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Sample records for aspergillus section nigri

  1. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus collinsii, Aspergillus floridensis, and Aspergillus trinidadensis are described as novel uniseriate species of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from air samples. To describe the species we used phenotypes from 7-d Czapek yeast extract agar culture (CYA) and malt extract agar culture (M...

  2. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and...

  3. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos;

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  4. Pectinolytic activity of Aspergillus section Nigri strains

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, M. H. C.; Ottoni, C. A.; Santos, C.; Moreira, K.; Lima, Nelson; Motta, Cristina Souza

    2012-01-01

    Pectinases are a heterogeneous group of related enzymes that hydrolyze pectic substances present mostly in plants. Pectinases are produced by plants, fungi, yeasts and bacteria. Filamentous fungi are good producers of pectinolytic enzymes (e.g., exopolygalacturonase (exo-PG) and endopolygalacturonase (endo-PG) and Aspergillus niger is the most commonly used fungal species for industrial production of pectinolytic enzymes. The application of pectinolytic enzymes plays an importa...

  5. Identification of fungi of the genus Aspergillus section nigri using polyphasic taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiani M. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the taxonomy of the Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section being regarded as troublesome, a number of methods have been proposed to aid in the classification of this Section. This work aimed to distinguish Aspergillus species of the Nigri Section from foods, grains and caves on the basis in Polyphasic Taxonomy by utilizing morphologic and physiologic characters, and sequencing of ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The morphologic identification proved useful for some species, such as A. carbonarius and Aspergillus sp UFLA DCA 01, despite not having been totally effective in elucidating species related to A. niger. The isolation of the species of the Nigri Section on Creatine Sucrose Agar (CREA enabled to distinguish the Aspergillus sp species, which was characterized by the lack of sporulation and by the production of sclerotia. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM allowed distinguishing the species into two distinct groups. The production of Ochratoxin A (OTA was only found in the A. carbonarius and A. niger species. The sequencing of β-tubulin gene was efficient in differing most of the Aspergillus species from the Nigri Section with the exception of Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01, which could not be distinguished from A. costaricaensis. This species is morphologically similar to A. costaricaencis for its low sporulation capacity and high sclerotia production, but it differs morphologically from A. costaricaensis for its conidial ornamentation and size of vesicles. Equally, based on partial calmodulin gene sequence data Aspergillus UFLA DCA 01 differs from A. costaricaensis.

  6. Detection and discrimination of four aspergillus section nigri species by pcr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Aspergillus section Nigri are not easily distinguished by traditional morphological techniques, and typically are identified by DNA sequencing methods. We developed four PCR primers to distinguish between A. niger, A. awamori, A. carbonarius and A. tubingensis, based on species-conserved...

  7. Endophytic associations and production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section Nigri species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are considered plant pathogens of maize (Zea mays) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) where they can cause similar disease symptoms as Fusarium verticillioides, such as seedling blight. However, the main concern with black aspergi...

  8. Population Dynamics of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species on Vineyard Samples of Grapes and Raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Fidelibus, Matthew W

    2016-03-01

    Several species of Aspergillus section Nigri, including potential mycotoxin producers, are common residents of grape vineyards, but the relative population size of individual species throughout the growing season is difficult to determine using traditional isolation and identification methods. Using a quantitative droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method in combination with dilution plating, total Aspergillus section Nigri populations and relative proportions of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, A. carbonarius, and A. tubingensis were measured from vineyard samples without the need for identifying individual fungal isolates. Grapes were sampled from two raisin vineyards (vineyards A and B) at berry set, veraison, harvest, and raisin stages in two consecutive years. Plate counts showed that the total population of Aspergillus section Nigri present on the fruit increased from berry set to raisin and became a larger component of the total recovered fungal population in both vineyards in both years. Results from ddPCR analysis showed that the relative proportion of A. carbonarius among the four species assayed increased later in the season (harvest and raisin) in comparison to earlier in the season (berry set and veraison). Total fungal and Aspergillus section Nigri plate counts were not significantly different between vineyards in either year. However, vineyard A generally showed higher proportions of A. carbonarius in harvest and raisin samples than vineyard B. This coincided with higher incidence and levels of ochratoxin A in vineyard A harvest and raisin fruit than in vineyard B fruit. This work demonstrates that this ddPCR method is a useful tool for culture-independent monitoring of populations of mycotoxigenic Aspergillus species during grape and raisin production. PMID:26939655

