbohydrate metabolism in species of A spergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Hainaut, Matthieu; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and its close relatives in Aspergillus section Nigri are of broad interest to the scientific community including applied, medical and basic research. The fungi are prolific producers of native and heterologous proteins, organic acids (in particular citrate...

  3. The potential of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi isolated included Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. tamarii, Mucor rouxii, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus sp. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were selected for heavy metals bioaccumulation studies on PDB-amended with lagoon water in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 respectively for 3 weeks.

  4. LAMP-based group specific detection of aflatoxin producers within Aspergillus section Flavi in food raw materials, spices, and dried fruit using neutral red for visible-light signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Ludwig; Bechtner, Julia; Fodil, Sihem; Taniwaki, Marta H; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    Aflatoxins can be produced by 21 species within sections Flavi (16 species), Ochraceorosei (2), and Nidulantes (3) of the fungal genus Aspergillus. They pose risks to human and animal health due to high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Detecting aflatoxin producers can help to assess toxicological risks associated with contaminated commodities. Species specific molecular assays (PCR and LAMP) are available for detection of major producers, but fail to detect species of minor importance. To enable rapid and sensitive detection of several aflatoxin producing species in a single analysis, a nor1 gene-specific LAMP assay was developed. Specificity testing showed that among 128 fungal species from 28 genera, 15 aflatoxigenic species in section Flavi were detected, including synonyms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. No cross reactions were found with other tested species. The detection limit of the assay was 9.03pg of A. parasiticus genomic DNA per reaction. Visual detection of positive LAMP reactions under daylight conditions was facilitated using neutral red to allow unambiguous distinction between positive and negative assay results. Application of the assay to the detection of A. parasiticus conidia revealed a detection limit of 211 conidia per reaction after minimal sample preparation. The usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in the analysis of aflatoxinogenic species in samples of rice, nuts, raisins, dried figs, as well as powdered spices. Comparison of LAMP results with presence/absence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin producing fungi in 50 rice samples showed good correlation between these parameters. Our study suggests that the developed LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and user-friendly tool for surveillance and quality control in our food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka

    2011-01-01

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules...

  6. Characterization of Aspergillus species based on fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo E; Santana, Djalva Maria N; Gatti, Mario Jorge; Direito, Gloria Maria; Cavaglieri, Lilia R; Rosa, Carlos Alberto R

    2008-09-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) composition was utilized as a taxonomic tool to discriminate between different Aspergillus species. Several of the tested species had the same FA composition and different relative FA concentrations. The most important FAs were palmitic acid (C16:0), estearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which represented 95% of Aspergillus FAs. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that FA analysis is a useful tool for differentiating species belonging to genus Aspergillus. All the species analyzed showed significantly FA acid profiles (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it will be possible to distinguish among Aspergillus spp. in the Flavi Section. FA composition can serve as a useful tool for the identification of filamentous fungi.

  7. Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies on pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango, orange and pineapple peels as carbon sources.

  8. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...... data identified 23 genes to be a conserved response across Aspergillus sp., including the xylose transcriptional activator XlnR. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes in all three species indicates the conserved XInR-binding site to be 5'-GGNTAAA-3'. The composition of the conserved gene......-set suggests that xylose acts as a molecule, indicating the presence of complex carbohydrates such as hemicellulose, and triggers an array of degrading enzymes. With this case example, we present a validated tool for transcriptome analysis of three Aspergillus species and a methodology for conducting cross...

  9. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil nuts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta H Taniwaki

    Full Text Available During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228.

  10. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic acid and ustilaginoidin C. Phylogenetic analysis using partial β-tubulin and camodulin gene sequences showed that A. bertholletius represents a new phylogenetic clade in Aspergillus section Flavi. The type strain of A. bertholletius is CCT 7615 ( = ITAL 270/06 = IBT 29228). PMID:22952594

  11. Aspergillus hancockii sp. Nov., a biosynthetically talented fungus endemic to southeastern Australian soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitt, John I.; Lange, Lene; Lacey, Alastair E.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus hancockii sp. nov., classified in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi, was originally isolated from soil in peanut fields near Kumbia, in the South Burnett region of southeast Queensland, Australia, and has since been found occasionally from other substrates and locations...

  12. Population genetics as a tool for understanding toxigenesis in Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which is aflatoxin. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populations...

  13. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  14. Aspergillus bronchitis without significant immunocompromise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chrdle, Ales; Mustakim, Sahlawati; Bright‐Thomas, Rowland J; Baxter, Caroline G; Felton, Timothy; Denning, David W

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus bronchitis is poorly understood and described. We extracted clinical data from more than 400 referred patients with persistent chest symptoms who did not fulfill criteria for allergic, chronic, or invasive aspergillosis...

  15. Tremorgenic Mycotoxins from Aspergillus Caespitosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H. W.; Cole, R. J.; Hein, H.; Kirksey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Two tremorgenic mycotoxins were isolated from Aspergillus caespitosus, and identified as verruculogen and fumitremorgin B. They were produced at the rate of 172 and 325 mg per kg, respectively, on autoclaved cracked field corn. PMID:1155935

  16. Hospital environment fungal contamination and aspergillosis risk in acute leukaemia patients in Sousse (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Soukeina; Ranque, Stéphane; Bannour, Wadiaa; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Khelif, Abderrahim; Ben Said, Moncef; Njah, Mansour; Saghrouni, Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Hospital environment is considered the main source of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in leukemic patients. This study aimed to describe Aspergillus colonisation in leukemic patients and their hospital environment and to test whether Aspergillus environmental contamination was associated with IA. For a 2-year period including 14-month renovation work, 91 acute leukaemia inpatients at the hematology department of University hospital in Sousse (Tunisia) were prospectively included. The incidence of probable IA (EORTC/MSG criteria) was 9.9%. Fifty-six Aspergillus were isolated from 53 (6.5%) of 811 sputa collected from 35 (38.5%) patients. Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 59.7% of 494 air samples and in 52.8% of 1579 surface samples taken in the patients' room. Aspergillus section Nigri (72.7%) was the most frequent. Aspergillus contamination peaked in autumn and winter on surface and in summer and autumn in air samples and was higher (P = 0.03) during the renovation work period. Multivariate analysis showed that for each Aspergillus section Nigri CFU airborne contamination IA risk increased by 1.05 (P = 0.04). In Tunisia, Aspergillus section Nigri and Flavi, but not Fumigati, are chiefly involved in IA. Our findings support swift implementation of airborne fungal contamination control measures in areas where immunocompromised patient are hospitalised. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Emerging pathogen Aspergillus calidoustus colonizes water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Kristensen, Ralf; Fristad, Rosa F; Skaar, Ida

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have changed the taxonomy of Aspergillus section Usti, and a novel species, Aspergillus calidoustus, has been erected. It was also demonstrated that clinical isolates previously identified as A. ustus actually belong to the emerging pathogen A. calidoustus. Aspergillus ustus were frequently isolated from Norwegian water systems, and due to the taxonomical progress, these waterborne strains could be identified more precisely. A MLST study including ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin sequences was conducted on 32 strains previously identified as A. ustus. All strains were identified as A. calidoustus, which was verified by physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of that A. calidoustus is able to colonize water distribution systems. In respect to the potential role of water systems as a source of nosocomial infections in patients with immunodeficiency, attention should be given to water systems in hospitals and other healthcare units, especially the heated-water installations. © 2011 ISHAM

  18. Diagnostic tools to identify black Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Robert A.; Noonim, P.; Meijer, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present taxonomy of the black aspergilli reveals that there are 19 accepted taxa. However the identification of species of Aspergillus section Nigri is often problematic in spite of the existence of numerous methods proposed. An overview is provided of phenotypic and molecular methods to iden...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 461 ... Vol 18, No 4 (2017), Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling attribute of Sirna on the OTA producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri, Abstract PDF. B.T. Thomas, L.A. Ogunkanmi, B.A. Iwalokun, G.C Agu. Vol 14, No 2 (2013), Transfusion transmissible viral infections ...

  20. Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the influence of some transcriptional factors on ochratoxin A production as well as investigates the quelling attributes of some designed siRNA on the OTA producing Aspergillus section Nigri using standard recommended techniques. Results obtained following comparison of the pks gene promoter ...

  1. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transcriptional factor influence on OTA production and the quelling attribute of Sirna on the OTA producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B.T. Thomas, L.A. Ogunkanmi, B.A. Iwalokun, G.C Agu, 210-217.

  2. Tracheobronchial Manifestations of Aspergillus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Krenke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lungs are constantly exposed to a large number of Aspergillus spores which are present in ambient air. These spores are usually harmless to immunocompetent subjects but can produce a symptomatic disease in patients with impaired antifungal defense. In a small percentage of patients, the trachea and bronchi may be the main or even the sole site of Aspergillus infection. The clinical entities that may develop in tracheobronchial location include saprophytic, allergic and invasive diseases. Although this review is focused on invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections, some aspects of allergic and saprophytic tracheobronchial diseases are also discussed in order to present the whole spectrum of tracheobronchial aspergillosis. To be consistent with clinical practice, an approach basing on specific conditions predisposing to invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchial infections is used to present the differences in the clinical course and prognosis of these infections. Thus, invasive or potentially invasive Aspergillus airway diseases are discussed separately in three groups of patients: (1 lung transplant recipients, (2 highly immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies and/or patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and (3 the remaining, less severely immunocompromised patients or even immunocompetent subjects.

  3. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and one unidentified genus Mycelium sterillium without creation fruiting bodies. The most frequent were genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The most frequent Aspergillus species was Aspergillus section Nigri (100 % and Penicillium species was Penicillium chrysogenum (50 %. The largest number of isolates belonged to Alternaria (275 isolates, Cladosporium (114 isolates and Penicillium (92 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 42 %, 19.6 % and 15.8 %, respectively. The selected isolates – Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, G1 and cyclopiazonic acid producing ability. Out of 11 strains 54 % produced at least one mycotoxin. In our research ochratoxigenic microfungi (some species of Aspergillus section Nigri were found in grape samples but without production of OTA.

  4. The effect of supplementary Aspergillus niger phytase in diets for pigs on concentration and apparent digestibility of dry matter, total phosphorus, and phytic acid in different sections of the alimentary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongbloed, A W; Mroz, Z; Kemme, P A

    1992-04-01

    Six barrows of approximately 37 kg BW, fitted with two simple T-cannulas in the duodenum (25 cm posterior to the pylorus) and terminal ileum (12 to 15 cm anterior to the ileocecal junction), were fed two diets containing 2.1 g of P/kg in the form of phytic acid and a low intrinsic phytase activity (corn-soybean meal based diet [Diet A] or a typical Dutch diet [Diet B]) without or with supplementary microbial phytase from Aspergillus niger (var. ficuum) equal to 1,500 phytase units per kilogram of diet, in a crossover design. The apparent duodenal, ileal, and total tract (overall) digestibilities of DM, total P, and phytate P (phytic acid x .282) were calculated using both Cr-NDR (neutral detergent residue mordanted with Cr) and Co-EDTA as dual-phase markers. Concentration of total P in the ileal digesta (P less than .01) and feces (P less than .001) of pigs fed microbial phytase was lower than without this enzyme, irrespective of the diet. Ileal digestibility of total P was 18.5 and 29.8 percentage units higher (which was a 1.7- to 2.9-fold increase) due to added Aspergillus niger phytase (P less than .05). Also, total tract (overall) digestibility increased by 27.0 to 29.7 percentage units (P less than .01). Phytic acid concentration in the duodenal and ileal digesta of pigs receiving microbial phytase was lower (P less than .01 or .001), resulting in its higher ileal digestibility (dephosphorylation rate) by 50.1 percentage units for Diet A and by 75.4 percentage units for Diet B. Irrespective of the treatment, no phytase activity could be detected in the ileal digesta of pigs.

  5. Cyclopiazonic Acid Biosynthesis of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is an indole-tetramic acid neurotoxin produced by some of the same strains of A. flavus that produce aflatoxins and by some Aspergillus oryzae strains. Despite its discovery 40 years ago, few reviews of its toxicity and biosynthesis have been reported. This review examines w...

  6. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    The selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes-a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants-can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. As a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called

  7. The Aspergillus Mine - publishing bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian

    with the Joint Genome Institute. The Aspergillus Mine is not intended as a genomic data sharing service but instead focuses on creating an environment where the results of bioinformatic analysis is made available for inspection. The data and code is public upon request and figures can be obtained directly from...

  8. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  9. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  10. Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Subsequently, the α-amylase activity of the microorganism was researched. In the measurements made on the 7th day of production on respectively Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus cultures produced at mycological, ...

  11. Atypical Aspergillus parasiticus isolates from pistachio with aflR gene nucleotide insertion identical to Aspergillus sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are the most toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The toxins cause devastating economic losses because of strict regulations on distribution of contaminated products. Aspergillus sojae are...

  12. Shedding light on Aspergillus niger volatile exometabolome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa, Carina Pedrosa; Gonçalves Silva, Diogo; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the headspace content of Aspergillus niger cultures was performed upon different growth conditions, using a methodology based on advanced multidimensional gas chromatography...

  13. Ecophysiological characterization of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger isolated from grapes in Spanish vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cela, E; Crespo-Sempere, A; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V; Marin, S

    2014-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from berries from different agroclimatic regions of Spain. Growth characterization (in terms of temperature and water activity requirements) of Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger was carried out on synthetic grape medium. A. tubingensis and A. niger showed higher maximum temperatures for growth (>45 °C versus 40-42 °C), and lower minimum aw requirements (0.83 aw versus 0.87 aw) than A. carbonarius. No differences in growth boundaries due to their geographical origin were found within A. niger aggregate isolates. Conversely, A. carbonarius isolates from the hotter and drier region grew and produced OTA at lower aw than other isolates. However, little genetic diversity in A. carbonarius was observed for the microsatellites tested and the same sequence of β-tubulin gene was observed; therefore intraspecific variability did not correlate with the geographical origin of the isolates or with their ability to produce OTA. Climatic change prediction points to drier and hotter climatic scenarios where A. tubingensis and A. niger could be even more prevalent over A. carbonarius, since they are better adapted to extreme high temperature and drier conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Infectious keratitis caused by Aspergillus tubingensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kredics, L.; Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Rajaraman, R.; Raghavan, A.; Doczi, I.; Bhaskar, M.; Nemeth, T.M.; Antal, Z.; Venkatapathy, N.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Samson, R.A.; Chockaiya, M.; Palanisamy, M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report 2 cases of keratomycosis caused by Aspergillus tubingensis. METHODS: The therapeutic courses were recorded for 2 male patients, 52 and 78 years old, with fungal keratitis caused by black Aspergillus strains. Morphological examination of the isolates was carried out on malt extract

  15. Sporulation inhibited secretion in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsheld, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is abundantly found in nature. It degrades dead material of plants and animals but can also be a pathogen of these organisms. Aspergillus niger is also important for mankind because it is one of the main organisms used for the industrial production of enzymes. These enzymes are

  16. Aspergillus species intrinsically resistant to antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W. van der; Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Polyphasic taxonomy has had a major impact on the species concept of the genus Aspergillus. New sibling species have been described that exhibit in vitro susceptibility profiles that differ significantly from that of Aspergillus fumigatus. While acquired resistance is an emerging problem in A.

  17. GLUCOSIDASE GENE FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER F321

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richard Auta

    One of the cellulases produced in this fashion by species of Aspergillus is β- glucosidase. .... the crude enzyme (sample) or nutrient broth (Control) was placed and incubated for 2 .... 7: Multiple sequence alignment of β-glucosidases amino acids from Aspergillus niger AnBg11, ANRA12.6 and ANRA12.9. [Symbols: Catalytic ...

  18. Conserved secondary structures in Aspergillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Manson McGuire

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the number and variety of functional RNAs (ncRNAs as well as cis-acting RNA elements within mRNAs is much higher than previously thought; thus, the ability to computationally predict and analyze RNAs has taken on new importance. We have computationally studied the secondary structures in an alignment of six Aspergillus genomes. Little is known about the RNAs present in this set of fungi, and this diverse set of genomes has an optimal level of sequence conservation for observing the correlated evolution of base-pairs seen in RNAs.We report the results of a whole-genome search for evolutionarily conserved secondary structures, as well as the results of clustering these predicted secondary structures by structural similarity. We find a total of 7450 predicted secondary structures, including a new predicted approximately 60 bp long hairpin motif found primarily inside introns. We find no evidence for microRNAs. Different types of genomic regions are over-represented in different classes of predicted secondary structures. Exons contain the longest motifs (primarily long, branched hairpins, 5' UTRs primarily contain groupings of short hairpins located near the start codon, and 3' UTRs contain very little secondary structure compared to other regions. There is a large concentration of short hairpins just inside the boundaries of exons. The density of predicted intronic RNAs increases with the length of introns, and the density of predicted secondary structures within mRNA coding regions increases with the number of introns in a gene.There are many conserved, high-confidence RNAs of unknown function in these Aspergillus genomes, as well as interesting spatial distributions of predicted secondary structures. This study increases our knowledge of secondary structure in these aspergillus organisms.

  19. Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Kolarík, Miroslav; Kubátová, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro- and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supplemented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguishable in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species.

  20. A retrospective study of the prevalence of calcium oxalate crystals in veterinary Aspergillus cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Courtney L; Dark, Michael J; Conway, Julia A; Farina, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the genus Aspergillus are some of the most common fungal pathogens in veterinary species, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. In both human and veterinary cases, calcium oxalate crystals have been documented in sites of Aspergillus infection. Cases in multiple species (16 birds, 15 horses, 5 dogs, 1 ox, and 1 dolphin) were identified that had either positive cultures for Aspergillus sp., or had conidiophores present that could be identified as belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Histologic slides were examined to confirm the presence of oxalate crystals and how often they were identified on the original report. Calcium oxalate deposition was detected in 14 of 38 cases examined, including A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. niger, and unspecified Aspergillus sp. infections. Calcium oxalate crystals were identified in 11 of 16 avian cases, as well as in 1 of 1 bovine, 1 of 15 equine, and 1 of 5 canine cases. Crystals were described in only 3 of the 14 original pathology reports of these cases, indicating that identification and reporting of crystals in histologic specimens could be improved. All the tissues with crystals were respiratory tissues with air interfaces, including nasal sinus, trachea, syrinx, lung, and air sac. In cases with crystals identified on H&E-stained sections, crystals were frequently not present or were fewer in number in tissue sections stained with Gomori methenamine silver and periodic acid-Schiff. Routine polarization of slides of fungal infections, especially in the respiratory tract, should be considered to check for calcium oxalate crystals.

  1. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  2. Antagonism of Aspergillus terreus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Itamar S.; Faull, Jane L.; Nascimento, Rosely S.

    2006-01-01

    An Aspergillus terreus strain showed in vitro antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. The interaction between A. terreus and sclerotia revealed that the mycoparasite sporulated abundantly on the sclerotial surface. Cell breakdown due to host cell wall disruption was observed in inner rind cells, by a scanning electron microscopy.Uma linhagem de Aspergillus terreus mostrou forte atividade parasítica contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Interações e...

  3. Taxonomy, chemodiversity, and chemoconsistency of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    a consistent and characteristic profile of exometabolites, but growth medium variations, stimulation by exometabolites from other species, and variations in abiotic intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors such as pH, temperature, redox potential, and water activity will add significantly to the number......, resistance for own products, and exporters. Species within a series or section in Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Talaromyces have many exometabolites in common, seemingly acquired by cladogenesis, but some the gene clusters for autapomorphic exometabolites may have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer...

  4. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, Pedro M; Andersen, Mikael R; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F; Ohm, Robin A; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs

  5. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Cameiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Sartori, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigate...

  6. A molecular analysis of L-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipphi, M.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes a molecular study of the genetics ofL-arabinan degradation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans. These saprophytic hyphal fungi produce an extracellular hydrolytic enzyme system to

  7. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives...

  8. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straat, van der L.; Vernooij, M.; Lammers, M.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Schonewille, T.; Cordewener, J.; Meer, van der I.; Koops, A.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger,

  9. Aspergillus tubingensis and Aspergillus niger as the dominant black Aspergillus, use of simple PCR-RFLP for preliminary differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, H; Zarei, F; Motamedi, M; Nouripour-Sisakht, S

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to identify the species distribution of common clinical and environmental isolates of black Aspergilli based on simple restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the β-tubulin gene. A total of 149 clinical and environmental strains of black Aspergilli were collected and subjected to preliminary morphological examination. Total genomic DNAs were extracted, and PCR was performed to amplify part of the β-tubulin gene. At first, 52 randomly selected samples were species-delineated by sequence analysis. In order to distinguish the most common species, PCR amplicons of 117 black Aspergillus strains were identified by simple PCR-RFLP analysis using the enzyme TasI. Among 52 sequenced isolates, 28 were Aspergillus tubingensis, 21 Aspergillus niger, and the three remaining isolates included Aspergillus uvarum, Aspergillus awamori, and Aspergillus acidus. All 100 environmental and 17 BAL samples subjected to TasI-RFLP analysis of the β-tubulin gene, fell into two groups, consisting of about 59% (n=69) A. tubingensis and 41% (n=48) A. niger. Therefore, the method successfully and rapidly distinguished A. tubingensis and A. niger as the most common species among the clinical and environmental isolates. Although tardy, the Ehrlich test was also able to differentiate A. tubingensis and A. niger according to the yellow color reaction specific to A. niger. A. tubingensis and A. niger are the most common black Aspergillus in both clinical and environmental isolates in Iran. PCR-RFLP using TasI digestion of β-tubulin DNA enables rapid screening for these common species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium), and its occurrence in indoor environments and food

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, A.J.; Hubka, Vít; Frisvad, J.C.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Meijer, M.; Varga, J.; Demirel, R.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kubátová, A.; Sklenář, František; Zhou, Y.G.; Samson, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, SEP (2017), s. 37-135 ISSN 0166-0616 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ascomycota * Eurotiales * Aspergillaceae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 14.000, year: 2016

  11. Aspergillus-associated hypersensitivity respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    The mould Aspergillus is responsible for a gamut of respiratory diseases ranging from saprobic colonisation to rapidly invasive disseminated disease. The clinical spectrum of Aspergillus-associated hypersensitivity respiratory disorders includes Aspergillus induced asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), allergic Aspergillus sinusitis (AAS) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Inhalant allergens, in patients with allergic asthma, play a key role in bringing about the inflammation present in the airways, and fungi are increasingly being recognised as important inhalant allergens. Aspergillus is linked to asthma in more ways than one. In the asthmatic subjects, the fungal spores are trapped in the thick and viscid secretions that are usually present in the airways. This generally develops in atopic subjects and is sustained by continuous inhalation of Aspergillus antigens, triggering asthma that may be more severe in form. Aspergillus induced asthma is yet to receive the recognition that it deserves. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is the best known form of allergic aspergillosis and is an emerging disease in India. An immunologically mediated lung disease, ABPA occurs predominantly in patients with asthma. A set of diagnostic criteria is required as there is no single test that establishes the diagnosis apart from demonstration of central bronchiectasis with normal tapering bronchi, a feature considered to be pathognomonic of ABPA. Radiologically, ABPA is characterised by 'transient pulmonary infiltrates' or 'fleeting shadows', often confused with pulmonary tuberculosis. A comparatively more recently recognised clinical entity, AAS is characterised by mucoid impaction in the paranasal sinuses which is akin to that in ABPA. Although it appears that the patient with ABPA provides a favourable milieu for the occurrence of AAS, it is perhaps surprising that in spite of similar histopathological features the co-existence of both these diseases has

  12. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important black Aspergillus in East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available Aspergilli known as black- and white-koji molds which are used for awamori, shochu, makgeolli and other food and beverage fermentations, are reported in the literature as A. luchuensis, A. awamori, A. kawachii, or A. acidus. In order to elucidate the taxonomic position of these species, available ex-type cultures were compared based on morphology and molecular characters. A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus showed the same banding patterns in RAPD, and the three species had the same rDNA-ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences and these differed from those of the closely related A. niger and A. tubingensis. Morphologically, the three species are not significantly different from each other or from A. niger and A. tubingensis. It is concluded that A. luchuensis, A. kawachii and A. acidus are the same species, and A. luchuensis is selected as the correct name based on priority. Strains of A. awamori which are stored in National Research Institute of Brewing in Japan, represent A. niger (n = 14 and A. luchuensis (n = 6. The neotype of A. awamori (CBS 557.65 =  NRRL 4948 does not originate from awamori fermentation and it is shown to be identical with the unknown taxon Aspergillus welwitschiae. Extrolite analysis of strains of A. luchuensis showed that they do not produce mycotoxins and therefore can be considered safe for food and beverage fermentations. A. luchuensis is also frequently isolated from meju and nuruk in Korea and Puerh tea in China and the species is probably common in the fermentation environment of East Asia. A re-description of A. luchuensis is provided because the incomplete data in the original literature.