  9. Production of Polygalacturonases by Aspergillus section Nigri Strains in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Maciel; Cristiane Ottoni; Cledir Santos; Nelson Lima; Keila Moreira; Cristina Souza-Motta

    2013-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (PG) are pectinolytic enzymes that have technological, functional and biological applications in food processing, fruit ripening and plant-fungus interactions, respectively. In the present, study a microtitre plate methodology was used for rapid screening of 61 isolates of fungi from Aspergillus section Nigri to assess production of endo- and exo-PG. Studies of scale-up were carried out in a fixed bed reactor operated under different parameters using the best producer strai...

  10. Aspergillus section Nigri as contributor of fumonisin B(2) contamination in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, A F; Haidukowski, M; Susca, A; Mulè, G; Munkvold, G P; Moretti, A

    2014-01-01

    Fumonisins (FBs), which are carcinogenic mycotoxins, are known to be typically produced by several phytopathogenic fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium. F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, two important pathogens of maize worldwide, are the most common species that produce FBs. The main FBs produced by these species are FB1, FB2 and FB3. Moreover, recently, fungal strains belonging to Aspergillus niger have been also reported to produce FBs (in particular, FB2 and FB4). In a survey on maize carried out in Central Italy, 17 maize kernel samples were collected at harvest and analysed for FB1, FB2 and FB3, as well as fungal contamination, with a particular attention to the species-producing FBs. All 17 samples were contaminated by F. verticillioides and/or F. proliferatum at a level ranging from 13% to 100% of kernels. However, 10 out of 17 samples were also contaminated by Aspergillus section Nigri with a range from 6% to 68% of kernels. There was a significant inverse logarithmic relationship between levels of Fusarium and Aspergillus contamination. All samples were contaminated by FBs; FB1 ranged from 0.09 to 30.2 μg g(-1), whereas FB2 ranged from 0.04 to 13.2 μg g(-1). The ratio of FB2/FB1 contamination in the maize samples was evaluated and the highest values occurred in samples contaminated with Aspergillus section Nigri. Thirty strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from these samples were molecularly identified (based on sequences of two housekeeping genes) and analysed for their capability to produce FB2. Among the 30 strains isolated, 12 were identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae (syn. A. awamori) and 18 as A. tubingensis. FB2 was produced by five out of 12 strains of A. welwitschiae within a range of 0.20-5 μg g(-1). This is the first report showing the capability of Aspergillus section Nigri from maize to produce FB2 and its possibility to contribute to FB accumulation in kernels. PMID:24313896

  11. Occurrence and biodiversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on 'Tannat' grapes in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Gabriela; Vero, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin which has been found worldwide as a contaminant in wines. It is produced on grapes mainly by molds from Aspergillus section Nigri. This study has demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of black aspergilli on Tannat grapes from Uruguay, in a two year survey. Aspergillus uvarum (uniseriate) and Aspergillus welwitschiae (from Aspergillusniger aggregate) were the prevalent species whereas Aspergillus carbonarius which is considered the main OTA producing species was not detected. OTA production in culture medium was evaluated for native isolates from A. niger aggregate and compared to levels produced by a type strain of A. carbonarius. This work also includes the development of quick and easy molecular methods to identify black aspergilli to species level, avoiding sequencing. PMID:26398282

  12. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Kocsube, S.;

    2011-01-01

    based on either beta-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Aspergillus eucalypticola produced pyranonigrin A, funalenone, aurasperone B and other naphtho-gamma-pyrones. Aspergillus neoniger is also a biseriate species isolated from desert sand in Namibia, and mangrove water in Venezuela, which produces...... and A. awamori are also detailed. Although these species differ in their occurrence and several physiological means (elastase activities, abilities to utilise 2-deoxy-D-glucose as sole carbon source), our data indicate that only molecular approaches including sequence analysis of calmodulin or beta...