  13. [Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis in a patient with a biventricular pacemaker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, José M; Fariñas, María C; Rodilla, Irene G; Salesa, Ricardo; de Berrazueta, José R

    2005-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis is one of the rarest and severest complications in cardiological patients. We describe a patient with an intracardial pacemaker who was diagnosed as having Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. Postmortem examination showed a large, Aspergillus-infected thrombus encased in the right ventricle, pulmonary trunk and main pulmonary branches.

  14. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  15. [Survival Strategies of Aspergillus in the Human Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Izumikawa, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     The human body is a hostile environment for Aspergillus species, which originally live outside the human body. There are lots of elimination mechanisms against Aspergillus inhaled into the human body, such as high body temperature, soluble lung components, mucociliary clearance mechanism, or responses of phagocytes. Aspergillus fumigatus, which is the primary causative agent of human infections among the human pathogenic species of Aspergillus, defend itself from the hostile human body environment by various mechanisms, such as thermotolerance, mycotoxin production, and characteristic morphological features. Here we review mechanisms of defense in Aspergillus against elimination from the human body.

  16. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Pedro M.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kolenova, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs...... on polysaccharides. Growth differences were observed between the Aspergilli and Podospora anserina, which has a more different genomic potential for polysaccharide degradation, suggesting that large genomic differences are required to cause growth differences oil polysaccharides, Differences were also detected...

  17. Morphological and genetic analyses of the first record of the Niger Hind, Cephalopholis nigri (Perciformes: Serranidae, in the Mediterranean Sea and of the African Hind, Cephalopholis taeniops, in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Vella

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-native marine species, including tropical eastern Atlantic fish species are on the increase in Malta, with shipping activities being the main vector for the movement of these alien species from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean Sea. This calls for cooperation and collaboration between various sea-users and researchers to ensure continuous monitoring of coastal biodiversity. Methods Research methods involving local fishermen cooperation in monitoring efforts to identify and track populations of alien species in the Central Mediterranean has led to new records for the genus Cephalopholis (Perciformes: Serranidae in Malta. Morphological characteristics, meristic counts and mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens of both species sampled from Maltese waters were analysed to confirm their species identify accurately, essential for tracking their respective population expansions in the Mediterranean. Results and conclusion Results from this study have led to confirmation of the first record of the Niger Hind, Cephalopholis nigri (Günther, 1859, in the Mediterranean Sea and of the establishment of the African Hind, Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes, 1828 in Maltese waters.

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  19. Genome sequence of Aspergillus luchuensis NBRC 4314

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Machida, Masayuki; Hosoyama, Akira; Goto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Toru; Futagami, Taiki; Yamagata, Youhei; Takeuchi, Michio; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Koike, Hideaki; Abe, Keietsu; Asai, Kiyoshi; Arita, Masanori; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Fukuda, Kazuro; Higa, Ken-ichi; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takeaki; Jinno, Koji; Kato, Yumiko; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Mizutani, Osamu; Nakasone, Kaoru; Sano, Motoaki; Shiraishi, Yohei; Tsukahara, Masatoshi; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Awamori is a traditional distilled beverage made from steamed Thai-Indica rice in Okinawa, Japan. For brewing the liquor, two microbes, local kuro (black) koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved. In contrast, that yeasts are used for ethanol fermentation throughout the world, a characteristic of Japanese fermentation industries is the use of Aspergillus molds as a source of enzymes for the maceration and saccharification of raw materials. Here we report the draft genome of a kuro (black) koji mold, A. luchuensis NBRC 4314 (RIB 2604). The total length of nonredundant sequences was nearly 34.7 Mb, comprising approximately 2,300 contigs with 16 telomere-like sequences. In total, 11,691 genes were predicted to encode proteins. Most of the housekeeping genes, such as transcription factors and N-and O-glycosylation system, were conserved with respect to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae. An alternative oxidase and acid-stable α-amylase regarding citric acid production and fermentation at a low pH as well as a unique glutamic peptidase were also found in the genome. Furthermore, key biosynthetic gene clusters of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B were absent when compared with A. niger genome, showing the safety of A. luchuensis for food and beverage production. This genome information will facilitate not only comparative genomics with industrial kuro-koji molds, but also molecular breeding of the molds in improvements of awamori fermentation. PMID:27651094

  20. Enhanced lipase production by mutation induced Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the HNO2 mutant (AHN3) and 217% higher than the UV mutant (AUV3) and 276% higher lipase activity than the parent strain. The results indicated that UV, HNO2 and NTG treatment were effective physical and chemical mutagenic agents for strain improvement of Aspergillus japonicus for enhanced lipase productivity.

  1. Mycotic keratitis due to Aspergillus nomius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manikandan, P.; Varga, J.; Kocsube, S.; Samson, R.A.; Anita, R.; Revathi, R.; Doczi, I.; Nemeth, T.M.; Narendran, V.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Manoharan, C.; Kredics, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus nomius. Ocular injury was known as a predisposing factor. The patient was treated with natamycin and econazole eye drops, itraconazole eye ointment, and oral ketoconazole. A therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed 16

  2. Characterization of Aspergillus species associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results also reveal that only A. flavus showed amplification with all the three aflatoxigenic primers apa-2, ver-1 and omt-1, which means that only A. flavus was identified as aflatoxigenic and other Aspergillus species as non-toxigenic after PCR analysis. Hence, morphological, microscopic and molecular methods are ...

  3. Aspergillus PCR: one step closer to standardization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Bretagne, S.; Klingspor, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; McCulloch, E.; Schulz, B.; Finnstrom, N.; Mengoli, C.; Barnes, R.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Loeffler, J.

    2010-01-01

    PCR has been used as an aid in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis for almost 2 decades. A lack of standardization has limited both its acceptance as a diagnostic tool and multicenter clinical evaluations, preventing its inclusion in disease-defining criteria. In 2006, the European Aspergillus

  4. Global Population Genetic Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashu, E.E.; Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Xu, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous opportunistic fungal pathogen capable of causing invasive aspergillosis, a globally distributed disease with a mortality rate of up to 90% in high-risk populations. Effective control and prevention of this disease require a thorough understanding of its

  5. Morphogenesis and protein production in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Min Jin

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aims to get more fundamental insights in the molecular mechanisms used by Aspergillus niger in relation to control morphology and protein secretion. Knowledge on these two aspects is highly relevant to further optimization of A.niger as a cell factory

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    agents. Keywords. Aspergillus flavus; silver nanoparticles; antimicrobial; antioxidant; cytotoxicity. 1. Introduction. Nanoparticles with controlled size and composition are of fundamental and technological interest as they provide solu- tions to technological and environmental challenges in the areas of solar energy conversion ...

  7. Overexpression, purification and characterization of the Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are industrially important hydrolytic enzymes applicable in the bioconversion of cellulosic biomass to simple sugars. In this work, an endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 10574, EglA, was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and the properties of the recombinant protein were ...

  8. Aspergillus DNA contamination in blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Stalhberger, Thomas; Whelan, Ruth; Sugrue, Michele; Wingard, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Follett, Sarah A; Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2010-08-01

    Fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic methods are at risk for contamination. Sample collection containers were investigated for fungal DNA contamination using real-time PCR assays. Up to 18% of blood collection tubes were contaminated with fungal DNA, probably Aspergillus fumigatus. Lower proportions of contamination in other vessels were observed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Rare Cause of Headache: Aspergillus Sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Şehnaz Arıcı; Özge Özen Gökmuharremoğlu; Behiye Özer

    2015-01-01

    Fungal sinusitis are mostly seen in immunosuppressive individuals and somtimes which can be mortal. Most frequently species of Aspergillus were isolated from, clinical forms of mycotic sinonasal disease.Surgical debridement,sinus ventilation and medical therapy in treatment of fungal sinusitis, are recommended. In this article, a case of healthy immune patient with fungal sinusitis who peresent with headache was repoted.

  10. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence ...

  11. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 25; Issue 1. Avirulent mutants of Macrophomina phaseolina and Aspergillus fumigatus initiate infection in Phaseolus mungo in the presence of phaseo-linone; levamisole gives protection. Suchandra Sett Santosh K Mishra Kazia I Siddiqui. Articles Volume 25 Issue 1 March ...

  12. Biotransformation of Stypotriol triacetate by Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Labbe, Pamela; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Astudillo, Luis; Silva, Mario; Rovirosa, Juana; San-Martin, Aurelio

    2011-07-01

    Biological transformation of the meroditerpenoid, stypotriol triacetate ( 1) by the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella elegans, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mucor plumbeus was studied. The incubation of 1 with A. niger yielded the new compound 6',14-diacetoxy-stypol-4,5-dione ( 2) whose structure was established by 1H, 13C and 2D NMR and supported by DFT/GIAO.

  13. Mycotic Keratitis Due to Aspergillus nomius▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Palanisamy; Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Samson, Robert A.; Anita, Raghavan; Revathi, Rajaraman; Dóczi, Ilona; Németh, Tibor Mihály; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Manoharan, Chockaiya; Kredics, László

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus nomius. Ocular injury was known as a predisposing factor. The patient was treated with natamycin and econazole eye drops, itraconazole eye ointment, and oral ketoconazole. A therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed 16 days after presentation. A sequence-based approach was used to assign the isolate to a species. PMID:19710265

  14. Comparative Studies on Pectinases obtained from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Abstract. Pectinase was produced from Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, and A. niger) in a submerged fermentation system after 4 and 5 days of fermentation, respectively using pectin extracted from different agro-wastes (mango, orange and pineapple peels) as the carbon sources. The pectin was extracted from mango, ...

  15. Characterisation of Aspergillus niger prolyl aminopeptidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, E.J.W.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.; Schaap, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have cloned a gene (papA) that encodes a prolyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus niger. Homologous genes are present in the genomes of the Eurotiales A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and Talaromyces emersonii, but the gene is not present in the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts

  16. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , and scientific model organisms. The phenotypic diversity in this genus is extraordinary and identifying the genetic basis for this diversity has great potential for academia and industry. When the genomic era began for Aspergillus in 2005 with the genome sequences of A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus...

  17. Clinical implications of environmental sources for Aspergillus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis presents a formidable problem for both diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, prevention is a very important strategy in controlling this disease. Preventing invasive aspergillosis demands a clear understanding of the environmental sources of Aspergillus spp. and how this mould is

  18. A prospective international Aspergillus terreus survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risslegger, B; Zoran, T; Lackner, M

    2017-01-01

    of A. terreus species complex among the investigated patients with mould-positive cultures was 5.2% (370/7116). Amphotericin B MICs ranged from 0.125 to 32 mg/L, (median 8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus terreus species complex infections cause a wide spectrum of aspergillosis and the majority...

  19. Detection of Aspergillus in lung and other tissue samples using the MycAssay Aspergillus real-time PCR kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Flörl, C; Follett, S A; Moody, A; Denning, D W

    2011-09-01

    The MycAssay™ Aspergillus real-time PCR kit was tested on tissues from patients with invasive fungal infections. Tissue samples from nine organ transplant recipients and 33 patients with haematological malignancy were from lung (n = 30), skin (n = 4), and others. Samples were preprocessed with proteinase K and lyticase, followed by DNA extraction and real-time PCR. For all samples, the sensitivity of the MycAssay Aspergillus test was 82% and specificity 79% relative to microscopy and 90% and 64%, respectively, compared with Aspergillus culture. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values compared with culture were 69% and 88% and were 88% and 69% compared with microscopy, respectively. The MycAssay Aspergillus test detected tissue invasive infections with Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus flavus , and Aspergillus terreus.

  20. Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin associated with figs in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek HEPERKAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Figs are an economically important crop in the Mediterranean area. Fungal infection can be observed on figs on the tree, after shriveling, after falling to the ground, and during the drying process. Fungal growth and subsequent mycotoxin production are influenced by a variety of complex interactions between instrinsic and extrinsic factors as well as stress factors and physical damage. The dominant fungal flora in dried figs consisted of Aspergillus section Nigri, Fusarium spp., Aspergillus section Flavi and Penicillium spp. Fungal infection can result in mycotoxin contamination including aflatoxins, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, fumonisins, patulin and ochratoxin A. This review describes the major fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination in dried figs.

  1. Aspergillus species isolated from mangrove forests in Borneo Island, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S.S. Seelan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of Aspergillus spp. on selected mangrove forests in Sarawak was conducted to find out their diversity and distribution. Samples were obtained from mangrove soils and leaf litters at different locations, i.e. Sematan, Lundu, Kampung Bako, Bako in Sarawak. Soil and leaf litter samples were taken randomly at different locations with five replicates from each area. A total of 138 isolates of Aspergillus species were obtained from the soil and leaf litter samples by using direct plating and Warcup method. Based on both macroscopic and microscopic observations, using an identification key, individual isolates were classified within the genus Aspergillus, belonging to three subgenera, four sections and five species. The fungi isolates were identified as A. terreus, A. flavipes, A. carneus, A. fumigatus and A. clavatus. The most frequent isolated species was A. flavipes (63.04%, followed by A. fumigatus (16.7%, A. terreus (13.04%, A. carneus (5.8% and A. clavatus (1.44%. All of the isolated Aspergillus species grew well on MEA and CYA at 25°C. A. carneus produced reddish sclerotia on MEA after seven days and this could be used as an important characteristic in this species identification. A. clavatus from mangrove soil in Kampung Bako has shown long conidiophores (ranging from 3-5 cm with swollen hyphal structures, while A. clavatus from Sematan area has shorter conidiophores (ranging from 2.5-3.5 cm on MEA.

  2. Sensitization to Aspergillus species is associated with frequent exacerbations in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh KJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ken Junyang Goh,1 Anthony Chau Ang Yii,1,2 Therese Sophie Lapperre,1,2 Adrian KW Chan,1–3 Fook Tim Chew,4 Sanjay H Chotirmall,5,* Mariko Siyue Koh1–3,* 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, 2Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, 3Allergy Centre, Singapore General Hospital, 4Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 5Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Severe asthma is a largely heterogeneous disease with varying phenotypic profiles. The relationship between specific allergen sensitization and asthma severity, particularly in Asia, remains unclear. We aim to study the prevalence of specific allergen sensitization patterns and investigate their association with outcomes in a severe asthma cohort in an Asian setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients receiving step 4 or 5 Global Initiative for Asthma treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between sensitization to a specific identifiable allergen by skin prick test (SPT and uncontrolled asthma (defined in our study as the use of ≥2 steroid bursts or hospitalization in the past year, a history of near-fatal asthma or evidence of airflow obstruction on spirometry. Results: Two hundred and six severe asthma patients (mean age 45±17 years, 99 [48.1%] male were evaluated. Of them, 78.2% had a positive SPT to one or more allergens. The most common allergen to which patients were sensitized was house dust mites (Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Also, 11.7% were sensitized to Aspergillus species. On multivariate analysis, Aspergillus sensitization was associated with uncontrolled asthma (odds ratio 6.07, 95% confidence interval 1.80–20.51. In particular, Aspergillus

  3. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydrase and cellulase enzyme preparation derived from Aspergillus niger may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Aspergillus niger is classified as follows: Class, Deuteromycetes; order, Moniliales; family, Moniliaceae...

  4. Aspergillus arachnoiditis post intrathecal baclofen pump insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, V; Kavar, B; Hogg, M; Eisen, D P; Butzkueven, H

    2013-08-01

    This report describes an unusual fungal infection of an intrathecal baclofen pump which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. We describe a 39-year-old man with severe lower limb spasticity due to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis that was managed with insertion of an intrathecal baclofen pump. He subsequently presented with distinct neurological decline secondary to an intrathecal baclofen pump infection with Aspergillus terreus. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  6. Production and Preliminary Characterization of Alkaline Protease from Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chellapandi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are being an industrial candidate, which are widely used in food, bakery, and beverage and detergent industry. In leather industry, alkaline proteases are exhibiting a prominent role in unhairing and bating processes. An extensive use of filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus species has been studied elaborately. Although, the significant application of alkaline protease produced from these strains in leather industry is being limited. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus found as the potential strains for production of tannery protease in submerged fermentation. To improve the productivity of this enzyme in liquid broth, various media ingredients have been optimized. The crude and partially purified proteases preliminarily characterized and used for unhairing processes at lab scale in tannery. The protease obtained from these strains showed the good activity in wide alkaline condition at 50 °C suggesting the possibility of using in leather and detergent industry.

  7. Assessment of growth of Aspergillus spp. from agricultural soils in the presence of glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Magnoli, Carina E

    Agriculture is one of the bases of the Argentine economy. Glyphosate is undoubtedly one of the most important herbicides used. The increasing consumption and the efficiency of glyphosate-based herbicides have encouraged several studies on their persistence in soils, their effects on soil microbiota and their degradation processes. Fungi have been reported as being the main herbicide-degrading microorganisms as well as the most tolerant to environmental stress conditions. This study evaluated the growth performance of Aspergillus section Flavi and Aspergillus niger aggregate strains on Czapek Dox media supplied with a commercial glyphosate formulation as sole source of carbon (CZC), phosphorus (CZP) or nitrogen (CZN). Six Aspergillus spp. strains were evaluated. Each medium was stab-inoculated with fungal spores from 7-day old cultures. Two measures of colony radii were taken daily. All of the Aspergillus section Flavi strains showed a significant increase (from 24 to 44%) in growth rate on the CZN medium, as compared to controls. The A. niger aggregate strains exhibited the same behavioral pattern under all the conditions tested, except on the CZN medium. Velutinous or slightly floccose colonies with abundant sporulation were observed on CZP. Moreover, the colonies produced sparse sporulation on CZC or CZN media, being their appearances completely different from those on the CZP medium. This study establishes that A. section Flavi and A. niger aggregate strains can grow in vitro in the presence of glyphosate, especially when it is used as a sole source of phosphorus or nitrogen. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Intra and extracellular nuclease production by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Adlane V. B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra and extracellular nuclease production by strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulans was estimated using a modified DNAse test agar and cell-free extract assays. Differences in the production of nucleases by A. niger and A. nidulans were observed. These observations suggest that the DNAse test agar can be helpful for a quick screening for some types of nucleases in filamentous fungi. The assays using cell-free extracts can also be useful for initial characterization of other types of nucleases.

  9. Antibiotic Extraction as a Recent Biocontrol Method for Aspergillus Niger andAspergillus Flavus Fungi in Ancient Egyptian mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdan, R. Elmitwalli; Fatma, Helmi M.; Rizk, Mohammed A.; Hagrassy, Abeer F.

    Biodeterioration of mural paintings by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus Fungi has been proved in different mural paintings in Egypt nowadays. Several researches have studied the effect of fungi on mural paintings, the mechanism of interaction and methods of control. But none of these researches gives us the solution without causing a side effect. In this paper, for the first time, a recent treatment by antibiotic "6 penthyl α pyrone phenol" was applied as a successful technique for elimination of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. On the other hand, it is favorable for cleaning Surfaces of Murals executed by tembera technique from the fungi metabolism which caused a black pigments on surfaces.

  10. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Fátima Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L. were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems.

  11. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems.

  12. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  14. Aspergillus tanneri sp. nov, a new pathogenic Aspergillus that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report documenting fatal invasive aspergillosis caused by a new pathogenic Aspergillus species that is inherently resistant to antifungal drugs. Phenotypic characteristics of A. tanneri combined with the molecular approach enabled diagnosis of this new pathogen. This study undersco...

  15. Evaluation of Aspergillus PCR Protocols for Testing Serum Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Mengoli, C.; Bretagne, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Finnstrom, N.; Klingspor, L.; Melchers, W.J.G.; McCulloch, E.; Barnes, R.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Loeffler, J.

    2011-01-01

    A panel of human serum samples spiked with various amounts of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA was distributed to 23 centers within the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative to determine analytical performance of PCR. Information regarding specific methodological components and PCR performance was

  16. Assessment of Aspergillus niger biofilm growth kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... assessed by evaluating the CO2 released during the fermentation in minibioreactors. Key words: Aspergillus niger, biofilm, mathematical modeling, endogenous respiration, Cryo-SEM. INTRODUCTION. Aspergillus niger is currently one of the microbial species of main biotechnological importance because ...

  17. screening and improvement of local isolates of aspergillus niger for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The study involved the screening of fourteen isolates of Aspergillus niger for citric acid production from glucose. The study was aimed at screening and improving local strains of Aspergillus niger with potential for citric acid production. All the isolates screened produced varying amounts of citric acid, the highest ...

  18. Aspergillus Monitoring Project in a Large Educational Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All specimens were transported to Medical Mycology Center for the detection and identification of Aspergillus species using morphological methods. Also molecular method, PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme as a rapid and available method was performed to investigate environmental sources of Aspergillus ...

  19. What can Aspergillus flavus genome offer for mycotoxin research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genomic study of filamentous fungi has made significant advances in recent years, and the genomes of several species in the genus Aspergillus have been sequenced, including Aspergillus flavus. This ubiquitous mold is present as a saprobe in a wide range of agricultural and natural habits, and c...

  20. Fatal coinfection with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 8 and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillouzouic, Aurélie; Bemer, Pascale; Gay-Andrieu, Françoise; Bretonnière, Cédric; Lepelletier, Didier; Mahé, Pierre-Joachim; Villers, Daniel; Jarraud, Sophie; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2008-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important cause of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. We report on a patient who simultaneously developed L. pneumophila serogroup 8 pneumonia and Aspergillus fumigatus lung abscesses. Despite appropriate treatments, Aspergillus disease progressed with metastasis. Coinfections caused by L. pneumophila and A. fumigatus remain exceptional. In apparently immunocompetent patients, corticosteroid therapy is a key risk factor for aspergillosis.

  1. Specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We developed a two-step PCR assay that specifically amplifies a region of the 18S rRNA gene that is highly conserved in Aspergillus fumigatus. This assay allows direct and rapid detection of down to 10 fg of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA corresponding to 1 to 5 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml of sputum sample of pulmonary ...

  2. The Inhibition of aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibition of Aflatoxin production from Aspergillus parasiticus strain NRRL 2999 was investigated using ethanol extracts of Aframommon danielli flower at concentrations of 250ìg/g, 500ìg/g, 750ìg/g and 1000ìg/g with whole wheat bread as a substrate. Aspergillus parasiticus grew abundantly on whole wheat bread; ...

  3. Rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus as a Possible Contaminant of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemist

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Horn BW, Dorner JW, Greene RL, Blankenship PD, Cole RJ (1994). Effect of Aspergillus parasiticus soil inoculum on invasion of peanut seeds. Mycopathology, 125: 179-191. Jeffrey D, Palumbo, Teresa L, O'Keeffe, Ali K, Hamed KA, Bobbie JJ. (2010). Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus in Soil by Antagonistic.