  13. Characterization of Aspergillus section Nigri group-maize interactions by a green fluorescent protein-tagging approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochratoxin A, produced by some members of the Aspergillus section Nigri group, is a potent nephrotoxic and a potential carcinogenic mycotoxin. Two members of this group A. niger and A. carbonarius are notorious ochratoxin producers in plant substrates, including corn, coffee, grapes, onions, and pea...

  14. Production of mycotoxins by members of the Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from peanuts and maize in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi of the Aspergillus section Nigri (black aspergilli) are pathogenic to maize, grapes, onions, garlic, apples, mangoes, and peanuts. Although some black aspergilli are reported as opportunistic pathogens, other species are able to colonize maize seedlings as symptomless endophytes, which under ...

  15. Production of Polygalacturonases by Aspergillus section Nigri Strains in a Fixed Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG are pectinolytic enzymes that have technological, functional and biological applications in food processing, fruit ripening and plant-fungus interactions, respectively. In the present, a microtitre plate methodology was used for rapid screening of 61 isolates of fungi from Aspergillus section Nigri to assess production of endo- and exo-PG. Studies of scale-up were carried out in a fixed bed reactor operated under different parameters using the best producer strain immobilised in orange peels. Four experiments were conducted under the following conditions: the immobilised cells without aeration; immobilised cells with aeration; immobilised cells with aeration and added pectin; and free cells with aeration. The fermentation was performed for 168 h with removal of sample every 24 h. Aspergillus niger strain URM 5162 showed the highest PG production. The results obtained indicated that the maximum endo- and exo-PG activities (1.18 U·mL−1 and 4.11 U·mL−1, respectively were obtained when the reactor was operating without aeration. The microtitre plate method is a simple way to screen fungal isolates for PG activity detection. The fixed bed reactor with orange peel support and using A. niger URM 5162 is a promising process for PG production at the industrial level.

  16. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    , four of these produce ochratoxin A. Ochratoxin A producing species of section Nigri occurring on grapes, raisins and in wine include A. carbonarius and to a lesser extent A. niger. Four species recovered from coffee, viz. A. carbonarius, A. niger, A. lacticoffeatus and A. sclerotioniger, all produce...

  17. Detection of ochratoxin A in animal feeds and capacity to produce this mycotoxin by Aspergillus section Nigri in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcero, A; Magnoli, C; Hallak, C; Chiacchiera, S M; Palacio, G; Rosa, C A R

    2002-11-01

    Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin detected in a variety of food and feeds mostly from countries with a temperate climate because of the fungi that produce it, mainly Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium verrucosum. In Argentina, there is no available information about the natural occurrence of OA and ochratoxigenic fungi from feedstuffs. The aim was to evaluate the natural occurrence of OA in poultry, pig and rabbit feeds over 8 months. Likewise, the capacity to produce OA by Aspergillus section Nigri was investigated. Mycotoxin analysis showed that in some months of sampling, OA was detected in three feeds. OA was found in 38% of the poultry feed samples tested with levels ranging from 25 to 30 ng g(-1). From rabbit feed samples, 25% contained OA and the levels ranged from 18.5 to 25 ng g(-1). Only 13% of the pig feed samples were contaminated with similar levels of toxins. Ninety-four black Aspergillus strains from feedstuffs were tested for OA production. Among these, the tested species were A. niger var. niger, A. niger var. awamori, A. japonicus var. japonicus, A. japonicus var. aculeatus and A. foetidus. For the detection of OA, three methodologies were applied: the two TLC methods used for the fast screening of the filamentous fungi for the production of OA were not sensitive enough to detect OA in any of the black Aspergillus strains. When an HPLC methodology was used, the results showed that 46% of the black Aspergillus strains were producers of OA, with levels ranging from 13 to 25 ng ml(-1) culture medium. The highest percentage of ochratoxicogenic strains was isolated from rabbit feeds with 100 and 78% of A. niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori, with mean levels of 15.5 and 14.6 ng ml(-1), respectively. From pig feeds, 61% of the A. niger var. awamori were producers of this toxin with mean levels of 16 ng ml(-1). In poultry feeds, the lowest percentage of OA producer strains was detected. The results for the occurrence of OA in feeds from