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, L.; Netea, M.G.; Sugui, J.; Vonk, A.G.; Sande, W.W. van de; Warris, A.; Kwon-Chung, K.J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Melanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); M.G. Netea (Mihai); J. Sugui (Janyce); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Warris (Adilia); K.J. Kwon-Chung (Kyung); B. Jan Kullberg (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced

  6. Spectrophotometric reading of EUCAST antifungal susceptibility testing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Mortensen, K.L.; Verweij, P.E.; Mouton, J.W.; Arendrup, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Given the increasing number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of resistant Aspergillus isolates, objective, automated and high-throughput antifungal susceptibility testing is important. The EUCAST E.Def 9.3 reference method for MIC determination of Aspergillus species relies on

  7. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Growth of Aspergillus Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycotoxins of public health importance (Ehrlich,. 2007). As such, the occurrence of Aspergillus secondary metabolites in food stuffs such as millet grains is becoming an increasing environmental concern. The presence of Aspergillus species in stored millet may pose a threat to the health of both humans and livestock.

  8. Density and Molecular Epidemiology of Aspergillus in Air and Relationship to Outbreaks of Aspergillus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Alexander C. A. P.; van Belkum, Alex; Behrendt, Myra; Luijendijk, Ad; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    1999-01-01

    After five patients were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus, a 14-month surveillance program for pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal conidia in the air within and outside the University Hospital in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) was begun. A. fumigatus isolates obtained from the Department of Hematology were studied for genetic relatedness by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This was repeated with A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media in the microbiology laboratory. The density of the conidia of nonpathogenic fungi in the outside air showed a seasonal variation: higher densities were measured during the summer, while lower densities were determined during the fall and winter. Hardly any variation was found in the numbers of Aspergillus conidia. We found decreasing numbers of conidia when comparing air from outside the hospital to that inside the hospital and when comparing open areas within the hospital to the closed department of hematology. The increase in the number of patients with invasive aspergillosis could not be explained by an increase in the number of Aspergillus conidia in the outside air. The short-term presence of A. flavus can only be explained by the presence of a point source, which was probably patient related. Genotyping A. fumigatus isolates from the department of hematology showed that clonally related isolates were persistently present for more than 1 year. Clinical isolates of A. fumigatus obtained during the outbreak period were different from these persistent clones. A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media were all genotypically identical, indicating a causative point source. Knowledge of the epidemiology of Aspergillus species is necessary for the development of strategies to prevent invasive aspergillosis. RAPD fingerprinting of Aspergillus isolates can help to determine the cause of an outbreak of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:10325319

  9. Expression of Aspergillus hemoglobin domain activities in Aspergillus oryzae grown on solid substrates improves growth rate and enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, te R.; Boussier, A.; Biezen van, N.; Braaksma, M.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Punt, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    DNA fragments coding for hemoglobin domains (HBD) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The HBD activities were expressed in A. oryzae by introduction of HBD gene fragments under the control of the promoter of the constitutively expressed gpdA gene. In the transformants,

  10. Human T-cell responses to Aspergillus fumigatus : In healthy individuals and patients with Aspergillus-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolink, H.

    2017-01-01

    The T-cell mediated immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus was studied in healthy individuals and in several patient groups. In peripheral blood of healthy individuals low frequencies of Aspergillus-specific CD4+ T-cells with a Thelper 1 profile were present. In patients with invasive

  11. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...... for HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Results: P. aeruginosa PAO1 suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and Emericella nidulans. HPLC and HPLC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa...

  12. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    culture plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture diluted to 108 CFU/ml was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days, examined and plugs were extracted for HPLC and LC-DAD-MS analysis. Results: P. aeruginosa PAO1...... suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified...

  13. Aspergillus Sydowi Infection of Human Finger Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Barde

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Aspergillus sydowi infection of left middle finger nail is described ′ The presence of fungal hypae with phialids and spores on direct microscopy as well as in culture, the colour of the sub-ungual mass of the nail resembling the colour of the fungus in, culture′ repeated isolations of A sydowi from the diseased tissue along with the absence of any established pathogenic species in the specimen are taken as evidences that this fungus was invading the nail tissue.

  14. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  15. Identificação de Aspergillus spp: toxigênico em arroz Identification of toxigenic Aspergillus spp: in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ívina Catarina de Oliveira Guimarães

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A composição química e o modo de cultivo do arroz o tornam susceptível à contaminação fúngica e, consequentemente, por micotoxinas. Considerando-se o expressivo consumo de arroz e a possibilidade de ser potencial fonte de micotoxinas, especial atenção deve ser dispensada quanto à qualidade do produto adquirido. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar espécies do gênero Aspergillus quanto à capacidade toxigênica, em diferentes subgrupos de arroz. As amostras constituíram-se de 31 marcas de arroz referentes aos subgrupos branco polido (21 e parboilizado (10, mais comumente comercializadas na cidade de Lavras - MG. Ao contrário dos outros subgrupos, a incidência de Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus niger em amostras de arroz branco polido aumentou significativamente após a desinfecção. Pôde-se observar que, 50% dos Aspergillus flavus e 50% dos Aspergillus niger encontrados, foram considerados toxigênicos para o subgrupo branco polido. Na amostra de arroz parboilizado, 67% dos Aspergillus flavus eram potenciais produtores. O Aspergillus ochraceus não se revelou como toxigênico. Este estudo permitiu concluir que, apesar de trabalhos isolados, a presença de fungos toxigênicos em arroz é verídico, o que se torna relevante por se tratar de um cereal importante no cenário mundial.The chemical composition and its methods of cultivation, make rice plants susceptible to fungi and consequently to mycotoxins contamination. Considering the expressive rice consumption and given the possibility that it maybe a potential source of mycotoxins, special attention should be devoted to its quality. Thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the Aspergillus species as to its toxigenic capacities in different rice subgroups. Thirty one and rice brands among the most popular brands sold in the city of Lavras - MG, were collected as samples, (21 polished white and (10 parboiled, respectively. Unlike other subgroups, the

  16. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Vieira, Maria Lúcia Carneiro; Sartori, Daniele; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; de Freitas Munhoz, Carla; Ferreira, Josué Maldonado; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Frisvad, Jens C; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2014-09-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigated a collection of Aspergillus nomius strains isolated from Brazil nuts using different approaches, including morphological characters, RAPD and AFLP profiles, partial β-tubulin and calmodulin nucleotide sequences, aflatoxin patterns, as well as tolerance to low water activity in cultured media. Results showed that most of the isolates do belong to A. nomius species, but a few were re-identified as Aspergillus pseudonomius, a very recently described species. The results of the analyses of molecular variance, as well as the high pairwise FST values between A. nomius and A. pseudonomius suggested the isolation between these two species and the inexistence of gene flow. Fixed interspecific nucleotide polymorphisms at β-tubulin and calmodulin loci are presented. All A. pseudonomius strains analyzed produced aflatoxins AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2. This study contains the first-ever report on the occurrence in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing Empetro nigri-Pinetum and Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis soils in terms of organic matter stocks and ecochemical indices in the Słowiński National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonczak Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted comparative studies on soil organic matter stocks and indices of the soil’s ecochemical state under Empetro nigri-Pinetum (En-P and Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis (Vu-Bp in the Słowiński National Park. The investigated plant communities are associated with Arenosols that developed from eolian sands and are exposed to high groundwater levels. The presence of fossil Histosol at a depth of 75 cm in the Vu-Bp stand, which lies below the current groundwater level, is the factor that sets both stands apart. The fossil soil strongly differs from Arenosol in terms of its chemical composition. A high abundance of nutrients in bioavailable forms in the soil is one of the reasons for natural renewal of downy birch in the stand, which presence in turn affects the turnover of elements and the properties of Arenosol. The results of our studies confirm the existence of strong feedback between the soil and plant communities. Soils under the mixed pine-birch Vu-Bp stand are characterized by smaller stocks of organic matter and total organic carbon (TOC contained in the ectohumus as compared to the soils under the pure pine En-P stand. The opposite is found in the humic horizon. Additionally, in the Vu-Bp stand we observed greater accumulation of total nitrogen (TN in ectohumus, which is reflected in lower TOC:TN ratios. The contents of TN and TOC:TN ratios in humic horizons were similar in both stands. The soils under En-P were more strongly acidified, especially in O-horizons. Mineral horizons in both stands were characterized by a very small sorptive capacity, which increased in ectohumus and fossil soil. Significant differences between the stands were observed in the ionic composition of sorptive complexes. The soils under Vu-Bp stand were more strongly saturated with basic cations, predominantly calcium. In soil solums of both stands, we observed a deficit of bioavailable potassium and magnesium, which was partially compensated by

  18. PENGARUH RHIZOPUS ORYZAE DAN ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE TERHADAP KUALITAS KECAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sabita Slamet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah diteliti pengganti fermentasi mikroorganisme Aspergillus oryzae Rhyzopus oryzae dan campuran Aspergillus dan Rhyzopus oryzae, dengan perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% dalam waktu yang berbeda terhadap kualitas kecap.Lamanya perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% yang berbeda menghasilkan kadar protein kecap yang berbeda. Aspergillus oryzae lebih baik dalam menghasilkan enzima protease dari pada Rhyzopus oryzae.Uji organoleptik menunjukkan perbedaan tidak bermakna dalam hal rasa maupun aroma antar kecap yang dibuat dengan strain jamur yang berlainan serta waktu perendaman yang berbeda. Untuk membuat kecap, sebaiknya dilakukan perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% selama 14 hari.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  20. Antagonism of Aspergillus terreus to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Antagonismo de Aspergillus terreus contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar S. Melo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An Aspergillus terreus strain showed in vitro antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary. The interaction between A. terreus and sclerotia revealed that the mycoparasite sporulated abundantly on the sclerotial surface. Cell breakdown due to host cell wall disruption was observed in inner rind cells, by a scanning electron microscopy.Uma linhagem de Aspergillus terreus mostrou forte atividade parasítica contra Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Interações entre o patógeno e o antagonista revelaram que A. terreus esporulou profusamente sobre os escleródios. Quando visto em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o antagonista mostra-se rompendo e lisando a parede celular e penetrando o interior do escleródio, onde se estabelece no tecido medular.

  1. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites...... including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi...... are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten...

  3. Effect of simulated microgravity on Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, Jeffrey J.

    2005-08-01

    A rotating bioreactor was developed to simulate microgravity and its influence was studied on fungal growth. The reactor was designed to simulate microgravity using 'free fall' principle, which creates an apparent weightlessness for a brief period of time. In this experiment, a sealed vertically rotating tube is the reactor in which the cells are grown. For the first time vertically rotating tubes were used to obtain 'free fall' thereby simulating microgravity. Simulated microgravity served significant in the alteration of growth and productivity of Aspergillus niger, a common soil fungi. Two other sets of similar cultures were maintained as still and shake control cultures to compare with the growth and productivity of cells in rotating culture. It was found increased growth and productivity occurred in simulated microgravity. Since this experiment involves growth of cells in a liquid medium, the fluidic effects must also be studied which is a limitation.

  4. Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum from the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Tanney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi, especially Aspergillus species, are prevalent in the built environment. In this study, we employed a combined culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing and culture-dependent (dilution-to-extinction approach to investigate the mycobiota of indoor dust collected from 93 buildings in 12 countries worldwide. High and low water activity (aw media were used to capture mesophile and xerophile biodiversity, resulting in the isolation of approximately 9 000 strains. Among these, 340 strains representing seven putative species in Aspergillus subgenus Polypaecilum were isolated, mostly from lowered aw media, and tentatively identified based on colony morphology and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS barcodes. Further morphological study and phylogenetic analyses using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin (BenA, calmodulin (CaM, RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2, DNA topoisomerase 1 (TOP1, and a pre-mRNA processing protein homolog (TSR1 confirmed the isolation of seven species of subgenus Polypaecilum, including five novel species: A. baarnensis, A. keratitidis, A. kalimae sp. nov., A. noonimiae sp. nov., A. thailandensis sp. nov., A. waynelawii sp. nov., and A. whitfieldii sp. nov. Pyrosequencing detected six of the seven species isolated from house dust, as well as one additional species absent from the cultures isolated, and three clades representing potentially undescribed species. Species were typically found in house dust from subtropical and tropical climates, often in close proximity to the ocean or sea. The presence of subgenus Polypaecilum, a recently described clade of xerophilic/xerotolerant, halotolerant/halophilic, and potentially zoopathogenic species, within the built environment is noteworthy.

  5. Self-affine fractal growth front of Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae have been grown in various environmental conditions and analyzed from the viewpoint of self-affinity. The growth behavior can be described by the Eden model in favorable conditions, and by DLA in unfavorable conditions.

  6. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  7. Ortholog prediction of the Aspergillus genus applicable for synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Theobald, Sebastian

    The Aspergillus genus contains leading industrial microorganisms, excelling in producing bioactive compounds and enzymes. Using synthetic biology and bioinformatics, we aim to re-engineer these organisms for applications within human health, pharmaceuticals, environmental engineering, and food...

  8. Reconstruction of the central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Åkesson, Mats Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The topology of central carbon metabolism of Aspergillus niger was identified and the metabolic network reconstructed, by integrating genomic, biochemical and physiological information available for this microorganism and other related fungi. The reconstructed network may serve as a valuable...

  9. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  10. Pectinolytic complex production by Aspergillus niger URM 4645 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -PG), pectin lyase (PL), and pectin methylesterase (PE), produced by Aspergillus niger URM 4645, were studied in solid state fermentation (SSF) using yellow passion fruit peels as substrate. The effect of substrate amount, initial moisture ...

  11. The het-c heterokaryon incompatibility gene in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Pal, K.; Lee, T.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Debets, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Heterokaryon incompatibility among Aspergillus niger strains is a widespread phenomenon that is observed as the inability to form stable heterokaryons. The genetic basis of heterokaryon incompatibility reactions is well established in some sexual filamentous fungi but largely unknown in presumed

  12. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger , Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. The synthesis of nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a microbial nanotechnology biosynthesis process for mass scale production. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, fungi, Aspergillus.

  13. Production and Purification of Peroxidase from Aspergillus niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Jebor

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditi...

  14. Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, T. M.; Andrewski, M. D.; Roossinck, M. J.; Keller, N P

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppre...

  15. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine, and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice, we used plate-dilution method and DRBC as medium. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus isolates were inoculated on the identification media. Representatives of the genus Aspergillus were isolated from 13 samples berries, 7 samples of surface-sterilized berries, 4 samples of damaged berries and 9 samples of grape juice. Overall, representatives of aspergilli were detected in 90% of samples (75 isolates. In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of ochratoxin A belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Isolates, potential producers of ochratoxin A (Aspergillus niger aggregate and Aspergillus westerdijkiae, were after their identification inoculated on YES medium (Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar and after 14 days of incubation at 25±1°C, in the dark, we tested them for their ability to produce ochratoxin A using thin layer chromatography. Out of the 16 isolates from isolated potential producers of ochratoxin A none of the isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested produced ochratoxin A. The isolate of Aspergillus westerdijkiae (1, isolated from the surface-sterilized berries, produced ochratoxin A.

  16. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM TOKAJ WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a surface mycobiota of grapes and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Three samples of wine grapes Furmint, Lipovina and Yellow muscat were collected in the Tokaj wine region in Viničky during the November harvest in 2012. Seven/eight berries from each sample were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C for 5 - 7 days. After incubation from the samples were isolated following filamentous fungi: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelium sterillium. The most frequent were genera Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The largest number of isolates belonged to Penicillium (368 isolates and Botrytis (334 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 47 % and 43 %, respectively. The selected isolates - Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C and ochratoxin A producing ability. A higher percentage of Penicillium crustosum isolates (79 % were positive for penitrem A and all were positive for roquefortin C. A higher percentage of Penicillium expansum (83 % were positive for patulin, 72 % for citrinin and they were all positive for roquefortin C. All isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum produced roquefortin C. As would be expected, ochratoxin A was not detected from Aspergillus section Nigri.

  17. Aspergillus mycoviruses are targets and suppressors of RNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T M; Andrewski, M D; Roossinck, M J; Keller, N P

    2008-02-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppresses RNA silencing through a mechanism that alters the level of small interfering RNA. Aspergillus virus 178 is related to RNA virus L1 of Gremmeniella abietina and does not appear to affect RNA silencing. The third virus investigated, Aspergillus virus 341, is distantly related to Sphaeropsis sapinea RNA virus 2. Detection of mycovirus-derived siRNA from this mycovirus demonstrates that it is targeted for degradation by the Aspergillus RNA silencing machinery. Thus, our results indicate that Aspergillus mycoviruses are both targets and suppressors of RNA silencing. In addition, they suggest that the morphological and physiological changes associated with some mycoviruses could be a result of their antagonistic relationship with RNA silencing.

  18. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  19. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Govindarajulu Venkateswaran

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were ca...

  20. Expression of the Aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straat, Laura; Vernooij, Marloes; Lammers, Marieke; van den Berg, Willy; Schonewille, Tom; Cordewener, Jan; van der Meer, Ingrid; Koops, Andries; de Graaff, Leo H

    2014-01-17

    Aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. The metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in Aspergillus niger. However, a key enzyme in A. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. The introduction of the A. terreus cadA gene in A. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production levels of over 135 g per liter of itaconic acid in A. niger. Given the potential for higher production levels in A. niger, production of itaconic acid in this host was investigated. Expression of Aspergillus terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase in Aspergillus niger resulted in the production of a low concentration (0.05 g/L) of itaconic acid. Overexpression of codon-optimized genes for cis-aconitate decarboxylase, a mitochondrial transporter and a plasma membrane transporter in an oxaloacetate hydrolase and glucose oxidase deficient A. niger strain led to highly increased yields and itaconic acid production titers. At these higher production titers, the effect of the mitochondrial and plasma membrane transporters was much more pronounced, with levels being 5-8 times higher than previously described. Itaconic acid can be produced in A. niger by the introduction of the A. terreus cis-aconitate decarboxylase encoding cadA gene. This results in a low itaconic acid production level, which can be increased by codon-optimization of the cadA gene for A. niger. A second crucial requirement for efficient production of itaconic acid is the expression of the A. terreus mttA gene, encoding a putative mitochondrial transporter. Expression of this transporter results in a twenty-fold increase in the secretion of itaconic acid. Expression of the A. terreus itaconic acid cluster consisting of the cadA gene, the mttA gene and the mfsA gene results in A. niger strains that produce over

  1. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, Management, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Moriyama, Brad; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Prinapori, Roberta; Tajaldeen, Saad Jaber; Brause, Barry; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Aspergillus osteomyelitis are not well understood. Methods Protocol-defined cases of Aspergillus osteomyelitis published in the English literature were reviewed for comorbidities, microbiology, mechanisms of infection, clinical manifestations, radiological findings, inflammatory biomarkers, antifungal therapy, and outcome. Results Among 180 evaluable patients, 127 (71%) were males. Possible predisposing medical conditions in 103 (57%) included pharmacological immunosuppression, primary immunodeficiency, and neutropenia. Seventy-three others (41%) had prior open fracture, trauma or surgery. Eighty (44%) followed a hematogenous mechanism, 58 (32%) contiguous infections, and 42 (23%) direct inoculation. Aspergillus osteomyelitis was the first manifestation of aspergillosis in 77%. Pain and tenderness were present in 80%. The most frequently infected sites were vertebrae (46%), cranium (23%), ribs (16%), and long bones (13%). Patients with vertebral Aspergillus osteomyelitis had more previous orthopedic surgery (19% vs 0%; P=0.02), while those with cranial osteomyelitis had more diabetes mellitus (32% vs 8%; P=0.002) and prior head/neck surgery (12% vs 0%; P=0.02). Radiologic findings included osteolysis, soft-tissue extension, and uptake on T2-weighted images. Vertebral body Aspergillus osteomyelitis was complicated by spinal-cord compression in 47% and neurological deficits in 41%. Forty-four patients (24%) received only antifungal therapy, while 121(67%) were managed with surgery and antifungal therapy. Overall mortality was 25%. Median duration of therapy was 90 days (range, 10–772 days). There were fewer relapses in patients managed with surgery plus antifungal therapy in comparison to those managed with antifungal therapy alone (8% vs 30%; P=0.006). Conclusions Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating infection affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most

  2. Linking secondary metabolites to gene clusters through genome sequencing of six diverse Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbølling, Inge; Vesth, Tammi C.; Frisvad, Jens C.

    2018-01-01

    The fungal genus of Aspergillus is highly interesting, containing everything from industrial cell factories, model organisms, and human pathogens. In particular, this group has a prolific production of bioactive secondary metabolites (SMs). In this work, four diverse Aspergillus species (A...

  3. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Species in the anamorph genus Aspergillus are associated with several teleomorphic genera in the Eurotiales and the most important mycotoxin producers are concentrated in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati. A new genus, Neopetromyces, is proposed for the recently described Petromyces muricatus, beca...

  4. Molecular characterization of Aspergillus infections in an Iranian educational hospital using RAPD-PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Diba

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.

  5. A reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleku, Godwin A.; France, Scott P.; Man, Henry; Mangas-Sanchez, Juan; Montgomery, Sarah L.; Sharma, Mahima; Leipold, Friedemann; Hussain, Shahed; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2017-10-01

    Reductive amination is one of the most important methods for the synthesis of chiral amines. Here we report the discovery of an NADP(H)-dependent reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae (AspRedAm, Uniprot code Q2TW47) that can catalyse the reductive coupling of a broad set of carbonyl compounds with a variety of primary and secondary amines with up to >98% conversion and with up to >98% enantiomeric excess. In cases where both carbonyl and amine show high reactivity, it is possible to employ a 1:1 ratio of the substrates, forming amine products with up to 94% conversion. Steady-state kinetic studies establish that the enzyme is capable of catalysing imine formation as well as reduction. Crystal structures of AspRedAm in complex with NADP(H) and also with both NADP(H) and the pharmaceutical ingredient (R)-rasagiline are reported. We also demonstrate preparative scale reductive aminations with wild-type and Q240A variant biocatalysts displaying total turnover numbers of up to 32,000 and space time yields up to 3.73 g l-1 d-1.

  6. Bioconversion of Capsaicin by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minji; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Yu Geon; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lim, Seong-Il; Park, So-Lim; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-07-08

    This study identified metabolites of capsaicin bioconverted by Aspergillus oryzae, which is generally used for mass production of gochujang prepared by fermenting red pepper powder in Korea. A. oryzae was incubated with capsaicin in potato dextrose broth. Capsaicin decreased depending on the incubation period, but new metabolites increased. Five capsaicin metabolites purified from the ethyl acetate fraction of the capsaicin culture were identified as N-vanillylcarbamoylbutyric acid, N-vanillyl-9-hydroxy-8-methyloctanamide, ω-hydroxycapsaicin, 8-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(E)-octenoic acid, and 2-methyl-N-vanillylcarbamoyl-6(Z)-octenoic acid by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The capsaicin metabolites in gochujang were confirmed and quantitated by selective multiple reaction monitoring detection after liquid chromatography electrospray ionization MS using the isolated compounds as external standards. On the basis of the structures of the capsaicin metabolites, it is proposed that capsaicin metabolites were converted by A. oryzae by ω-hydroxylation, alcohol oxidation, hydrogenation, isomerization, and α- and/or β-oxidation.

  7. Purification and characterization of Aspergillus ficuum endoinulinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, T B; Chung, M S; Lee, S H; Gourronc, F; Housen, I; Kim, J H; Van Beeumen, J; Haye, B; Vandenhaute, J

    1999-01-01

    Endoinulinase from Aspergillus ficuum, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of inulin via an endo-cleavage mode, was purified by chromatography from Novozym 230 as a starting commercial enzyme mixture on CM-Sephadex and DEAE-Sepharose, and by preparative electrophoresis under native conditions. The enzyme was estimated to be pure on the basis of its I/S ratio, whose value was infinite in our assay conditions. Two forms separated by using this method. SDS gel electrophoresis showed the two purified forms to respectively exhibit molecular weights of 64,000 +/- 500 and 66,000 +/- 1,000. The results of deglycosylation indicated that the two forms were originally the same protein but with different sugar contents. A molecular weight of 54,800 +/- 1,500 was found by gel filtration of the native enzyme, indicating the native functional protein to be a monomer. The enzyme showed nearly absolute substrate specificity towards inulin and inulooligosaccharides, and acted via an endo-attack to produce mainly inulotriose during the late stage of the reaction. The apparent Km and Vmax values for inulin hydrolysis were 8.1 +/- 1.0 mM and 773 +/- 60 U/mg, respectively. The internal peptides of the enzyme showed sequence homology to the endoinulinase of Penicillium purpurogenum.

  8. [Induced synthesis of hydroxyapatite by Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Lian, Bin; Liu, Shirong; Gong, Guohong

    2011-03-01

    The research objective is to induce hydroxyapatite (HAP) synthesis by using fungus. We used the PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar Medium) liquid medium containing different concentrations of Na2HPO4 and CaCO3 to study the way Aspergillus niger synthesize HAP, to observe the induced mineral crystal structure and to analyze the induced mineral type with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main results are as follows: (1) A. niger can induce HAP synthesis in PDA liquid medium with the proper concentration of Na2HPO4 and CaCO3. (2) The reaction of A. niger inducing HAP synthesis depends on the time of the response system. Longer time is more advantageous in producing HAP. The main reason for A. niger inducing HAP crystals formation are as follows: fungal metabolism produces the acidic substances to dissolve CaCO, and the growth mycelia absorbing Ca2+ lead to Ca2+ enriched on the surface, to promote the production of secondary mineral apatite and further transform into HAP in the mycelia spheres. A. niger can inducing HAP crystals formation in PDA liquid medium containing Na2HPO4 and CaCO3. Considering the importance of HAP in bio-medicine materials and its costly prices, our method for HAP bio-induction is of the temperate response condition, simple preparation craft, and lower cost, which has the potential application prospect.

  9. A Case Report on Aspergillus lentulus Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Cidem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aspergillus lentulus was described as a new species in 2005 but it was isolated from Turkey for the first time. Case report: A. lentulus was isolated as the cause of pneumonia from a patient who had renal transplantation 4 months ago. The patient received immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation. A. lentulus was isolated from his sputum as an agent in pneumonia developed 4 months after the transplantation. Leukocytes, blastospores, and hyphae were seen in both Gram- and Giemsa-stained smears of the sputum. The isolate was identified by using the Maren A. Klich algorithm and molecular methods and confirmed by the reference laboratory of the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre (The Netherlands. In the susceptibility tests of the isolate, minimal inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin were found to be 0.5 µg/mL, 0.25 µg/mL, 0.125 µg/mL, and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. The patient recovered with voriconazole treatment (2x200 mg/day. Conclusion: The use of the molecular tests is important for identification of A. lentulus strains because they are very easily confused with A.fumigatus strains according to phenotypic characteristics.

  10. Cross-allergenicity between Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata determined by radioallergosorbent test inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Sakamoto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus restrictus, an osmophilic fungus, is abundant in house dust. We have shown previously that the incidence of immediate hypersensitivity to A. restrictus is comparable to that for Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata in asthmatic children. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST inhibition was used to determine whether A. restrictus shares similar allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Mycelial mats of the three species cultivated on completely synthetic media were used for extract preparation. IgE antibodies to each fungus were measured with RAST using a polyvinyl chloride microplate as a solid phase. Analysis of a serum pool obtained from nine asthmatic children with a positive RAST to A. restrictus showed that A. restrictus inhibited the RAST to A. restrictus, A. fumigatus and A. alternata by more than 80%. Similar results were observed with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Additionally, when 13 serum samples with a positive RAST to A. restrictus were tested separately, A. restrictus substantially inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in all subjects tested. A. fumigatus and A. alternata inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in 10 and 8 of the samples studied, respectively. These findings indicate that A. restrictus shares allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. The allergenic cross-reactivity between A. fumigatus and A. alternata was also demonstrated.

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis and substrate specificity of GH2 beta-mannosidases from Aspergillus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, S.K.; Rosengren, A.; Klaubauf, S.; Kulkarni, T.; Karlsson, E.N.; de Vries, R.P.; Stalbrand, H.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of glycoside hydrolase family 2 including Aspergillus sequences and characterised beta-mannosidases from other organisms, clusters putative Aspergillus beta-mannosidases in two distinct clades (A and B). Aspergillus species have at least one paralog in each of the two clades.

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Kim, Young Min; Youm, Yoon Seok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Jeong, Ae Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings.

  14. A colorimetric and spectrophotometric method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus species against caspofungin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsthorst, D.T.A. te; Zwaaftink, R.B.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Meletiadis, J.; Verweij, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 45 Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus isolates against caspofungin (CAS) was assessed by the CLSI reference method with spectrophotometric reading and by a colorimetric method that employed the dye MTT. Perfect agreement was found between

  15. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of Aspergillus flavus isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Within the genus Aspergillus, A. flavus is the second most important species of clinical significance. It is predominantly associated with infections involving sinuses, eye and skin, mostly in geographic regions with hot and arid climate, including the Middle East. Recent reports on emergence of resistance to triazoles among Aspergillus spp. is a cause of concern for treatment of patients with invasive aspergillosis. In this study we present data on genetic characterization and antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical and environmental isolates of A. flavus. Methods Ninety-nine Aspergillus section Flavi isolates, originating from clinical (n=92) and environmental (n=7) sources, initially identified by morphological characteristics, were analyzed by partial sequencing of β-tubulin and calmodulin gene fragments and their susceptibilities to six antifungal agents was determined by Etest on RPMI1640 and Muller-Hinton agar media. Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B and voriconazole were also compared with zone of inhibition diameters obtained by disc diffusion test on RPMI agar medium. Results The identity of all clinical and environmental isolates was confirmed as A. flavus species by combined analysis of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The mean MIC90 (μg/ml) values on RPMI medium for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, micafungin and caspofungin were 3, 0.25, 0.25, 0.002, 0.002 and 0.032, respectively. No environmental isolate exhibited MIC value of >2 μg/ml for amphotericin B. For clinical isolates, the zone of inhibition diameters for amphotericin B and voriconazole ranged from 7–16 mm and 24–34 mm, respectively. Linear regression analysis between Etest MIC values and disk diffusion diameters revealed a significant inverse correlation with amphotericin B (p Triazoles and echinocandins showed very good in vitro activity against the A. flavus, however, 10% clinical isolates showed MICs of >2

  16. [Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Aspergillus niger--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hiroo; Gemma, Hitoshi; Uemura, Keiichi; Ono, Takahisa; Masuda, Masafumi; Sano, Takehisa; Sato, Masaki; Koshimizu, Naoki; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2004-07-01

    A 52-year-old woman was hospitalized because of severe cough in August 1994. She had engaged in culturing roses in greenhouses since 1968, and had developed a cough during the summer of 1990. Chest radiography showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields, and she suffered from hypoxemia (PaO2 = 45.6 torr) while breathing room air. The lymphocyte count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was increased, and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed lymphocyte alveolitis in the alveolar spaces. After admission, the patient's symptoms improved rapidly without medication. However, on her return to work, the cough and hypoxemia reappeared. In her rose culture, she had used Rockwool, and Aspergillus niger was detected predominantly in the Rockwool. Precipitins against the extracts of Aspergillus niger were detected with the double immunodiffusion test and the inhalation provocation test yielded clinical symptoms. Our diagnosis was hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Aspergillus niger.

  17. Colonization of an intralobar pulmonary sequestration by Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambudio, Ríos A; Calvo, Roca M J; García, Polo L A; Lanzas, J Torres; Paricio, P Panilla

    2003-01-01

    Aspergillus is an opportunistic fungus that usually colonizes preexisting lung cavities, especially tuberculous ones. Colonization of a pulmonary sequestration by this germ is exceptional, with just 14 cases reported in the world literature, most of them in Asia. A case is presented of a 48-year-old woman with pleuritic thoracic pain. Simple chest radiology revealed a lower right pulmonary tumor with clear margins and a calcium-type density. CT showed it to correspond to a 6 x 5-cm hypodense mass, which was enhanced at the periphery with intravenous contrast. Aspiration puncture yielded a greenish-yellow pus and the microscopic study strongly suggested Aspergillus, confirmed by culture as Aspergillus fumigatus. Surgery revealed an infected pulmonary sequestration at the lower right lobe, and a lobectomy was performed.

  18. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  19. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  20. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus in commercial Bulgur wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bertechini FARIA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aflatoxins are mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic mycotoxins. The objective of this work was to study the presence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus in commercial Bulgur wheat in the city of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Thirty samples of commercial Bulgur wheat, acquired in the period of August 2011 to January 2012, were evaluated. The enumeration analysis showed that samples had up to 273.3 CFU of molds and 133.3 CFU of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus per gram of wheat. Forty-two monosporic isolates were obtained and identified as Aspergillus flavus. The isolates were analyzed regarding their aflatoxigenic potential by culture in coconut milk agar; hydroxide vapor exposure; chromatography; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting genes that code enzymes of the aflatoxins synthesis pathway. Some of the isolates were confirmed to be aflatoxin producers and several of them presented a genetic profile of aflatoxin synthesis. The obtained results demonstrated that Bulgur wheat A. flavus contamination is concerning.

  1. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Shah, Zia Ullah; Shah, Aamer Ali; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Khan, Afsar; Munir, Shahzad; Hasan, Fariha

    2017-06-01

    The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of Glucose Transporters in Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Menino, João Filipe; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; Brown, Neil Andrew; Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Rodrigues, Fernando; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms involved in glucose transport, in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, we have identified four glucose transporter encoding genes hxtB-E. We evaluated the ability of hxtB-E to functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000 strain that is unable to grow on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose as single carbon source. In S. cerevisiae HxtB-E were targeted to the plasma membrane. The expression of HxtB, HxtC and HxtE was able to restore growth on glucose, fructose, mannose or galactose, indicating that these transporters accept multiple sugars as a substrate through an energy dependent process. A tenfold excess of unlabeled maltose, galactose, fructose, and mannose were able to inhibit glucose uptake to different levels (50 to 80 %) in these s. cerevisiae complemented strains. Moreover, experiments with cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), strongly suggest that hxtB, -C, and –E mediate glucose transport via active proton symport. The A. nidulans ΔhxtB, ΔhxtC or ΔhxtE null mutants showed ~2.5-fold reduction in the affinity for glucose, while ΔhxtB and -C also showed a 2-fold reduction in the capacity for glucose uptake. The ΔhxtD mutant had a 7.8-fold reduction in affinity, but a 3-fold increase in the capacity for glucose uptake. However, only the ΔhxtB mutant strain showed a detectable decreased rate of glucose consumption at low concentrations and an increased resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. PMID:24282591

  3. Tools for retargeting proteins within Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbulakshmi Suresh

    Full Text Available Endogenously tagging proteins with green fluorescent protein (GFP enables the visualization of the tagged protein using live cell microscopy. GFP-tagging is widely utilized to study biological processes in model experimental organisms including filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans. Many strains of A. nidulans have therefore been generated with different proteins endogenously tagged with GFP. To further enhance experimental approaches based upon GFP-tagging, we have adapted the GFP Binding Protein (GBP system for A. nidulans. GBP is a genetically encoded Llama single chain antibody against GFP which binds GFP with high affinity. Using gene replacement approaches, it is therefore possible to link GBP to anchor proteins, which will then retarget GFP-tagged proteins away from their normal location to the location of the anchor-GBP protein. To facilitate this approach in A. nidulans, we made four base plasmid cassettes that can be used to generate gene replacement GBP-tagging constructs by utilizing fusion PCR. Using these base cassettes, fusion PCR, and gene targeting approaches, we generated strains with SPA10-GBP and Tom20-GBP gene replacements. These strains enabled test targeting of GFP-tagged proteins to septa or to the surface of mitochondria respectively. SPA10-GBP is shown to effectively target GFP-tagged proteins to both forming and mature septa. Tom20-GBP has a higher capacity to retarget GFP-tagged proteins being able to relocate all Nup49-GFP from its location within nuclear pore complexes (NPCs to the cytoplasm in association with mitochondria. Notably, removal of Nup49-GFP from NPCs causes cold sensitivity as does deletion of the nup49 gene. The cassette constructs described facilitate experimental approaches to generate precise protein-protein linkages in fungi. The A. nidulans SPA10-GBP and Tom20-GBP strains can be utilized to modulate other GFP-tagged proteins of interest.

  4. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  5. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate taxonomy or uncertain nomenclature of these genera can therefore lead to tremendous confusion. Misidentification of strains used in biotechnology can be traced back to (1) recent changes in nomenclature, (2) new taxonomic insights, including description of new species, and/or (3) incorrect identifications. Changes in the recent published International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants will lead to numerous name changes of existing Aspergillus and Penicillium species and an overview of the current names of biotechnological important species is given. Furthermore, in (biotechnological) literature old and invalid names are still used, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. foetidus, A. kawachii, Talaromyces emersonii, Acremonium cellulolyticus, and Penicillium funiculosum. An overview of these and other species with their correct names is presented. Furthermore, the biotechnologically important species Talaromyces thermophilus is here combined in Thermomyces as Th. dupontii. The importance of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and related genera is also illustrated by the high number of undertaken genome sequencing projects. A number of these strains are incorrectly identified or atypical strains are selected for these projects. Recommendations for correct strain selection are given here. Phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between the genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. Talaromyces stipitatus and T. marneffei (syn. Penicillium marneffei) are closely related to Thermomyces lanuginosus and Th. dupontii (syn. Talaromyces thermophilus), and these species appear to be distantly related to Aspergillus and Penicillium. In the last part of

  6. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods...... of approximately 6% of the strains. None of the other species in the black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. One strain (NRRL 337), called the “food fungus”, because it is used for single cell protein based on cheap growth substrates, produced both fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Industrial citric acid producers...

  8. Emergence of hand contamination with Aspergillus during demolition work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunat, Lisiane; Ahmed-Lecheheb, Djihane; Hartemann, Philippe; Hunter, Paul R; Hautemanière, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Hand rubbing with hydro-alcoholic solutions prevent the exogenous nosocomial infection, but the hydro-alcoholic solutions were not sporicidal. A major program of demolition was organized on the area of the University Hospital of Nancy (France) between 2007 and 2010, and this period is often considered as a possible source of suspending Aspergillus spores. This study shows the emergence of Aspergillus on the hands of the medical students during demolition period despite the same quality of hand hygiene. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2001-01-01

    of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and pectin...... lyase A (pelA) and Agaricus bisporus 28S rRNA genes, which were used as probes in the RFLP analysis, revealed clear polymorphism between these two taxa. The A. niger pkiA and pelA probes placed six strains in an A. japonicus group and 12 isolates in an A. aculeatus group, which exhibited intraspecific...

  10. Aqueous extracts of Tulbaghia violacea inhibit germination of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somai, Benesh Munilal; Belewa, Vuyokazi

    2011-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are important plant pathogens and causal agents of pre- and postharvest rots of corn, peanuts, and tree nuts. These fungal pathogens cause significant crop losses and produce aflatoxins, which contaminate many food products and contribute to liver cancer worldwide. Aqueous preparations of Tulbaghia violacea (wild garlic) were antifungal and at 10 mg/ml resulted in sustained growth inhibition of greater than 50% for both A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Light microscopy revealed that the plant extract inhibited conidial germination in a dose-dependent manner. When exposed to T. violacea extract concentrations of 10 mg/ml and above, A. parasiticus conidia began germinating earlier and germination was completed before that of A. flavus, indicating that A. parasiticus conidia were more resistant to the antifungal effects of T. violacea than were A. flavus conidia. At a subinhibitory extract dose of 15 mg/ml, hyphae of both fungal species exhibited increased granulation and vesicle formation, possibly due to increased reactivity between hyphal cellular components and T. violacea extract. These hyphal changes were not seen when hyphae were formed in the absence of the extract. Transmission electron microscopy revealed thickening of conidial cell walls in both fungal species when grown in the presence of the plant extract. Cell walls of A. flavus also became considerably thicker than those of A. parasiticus, indicating differential response to the extract. Aqueous preparations of T. violacea can be used as antifungal treatments for the control of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Because the extract exhibited a more pronounced effect on A. flavus than on A. parasiticus, higher doses may be needed for control of A. parasiticus infections.

  11. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  12. Role of germination in murine airway CD8+ T-cell responses to Aspergillus conidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P Templeton

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus has been associated with morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. A. fumigatus conidia produce β-glucan, proteases, and other immunostimulatory factors upon germination. Murine models have shown that the ability of A. fumigatus to germinate at physiological temperature may be an important factor that facilitates invasive disease. We observed a significant increase in IFN-γ-producing CD8(+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of immunocompetent mice that repeatedly aspirated A. fumigatus conidia in contrast to mice challenged with A. versicolor, a species that is not typically associated with invasive, disseminated disease. Analysis of tissue sections indicated the presence of germinating spores in the lungs of mice challenged with A. fumigatus, but not A. versicolor. Airway IFN-γ(+CD8(+ T-cells were decreased and lung germination was eliminated in mice that aspirated A. fumigatus conidia that were formaldehyde-fixed or heat-inactivated. Furthermore, A. fumigatus particles exhibited greater persistence in the lungs of recipient mice when compared to non-viable A. fumigatus or A. versicolor, and this correlated with increased maintenance of airway memory-phenotype CD8(+ T cells. Therefore, murine airway CD8(+ T cell-responses to aspiration of Aspergillus conidia may be mediated in part by the ability of conidia to germinate in the host lung tissue. These results provide further evidence of induction of immune responses to fungi based on their ability to invade host tissue.

  13. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  14. Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2009-01-01

    , splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window...... size on single local networks for training, to cover both donor and acceptor site information. We have applied NetAspGene to other Aspergilli, including Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger. Evaluation with independent data sets reveal that NetAspGene performs substantially...... better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene....

  15. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.J.L.; Prathumpai, W.; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their

  16. Biosynthesis of phytases and phosphatases by Aspergillus niger 551

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARyw

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Key words: Aspergillus niger, phytase, phosphatase, amylase, protease, starch. ... biological production of phytases is of great significance in research. The researchers focus their attention mainly on finding appropriate strains and on their ... substrate, 200 μl of the enzyme extract and 200 μl 25 mMol of.

  17. Nutritional Evaluation of Graded Levels of Aspergillus-treated Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) goats were fed untreated (control diet A with 30% inclusion level) and Aspergillus treated diet, B (10%) and diet C (20%) in total mixed rations. The effect of treatment was evaluated on feed intake, digestibility, BW and growth rate. Fungus-treated rice husk appeared to be well ...

  18. Production and partial purification of glucoamylase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Glucoamylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses 1,4α and 1,6β-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides yielding glucose. Aspergillus niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were locally isolated from cassava peel dumpsite for the production of glucoamylase enzyme. A. niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were screened for their hyper.

  19. Production and partial purification of glucoamylase from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucoamylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses 1,4α and 1,6β-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides yielding glucose. Aspergillus niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were locally isolated from cassava peel dumpsite for the production of glucoamylase enzyme. A. niger strains 1, 2 and 3 were screened for their hyper producing ability on ...

  20. Biomodification of palm shell activated carbon using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solutions using commercial untreated granular palm shell activated carbon (PSAC) and PSAC biomodified with Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger biomass, respectively, was studied. The adsorption capacity of the three biosorbents was evaluated in batch adsorption experiments at ...

  1. Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrolysis of raw tuber starches by amylase of Aspergillus niger AM07 isolated from the soil. ... The crude amylase preparation of A. niger AM07 had temperature and pH optima activities at 60oC and 4.0 respectively. The optimum substrate concentration was 3 %. The action of the crude amylase of A. niger on raw tuber ...

  2. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory

  3. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    . We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and Gen...

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Sexual Sporulation Mutants of Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, K.; Heemst, van D.; Slakhorst, M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Heyting, C.

    2001-01-01

    For the genetic dissection of sexual sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans, we started a collection of ascosporeless mutants. After mutagenization of conidiospores with high doses of UV, we isolated 20 mutants with defects in ascospore formation. We crossed these mutants in two successive rounds with

  5. Effect Of Laboratory Produced Xylanase From Aspergillus niger On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of laboratory produced xylanase enzyme from Aspergillus niger on highly fibrous feeds and feedstuffs was investigated. Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) from grass hay and rice husk (Oryza sativa) from crop by-product characterised with high fibre content served as substrates (Feeds and Feedstuffs) for the ...

  6. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and Biotechnology, Vol. 85, pp. 869-883. Bizukojc M. and Ledakowicz S. 2009. Physiological, morphological and kinetic aspects of lovastatin biosynthesis by. Aspergillus terreus. Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4, pp. 647–664. Casas Lopez J. L., Sanchez Perez J.A., Fernandez Sevilla J.M., Acien Fernandez F. G. et al. 2003.

  7. Dynamics of dsRNA mycoviruses in black Aspergillus population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 10% of all examined 668 representatives of black Aspergillus species, independent of worldwide location, were infected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses. These isometric viruses (25-40 nm diameter) contained a variety of often multiple segments of different dsRNA sizes

  8. Dynamics of dsRNA mycoviruses in black Aspergillus populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Debets, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Approximately 10% of all examined 668 representatives of black Aspergillus species, independent of worldwide location, were infected with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses. These isometric viruses (25-40 nm diameter) contained a variety of often multiple segments of different dsRNA sizes

  9. Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus flavus on stored lemon fruits. ... Erwinia chrysanthemi RK-67 and Bacillus subtilis RK-6 treatments reduced disease severity on both lemon cultivars. Furthermore, both the cell suspension and culture filtrates of Burkholderia cepacia strain RK- 277 reduced ...

  10. Control of Aspergillus niger with garlic, onion and leek extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... Condiments Chemistry,Microbiology ,Technology.Academic Press,. San Fransisco,pp 35-305. Rasooli I, Abyaneh MR (2004).Inhibitory effects of thyme oils on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Food Control. 15: 479-483. Rivlin RS (2001). Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

  11. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... constraint of grain quality and sorghum production. Various ... respectively. Key words: Sorghum, Aspergillus flavus, AFB1, biological control. ..... J. Appl. Microbiol. 2: 297-306. Mishra HN, Chitrangada D (2003). A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 43(3): ...

  12. Lipoxygenase activity accelerates programmed spore germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory J. Fischer; William Bacon; Jun Yang; Jonathan M. Palmer; Taylor Dagenais; Bruce D. Hammock; Nancy P. Keller

    2017-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS) to germling (GL) and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of...

  13. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products. These fungi were ...

  14. Cellulase production by wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste cellulosic materials (corncob, sawdust and sugarcane pulp) and crystalline cellulose induced cellulase production in wild strains of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma harzianum isolated from a wood-waste dump in Lagos, Nigeria. Cellulose-supplemented media gave the maximum ...

  15. Cellulase and Pectinase Production Potentials of Aspergillus Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of pectinase and cellulase by Aspergillus niger from corn cob was examined. The organism was screened for enzymatic activity using Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose (CMC) and Pectin as substrate. The result revealed a clear zone of inhibition in the agar plates. The organism was subjected to different optimum ...

  16. Biotransformations of (--Myrtenol and (--Nopol by Aspergillus tamarii MRC 72400

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Yılmazer Keskin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biotransformation of (--myrtenol (1 and (--nopol (2 by Aspergillus tamarii MRC 72400 was described. The biotransformation of (--myrtenol (1 with A. tamarii for 7 days afforded (--p-menth-1-en-7,8-diol (3. The biotransformation of (--nopol (2 by A. tamarii for 7 days afforded (--7-hydroxymethyl-1-p-menthen-8-ol (4.

  17. Biosorption characteristics of Aspergillus fumigatus in removal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Key words: Biosorption, cadmium, Aspergillus fumigatus, industrial wastes, biomass. INTRODUCTION. Mobilization of heavy ... Removal of toxic heavy metals from industrial waste waters is essential from the stand point ... effects of cadmium include a number of acute and chro- nic disorders, such as itai-itai ...