  18. New ochratoxin A or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Costa Rica and produces large pink to greyish brown sclerotia. Aspergillus lacticoffeatus was found on coffee beans in Venezuela and Indonesia, and is an effective producer of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus piperis was isolated from black ground pepper and produces large yellow to pink brown sclerotia...

  19. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Petersen, Lene Maj; Lyhne, Ellen Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2014-01-01

    reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type...

  20. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

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    Carla Barberis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  1. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  2. Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., a new black Aspergillus species isolated in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Lübeck, Peter S.; Lübeck, Mette; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Teller, Philip J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus sp. nov., belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri group is described. This species was isolated in Denmark from treated hardwood. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach including phenotypic (morphology and extrolite...... Aspergillus species that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus, but has a totally different extrolite profile compared to any known Aspergillus species. The type strain of A. saccharolyticus sp. nov. is CBS 127449T ( = IBT 28509T)....

  3. New taxa in Aspergillus section Usti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Varga, J.; Meijer, M.;

    2011-01-01

    Based on phylogenetic analysis of sequence data, Aspergillus section Usti includes 21 species, inducing two teleomorphic species Aspergillus heterothallicus (=Emericella heterothallica) and Fennellia monodii. Aspergillus germanicus sp. nov. was isolated from indoor air in Germany. This species ha...

  4. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...

  5. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia;

    2008-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergill...... atypical strains of Aspergillus aculeatus, CBS 114.80 and CBS 620.78, and was isolated from grape berries in Portugal, Italy, France, Israel, Greece and Spain. The type strain of Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov. is IMI 388523(T)=CBS 127591(T)= ITEM 4834(T)= IBT26606(T)....

  6. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as...

  7. Involvement of the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus tubingensis in osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone: a case report

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    Bathoorn Erik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus tubingensis is a black Aspergillus belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri, which includes species that morphologically resemble Aspergillus niger. Recent developments in species determination have resulted in clinical isolates presumed to be Aspergillus niger being reclassified as Aspergillus tubingensis by sequencing. We present a report of a patient with an osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone with a probable invasive Aspergillus tubingensis infection. Case presentation We describe an immune compromised patient suffering from osteomyelitis of the maxillary bone after tooth extraction. The osteomyelitis probably resulted in dentogenic pansinusitis presenting as an acute ethmoiditis. Histologic examination of biopsy samples showed osteomyelitis, and inflammation of the surrounding connective tissue. Cultures of the alveolar wound grew Aspergillus tubingensis. The patient was treated with liposomal amphoterocin B, which was changed to oral treatment with voriconazole based on susceptibility testing (MIC for voriconazole was 1 μg/ml. Conclusion This case shows that Aspergillus tubingensis may have the potential to cause severe invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts. A larger proportion of Aspergillus tubingensis isolates are less susceptible to azoles compared to Aspergillus niger. Therefore, correct species identification and susceptibility testing is crucial for the choice of anti-fungal treatment, screening of azole resistance, and characterization of the pathogenic potential of the various species within Aspergillus section Nigri.

  8. Occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi and section Nigri and aflatoxins in raw cashew kernels (Anacardium occidentale L.) from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Hell, Kerstin;

    2016-01-01

    contamination, a total of 100 kernels/sample (with disinfection) and 40 kernels/sample (without disinfection) were plated. Seventy samples from fourteen villages were used. Aflatoxins occurrence was analysed on 84 samples by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC...