  18. Extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus parasiticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The β-D-fructofuranosidases are enzymes with biotechnological potential that can be used in different industrial sectors as food and beverage. In this context, microorganisms are important producers of these biomolecules, especially filamentous fungi. The production of extracellular β-Dfructofuranosidase from Aspergillus ...

  19. The role of rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus in standing maize crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil and un-husked maize samples were collected from 29 different locations belonging to three distinct ecological zones (Swat, Hazara and Peshawar) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were evaluated for the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. The soil samples collected from Peshawar ...

  20. Genetic relationships among strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...

  1. Production of Aspergillus niger biomass from aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    single cell protein) production was investigated. Aspergillus niger was grown in unsupplemented and supplemented (glucose or nitrogen sources [(NH4)2SO4, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NH4NO3 and KNO3]) BSG liquor by submerge fermentation on rotary ...

  2. Aflatoxin B 1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) producing potential of different strains of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from 1,200 stored rice grains collected from 43 locations in 20 rice growing states in India was investigated. Eighty-five strains of A. flavus were isolated from the discolored rice grains and tested for their AFB1 producing potential on ...

  3. Inhibiting Aspergillus flavus growth and degrading aflatoxin B1 by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a type of toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, which has a negative effect on animal production and economic profits. In order to inhibit A. flavus growth and degrade aflatoxin, the optimal proportion of beneficial microbes such as Lactobacillus casei, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia anomala were selected.

  4. Optimization of chloroxylenol degradation by Aspergillus niger using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroxylenol is a very toxic phenolic derivative and it represents potential hazard towards human health and to the environment. Aspergillus niger, local isolate, is an efficient fungus to degrade 99.72% of 2 mg/L of chloroxylenol after 7 days of fermentation. It also has a high capacity to degrade 91.83% of higher ...

  5. epi-Aszonalenins A, B, and C from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Three new benzodiazepines have been isolated from an unusual chemotype of Aspergillus novofumigatus: epi-aszonalenins A, B, and C. The structures were elucidated by use of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR ESI MS. The relative configuration was established on the basis...

  6. Induction, characterization and genetic analysis of Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aspergillus flavus infection of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) results in the accumulation of aflatoxins in seeds, which are very harmful to humans and animals. Mutation breeding programs are an effective way of inducing resistant mutants. In this study, we induced a genetic variation by using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) ...

  7. Cellulase Production by Aspergillus flavus Linn Isolate NSPR 101 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagasse, corncob and sawdust were used as lignocellulosic substrates for the production of cellulase enzyme using Aspergillus flavus after ballmilling and pretreatment with caustic soda. From the fermentation studies, sawdust gave the best result with an enzyme activity value of 0.0743IU/ml while bagasse and corncob ...

  8. Optimization for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using saw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellulases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes and are capable of degrading lignocellulosic materials. Cellulases have wide range of applications. This work focuses on factors relevant for improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis of saw dust by using Aspergillus niger. Different cultural conditions were examined to assess their ...

  9. RNA interference-mediated control of Aspergillus flavus in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus is a frequent contaminant of agricultural commodities such as corn, peanut, tree nuts and cottonseed. Ingestion of foods, especially corn, contaminated with aflatoxins has been implicated in acute toxicoses while chronic, low-level exposure can lead to...

  10. Aspergillus flavus infection on preserved Eel (Thysoidea macrurus)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.; Samuel, C.T.

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus was observed growing on a 2.1 m long specimen of eel (Thyrsoidea macrurus). Half of the eel was submerged in 5% formalin in a loosely covered specimen jar. The fungus grew on the eel skin as yellowish-green, heavily...

  11. Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Helga; Ozcelik, İlknur Ş; Hofmann, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi. It was the first Aspergillus species to have its genome sequenced, and automated gene prediction tools predicted 9,451 open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, of which less than 10% were assigned...

  12. Culture conditions for the production of a tannase of Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Key words: Tannin, tannase, tannic acid, methyl gallate, Aspergillus tamari IMI388810 (B), Oji River L.G.A.,. Enugu, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... the remaining tannins or its degradation products which are not detoxified by the ..... Chemistry and Significance of Condensed tannins. Ed. Hemingway. RW and ...

  13. Nitrogen supplements effect on amylase production by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of amylase by Aspergillus niger on three cassava whey media in liquid shake culture was compared. The supplemented cassava whey (SCW) medium exhibited gave amylase activity of 495 U/ml. Biomass cropped was 1.63 g/l in the SCW medium. Yeast extract employed as a nitrogen supplement increased ...

  14. Comparison of kinetic characteristics of xylanases from Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAB

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Camacho NA, Aguilar OG (2003). Production, purification, and characterization of a low-molecular-mass xylanase from Aspergillus sp. and its application in baking. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 104: 159-171. Castellan G (1986). Fundamentos de físico-química. Livros Técnicos e. Científicos, Rio de Janeiro, ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus oryzae Strain 3.042

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yao, Yunping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Chunling; Hou, LiHua; Zeng, Bin; Cao, Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is the most important fungus for the traditional fermentation in China and is particularly important in soy sauce fermentation. We report the 36,547,279-bp draft genome sequence of A. oryzae 3.042 and compared it to the published genome sequence of A. oryzae RIB40.

  16. Evaluation of the detection techniques of toxigenic Aspergillus isolates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These methods rely on using different types of coconut culture media, methylated â-cyclodextrin and ammonium hydroxide vapour tests. However, our results showed that use of these techniques were not sufficiently sensitive for all Aspergillus species and suggested a simple thin layer chromatography (TLC) as a sensitive ...

  17. Modern taxonomy of biotechnologically important Aspergillus and Penicillium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, Jos; de Vries, Ronald P; Samson, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomy is a dynamic discipline and name changes of fungi with biotechnological, industrial, or medical importance are often difficult to understand for researchers in the applied field. Species belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are commonly used or isolated, and inadequate

  18. Population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus following biocontrol treatment of corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen of many agronomically important crops worldwide. We sampled A. flavus strains from a cornfield in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, over a period of two years. The field was planted in 2010 and plots were inoculated at tasselling with either AF36 or NRRL 21882 (=Af...

  19. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet...

  20. Separation and identification of exo- and endoinulinase from Aspergillus ficuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wang; Zhengyu, Jin; Bo, Jiang; Xueming, Xu

    2003-08-01

    A new and convenient method was developed to separate and identify exo- and endoinulinase from Aspergillus ficuum by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Eight protein bands were obtained. Three bands were identified as exoinulinase, and two bands were endoinulinase, by using TLC and HPLC. The five bands were all detected as glycoproteins with the sensitive periodic acid-silver stain.

  1. Maturation of conidia on conidiophores of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, Wieke R.; Tegelaar, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Golovina, Elena A.; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Conidia of Aspergillus niger are produced on conidiophores. Here, maturation of conidia on these asexual reproductive structures was studied. Pigmented conidia that had developed on conidiophores for 2, 5, and 8 days were similarly resistant to heat and were metabolically active as shown by CO2

  2. Assessment of Aspergillus niger biofilm growth kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 was grown on bubble minicolumns aerated with pure oxygen either as biofilm or free-mycelium submerged systems. Growth kinetics was followed by estimating biomass from released carbon dioxide using a titration method and mathematical models. Submerged cultures showed increased ...

  3. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.

  4. Emerging infections caused by non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A P; Chen, S C-A; Slavin, M A

    2016-08-01

    There are three broad groups of non-Aspergillus moulds: the mucormycetes, the hyalohyphomycetes and the phaeohyphomycetes. Infections with these pathogens are increasingly reported, particularly in the context of increasing use of immunosuppressant agents and improved diagnostics. The epidemiology of non-Aspergillus mould infections varies with geography, climate and level of immunosuppression. Skin and soft-tissue infections are the predominant presentation in the immunocompetent host and pulmonary and other invasive infections in the immunocompromised host. The more common non-Aspergillus moulds include Rhizopus, Mucor, Fusarium and Scedosporium species; however, other emerging pathogens are Rasamsonia and Verruconis species, which are discussed in this article. Outbreaks of non-Aspergillus mould infections have been increasingly reported, with contaminated medical supplies and natural disasters as common sources. Currently culture and other conventional diagnostic methods are the cornerstone of diagnosis. Molecular methods to directly detect and identify mould pathogens in tissue and body fluids are increasingly used. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination of peanut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under certain conditions Aspergillus plants and produce aflatoxin, one of the most highly carcinogenic natural substances known. An ongoing project seeks to reduce aflatoxin contamination of peanut (Arachis hypogae L.). This paper describes new research tools, which have been developed to reach this goal.

  6. Partially purified polygalacturonase from Aspergillus niger (SA6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polygalacturonase (PG) was isolated from Aspergillus niger (A. niger) (SA6), partially purified and characterized. The PG showed two bands on SDS-PAGE suggesting an “endo and exo PG with apparent molecular weights of 35 and 40 KDa, respectively. It was purified 9-fold with a yield of 0.18% and specific activity of 246 ...

  7. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regard...

  8. Protective role of Aspergillus fumigatus melanin against ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanin content increased in Aspergillus fumigatus mycelium exposed to ultraviolet for 10 min but gradually decreased after 60 min of UV exposure. So, it can be concluded that melanin protects fungus for survival until 60 min which was obvious after studying conidia and mycelia by transmission electron microscope (TEM).

  9. Rhizospheric Aspergillus flavus as a Possible Contaminant of Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemist

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Soil and un-husked maize samples were collected from 29 different locations belonging to three distinct ecological zones (Swat, Hazara and Peshawar) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The samples were evaluated for the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. The soil samples collected.

  10. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... rice cultivars tested. Key words: Rice, Aspergillus flavus, AFB1. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important staple food crop in India and the bulk of rice is grown in ... storehouse was a mixture of 10 sub-samples (200 g each). Such ..... estimated in 11 cultivars of rice and 6 cultivars of wheat.

  11. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  12. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01


    Introduction

    This manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces

  13. Biological control of post harvest disease caused by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic activity of 24 selected bacterial strains detected by previous microbiological studies to Aspergillus flavus was tested in vitro and in vivo conditions. Within 24 strains, only ten strains showed remarkable inhibition zone (6-34 mm) against the pathogen in assays carried out in Petri plates. Both cell suspension and ...

  14. Nutrient effects on production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucosidase) by Aspergillus niger on three media in liquid shake culture was compared. The culture filtrate of this organism exhibited relatively highest activity of all three enzymes and extracellular protein content at 7-day interval during the course of its ...

  15. Fermentatative production of itaconic acid by Aspergillus terreus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was carried out using jatropha seed cake. Itaconic acid is commercially produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus terreus with molasses. Jatropha seed cake is one of the best carbon sources among various carbohydrates, because it is pure, inexpensive and available ...

  16. Onset of carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipphi, M.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Ruijter, G.J.G.; Visser, J.; Arst Jr., H.N.; Felenbok, B.

    2003-01-01

    The role of hexose phosphorylating enzymes in the signaling of carbon catabolite repression was investigated in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A D-fructose non-utilizing, hexokinase-deficient (hxkA1, formerly designated frA1) strain was utilized to obtain new mutants lacking either

  17. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... This study, therefore explored the potential use of certain biocontrol agents for the reduction of growth of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production in sorghum. Among all the biocontrol agents tested, culture filtrate of Rhodococcus erythropolis completely inhibited the A.

  18. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  19. Evaluation of xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being present in relatively low amounts, pentosans and hemicelluloses play an important role in dough rheology and bread properties. The aim of this work is to understand how the xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. influence dough rheology, such as elasticity, extensibility, strength and stability.

  20. Culture conditions for the production of a tannase of Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Aspergillus tamarii IMI388810 (B) a tannic acid degrading fungus was isolated from soil inundated by effluent of a tannery at Oji River local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. It was identified by. CABI Bioscience, United Kingdom as A. tamarii with accession number of IMI 388810 (B). This fungus.

  1. Organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to increase the understanding of organic acid production in Aspergillus niger and other filamentous fungi, with the ultimate purpose to improve A. niger as biotechnological production host. In Chapter 1, the use of microbial cell-factories for the

  2. High-level lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study evaluated lipase production by Aspergillus candidus URM 5611 through solid state fermentation (SSF) by using almond bran licuri as a new substrate. The microorganism produced high levels of the enzyme (395.105 U gds-1), thus surpassing those previously reported in the literature. The variable ...

  3. Single cell protein extraction from orange wastes using Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOW) and orange pulp wastes (OPW) using Aspergillus niger isolate No. 5 by solid state fermentation. Maximum protein enrichment of 52.48% and 46.50% were made using the substrates of SOW and OPW, respectively, on the seventh day of ...

  4. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    application. Key words: Lipase, purification, Aspergillus flavus PW2961, magnetic nanoparticles.______. Correspondence: sharafkareem@yahoo.co.uk ..... in solid state fermentation. Process Biochem. 38(5): 715-721. Okoli, C., Boutonnet, M., Mariey, L., Jaras, S. And Rajarao, G. (2011). Application of magnetic iron oxide ...

  5. Structure and activity of Aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrath, Aaron P; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Collyer, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (ANAO) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. We show here that in common with the related...

  6. Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov., from traditional meju in Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Lee, M.; Kim, D.H.; Meijer, M.; Majoor, E.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5–5.5 μm)

  7. Heavy metal biosorption potential of Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two isolates belonging to the predominant genera Aspergillus and Rhizopus isolated from agricultural field treated with sewage/ industrial effluents were selected for the biosorption potential evaluation of Cr and Cd. Pretreated, dead biomass of above fungi was used for bioadsorption experiment at pH value 4.5 with the ...

  8. Effects Of Solid State Fermentation By Aspergillus niger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fermentation and incubated for O (control), 4,8 and 10 days to evaluate the changes in crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid ... inoculation of Cassava peel meal (CPM) with Aspergillus niger, the crude protein increased from 3.50% to 7.0% and to 5.25% on inoculation with Rhizopus spp.

  9. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and thei...

  10. Efficient production of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokman, B.C.; Joosten, V.; Hovenkamp, J.; Gouka, R.J.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2003-01-01

    The heterologous production of Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) was analysed in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori under control of the inducible endoxylanase promoter. Secretion of active ARP was achieved up to 800 mg l-1 in shake flask cultures. Western blot analysis showed that an

  11. Production of Xylanase from Aspergillus sydowii Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Xylanase from Aspergillus sydowii Isolated from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango) Fruit. ... The overall best enzyme productivities of 97.8 and 92.6 U/mg protein were achieved after 72 h in the medium containing orange peel and mango peel respectively. These levels were much higher than that achieved ...

  12. Expression and secretion of defined cutinase variants by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemeren, I.A. van; Beijersbergen, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Several cutinase variants derived by molecular modelling and site- directed mutagenesis of a cutinase gene from Fusarium solani pisi are poorly secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The majority of these variants are successfully produced by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori. However, the

  13. Oxidant and solvent stable alkaline protease from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in agricultural practices has necessitated the judicious use of agricultural wastes into value added products. In this study, an extracellular, organic solvent and oxidant stable, serine protease was produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9952 under solid state fermentation. Maximum protease yield was obtained ...

  14. Mannitol is required for stress tolerance in Aspergillus niger conidiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, G.J.G.; Bax, M.; Patel, H.; Flitter, S.J.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Vries, de R.P.; Kuyk, van P.A.; Visser, J.

    2003-01-01

    D-Mannitol is the predominant carbon compound in conidiospores of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and makes up 10 to 15% of the dry weight. A number of physiological functions have been ascribed to mannitol, including serving as a reserve carbon source, as an antioxidant, and to store

  15. Identification of resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection in cotton germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural resistance of in cottonseed to Aspergillus flavus infection has not been explored to date. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing -70 strain was used to assess the resistance of seed from thirty five35 cotton varieties including representatives from Gossypium arboreum, G. barbadense, a...

  16. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  17. A novel pig feed formulation containing Aspergillus niger CSA35 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of Aspergillus niger CSA35 pretreated-cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peel feed (CPFG) on the body weight gain and some selected biochemical parameters of pigs. Cassava peels treated with biomass of A. niger CSA35 for a period of three weeks to initiate enzymatic digestion of ...

  18. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  19. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out,

  20. Pectinolytic complex production by Aspergillus niger URM 4645 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... ... Yadav PK, Yadav D, Yadav KDS (2009). Purification and characterization of pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus terricola and its application in retting of natural fibers. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 159: 270-283. Zenebon O, Pascuet NS (2005). Métodos físico-químicos para análise de alimentos (4th ed.).

  1. Comparison of fermentation profiles between lupine and soybean by Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae in solid-state culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    1998-01-01

    To explore the possibilities of using lupine as a soybean replacement in fermented foods, fermentation profiles of lupine and soybean by Aspergillus oryzae and A. sojae, respectively, in a solid-state culture were compared. Biomass, spore concentration, oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide

  2. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Chung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxybenzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxybenzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  3. Aspergillus otitis in small animals--a retrospective study of 17 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Elizabeth C; Outerbridge, Catherine A; White, Stephen D

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus spp. are saprophytic opportunistic fungal organisms and are a common cause of otomycosis in humans. Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing Aspergillus otitis in dogs and cats. To characterize signalment, putative risk factors, treatments and outcomes of a case series of dogs and cats with Aspergillus otitis. Eight dogs and nine cats diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis. A retrospective review of medical records from 1989 to 2014 identified animals diagnosed with Aspergillus otitis based on culture. All dogs weighed greater than 23 kg. The most common putative risk factors identified in this study were concurrent diseases, therapy causing immunosuppression or a history of an otic foreign body. Aspergillus otitis was unilateral in all study dogs and most cats. Concurrent otitis media was confirmed in three dogs and one cat, and suspected in two additional cats. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common isolate overall and was the dominant isolate in cats. Aspergillus niger and A. terreus were more commonly isolated from dogs. Animals received various topical and systemic antifungal medications; however, otic lavage under anaesthesia and/or surgical intervention increased the likelihood of resolution of the fungal infection. Aspergillus otitis is uncommon, typically seen as unilateral otitis externa in cats and larger breed dogs with possible risk factors that include immunosuppression and otic foreign bodies; previous antibiotic usage was common. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. [Indoor fungal exposure: What impact on clinical and biological status regarding Aspergillus during cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, D; Deneuville, E; Frain, S; Chevrier, S; Belaz, S; Roussey, M; Gangneux, J-P

    2015-06-01

    The sources of exposure during diseases due to Aspergillus fungi in cystic fibrosis patients are still poorly explored. We assessed home fungal exposure in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and analysed its impact on the presence of Aspergillus biological markers, the colonisation of airways, as well as the sensitization and Aspergillus serology. Between March 2012 and August 2012, 34 patients benefited from a visit performed by a home environment medical adviser including sampling for mycological analysis. The number of colonies of Aspergillus was not significantly different in the various sampling sites (P=0.251), but the number of non-Aspergillus colonies was much higher in the kitchen (P=0.0045). Subsequently, home fungal exposure was compared between the groups "absence of Aspergillus-related markers" and "presence of Aspergillus-related markers". Home exposure to Aspergillus (P=0.453) and non-Aspergillus (P=0.972) flora was not significant between the 2 groups. Within this series of 34 patients that should be expanded, we note an absence of clear relationship between home exposure and the Aspergillus-linked markers in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. This result should be taken into account regarding too restrictive hygiene advices provided to families, given the fact that fungal exposure can also results from activities performed away from home. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ribosomal subunit protein typing using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification and discrimination of Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sayaka; Sato, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Reiko; Kusuya, Yoko; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2017-04-26

    Accurate identification of Aspergillus species is a very important subject. Mass spectral fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is generally employed for the rapid identification of fungal isolates. However, the results are based on simple mass spectral pattern-matching, with no peak assignment and no taxonomic input. We propose here a ribosomal subunit protein (RSP) typing technique using MALDI-TOF MS for the identification and discrimination of Aspergillus species. The results are concluded to be phylogenetic in that they reflect the molecular evolution of housekeeping RSPs. The amino acid sequences of RSPs of genome-sequenced strains of Aspergillus species were first verified and compared to compile a reliable biomarker list for the identification of Aspergillus species. In this process, we revealed that many amino acid sequences of RSPs (about 10-60%, depending on strain) registered in the public protein databases needed to be corrected or newly added. The verified RSPs were allocated to RSP types based on their mass. Peak assignments of RSPs of each sample strain as observed by MALDI-TOF MS were then performed to set RSP type profiles, which were then further processed by means of cluster analysis. The resulting dendrogram based on RSP types showed a relatively good concordance with the tree based on β-tubulin gene sequences. RSP typing was able to further discriminate the strains belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati. The RSP typing method could be applied to identify Aspergillus species, even for species within section Fumigati. The discrimination power of RSP typing appears to be comparable to conventional β-tubulin gene analysis. This method would therefore be suitable for species identification and discrimination at the strain to species level. Because RSP typing can characterize the strains within section Fumigati, this method has potential as a powerful and reliable tool in

  6. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  7. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  8. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B[sub 1] and G[sub 1] with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author).

  9. Cadmium biosorption by Aspergillus niger; Biossorcao de cadmio pelo Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmilson@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)

  10. Aspergillus endocarditis presenting as acute right lower limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ghosh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Corrigendum: On 31/10/2013 the name of the author K. Shah was corrected to read K. Saha.Aspergillus endocarditis is an 2nd most common cause of endocarditis having poor prognosis. We report a rare case of fungal endocarditis following cardiac valve replacement presenting as acute pain in the right lower limb. Embolism and endocarditis were primarily detected by CT angiography and echocardiography respectively. Diagnosis was established by histopathology and culture of the emboli and was confirmed later by isolation of the Aspergillus species from the resected valve tissue. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.9002   Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013 Vol. 3, 502-504

  11. Decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X J; Du, Z Y; Chen, Z

    2001-10-01

    The decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum has been studied. It was found that Aspergillus ficuum could effectively decolorize Direct Black 22 especially when grown as pelleted mycelia. Results showed that the media containing Direct Black 22 at 50 mg/L could be decolorized by 98.05% of the initial color in 24 h. The optimum pH and temperature of decolorization are 4.0 and 33 degrees C respectively. Aeration was quite beneficial to decolorization. Medium composition and the concentration of Direct Black 22 could affect the rate of decolorization. The dye degraded products assayed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and macroscopic observation showed that the decolorization of Direct Black 22 by mycelial pellets includes two important processes: bioadsorption and biodegradation. The degradation experiment agree with the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation.

  12. [Aspergillus species in hospital environments with pediatric patients in critical condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariana; Cattana, María; Rojas, Florencia; Sosa, María de Los Ángeles; Aguirre, Clarisa; Vergara, Marta; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus is a group of opportunistic fungi that cause infections, with high morbimortality in immunosuppressed patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent species in these infections, although the incidence of other species has increased in the last few years. To evaluate the air fungal load and the diversity of Aspergillus species in hospitals with pediatric patients in critical condition. The Intensive Care Unit and Burns Unit of a pediatric hospital were sampled every 15 days during the autumn and spring seasons. The air samples were collected with SAS Super 100(®) and the surface samples were collected by swab method. The UFC/m(3) counts found exceeded the acceptable levels. The UFC/m(3) and the diversity of Aspergillus species found in the Intensive Care Unit were higher than those found in the Burns Unit. The fungal load and the diversity of species within the units were higher than those in control environments. The use of both methods -SAS and swab- allowed the detection of a higher diversity of species, with 96 strains of Aspergillus being isolated and 12 species identified. The outstanding findings were Aspergillus sydowii, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus parasiticus, due to their high frequency. Aspergillus fumigatus, considered unacceptable in indoor environments, was isolated in both units. Aspergillus was present with high frequency in these units. Several species are of interest in public health for being potential pathogenic agents. Air control and monitoring are essential in the prevention of these infections. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  14. Studies on the Production of Pectinase from Tamarind Kernel Powder by Submerged Fermentation using Aspergillus Species,and Optimization of Medium Using Design Expert

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, R.; JagadeeshBabu, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    Six strains of filamentous fungi (Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 505, Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 510, Aspergillus foetidus NCIM 1027, Aspergillus niger NCIM 548, Aspergillus niger NCIM 616 and Aspergillus awamorii NCIM 885) were compared for their capacity to produce exo-pectinase in submerged fermentation (SMF) from a new substrate (tamarind kernel powder; TKP). Maximum pectinolytic activity was reached at 72 h of growth, the best fungal strain being A. foetidus NCIM 505. Different types of car...

  15. Diketopiperazines produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus Brazilian strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Niege A.J.C; Pupo, Monica T.; Carvalho, Ivone; Campo, Vanessa L. Campo; Bastos, Jairo K. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: jkbastos@fcfrp.usp.br; Duarte, Marta Cristina T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2005-11-15

    Seven diketopiperazines, corresponding to the cycles (L)-Pro-(L)-Phe, (L)-Pro-Gly, (L)-Pro- (L)-Pro, (L)-Pro-(L)-Val, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Leu, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Phe, and (L)-Pro-(L)-Leu, were isolated from the Aspergillus fumigatus fermentation broth. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were determined on the basis of NOESY experiments and by using a modified version of Marfey's method using HPLC, respectively. (author)

  16. Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara Srikanth Reddy; Devi Chendira Penmmaiah; Alugolu Rajesh; Madhusudan Patil

    2014-01-01

    Background: A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. Case Description: We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. ...

  17. Biosynthesis of phytases and phosphatases by Aspergillus niger 551

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the Aspergillus niger 551 strain to produce phytases and phosphatases in 24 days shake cultures at a pH adjusted to 5.5 and a changing (uncontrolled) pH, in a medium containing 0.5% of glucose and 4% of starch. The fermentation process of the culture performed ...

  18. Purification and Characterization of Lipase from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipase from Aspergillus flavus was purified in a single step purification using MnFeO4 magnetic nano particles to achieve a 20.53- fold purification with specific activity of 11.29 U/mg and a 59% recovery yield. SDS-PAGE of lipase showed a single pure band with corresponding molecular weight of 35 kDa. The optimal ...

  19. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Zomorodian, K.; Pourshahid, S; Sadatsharifi, A; Mehryar, P; Pakshir, K.; Rahimi, MJ; Monfared, AA

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in ...

  20. Aspergillus tamarii keratitis in a contact lens wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cuadros

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Keratitis produced by Aspergillus tamarii has been previously described associated to an ocular injury. We report a case in a contact lens wearer with a history of previous bilateral myopic LASIK ablation, bilateral intracorneal rings and vitrectomy and scleral buckling in his left eye. The fungus could be quickly identified combining phenotype, microscopy and mass spectrometry. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin, oral voriconazole, and topical amphotericin and natamycin and voriconazole was needed for corneal preservation.

  1. Visual failure in allergic aspergillus sinusitis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, I. S.; Billson, F. A.

    1988-01-01

    We present a case of rapid progressive unilateral visual loss in a 69-year-old woman who presented with facial pain, ipsilateral proptosis and restriction of eye movements, and nasal symptoms suggestive of sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic aspergillus sinusitis was made on the basis of local histopathology and systemic features. Over a three-week period vision deteriorated to bare perception of light but showed a dramatic improvement to a level of 6/9 central vision on systemic steroid thera...

  2. Optimization of phytase production from potato waste using Aspergillus ficuum

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Mengmeng; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) can divert food waste from landfills and produce high-value products. This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of using SSF and optimize the conditions of production of phytase by Aspergillus ficuum from potato waste. Different parameters including pH of the potato waste, inoculum level, moisture content, incubation period, temperature, and supplementary nitrogen and carbon sources were evaluated. The results indicated that pH, inoculum level, and moi...

  3. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    . flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different...... species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...

  4. Optimization of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    H.R Samadlouie; Sh Gharanjik

    2015-01-01

    Among the various fungal strains screened for citric acid production, Aspergillus niger is known to produce considerable amounts of citric acid and other organic acids when cultivated in submerge fermentation. In this study, optimization of the medium components was carried out using "one-factor-at-a-time" and response surface methods (RSM). One-factor-at-a-time indicated that the amount of citric acid production was increased along with the increasing of agitation speed (from 150 to 200 rpm)...

  5. Aconitase and citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubicek, C P; Röhr, M

    1985-01-01

    In view of the often-cited theory that citric acid accumulation is caused by an inhibition of aconitase activity, the equilibrium of the reaction of aconitase was investigated by comparing in vivo steady-state concentrations of citrate and isocitrate in Aspergillus niger grown under various citric acid-producing conditions. With the equilibrium catalyzed by the A. niger enzyme in vitro, similar values were obtained. The validity of our in vivo measurements was verified by the addition of the ...

  6. Interference of Griseofulvin with the Segregation of Chromosomes at Mitosis in Diploid Aspergillus nidulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappas, A.; Georgopoulos, S. G.

    1974-01-01

    Low concentrations of the antibiotic griseofulvin were found to cause increased frequencies of somatic segregation due to chromosome nondisjunction in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans. PMID:4600705

  7. Physicochemical Properties Analysis and Secretome of Aspergillus niger in Fermented Rapeseed Meal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Changyou; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    .... To further understand possible mechanism of solid state fermentation, the composition of extracellular enzymes secreted by Aspergillus niger during fermentation was analysed using two-dimentional...

  8. Production and Purification of Peroxidase from Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Jebor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the laboratories of Biology Department, College of Science, which deals with isolation and purification of peroxidase and optimization of process parameters to achieve maximum yield of peroxidase by Aspergillus niger. Solid-state fermentation of Aspergillus niger was carried out for enhanced production of peroxidase using hydrogen peroxide as the substrate of enzyme maximum activity of the enzyme was achieved under optimum growth conditions. The optimum conditions were the isolated of Aspergillus niger from soil and growth in synthetic medium, it gave high titer of peroxidase activity, the fructose as carbon source, peptone as nitrogen source, after 12 days of incubation, incubation temperature 25 °C and pH = 6.5. Peroxidase purified in four purification steps; precipitation with 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate, step of dialysis, the third by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Cellulose and fourth by gel filtration throughout Sephadex G-100. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 150U/mg with 7.75 folds. The peroxidase was shown to have molecular weight of 40kDa in SDS-PAGA and about 40kDa in gel filtration.The optimum pH and temperature for peroxidase activity 7 and 35 C0 respectively.

  9. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The obje......Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products....... The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have...... isolation of 47 black Aspergilli, who all turned out to be A. acidus and did not produce neither ochratoxin or fumonisins, no significant risk from these toxins were associated with this intake. Single kernel analysis of maize showed that fumonisins were present in 15% of the kernels at varying...

  10. Could we predict airborne Aspergillus contamination during construction work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilmis, B; Thepot-Seegers, V; Angebault, C; Weiss, E; Alaabouche, I; Bougnoux, M-E; Zahar, J-R

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infection. Hospital outbreaks of invasive aspergillosis have been associated with demolition and building construction. This study was designed to examine the impact of meteorologic factors and different periods of work on outdoor fungal airborne concentrations. The study was conducted at Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, a 650-bed teaching care hospital recently involved in a large construction program, including renovation, construction, and demolition. During the work phases, prospective external air samplings were performed 3 times a week, and meteorologic parameters were collected every day. Two hundred and one samples were collected. Aspergillus spp were found in 80.1% of samples, with a median concentration of 16 colony forming units (CFU)/m3. A significant increase in the colony count of molds occurred after demolition. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with overall fungi concentration were the type of work construction and temperature. Elevated Aspergillus spp concentrations (>20 CFU/m3) were associated with higher temperature. Our findings underline the importance of environmental surveillance. According to our results we suggest that demolition work should be performed during the winter and fall seasons. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Sadatsharifi, Arman; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  12. Aspergillus Pericarditis with Tamponade in a Renal Transplant Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus pericarditis is a rare and life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients. It has nonspecific clinical manifestations that often mimic other disease entities especially in patients who have extensive comorbidities. Diagnosis is oftentimes delayed and rarely done antemortem. A high degree of suspicion in immunocompromised patients is necessary for evaluation and timely diagnosis. This is a case of Aspergillus pericarditis with cardiac tamponade in a renal transplant patient with liver cirrhosis. Two months after transplant, he developed decompensation of his cirrhosis from hepatitis C, acute cellular rejection, and Kluyvera bacteremia, followed by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE bacteremia. Four months after transplant, the patient presented with lethargy and fluid overload. He subsequently developed shock and ventilator-dependent respiratory failure. An echocardiogram showed pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. He had emergent pericardiocentesis that showed purulent drainage. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics. Amphotericin B was initiated when the pericardial fluid grew mold that was later identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The patient quickly decompensated and expired.

  13. Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Speth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion.

  14. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahid, Seyedmohammad; Mehryar, Pouyan; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Arabi Monfared, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity. PMID:27652264

  15. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Jin

    2015-04-01

    Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult. This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A 53-year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection. Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications. The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis.

  16. Complement Attack against Aspergillus and Corresponding Evasion Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter

    2012-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis shows a high mortality rate particularly in immunocompromised patients. Perpetually increasing numbers of affected patients highlight the importance of a clearer understanding of interactions between innate immunity and fungi. Innate immunity is considered to be the most significant host defence against invasive fungal infections. Complement represents a crucial part of this first line defence and comprises direct effects against invading pathogens as well as bridging functions to other parts of the immune network. However, despite the potency of complement to attack foreign pathogens, the prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing. Two possible reasons may explain that phenomenon: First, complement activation might be insufficient for an effective antifungal defence in risk patients (due to, e.g., low complement levels, poor recognition of fungal surface, or missing interplay with other immune elements in immunocompromised patients). On the other hand, fungi may have developed evasion strategies to avoid recognition and/or eradication by complement. In this review, we summarize the most important interactions between Aspergillus and the complement system. We describe the various ways of complement activation by Aspergillus and the antifungal effects of the system, and also show proven and probable mechanisms of Aspergillus for complement evasion. PMID:22927844

  17. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles by Aspergillus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, researchers turn to natural processes such as using biological microorganisms in order to develop reliable and ecofriendly methods for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, we have investigated extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using four Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. niger, and A. flavus. We have also analyzed nitrate reductase activity in the studied species in order to determine the probable role of this enzyme in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of silver nanoparticles in the cell filtrates was confirmed by the passage of laser light, change in the color of cell filtrates, absorption peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectra, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. There was a logical relationship between the efficiencies of studied Aspergillus species in the production of silver nanoparticles and their nitrate reductase activity. A. fumigatus as the most efficient species showed the highest nitrate reductase activity among the studied species while A. flavus exhibited the lowest capacity in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles which was in accord with its low nitrate reductase activity. The present study showed that Aspergillus species had potential for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles depending on their nitrate reductase activity.

  18. Water relations of Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, xerophilic fungi isolated from Indonesian dried fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, K A; Hocking, A D

    1988-08-01

    The water relations of four xerotolerant fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, isolated from dried salt fish, were examined at 25 degrees C, on media in which water activity (aW) was controlled by NaCl or a glucose/fructose mixture. All fungi were less tolerant of NaCl than glucose/fructose at low aW. P. variotii grew 2 to 3 times faster on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl. The minimum aW permitting germination varied from 0.753 for E. amstelodami and, 0.776 for A. candidus and A. sydowii to 0.793 for P. variotii. At low aW germination was not always followed by growth. In most cases the minimum for growth was 0.02 aW units above that for germination.

  19. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  20. Phytase production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through submerged and solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Gunashree B; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  1. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunashree B. Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentations (SSF for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  2. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Gunashree B.; Venkateswaran, Govindarajulu

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF) and solid-state fermentations (SSF) for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds) was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth. PMID:24688383

  3. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A J; Morris, T A; Jin, B; Saint, C P; Kelly, J M

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes.

  4. Geographically predominant genotypes of Aspergillus terreus species complex in Austria: s microsatellite typing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lackner, M.; Coassin, S.; Haun, M.; Binder, U.; Kronenberg, F.; Haas, H. de; Jank, M.; Maurer, E.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Lass-Florl, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in Tyrol. The reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. Aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem

  5. GalX regulates the d-galactose oxido-reductive pathway in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruben, B.S.; Zhou, M.; de Vries, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Galactose catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans is regulated by at least two regulators, GalR and GalX. In Aspergillus niger only GalX is present, and its role in d-galactose catabolism in this fungus was investigated. Phenotypic and gene expression analysis of a wild type and a galX disruptant

  6. Aspergillus is monophyletic: Evidence from multiple gene phylogenies and extrolites profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsubé, S.; Perrone, G.; Magistà, D.; Houbraken, J.; Varga, J.; Szigeti, G.; Hubka, V.; Hong, S.-B.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    Abstract Aspergillus is one of the economically most important fungal genera. Recently, the ICN adopted the single name nomenclature which has forced mycologists to choose one name for fungi (e.g. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, etc.). Previously two proposals for the single name nomenclature in

  7. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  8. NsdC and NsdD affect Aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcription factors NsdC and NsdD have been shown to be necessary for sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Herein we examine the role of these proteins in development and aflatoxin production of the agriculturally important, aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus flavus. We found tha...

  9. Periprosthetic hip joint infection with Aspergillus terreus: A clinical case and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bartash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal periprosthetic joint infections due to Aspergillus species are rare but are associated with significant cost and morbidity. We present a case of Asperigillus terreus prosthetic joint infection of the hip. The patient was successfully treated with a prolonged course of systemic antifungals along with surgical management. Keywords: Fungal prosthetic joint infection, Aspergillus terreus

  10. Profiling of volatile organic compounds produced by clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M. G.; Brinkman, P.; Escobar, N.; Bos, L. D.; de Heer, K.; Meijer, M.; Janssen, H.-G.; de Cock, H.; Wösten, H. A. B.; Visser, C. E.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath may identify the presence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to detect VOC profiles emitted by in vitro cultured, clinical Aspergillus isolates using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three clinical Aspergillus isolates and a

  11. Use of prophylactic voriconazole for three months after lung transplantation does not reduce infection with Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, Nete; Jensen, Claus; Tvede, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This was a retrospective study analyzing the mortality and incidence of Aspergillus infection and invasive disease, comparing patients given voriconazole for 3 months following transplantation to patients not given prophylaxis.......This was a retrospective study analyzing the mortality and incidence of Aspergillus infection and invasive disease, comparing patients given voriconazole for 3 months following transplantation to patients not given prophylaxis....

  12. Reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Brickwedde, A.; Zeijl, C. van; Punt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid

  13. Description of a cellulose-binding domain and a linker sequence from Aspergillus fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, M; Ebbelaar, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; van der Valk, H

    A family I cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and a serine- and threonine-rich linker peptide were cloned from the fungi Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein comprising GST and a peptide linker with the CBD fused to its C-terminus, was

  14. Fatal fungal endocarditis by Aspergillus udagawae: an emerging cause of invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Atsuko; Yoshida, Atsushi; Matsuda, Yoko; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Nishimura, Takashi; Tanaka, Jun; Misawa, Yoshiki; Nakano, Yuta; Asami, Ryoko; Chida, Koji; Kikuchi, Ken; Arai, Tomio

    Aspergillus udagawae has morphological similarities to Aspergillusfumigatus; however, it shows a low susceptibility to common antifungal drugs and poor in vitro sporulation. We present the first reported case of infectious endocarditis caused by A. udagawae. An awareness of this newly described Aspergillus species is vital for further clarification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Gouka, R.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding VHHs were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting VHH fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA

  16. Additional notes on species of Aspergillus, Eurotium and Emericella from Egyptian desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Mouchacca, J

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus floriformis, A. pseudodeflectus, Eurotium xerophilum (st. con. A. xerophilus) and Emericella purpurea (st. con. A. purpureus) are described and illustrated as new species. In addition the morphology of strains identified as Aspergillus melleus, A. caespitosus and A. versicolor is discussed.

  17. Biocatalytic potential of laccase-like multicopper oxidases from Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Ramos, J.A.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laccase-like multicopper oxidases have been reported in several Aspergillus species but they remain uncharacterized. The biocatalytic potential of the Aspergillus niger fungal pigment multicopper oxidases McoA and McoB and ascomycete laccase McoG was investigated. RESULTS: The

  18. Aspergillus species in indoor environments and their possible occupational and public health hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Hedayati, MT; Hedayati, N; Ilkit, M; Syedmousavi, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus, which consists of a few hundred opportunistic mold species found in various climatic conditions, causes diseases including localized infections, fatal diseases, allergic responses, and inhaled conidia in humans. Herein, we present an overview of the most common diseases and allergic infections caused by Aspergillus species and their associated health hazards in various indoor environments worldwide. PMID:28681011

  19. Enhanced itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger using genetic modification and medium optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Pfelzer, N.; Zuijderwijk, R.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aspergillus niger was selected as a host for producing itaconic acid due to its versatile and tolerant character in various growth environments, and its extremely high capacity of accumulating the precursor of itaconic acid: citric acid. Expressing the CAD gene from Aspergillus terreus

  20. OPTIMASI MEDIA FERMENTASI Aspergillus oryzae, PENGHASIL ANTIJAMUR PATOGEN BUAH KAKAO Phytophthora palmivora Fermentation Medium Optimization of Aspergillus oryzae, Antifungals Producer for Cacao Pathogen Phytophthora palmivora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahma, Rizka Aulia; Widjanarko, Simon Bambang; Sunaryanto, Rofiq; Yunianta, Yunianta

    2015-01-01

    ...s (Phytophtora palmivora) that capable of reducing the amount of cacao production each year. This study follows up a previous study that had found compounds that are actively against at Phytophtora palmivora from Aspergillus oryzae metabolites...

  1. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. from brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) nocturnal houses in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Travis R; Gartrell, Brett D; Brookes, Jenny J; Perrott, John K

    2014-03-01

    Aspergillosis, a disease caused by infection with Aspergillus spp., is a common cause of death in birds globally and is an irregular cause of mortality of captive kiwi (Apteryx spp.). Aspergillus spp. are often present in rotting plant material, including the litter and nesting material used for kiwi in captivity. The aim of this study was to survey nocturnal kiwi houses in New Zealand to assess the levels of Aspergillus currently present in leaf litter. Samples were received from 11 nocturnal kiwi houses from throughout New Zealand, with one site supplying multiple samples over time. Aspergillus was isolated and quantified by colony counts from litter samples using selective media and incubation temperatures. Isolates were identified to the species level by amplification and sequencing of ITS regions of the ribosomal. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from almost every sample; however, the levels in most kiwi houses were below 1000 colony-forming units (CFU)/g of wet material. The predominant species was Aspergillus fumigatus, with rare occurrences of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus parasiticus. Only one site had no detectable Aspergillus. The limit of detection was around 50 CFU/g wet material. One site was repeatedly sampled as it had a high loading of A. fumigatus at the start of the survey and had two recent clinical cases of aspergillosis diagnosed in resident kiwi. Environmental loading at this site with Aspergillus spp. reduced but was not eliminated despite changes of the litter. The key finding of our study is that the background levels of Aspergillus spores in kiwi nocturnal houses in New Zealand are low, but occasional exceptions occur and are associated with the onset of aspergillosis in otherwise healthy birds. The predominant Aspergillus species present in the leaf litter was A. fumigatus, but other species were also present. Further research is needed to confirm the optimal management of leaf litter to minimize Aspergillus

  2. Aspergillus species as mycotoxin producers in agricultural products in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočube Šandor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus species are able to produce a range of mycotoxins, includ­ing e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins and patulin. Aflatoxins are mainly produced by members of Aspergillus section Flavi, and they contaminate various agricultural products in several parts of the world. Several recent reports have indicated that aflatoxin-producing fungi and consequently aflatoxin contamination occur in agricultural commodities in a number of European countries which have not been faced with this problem before. Indeed, recent surveys have clarified that concentrations of aflatoxins in maize products and milk has been exceeding the EU limit in several regions of Central Europe including Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Northern Italy and Romania. However, aflatoxin contamination and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species have not been identified yet in maize in Hungary. We examined the presence of potential aflatoxin-producing Aspergilli in maize samples collected in southern parts of Hungary. Several A. flavus isolates were identified, and pre­liminary results indicated that some of the isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Con­tamination of other agricultural products with aflatoxins can also pose problems in Central Europe due to global warming. Ochratoxin contamination of grapes and grape-derived products is usually caused by black Aspergilli, especially by A. carbonarius and A. niger, although these species have been rare in Central European vineyards due to climatic fac­tors. Ochratoxin contamination of other agricultural products including spices and cereals was also observed in the region. Besides, ochratoxin producing Aspergilli are frequently isolated from imported products including coffee beans, dried fruits and spices, and ochra­toxin contamination of these samples was also observed. Fumonisins are produced mainly by Fusarium species, and by the recently identified producers Aspergillus niger and A. awamori. We examined fumonisin

  3. A young immunocompetent patient with spontaneous Aspergillus empyema who developed severe eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Kudo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus empyema is usually reported as a complication of surgical procedures, and spontaneous cases are quite rare. Here, we describe the case of a 16-year-old man who suddenly developed dyspnea despite previously being healthy. Chest computed tomography showed multiple mass-containing cavity lesions, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion in the left thorax. Within 2 weeks, Aspergillus fumigatus grew from his pleural effusion, thus he was diagnosed with Aspergillus empyema. He also developed severe eosinophilia after admission, and was treated with anti-fungal drugs. Although there are many factors that can cause eosinophilia, we suspect that infection with Aspergillus fumigatus was the major cause of the eosinophilia in this patient. The lack of bronchial symptoms and lesions were not consistent with a diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. As far as we know, this is the first case of spontaneous Aspergillus empyema resulting in severe eosinophilia.

  4. Methyl Red Decolorization Efficiency of a Korea Strain of Aspergillus sp. Immobilized into Different Polymeric Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang-Min

    2017-07-01

      Intensive research studies have revealed that fungal decolorization of dye wastewater is a promising replacement for the current process of dye wastewater decolorization. The authors isolated an Aspergillus sp. from the effluent of a textile industry area in Korea and assessed the effects of a variety of operational parameters on the decolorization of methyl red (MR) by this strain of Aspergillus sp. This Aspergillus sp. was then immobilized by entrapment in several polymeric matrices and the effects of operational conditions on MR decolorization were investigated again. The optimal decolorization activity of this Aspergillus sp. was observed in 1% glucose at a temperature of 37 °C and pH of 6.0. Furthermore, stable decolorization efficiency was observed when fungal biomass was immobilized into alginate gel during repeated batch experiment. These results suggest that the Aspergillus sp. isolated in Korea could be used to treat industrial wastewaters containing MR dye.

  5. Post-operative Aspergillus mediastinitis in a man who was immunocompetent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfanos Stylianos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Aspergillus spp. infections mainly affect patients who are immunocompromised, and are extremely rare in immunocompetent individuals. Case presentation Aspergillus post-operative mediastinitis is considered to be a devastating infection, usually affecting patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with specific predisposing factors. We describe the case of an immunocompetent 68-year-old Caucasian man with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, who underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and developed post-operative mediastinitis due to Aspergillus flavus. The environmental control did not reveal the source of A. flavus infection and, despite combined antifungal therapy, our patient died as a result of septic shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusion Aspergillus mediastinitis mainly affects patients after cardiosurgery operations with predisposing factors, and it is unusual in patients who are immunocompetent. The identification of the Aspergillus spp. source is often difficult, and there are no guidelines for the administration of pre-emptive therapy in this population of at-risk patients.