  9. Taxonomic Characterization and Secondary Metabolite Profiling of Aspergillus Section Aspergillus Contaminating Feeds and Feedstuffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mariana; Kemppainen, Minna; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Xerophilic fungal species of the genus Aspergillus are economically highly relevant due to their ability to grow on low water activity substrates causing spoilage of stored goods and animal feeds. These fungi can synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites, many of which show animal toxicity, creating a health risk for food production animals and to humans as final consumers, respectively. Animal feeds used for rabbit, chinchilla and rainbow trout production in Argentina were analysed for the presence of xerophilic Aspergillus section Aspergillus species. High isolation frequencies (>60%) were detected in all the studied rabbit and chinchilla feeds, while the rainbow trout feeds showed lower fungal charge (25%). These section Aspergillus contaminations comprised predominantly five taxa. Twenty isolates were subjected to taxonomic characterization using both ascospore SEM micromorphology and two independent DNA loci sequencing. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were determined qualitatively by HPLC-MS. All the isolates produced neoechinulin A, 17 isolates were positive for cladosporin and echinulin, and 18 were positive for neoechinulin B. Physcion and preechinulin were detected in a minor proportion of the isolates. This is the first report describing the detailed species composition and the secondary metabolite profiles of Aspergillus section Aspergillus contaminating animal feeds. PMID:26364643

  10. New ochratoxin A producing species of Aspergillus section Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Frank, J.M.; Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Kuijpers, A.F.A.; Samson, R.A.

    Aspergillus section Circumdati contains species with yellow to ochre conidia and non-black sclerotia that produce at least one of the following extrolites: ochratoxins, penicillic acids, xanthomegnins or melleins. The exception to this is A. robustus, which produces black sclerotia, phototropic...... A: Aspergillus cretensis, A. flocculosus, A. pseudoelegans, A. roseoglobulosus, A. westerdijkiae, A. sulphurous, and Neopetromyces muricatus. Two species produce large or small amounts of ochratoxin A, but less consistently: A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum. Ochratoxin production in these species...

  11. An amendment of Aspergillus section Candidi based on chemotaxonomical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbaek, L.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Christophersen, C.

    2000-01-01

    candidus and therefore a large number of Aspergilli were screened for production of these compounds to see whether they could be regarded as chemotaxonomical indicators of section membership in the monotypic Aspergillus section Candidi. The results indicated that A. campestris and A. taichungensis should...

  12. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati and its teleomorph Neosartorya

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    S.W. Peterson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of Aspergillus section Fumigati with its teleomorph genus Neosartorya is revised. The species concept is based on phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles and molecular (β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences characters in a polyphasic approach. Four new taxa are proposed: N. australensis N. ferenczii, N. papuaensis and N. warcupii. All newly described and accepted species are illustrated. The section consists of 33 taxa: 10 strictly anamorphic Aspergillus species and 23 Neosartorya species. Four other Neosartorya species described previously were not available for this monograph, and consequently are relegated to the category of doubtful species

  13. Diversity and specificity of microsatellites within Aspergillus section Fumigati

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    Araujo Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs are the genetic markers of choice for studying Aspergillus fumigatus molecular epidemiology due to its reproducibility and high discrimination power. However, the specificity of these markers must be investigated in a group of isolates from closely related species. The aim of this work was to test a microsatellite-based PCR multiplex previously designed for A. fumigatus in a set of species belonging to section Fumigati, namely Aspergillus fumigatiaffinis, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus novofumigatus, Aspergillus unilateralis, Aspergillus viridinutans, Neosartorya fischeri, Neosartorya hiratsukae, Neosartorya pseudofischeri and Neosartorya udagawae. Results The reference A. fumigatus strain ATCC 46645 was easily genotyped in standard conditions showing a final electrophoretic profile of 8 expected peaks corresponding to each microsatellite locus. Inversely, no peaks were observed for all other species from section Fumigati, with an exception for marker MC6b in A. unilateralis. By screening the genome sequence of Neosartorya fischeri NRRL 181, the results showed that MC3, MC6a and MC7 might be employed for N. fischeri genotyping since these markers present several repeats of each motif. The accumulation of insertions and deletions was frequently observed in the genomic regions surrounding the microsatellites, including those where the A. fumigatus primers are located. The amplification of microsatellite markers in less stringent amplification conditions resulted in a distinct electrophoretic profile for species within section Fumigati. Conclusions Therefore, the microsatellite-based PCR multiplex allow simple identification of A. fumigatus and, with a slight modification of temperature conditions, it also allows discriminating other pathogenic species within section Fumigati, particularly A. fumigatiaffinis, N. fischeri and N. udagawae.