  6. Molecular identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species isolated from rice and their toxin-producing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, D; Zainal Abidin, M A; Tan, Y H; Kamaruzaman, S

    2011-01-01

    Thirty milled rice samples were collected from retailers in 4 provinces of Malaysia. These samples were evaluated for Aspergillus spp. infection by direct plating on malt extract salt agar (MESA). All Aspergillus holomorphs were isolated and identified using nucleotide sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 of rDNA. Five anamorphs (Aspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. tamarii, A. fumigatus and A. niger) and 5 teleomorphs (Eurotium rubrum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. cristatum and E. tonophilum) were identified. The PCR-sequencing based technique for sequences of ITS 1 and ITS 2 is a fast technique for identification of Aspergillus and Eurotium species, although it doesn't work flawlessly for differentiation of Eurotium species. All Aspergillus and Eurotium isolates were screened for their ability to produce aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) by HPLC and TLC techniques. Only A. flavus isolate UPM 89 was able to produce aflatoxins B1 and B2.

  7. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  8. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sklenář, F.; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.

    2017-01-01

    recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with Na...

  9. Phenotypic differentiation of species from Aspergillus section Flavi on neutral red desiccated coconut agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanda, O. O.; Adetunji, M. C.; Ezekiel, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    isolates produced aflatoxins in the culture medium in varying quantities. Plates of aflatoxigenic A. flavus L strains fluoresced bluish purple/lavender around the colony on the obverse and pastel blue on the reverse side due to aflatoxin B production while those of A. minisclerotigenes, A. parasiticus...... characteristics, and grouping of species into B and B+G aflatoxin producers within 5 days thus obviating the need for chemical analysis of the culture....

  10. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation.

  11. Characterization of the Far Transcription Factor Family in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingyu; Affeldt, Katharyn J; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-10-13

    Metabolism of fatty acids is a critical requirement for the pathogenesis of oil seed pathogens including the fungus Aspergillus flavus Previous studies have correlated decreased ability to grow on fatty acids with reduced virulence of this fungus on host seed. Two fatty acid metabolism regulatory transcription factors, FarA and FarB, have been described in other filamentous fungi. Unexpectedly, we find A. flavus possesses three Far homologs, FarA, FarB, and FarC, with FarA and FarC showing a greater protein similarity to each other than FarB. farA and farB are located in regions of colinearity in all Aspergillus spp. sequenced to date, whereas farC is limited to a subset of species where it is inserted in an otherwise colinear region in Aspergillus genomes. Deletion and overexpression (OE) of farA and farB, but not farC, yielded mutants with aberrant growth patterns on specific fatty acids as well as altered expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Marked differences included significant growth defects of both ∆farA and ∆farB on medium-chain fatty acids and decreased growth of OE::farA on unsaturated fatty acids. Loss of farA diminished expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation genes whereas OE::farA inhibited expression of genes involved in unsaturated fatty acid catabolism. FarA also positively regulated the desaturase genes required to generate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Aflatoxin production on toxin-inducing media was significantly decreased in the ∆farB mutant and increased in the OE::farB mutant, with gene expression data supporting a role for FarB in tying β-oxidation processes with aflatoxin accumulation. Copyright © 2016 Luo et al.

  12. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neelkamal; Staab, Janet F; Marr, Kieren A

    2010-02-17

    Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H)1-T(H)17) and destructive allergic (T(H)2) immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins) participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown. To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H)2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17) to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H)1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein), Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase), Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase) and Asp f22 (enolase). Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals. Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  13. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelkamal Chaudhary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H1-T(H17 and destructive allergic (T(H2 immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown.To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17 to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein, Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase, Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and Asp f22 (enolase. Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals.Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  14. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have been performed to study L-[S-35] methionine incorporation and protein secretion kinetics in Aspergillus oryzae. Pulse experiments confirmed the mechanism of methionine uptake reported previously for Penicillium chrysogenum (Benko et al., 1967). Pulse......-chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...

  15. Pyopneumothorax Secondary to Aspergillus Infection: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Saheer, S; Singh, Abhijjeet; Hassan, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    A 32 -year- old male presented with complaints of fever, dry cough, breathlessness and right sided chest pain of two months duration. Chest radiograph showed right sided hydropneumothorax which revealed frank pus on diagnostic thoracocentesis, for which tube thoracostomy was done. Despite vigorous broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, postural drainage and chest physiotherapy, there was no clinical improvement. Further work up included serology, pleural fluid culture, closed as well as thoracoscopic guided pleural biopsy revealed growth of Aspergillus fumigatus. Patient was prescribed antifungal medication (Voriconazole) and subsequent thoracotomy with right sided pneumonectomy showed good clinical recovery. PMID:23226822

  16. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Growth of Aspergillus Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12.0. 100. Table 2: Effect of Total Darkness Regime on the Linear Growth of Aspergillus Species Isolated from. Stored Millet Grains. (. )2. O E E. -. DAYS. (. )2. O E. E. -. ∑. A. species. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 17.62. A. candidus. 0.01. 1.61. 1.04. 0.47. 0.05. 0.66. 1.17. A flavus. 0.016. 0.001 0.027 0.302 0.123 0.017 0.252. A fumigatus.

  17. Emergence of the Molds Other than Aspergillus in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sana; Perfect, John R

    2017-09-01

    Immunocompromised patients are at high risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs); although Aspergillus remains the most common IFI caused by molds, other fungi, such as Mucorales, dematiaceous molds, and Fusarium spp, are being seen with increasing frequency. Presentations can vary, but sinopulmonary and disseminated infections are common. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of these infections is rudimentary. Fungal cultures and histopathology remain the backbone of diagnostics, as no good serologic markers are available. Polymerase chain reaction tests are being developed but currently remain investigational. Management of these infections is usually multidisciplinary, requiring surgical debridement along with antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  19. Orbital tuberculosis with coexisting fungal (Aspergillus flavus) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sunkara Srikanth; Penmmaiah, Devi Chendira; Rajesh, Alugolu; Patil, Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    A coexisting invasive fungal and tubercular involvement of the skull base is a rare event. Co-infection has been reported with involvement of paranasal sinuses and middle ear cleft. We herein report a case of an elderly male diabetic patient who presented with gradually progressive visual loss, which on imaging showed an orbital lesion. Surgical decompression and microbiological evaluation showed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus flavus. Rare combinations of such infections do exist and should be treated aggressively to achieve good outcomes in a losing battle with fastidious organisms in the backdrop of compromised immunity.

  20. Resistencia ao brometo de etidio em aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elizabeth Scarazzatti Frau

    1985-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho teve por objetivo isolar e ana-lisar geneticamente mutantes de Aspergillus nidulans resistentes ao Brometo de Etídio (BE), bem como estudar os efeitos da riboflavina em relação a toxicidade do BE. Foram isolados mutantes espontâneos e induzidos. Dos mutantes isolados espontaneamente apenas 3 continuaram a apresentar resistência, sendo 1 da linhagem A e 2 da linhagem biAl methGl. Os outros mutantes (16) foram obtidos por indução com luz ultravioleta. Destes apenas 9...

  1. Immobilization of Aspergillus ficuum phytase: product characterization of the bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Phillippy, B Q

    1988-01-01

    Aspergillus ficuum phytase was covalently immobilized on Fractogel TSK HW-75 containing 2-oxy-l-alkylpyridinium salts. A packed-bed bioreactor was constructed with the immobilized phytase. An HPLC ion-exchange method was used to analyze the enzymatic products of the bioreactor. Immobilized fungal phytase was able to hydrolyze myo-inositol Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri-, and diphosphates. When the substrate solution was recirculated for 5 hr in the bioreactor about 50% inorganic orthophosphate was released and myo-inositol-diphosphate and mono-phosphate were the only remaining products.

  2. Dioxomorpholines and Derivatives from a Marine-Facultative Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Cuevas, Manuel A; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Sánchez-Castellanos, Mariano; Menéndez, Daniel; Raja, Huzefa A; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; González, María Del Carmen; Figueroa, Mario

    2017-08-25

    Two new dioxomorpholines, 1 and 2, three new derivatives, 3-5, and the known compound PF1233 B (6) were isolated from a marine-facultative Aspergillus sp. MEXU 27854. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data analysis. The absolute configuration of 1 and 2 was elucidated by comparison of experimental and DFT-calculated vibrational circular dichroism spectra. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 were noncytotoxic to a panel of human cancer cell lines with different functional status for the tumor-suppressor protein p53, but were inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-reversing multidrug resistance in a doxorubicin-resistant cell line.

  3. On the safety of Aspergillus niger - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, E.; Dunn-Coleman, N.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    Administration. In addition, A. niger is used for biotransformations and waste treatment. In the last two decades, A. niger has been developed as an important transformation host to over-express food enzymes. Being pre-dated by older names, the name A. niger has been conserved for economical and information......Aspergillus niger is one of the most important microorganisms used in biotechnology. It has been in use already for many decades to produce extracellular (food) enzymes and citric acid. In fact, citric acid and many A. niger enzymes are considered GRAS by the United States Food and Drug...

  4. Adsorption of indigo carmine on dead biomass of aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Karina Oliveira; Monteiro, Carlo Rannyêr Lopes; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Gomes, Raimundo Bemvindo; Buarque, Hugo Leonardo de Brito

    2008-01-01

    As indústrias têxteis geram efluentes ricos em corantes durante toda a sua cadeia produtiva. Neste estudo, ensaios cinéticos foram realizados utilizando biomassas mortas de Aspergillus niger, diferentemente tratadas, como adsorvente para a remoção de índigo carmim a partir de soluções aquosas. Ensaio cinético com carvão ativado comercial também foi realizado para comparação. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a biomassa fúngica sem tratamento algum foi capaz de remover 95% do índigo carmim da ...

  5. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  6. Lumazine peptides from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Minjung; Liao, Lijuan; Hong, Soo Hyun; Park, Wanki; Kwon, Dah In; Lee, Jeeyeon; Noh, Minsoo; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-03-12

    Terrelumamides A (1) and B (2), two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  7. beta-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eMouyna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, beta-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of beta(1-3glucans, it is expected that beta-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of beta-1,3-glucan modifying enzyme in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis.

  8. Xylanases from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus niveus and Aspergillus ochraceus produced under solid-state fermentation and their application in cellulose pulp bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betini, J H A; Michelin, M; Peixoto-Nogueira, S C; Jorge, J A; Terenzi, H F; Polizeli, M L T M

    2009-10-01

    This study describes the production of xylanases from Aspergillus niveus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus under solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial residues as substrates. Enzyme production was improved using a mixture of wheat bran and yeast extract or peptone. When a mixture of corncob and wheat bran was used, xylanase production from A. niger and A. ochraceus increased by 18%. All cultures were incubated at 30 degrees C at 70-80% relative humidity for 96 h. For biobleaching assays, 10 or 35 U of xylanase/g dry cellulose pulp were incubated at pH 5.5 for 1 or 2 h, at 55 degrees C. The delignification efficiency was 20%, the brightness (percentage of ISO) increased two to three points and the viscosity was maintained confirming the absence of cellulolytic activity. These results indicated that the use of xylanases could help to reduce the amount of chlorine compounds used in cellulose pulp treatment.

  9. Occurrence of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in selected food commodities of Asian origin sourced in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruadrew, Sayan; Craft, John; Aidoo, Kofi

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence of Aspergillus moulds and aflatoxins in 12 commercially-available dried foods of Asian origin were examined. All food samples, except green beans and three types of dried fruit, contained multiple genera of moulds of which Aspergillus (55%) was the most frequently detected. Penicillium (15%), Rhizopus (11%), Mucor (3%), Monascus (1%), Eurotium (1%) and unidentified (14%) were also observed. The occurrence of aflatoxigenic moulds, however, did not correspond with the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. (39 isolates) were recovered from long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper. The predominant Aspergillus species was A. parasiticus (61%) while Aspergillus oryzae (3%), Aspergillus utus (5%), Aspergillus niger (5%), Aspergillus ochraceus (3%) and unidentified (23%) were also observed. Long grain rice, fragrant rice, peanuts, black beans and black pepper were positive for Aspergillus but contained undetectable aflatoxins. In contrast, Jasmine brown rice and crushed chilli contained 14.7 and 11.4μg/kg of total aflatoxins, respectively, in the absence of Aspergillus so aflatoxigenic Aspergillus was present at some stage of food production. The results from this study emphasise the need for stricter control measures in reducing occurrence of aflatoxins in foods for export and domestic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of ergot alkaloids with conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Christine M; Kenaley, Shawn C; Rittenour, William R; Panaccione, Daniel G

    2007-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that affect the nervous and reproductive systems of exposed individuals through interactions with monoamine receptors. They have been studied more widely in ergot fungi and grass endophytes but also are found in Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic human pathogen that reproduces and disseminates exclusively through conidia. The ergot alkaloids festucla-vine and fumigaclavines A, B and C are present in or on conidia of A. fumigatus. Cultures of the fungus that are free of conidia are difficult to obtain, obscuring comparisons of conidia versus vegetative hyphae as sources of the ergot alkaloids. To create conidiation-deficient strains of A. fumigatus we manipulated the bristle A gene (brlA), which controls vesicle formation or budding growth necessary for conidiation in Aspergillus spp. Disruption of brlA in A. fumigatus, via homologous recombination, resulted in a nonconidiating mutant that produced bristle-like structures instead of conidiophores and conidia. Moreover the disrupted strain failed to produce ergot alkaloids as verified by HPLC analyses. Complementation with a wild-type allele restored conidiation and ergot alkaloid production. These results suggest that ergot alkaloids are not produced within the vegetative mycelium of the fungus and are associated directly with conidiation.

  11. Molecular Dynamics Approach in Designing Thermostable Aspergillus niger Xylanase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malau, N. D.; Sianturi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Molecular dynamics methods we have applied as a tool in designing thermostable Aspergillus niger Xylanase, by examining Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and The Stability of the Secondary Structure of enzymes structure at its optimum temperature and compare with its high temperature behavior. As RMSD represents structural fluctuation at a particular temperature, a better understanding of this factor will suggest approaches to bioengineer these enzymes to enhance their thermostability. In this work molecular dynamic simulations of Aspergillus niger xylanase (ANX) have been carried at 400K (optimum catalytic temperature) for 2.5 ns and 500K (ANX reported inactive temperature) for 2.5 ns. Analysis have shown that the Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) significant increase at higher temperatures compared at optimum temperature and some of the secondary structures of ANX that have been damaged at high temperature. Structural analysis revealed that the fluctuations of the α-helix and β-sheet regions are larger at higher temperatures compared to the fluctuations at optimum temperature.

  12. Aspergillus vaccines: Hardly worth studying or worthy of hard study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines rank among the greatest advances in the history of public health. Yet, despite the need, there are no licensed vaccines to protect humans against fungal diseases, including aspergillosis. In this focused review, some of the major scientific and logistical challenges to developing vaccines to protect at-risk individuals against aspergillosis are discussed. Approaches that have shown promise in animal models include vaccines that protect against multiple fungal genera and those that are specifically directed to Aspergillus Advances in proteomics and glycomics have facilitated identification of candidate antigens for use in subunit vaccines. Novel adjuvants and delivery systems are becoming available that can skew vaccine responses toward those associated with protection. Immunotherapy consisting of adoptive transfer of Aspergillus-specific T cells to allogeneic hematopoietic transplant recipients has advanced to human testing but is technically difficult and of unproven benefit. While progress has been impressive, much work still needs to be done if vaccines against aspergillosis are to become a reality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Viriditoxin Production by Aspergillus viridi-nutans and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, E. B.; Milburn, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Bioproduction of viriditoxin on various substrates by strains of the Aspergillus fumigatus group was determined under several incubation conditions. Aspergillus viridi-nutans strains NRRL 4365 and 576 produced the largest quantities of toxin, A. brevipes gave reduced yields, and there was no detectable synthesis by isolates of four related species. After 30 days in static culture at 20 C on various autoclaved agricultural commodities, optimal yields of 440 and 380 mg of toxin were observed per kilogram of sorghum and rice. Toxin levels were reduced on corn, rye, and wheat (40-200 mg/kg); yields were low on cottonseed, barley, and oats. Incubation at 10 C restricted biosynthesis of viriditoxin, and no toxin accumulated on substrates maintained at 5 C for 120 days. In a liquid, yeast extract-sucrose medium, maximal mycotoxin production developed in shake flasks; after 156 h, 10 mg of toxin accumulated per gram of mycelium. Viriditoxin produced in submerged culture was associated with the mycelium; less than 1% was detected in the filtered broth after 156 h of incubation. PMID:4582816

  14. Aspergillus infection in urinary tract post-ureteric stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the urinary tract are usually encountered following prolonged antibiotic use, instrumentation and indwelling urinary catheters. These type of infections are mostly seen in immuno-compromised patients. Candida is the most common among the fungal infections of urinary tract followed by Aspergillus infection. Here is a case report of a 26 year old diabetic female who presented with abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting. She had undergone double-J stenting 15-20 days back. The cause of the symptoms was not detected till the patient underwent C.T Scan-KUB with excretory urography which showed the displaced D-J stent. Then on performing replacement of D-J stent, cystoscopy was done and the tissue sample was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. On Microbiological examination, Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the tissue, which was culprit behind the disease. Patient was then treated with anti-fungal drugs, following which she gradually improved.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

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    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  16. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Valeria B.; Maia, Maria C.A.; Couto, Maria A.P.G., E-mail: antun@eq.ufrj.br, E-mail: gimenes@eq.ufrj.br [Coordenaao s Programas de Pos-graduacaoem Processos Quimicos e Bioquimicos. Escola de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/ UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear do Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Mauro C.L. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ). Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  17. Targeting zinc homeostasis to combat Aspergillus fumigatus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío eVicentefranqueira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is able to invade and grow in the lungs of immunosuppressed individuals and causes invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The concentration of free zinc in living tissues is much lower than that required for optimal fungal growth in vitro because most of it is tightly bound to proteins. To obtain efficiently zinc from a living host A. fumigatus uses the zinc transporters ZrfA, ZrfB and ZrfC. The ZafA transcriptional regulator induces the expression of all these transporters and is essential for virulence. Thus, ZafA could be targeted therapeutically to inhibit fungal growth. The ZrfC transporter plays the major role in zinc acquisition from the host whereas ZrfA and ZrfB rather have a supplementary role to that of ZrfC. In addition, only ZrfC enables A. fumigatus to overcome the inhibitory effect of calprotectin, which is an antimicrobial Zn/Mn-chelating protein synthesized and released by neutrophils within the fungal abscesses of immunosuppressed non-leucopenic animals. Hence, fungal survival in these animals would be undermined upon blocking therapeutically the function of ZrfC. Therefore, both ZafA and ZrfC have emerged as promising targets for the discovery of new antifungals to treat Aspergillus infections.

  18. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-13

    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  19. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Budroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182, which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli.

  20. Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis: Report of a case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Panigrahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of Aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent patient with subretinal abscess and also review the reported cases. A 50-year-old healthy male presented with sudden painful loss of vision in right eye. He was diagnosed with endogenous endophthalmitis and underwent urgent vitrectomy. Aspergillus terreus growth was obtained in culture. At final follow-up, there was complete resolution of the infection but visual acuity was poor due to macular scar. Aspergillus terreus is a rare cause of endophthalmitis with usually poor outcomes. Newer antifungals like Voriconazole can be sometimes associated with better prognosis.

  1. Aspergillus and Penicillium in the Post-genomic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and a whole genus genome sequencing project in progress for Aspergillus. This book highlights some of the changes in the studies into these fungi, since the availability of genome sequences. The contributions vary from insights in the taxonomy of these genera, use of genomics for forward genetics and genomic...... in Penicillium and Aspergillus and a promise of many more things to come. An essential reference for everyone working with Aspergillus and Penicillium and other filamentous fungi and the book is also recommended reading for everyone with an interest in fungal genomics....

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of an Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the mitochondrial genome of the first Amynthas earthworm, Amynthas aspergillus (Perrier, 1872), which is a natural medical resource in Chinese traditional medicine. Its mitogenome is 15,115 bp in length containing 37 genes with the same contents and order as other sequenced earthworms. All genes are encoded by the same strand, all 13 PCGs use ATG as start codon. The content of A + T is 63.04% for A. aspergillus (33.41% A, 29.63% T, 14.56% G and 22.41% C). The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. aspergillus would be useful for the reconstruction of Oligochaeta polygenetic relationships.

  3. Expression and Activity Analysis of Fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lihong; Chen, Liping; Chen, Yongsen; Zhang, Nu; Han, Yawei

    2017-08-01

    The fructosyltransferase gene was isolated and cloned from Aspergillus oryzae. The gene was 1368 bp, which encoded a protein of 455 amino acids. To analyze the activity of the expressed fructosyltransferase, the pET32a-fructosyltransferase recombined plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The fructosyltransferase gene was successfully expressed by Isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction. The molecular weight of the expression protein was about 45 kDa. The optimal conditions of protein expression were 25 °C, 0.1 mM IPTG, and 8 h of inducing time. The optimal concentration of urea dealing with inclusion body was 2.5 M. The expressed protein exhibited a strong fructosyl transfer activity. These results showed that the expressed fructosyltransferas owned transferase activity, and could catalyze the synthesis of sucrose-6-acetate.

  4. Enhanced production of fructosyltransferase in Aspergillus oryzae by genome shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghai; Duan, Mengjie; Liu, Yalan; Fan, Sen; Lin, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    To breed Aspergillus oryzae strains with high fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity using intraspecific protoplast fusion via genome-shuffling. A candidate library was developed using UV/LiCl of the conidia of A. oryzae SBB201. By screening for enzyme activity and cell biomass, two mutants (UV-11 and UV-76) were chosen for protoplast fusion and subsequent genome shuffling. After three rounds of genome recombination, a fusion mutant RIII-7 was obtained. Its FTase activity was 180 U g-1, approximately double that of the original strain, and RIII-7 was genetically stable. In fermentation culture, FTase activity of the genome-shuffled strain reached a maximum of 353 U g-1 using substrate-feeding method, and this value was approximately 3.4-times higher than that of the original strain A. oryzae SBB201. Intraspecific protoplast fusion of A. oryzae significantly enhanced FTase activity and generated a potentially useful strain for industrial production.

  5. Aspergillus oryzae nrtA affects kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the role of the nitrate transporter-encoding gene (nrtA) of Aspergillus oryzae by gene disruption. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that homologous recombination occurred at the resident nrtA locus. Real-time PCR showed that the nrtA gene was strongly inducible by NaNO3. The nrtA disruptant did not exhibit normal growth when nitrate was available as the sole nitrogen source. These results indicate that NrtA is essential for nitrate uptake in A. oryzae. Kojic acid (KA) production was inhibited by the addition of a small amount of sodium nitrate. The nrtA-disrupted strain was deficient in the uptake of nitrate. As a result, KA production in this strain was not considerably affected by the presence of nitrate.

  6. Optimization of cellulase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, D V; Patil, S G; Bastawde, K B

    1991-07-01

    Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207 produces high levels of extracellular beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities in submerged fermentation. Among the nitrogen sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, and corn-steep liquor were the best for the production of cellulolytic enzymes by A. niger. The optimum pH and temperature for cellulase production were 3.0-5.5 and 28 degrees C, respectively. The cellulase complex of this strain was found to undergo catabolite repression in the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Glycerol at all concentrations caused catabolite repression of cellulase production. The addition of glucose (up to 1% concentration) enhanced the production of cellulolytic enzymes, but a higher concentration of glucose effected the pronounced repression of enzymes. Generally the growth on glucose- or glycerol-containing medium was accompanied by a sudden drop in the pH of the fermentation medium to 2.0.

  7. Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus niger Using Pineapple Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A solid state fermentation was developed for citric acid production from pineapple waste by Aspergillus niger KS-7. The medium was supplemented with different concentration of glucose, sucrose, ammonium nitrate and ammonium phosphate. It was found that pineapple waste with 15% (w/v sucrose and ammonium nitrate (0.25% w/v gave the optimum citric acid secretion (60.61 g/kg in the presence of methanol (2% v/v when fermented for 5 days at 30 °C with the initial moisture content of 65%. The yield was more than 90% based on the amount of fermentable sugar consumed. These results present the use of pineapple peel as a cheap medium for the production of commercially valuable organic acid by A. niger.