  14. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

    OpenAIRE

    Palencia; Hinton; Bacon

    2010-01-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Se...

  15. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Kolarik, Miroslav;

    2014-01-01

    The identity of nine clinical isolates recovered from Czech patients and presumptively identified as Aspergillus sp. section Candidi based on colony morphology was revised using sequences of beta-tubulin, calmodulin gene sequence, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA. Six isolates were from...... secondary metabolite analysis was also provided with comparison of metabolite spectrum to other species. Section Candidi now encompasses five species for which a dichotomous key based on colony characteristics is provided. All clinical isolates were tested for susceptibilities to selected antifungal agents...... suspected and proven onychomycosis, one from otitis externa, and two associated with probable invasive aspergillosis. The results showed that one Aspergillus candidus isolate was the cause of otitis externa, and both isolates obtained from sputa of patients with probable invasive aspergillosis were...

  16. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena;

    2011-01-01

    . Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species......Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger ‘aggregate’ represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus...... mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these...

  17. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  18. Ochratoxin production and taxonomy of the yellow aspergilli (Aspergillus section Circumdati)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Varga, J.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus section Circumdati or the Aspergillus ochraceus group, includes species with rough walled stipes, biseriate conidial heads, yellow to ochre conidia and sclerotia that do not turn black. Several species are able to produce mycotoxins including ochratoxins, penicillic acids, and....... The most important species regarding potential ochratoxin A contamination in agricultural products are A. ochraceus, A. steynii and A. westerdijkiae....

  19. Aspergillus pragensis sp nov discovered during molecular reidentification of clinical isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Candidi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Lysková, P.; Frisvad, J.C.; Peterson, S.W.; Skořepová, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2014), s. 565-576. ISSN 1369-3786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus candidus * Aspergillus tritici * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2014

  20. Biodiversity of Aspergillus Section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxin risk

    OpenAIRE

    GiancarloPerrone; AntoniaGallo

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus Section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003-2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus Section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of A. flavus L-morp...

  1. Beta-tubulin paralogue tubC is frequently misidentified as the benA gene in Aspergillus section Nigri taxonomy: primer specificity testing ad taxonomic consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, DEC 2012 (2012), s. 1-10. ISSN 0031-5850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biseriate black aspergilli * codon usage * gene duplication Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.486, year: 2012

  2. Rapid HPLC method for simultaneous detection of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic from Aspergillus section Flavi

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Célia; Rodrigues, Paula; Freitas-Silva, Otniel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by moulds and are an important world-wide food safety concern. Among the most relevant mycotoxigenic producer fungi are some Aspergillus species in particular those belonging to the Aspergillus section Flavi. These are known to produce the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins in agricultural commodities. Due to its impact in animal and human health, these species are among the most intenSively studied ones, being well known producers...

  3. Evolutionary relationships in Aspergillus section Fumigati inferred from partial beta-tubulin and hydrophobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiser, D.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taylor, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Members of Aspergillus section Fumigati are important animal pathogens and food contaminants. There is considerable variation among the 16 currently recognized species in this section, particularly in their mating systems: five are known to be strictly mitosporic, nine are homothallic, and two ar....... fischeri was identified as the closest known meiotic relative to the cosmopolitan species most often implicated in human aspergillosis, A. fumigatus....