  8. Improving cellulase production by Aspergillus niger using adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Arentshorst, Mark; Allijn, Iris E; Ram, Arthur F J; de Vries, Ronald P; Gelber, Isabelle Benoit

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the potential of adaptive evolution as a tool in generating strains with an improved production of plant biomass degrading enzymes. An Aspergillus niger cellulase mutant was obtained by adaptive evolution. Physiological properties of this mutant revealed a five times higher cellulose production than the parental strain. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the expression of noxR, encoding the regulatory subunit of the NADPH oxidase complex, was reduced in the mutant compared to the parental strain. Subsequent analysis of a noxR knockout strain showed the same phenotypic effect as observed for the evolution mutant, confirming the role of NoxR in cellulose degradation. Adaptive evolution is an efficient approach to modify a strain and activate genes involved in polysaccharide degradation.

  9. In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

    2014-09-01

    Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen β-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these β-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

  10. Contribution of arginase to manganese metabolism of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keni, Sarita; Punekar, Narayan S

    2016-02-01

    Aspects of manganese metabolism during normal and acidogenic growth of Aspergillus niger were explored. Arginase from this fungus was a Mn[II]-enzyme. The contribution of the arginase protein towards A. niger manganese metabolism was investigated using arginase knockout (D-42) and arginase over-expressing (ΔXCA-29) strains of A. niger NCIM 565. The Mn[II] contents of various mycelial fractions were found in the order: D-42 strain niger mycelia harvested from acidogenic growth media contain substantially less Mn[II] as compared to those from normal growth media. Nevertheless, acidogenic mycelia harbor considerable Mn[II] levels and a functional arginase. Altered levels of mycelial arginase protein did not significantly influence citric acid production. The relevance of arginase to cellular Mn[II] pool and homeostasis was evaluated and the results suggest that arginase regulation could occur via manganese availability.

  11. Azole preexposure affects the Aspergillus fumigatus population in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanio, Alexandre; Cabaret, Odile; Sitterlé, Emilie; Costa, Jean-Marc; Brisse, Sylvain; Cordonnier, Catherine; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between the azole preexposure of 86 patients and the genotype, azole susceptibility, and cyp51A polymorphisms of 110 corresponding Aspergillus fumigatus isolates was explored. Isolates carrying serial polymorphisms (F46Y and M172V with or without N248T with or without D255E with or without E427K) had higher itraconazole MICs (P = 0.04), although <2 μg/ml using the EUCAST methodology, were associated with two genetic clusters (P < 0.001) and with voriconazole preexposure of patients (P = 0.016). Voriconazole preexposure influences the distribution of A. fumigatus isolates with selection of isolates carrying cyp51A polymorphisms and higher itraconazole MICs.

  12. Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 μs, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mapping the polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Giese, Malene; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The degradation of plant materials by enzymes is an industry of increasing importance. For sustainable production of second generation biofuels and other products of industrial biotechnology, efficient degradation of non-edible plant polysaccharides such as hemicellulose is required...... of a given fungus for polysaccharide degradation. Results: Through the compilation of information from 203 articles, we have systematized knowledge on the structure and degradation of 16 major types of plant polysaccharides to form a graphical overview. As a case example, we have combined this with a list...... of 188 genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes from Aspergillus niger, thus forming an analysis framework, which can be queried. Combination of this information network with gene expression analysis on mono-and polysaccharide substrates has allowed elucidation of concerted gene expression from...

  14. Aspergillus Niger Genomics: Past, Present and into the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment and has been implicated in opportunistic infections of humans. In addition to its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, A. niger is economically important as a fermentation organism used for the production of citric acid. Industrial citric acid production by A. niger represents one of the most efficient, highest yield bioprocesses in use currently by industry. The genome size of A. niger is estimated to be between 35.5 and 38.5 megabases (Mb) divided among eight chromosomes/linkage groups that vary in size from 3.5 - 6.6 Mb. Currently, there are three independent A. niger genome projects, an indication of the economic importance of this organism. The rich amount of data resulting from these multiple A. niger genome sequences will be used for basic and applied research programs applicable to fermentation process development, morphology and pathogenicity.

  15. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kuklin, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  16. Structure and activity of Aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Aaron P; Mithieux, Suzanne M; Collyer, Charles A; Bakhuis, Janny G; van den Berg, Marco; Sein, Arjen; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian; Weiss, Anthony S; Guss, J Mitchell

    2011-06-28

    Aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (ANAO) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. We show here that in common with the related enzyme from the yeast Pichia pastoris, ANAO can promote the cross-linking of tropoelastin and oxidize the lysine residues in α-casein proteins and tropoelastin. The crystal structure of ANAO, the first for a fungal enzyme in this family, has been determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The enzyme is a dimer with the archetypal fold of a copper-containing amine oxidase. The active site is the most open of any of those of the structurally characterized enzymes in the family and provides a ready explanation for its lysine oxidase-like activity.

  17. Aspergillus ficuum phytase: complete primary structure elucidation by chemical sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Dischinger, H C

    1993-04-30

    The primary structure of Aspergillus ficuum phytase was deduced from overlaps in peptide sequences. The unglycosylated enzyme is a 441 residue protein with a molecular mass of 48.5-KDa, as calculated from the total covalent structure. The estimated pl of the protein is about 4.76. Of the 19 Asn residues, 9 were found to be glycosylated. The phytase consists of 37% non-polar, 42% polar, 11.5% acidic, and 9.5% basic amino acids. The putative active site of the enzyme containing the sequence RHG is located at the N-terminal region of the molecule and shows homology to the active site of both microbial and mammalian acid phosphatases, and phosphoglycerate mutase.

  18. Differences in the active site environment of Aspergillus ficuum phytases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, A H; Sethumadhavan, K

    1998-02-13

    While Aspergillus ficuum phytaseA (phyA) was rapidly inactivated by 1,2-cyclohexanedione and phenylglyoxal, both specific modifiers of arginine, phytaseB (phyB) showed a markedly different behavior. First, phyB was totally insensitive to 1,2-cyclohexanedione even in the presence of 0.2 M guanidinium hydrochloride; second, the enzyme showed a great deal of resistance to inactivation by phenylglyoxal. Taken together, these results indicate that the chemical environment of the active site of phyB is very different from that of the active site of phyA. Despite sequence similarities of the active site region in these two proteins, their differential behavior to arginine modifiers indicates that other parts of the protein play a role in the active site formation. We expected some differences in the structure since the proteins have dissimilar kinetic parameters and pH optima.

  19. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingsong, E-mail: xhwjs@163.co [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China) and Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hu Xinjiang [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie Shuibo [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Bao Zhenglei [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L{sup -1}. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  20. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.

    2005-01-01

    . fumigatus sensu stricto species. A. lentulus including isolates from clinical origin, Korean soil and from a dolphin Clustered into an isolated group based on beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences, differing from A. fumigalus by morphological characters, growth temperature and extrolite profile......The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination...... of strains, considered as A. fumigatus earlier, showed that they could be divided into four groups including A. fumigatus sensu stricto, A. lentulus and two new species. The intraspecific genetic variability within A. fumigatus sensu stricto was low, the sequence differences among 23 strains of the species...

  1. Use of Aspergillus niger for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.; Cimerman, A.; Perdih, A.

    1983-01-01

    The bioconversion of waste material remaining after apple brandy distillation was investigated. Different cellulolytic fungi were tested for their ability to convert the waste organic substances into microbial biomass. An Aspergillus niger strain was chosen as the most convenient microorganism. By growing this mold on the apple slop the following results were obtained: filtration time was shortened by 30 times, reduction of the chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase in the range of 50-80% depending on the substrate dilution and a dry filter cake enriched with fungal biomass to about 12 g/l containing up to 22% raw proteins and certain amounts of cellulolytic enzymes in the filtrate. The influence of the initial pH, the salt addition and the dilution of the substrate were studied as well. 12 references.

  2. Lipoxygenase Activity Accelerates Programmed Spore Germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

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    Gregory J. Fischer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS to germling (GL and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. Overexpression of loxB (OE::loxB increases germination with rapid advance to the GL stage. However, deletion of loxB (ΔloxB or its signal peptide only delays progression to the SS stage in the presence of arachidonic acid (AA; no delay is observed in minimal media. This delay is remediated by the addition of the oxygenated AA oxylipin 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE that is a product of human Alox5. We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments.

  3. Effect of maltose on glucoamylase formation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, L L; Georgi, C E; Lineback, D R

    1972-09-01

    Low levels of glucoamylase are produced when Aspergillus niger is grown on sorbitol, but substitution of the latter by glucose, maltose, or starch results in greater formation of glucoamylase as measured by enzymatic activity. Both glucoamylase I and glucoamylase II are formed in a yeast extract medium; however, glucoamylase I appears to be the only form produced when ammonium chloride is the nitrogen source. Maltose or isomaltose (1.4 x 10(-4)m), but no other disaccharides or monosaccharides, dextrins, dextrans, or starches, stimulated glucoamylase formation when added to mycelia pregrown on sorbitol-ammonium salts. The induction of glucoamylase by maltose was independent of sulfate concentration but showed a dependency on low pH and the absence of utilizable carbon sources.

  4. Purification and properties of beta-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M; Pedregosa, A M; de Lucas, J R; Torralba, S; Monistrol, I F; Laborda, F

    1996-12-01

    Beta-Galactosidase from mycelial extract of Aspergillus nidulans has been purified by substrate affinity chromatography and used to obtain anti-beta-galactosidase polyclonal antibodies. A. nidulans growing in lactose as carbon source synthesizes one active form of beta-galactosidase which seems to be a multimeric enzyme of 450 kDa composed of monomers with 120 and 97 kDa. Although the enzyme was not released to the culture medium, some enzymatic activity was detected in a cell-wall extract, thus suggesting that it can be an extracellular enzyme. Beta-Galactosidase of A. nidulans is a very unstable enzyme with an optimum pH value of 7.5 and an optimum temperature of 30 degrees C. It was only active against beta-galactoside substrates like lactose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (PNPG).

  5. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  6. Fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Hubertus

    2014-10-01

    Siderophores are chelators synthesized by microbes to sequester iron. This article summarizes the knowledge on the fungal siderophore metabolism with a focus on Aspergillus fumigatus. In recent years, A. fumigatus became a role model for fungal biosynthesis, uptake and degradation of siderophores as well as regulation of siderophore-mediated iron handling and the elucidation of siderophore functions. Siderophore functions comprise uptake, intracellular transport and storage of iron. This proved to be crucial not only for adaptation to iron starvation conditions but also for germination, asexual and sexual propagation, antioxidative defense, mutual interaction, microbial competition as well as virulence in plant and animal hosts. Recent studies also indicate the high potential of siderophores and its biosynthetic pathway to improve diagnosis and therapy of fungal infections.

  7. The Effectiveness of Antifungal Controlling Aspergillus Niger Growth on Plasterboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parjo Umi Kalthsom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good indoor environmental quality is desired for a healthy indoor environment. The microbial growth under indoor environments contribute to the poor indoor environmental quality that can cause various of health problems. In this study, the applications of three types of antifungals to prevent microbial migration, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. The aim of this research was to evaluate the coating-bio resistance in remediation of indoor fungal using three types of antifungals with different types of wall finishing materials. The treatment was exposed to optimum temperature and relative humidity at 30°C and 90% respectively. The potassium sorbate, zinc salicylate and calcium benzoate are tested against Aspergillus niger which is collected from indoor rooms. This study has revealed the growth of A. niger are more affected by the potassium sorbate on thick wallpaper, which is the percentage growth are 47%.

  8. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...... truncated, cytosolic targeted, fumarases (Fum1s and FumRs) from S. cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively, and the cytosolic soluble fumarate reductase (Frds1) from S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of these genes in their native strain backgrounds has been reported to lead to alterations...... in the intracellular cytosolic dicarboxylate concentrations. It was found that all the transformant strains had enhanced yield and productivities of citrate compared with the wild-type strain. The transformants also had the ability to produce citrate in trace-manganese-contaminated medium, where the wild type...

  9. Pulmonary papillary adenocarcinoma with Aspergillus versicolor infection in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Rathiymaler; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Mazlan, Mazlina; Lung Than, Leslie Thian

    2018-03-01

    Papillary adenocarcinoma of the lungs is the most common primary lung adenocarcinoma, with the feature of papillary-like structure formation by cells. A dog was presented with the primary complaint of vomiting, hyporexia and increased respiratory effort. Thoracic radiography revealed increased soft tissue radiopacity of the right cranial lung lobe suggestive of possible consolidation or collapsed lung lobe, with generalised miliary nodular pattern throughout the other lung fields. The dog was euthanized humanely and necropsy was performed. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of primary pulmonary lung neoplasm (papillary adenocarcinoma) with Aspergillus versicolor infection identified through fungal culture and PCR. There have been several reports on humans and dogs with fungal infections that often mimic or coexist with pulmonary neoplasm. This is the first documented report of A. versicolor isolated from a lung neoplasm in a dog in Malaysia.

  10. Carbon sources effect on pectinase production from Aspergillus japonicus 586

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on the pectinesterases, endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activities from Aspergillus japonicus 586 was evaluated in liquid media (Manachini solutions supplemented with different substrate concentrations. The culture medium was inoculated with 5.10(6 spores/ml and mantained under agitation (140 rpm, at 30°C, during 122 h. The enzyme evaluation was carried out 24 h after filtration. The crude extract from A. japonicus 586 indicated that the best enzymatic activities were afforded in the presence of 0.5% pectin (pectinesterease, 0.2% pectin and 0.2% glycerol (endopolygalacturonase, and 0.5% pectin associated to 0.5% glucose (exopolygalacturonase. Carbon sources concentration, isolated or associated, significantly affects the pectinesterase, and endo- and exopolygalacturonase activities. Pectin, glucose and saccharose, when added to the culture medium in high concentrations, exhibited a repression effect on all the analyzed enzymes.

  11. Keratitis by Aspergillus flavus infection after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Pacini Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report a case of keratis infection after cataract phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in a 65-year-old female patient. The patient initially underwent cataract surgery on the right eye. Intraocular inflammation appeared on the second post-operative day and was initially treated as Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS. The inflammation was reduced and vision improved initially but very aggressive and progressive keratitis destroyed the cornea due to the delay in correct diagnosis. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from a biopsy.The infection was treated with antifungal agents and loss of the eye was avoided by total corneal transplantation associated with Gundersen conjunctiva cover. To restore the lost vision, a second penetrating corneal graft with removal of the conjunctiva cover was performed 17 months later. The final best-corrected vision was 20/40 but prognosis for long-term graft survival is poor.

  12. Approaches for Comparative Genomics in Aspergillus and Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian; Brandl, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The number of available genomes in the closely related fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium is rapidly increasing. At the time of writing, the genomes of 62 species are available, and an even higher number is being prepared. Fungal comparative genomics is thus becoming steadily more powerful...... and applicable for many types of studies. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of comparative genomics in these fungi, along with recommended methods. The chapter describes databases for fungal comparative genomics. Based on experience, we suggest strategies for multiple types...... of comparative genomics, ranging from analysis of single genes, over gene clusters and CaZymes to genome-scale comparative genomics. Furthermore, we have examined published comparative genomics papers to summarize the preferred bioinformatic methods and parameters for a given type of analysis, highly useful...

  13. Elusive Origins of the Extra Genes in Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, Nora; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2008-01-01

    The genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae revealed unexpectedly that this species has approximately 20% more genes than its congeneric species A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Where did these extra genes come from? Here, we evaluate several possible causes of the elevated gene number. Many gene families are expanded in A. oryzae relative to A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but we find no evidence of ancient whole-genome duplication or other segmental duplications, either in A. oryzae or in the common ancestor of the genus Aspergillus. We show that the presence of divergent pairs of paralogs is a feature peculiar to A. oryzae and is not shared with A. nidulans or A. fumigatus. In phylogenetic trees that include paralog pairs from A. oryzae, we frequently find that one of the genes in a pair from A. oryzae has the expected orthologous relationship with A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and other species in the subphylum Eurotiomycetes, whereas the other A. oryzae gene falls outside this clade but still within the Ascomycota. We identified 456 such gene pairs in A. oryzae. Further phylogenetic analysis did not however indicate a single consistent evolutionary origin for the divergent members of these pairs. Approximately one-third of them showed phylogenies that are suggestive of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from Sordariomycete species, and these genes are closer together in the A. oryzae genome than expected by chance, but no unique Sordariomycete donor species was identifiable. The postulated HGTs from Sordariomycetes still leave the majority of extra A. oryzae genes unaccounted for. One possible explanation for our observations is that A. oryzae might have been the recipient of many separate HGT events from diverse donors. PMID:18725939

  14. Elusive origins of the extra genes in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Khaldi

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae revealed unexpectedly that this species has approximately 20% more genes than its congeneric species A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Where did these extra genes come from? Here, we evaluate several possible causes of the elevated gene number. Many gene families are expanded in A. oryzae relative to A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but we find no evidence of ancient whole-genome duplication or other segmental duplications, either in A. oryzae or in the common ancestor of the genus Aspergillus. We show that the presence of divergent pairs of paralogs is a feature peculiar to A. oryzae and is not shared with A. nidulans or A. fumigatus. In phylogenetic trees that include paralog pairs from A. oryzae, we frequently find that one of the genes in a pair from A. oryzae has the expected orthologous relationship with A. nidulans, A. fumigatus and other species in the subphylum Eurotiomycetes, whereas the other A. oryzae gene falls outside this clade but still within the Ascomycota. We identified 456 such gene pairs in A. oryzae. Further phylogenetic analysis did not however indicate a single consistent evolutionary origin for the divergent members of these pairs. Approximately one-third of them showed phylogenies that are suggestive of horizontal gene transfer (HGT from Sordariomycete species, and these genes are closer together in the A. oryzae genome than expected by chance, but no unique Sordariomycete donor species was identifiable. The postulated HGTs from Sordariomycetes still leave the majority of extra A. oryzae genes unaccounted for. One possible explanation for our observations is that A. oryzae might have been the recipient of many separate HGT events from diverse donors.

  15. FluG affects secretion in colonies of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Krijgsheld, Pauline; Hulsman, Marc; de Bekker, Charissa; Müller, Wally H; Reinders, Marcel; de Vries, Ronald P; Wösten, Han A B

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Aspergillus niger are characterized by zonal heterogeneity in growth, sporulation, gene expression and secretion. For instance, the glucoamylase gene glaA is more highly expressed at the periphery of colonies when compared to the center. As a consequence, its encoded protein GlaA is mainly secreted at the outer part of the colony. Here, multiple copies of amyR were introduced in A. niger. Most transformants over-expressing this regulatory gene of amylolytic genes still displayed heterogeneous glaA expression and GlaA secretion. However, heterogeneity was abolished in transformant UU-A001.13 by expressing glaA and secreting GlaA throughout the mycelium. Sequencing the genome of UU-A001.13 revealed that transformation had been accompanied by deletion of part of the fluG gene and disrupting its 3' end by integration of a transformation vector. Inactivation of fluG in the wild-type background of A. niger also resulted in breakdown of starch under the whole colony. Asexual development of the ∆fluG strain was not affected, unlike what was previously shown in Aspergillus nidulans. Genes encoding proteins with a signal sequence for secretion, including part of the amylolytic genes, were more often downregulated in the central zone of maltose-grown ∆fluG colonies and upregulated in the intermediate part and periphery when compared to the wild-type. Together, these data indicate that FluG of A. niger is a repressor of secretion.

  16. Aspergillus niveus Blochwitz 4128URM: new source for inulinase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niveus Blochwitz 4128 URM isolated from sunflower rhizosphere demonstrated a new source of inulinase. The enzyme was produced in culture medium containing inulin as substrate in the concentrations: 10, 15 and 20g L-1. Maximum enzyme activity was obtained in medium containing 20g L-1 inulin. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by ion charge (DE-32 and molecular exclusion (Sephadex chromatography. The results showed the optimal pH and temperature of inulinase from crude extract were 4.0 and 4.8 and 45ºC, respectively. The enzyme was purified 34.65 fold with yield of 53.63%. A. niveus 4128URM can be used in the inulinase production with use in the food industries.Aspergillus niveus 4128URM isolado de rizosfera de girassol demonstrou ser uma nova fonte de inulinase. A enzima foi produzida em meio de cultura contendo inulina como substrato nas concentrações de 10, 15 e 20 g L-1. Atividade máxima da enzima foi obtida em meio contendo 20 g L-1 de inulina. A enzima foi parcialmente purificada utilizando precipitação com sulfato de amônio, seguida por cromatografia de troca iônica (DE-52 e exclusão molecular (Sephadex. Os resultados mostraram o pH e temperatura ótima da inulinase do extrato bruto foi 4,0 e 4,8 e 45ºC, respectivamente. A enzima foi purificada 34,65 vezes com rendimento de 53,63%. A. niveus 4128URM pode ser utilizado na produção de inulinase com perspectivas de uso na indústria de alimentos.

  17. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.; Thrane, Ulf; Meijer, Martin; Varga, Janos; Samson, Robert A.; Nielsen, Kristian F.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B2, B4, and B6) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins. PMID:21853139

  18. Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens C Frisvad

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded as safe. However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2, B(4, and B(6 were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios were 83%, 33% and 26% respectively. Some of the most frequently used strains in industry NRRL 337, 3112 and 3122 produced both toxins and several strains used for citric acid production were among the best producers of fumonisins in pure agar culture. Most strains used for other biotechnological processes also produced fumonisins. Strains optimized through random mutagenesis usually maintained their mycotoxin production capability. Toxigenic strains were also able to produce the toxins on media suggested for citric acid production with most of the toxins found in the biomass, thereby questioning the use of the remaining biomass as animal feed. In conclusion it is recommended to use strains of A. niger with inactive or inactivated gene clusters for fumonisins and ochratoxins, or to choose isolates for biotechnological uses in related non-toxigenic species such as A. tubingensis, A. brasiliensis, A vadensis or A. acidus, which neither produce fumonisins nor ochratoxins.

  19. Genomic islands in the pathogenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D Fedorova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, which are enriched for pseudogenes, transposons and other repetitive elements. At least 20% of A. fumigatus-specific genes appear to be functional and involved in carbohydrate and chitin catabolism, transport, detoxification, secondary metabolism and other functions that may facilitate the adaptation to heterogeneous environments such as soil or a mammalian host. Contrary to what was suggested previously, their origin cannot be attributed to horizontal gene transfer (HGT, but instead is likely to involve duplication, diversification and differential gene loss (DDL. The role of duplication in the origin of lineage-specific genes is further underlined by the discovery of genomic islands that seem to function as designated "gene dumps" and, perhaps, simultaneously, as "gene factories".

  20. [Comparison of genomes between Aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhao-Qing; Zhao, Fu-Yong; Hsiang, Tom; Yu, Zhi-He

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the Internet. An expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. Each complete gene set of the query genome Aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual FASTA files with Seqverter and then compared separately against each filamentous ascomycete genome using Standalone BLASTN. The result indicated that the number of matches reflected the evolutional relationships of the filamentous ascomycetes analysed. Of 10,560 genes in Aspergillus nidulans genome, 924 had match sequences with other 30 filamentous ascomycetes ones. The number of homology sequences were 6, 3, 6, and 6 at E-values in the range of 10(-5) to 0.1, 10(-30) to 10(-5), 10(-100) to 10(-30) and 0 to 1000(-100), respectively. Six homologs at E-values ranging from 10(-5) to 0.1 and 3 at E-values ranging from 10(-30) to 10(-5) were variable, while the 6 at E-values ranging from 0 to 10(-100) were highly conserved based on the alignments using ClustalX. Six homologs were relatively conserved at E-values in the range of 10(-100) to 10(-30), which can be used in phylogeny of these filamentous ascomycetes in this study.