  4. Distribution of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi in commercial poultry feed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Atehnkeng, J; Odebode, A C; Bandyopadhyay, R

    2014-10-17

    The distribution and aflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates in 58 commercial poultry feed samples obtained from 17 states in five agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in Nigeria were determined in order to assess the safety of the feeds with respect to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Correlation was also performed for incidence of species, aflatoxin-producing ability of isolates in vitro, and aflatoxin (AFB1) concentrations in the feed. A total of 1006 Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were obtained from 87.9% of the feed samples and identified as Aspergillus flavus, unnamed taxon SBG, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus tamarii. A. flavus was the most prevalent (91.8%) of the isolates obtained from the feed in the AEZs while A. parasiticus had the lowest incidence (0.1%) and was isolated only from a layer mash sample collected from the DS zone. About 29% of the Aspergillus isolates produced aflatoxins in maize grains at concentrations up to 440,500μg/kg B and 341,000μg/kgG aflatoxins. The incidence of toxigenic isolates was highest (44.4%) in chick mash and lowest (19.9%) in grower mash. The population of A. flavus in the feed had positive (r=0.50) but non significant (p>0.05) correlations with proportion of toxigenic isolates obtained from the feed while SBG had significant (pfeed. Poultry feed in Nigerian markets are therefore highly contaminated with aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species and consequently, aflatoxins. This is a potential threat to the poultry industry and requires urgent intervention. PMID:25108761

  5. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  6. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins and...... kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, beta-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within this...

  7. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Jurjevič, Ž.; Peterson, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-208. ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus flavipes * cave mycobiota * Fennellia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.471, year: 2014

  8. Impact of environmental and plant factors on Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from maize in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giorni, Paola

    2007-01-01

    The exceptional hot weather conditions in Italy during the summer of 2003 resulted in an optimal environment for the development of Aspergillus section Flavi in maize and, consequently, for aflatoxin production. This caused significant contamination, above the EU legal limits, for maize destined to feed and food. This study was focused to define the distribution of these fungi in Italy for the first time. In all the sampled regions of Northern Italy, A. flavus was present. ...

  9. A survey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi in poultry feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astoreca, A L; Dalcero, A M; Pinto, V Fernández; Vaamonde, G

    2011-03-15

    Thirty-five samples of poultry feeds and corresponding raw materials (maize, soybean and meat meal) from a processing plant were analyzed to evaluate the distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates. Mycological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of five fungal genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, and Eurotium). Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species being present in 48.5% of the analyzed samples. Ninety-one isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated; ninety were identified as A. flavus and only one as A. parasiticus. Fifty-seven isolates were capable of producing sclerotia, 41 were identified as L-type strains and 16 as type S. Fifty-seven percent of the isolates produced AFB₁ levels ranging from 0.05 μg/kg to 27.7 μg/kg whereas 86.8% produced CPA from 1.5 μg/kg to 137.8 μg/kg. L-strains produced from 0.05 to 14.8 μg/kg of aflatoxin and type S produced levels from 0.05 to 1.65 μg/kg. No significant differences in CPA production among S- and L-strains were observed. Sclerotial isolates produced AFB₁ levels ranging between 0.05 and 27.7 μg/kg and CPA levels from 3.8 to 47.3 μg/kg. More than half of the A. flavus isolates were able to produce AFB and CPA simultaneously. Twenty percent of the 35 samples were contaminated with aflatoxin B₁ whereas 34.3% were contaminated with CPA. The high rate of CPA producing isolates represents a potential risk of contamination with this toxin in poultry feeds. PMID:21354643

  10. A new highly efficient beta-glucosidase from the novel species, Aspergillus saccharolyticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette

    stream of a cellulosic ethanol production was explored as enzyme production medium, finding Aspergillus niger as well as an unidentified strain AP as promising candidates for the utilization of the filter cake for growth and enzyme production. The filter cake inoculated with the respective fungi could...... of pretreated biomass. The Michaelis Menten kinetics affinity constants of strain AP extract and Novozym 188 were approximately the same, and the two preparations performed equally well in cellobiose hydrolysis with regard to product inhibition. However, the extract of strain AP showed higher specific activity...... differed significantly from other known aspergilli in section Nigri, as several well-known compounds from this series were not present, and the peaks detected did not match the approximately 13500 fungal extrolites in the natural product chemist’s database, Antibase2010. Genotypic analysis of the ITS...

  11. Investigation of a 6-MSA Synthase Gene Cluster in Aspergillus aculeatus Reveals 6-MSA-derived Aculinic Acid, Aculins A-B and Epi-Aculin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held;

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus aculeatus, a filamentous fungus belonging to the Aspergillus clade Nigri, is an industrial workhorse in enzyme production. Recently we reported a number of secondary metabolites from this fungus; however, its genetic potential for the production of secondary metabolites is vast. In th...

  12. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2007-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N....... pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl- sulochrin, TR-2...

  13. Isolation of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils and determination of tolerance to glyphosate of nontoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Dalcero, Ana María; Magnoli, Carina E

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in Argentina's agricultural system to control undesirable weeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the culturable mycobiota [colony forming units (CFU) g(-1) and frequency of fungal genera or species] from an agricultural field exposed to pesticides. In addition, we evaluated the tolerance of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains to high concentrations (100 to 500 mM - 17,000 to 84,500 ppm) of a glyphosate commercial formulation. The analysis of the mycobiota showed that the frequency of the main fungal genera varied according to the analyzed sampling period. Aspergillus spp. or Aspergillus section Flavi strains were isolated from 20 to 100% of the soil samples. Sterilia spp. were also observed throughout the sampling (50 to 100%). Aspergillus section Flavi tolerance assays showed that all of the tested strains were able to develop at the highest glyphosate concentration tested regardless of the water availability conditions. In general, significant reductions in growth rates were observed with increasing concentrations of the herbicide. However, a complete inhibition of fungal growth was not observed with the concentrations assayed. This study contributes to the knowledge of culturable mycobiota from agricultural soils exposed to pesticides and provides evidence on the effective growth ability of A. oryzae and nontoxigenic A. flavus strains exposed to high glyphosate concentrations in vitro. PMID:26549415

  14. .i.Aspergillus baeticus./i. sp. nov. and .i.Aspergillus thesauricus./i. sp. nov., two species in section .i.Usti./i. from Spanish caves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vít; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, November (2012), s. 2778-2785. ISSN 1466-5026 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 607812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Aspergillus baeticus sp. nov. * Aspergillus thesauricus sp.nov. * Spanish caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2012

  15. Biological control of AFB1-producing Aspergillus section Flavi strains isolated from brewer's grains, alternative feed intended for swine production in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asurmendi, Paula; García, María J; Ruíz, Francisco; Dalcero, Ana; Pascual, Liliana; Barberis, Lucila

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from brewer's grains on Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin B1 production. The Aspergillus strains tested were inhibited by all the LAB strains assayed. The isolates Lactobacillus brevis B20, P. pentosaceus B86, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis B87, L. brevis B131, and Lactobacillus sp. B144 completely suppressed the fungal growth and reduced aflatoxin B1 production. In conclusion, LAB isolated from brewer's grains show a high inhibitory activity on fungal growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Further studies must be conducted to evaluate the success of in vitro assays under food environment conditions and to elucidate the antifungal mechanism of these strains. PMID:27070819

  16. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    ). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...

  17. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Edwin R; Hinton, Dorothy M; Bacon, Charles W

    2010-04-01

    The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata, the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. PMID:22069592

  18. Phenotypic characteristics of isolates of Aspergillus section Fumigati from different geographic origins and their relationships with genotypic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rocío Reyes-Montes María

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies worldwide have shown that A. fumigatus exhibits important phenotypic and genotypic diversity, and these findings have been of great importance in improving the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by this fungus. However, few studies have been carried out related to the epidemiology of this fungus in Latin America. This study´s aim is to report on the epidemiology of the fungus by analyzing the phenotypic variability of Aspergillus section Fumigati isolates from different Latin American countries and the relationship between this variability, the geographical origin and genotypic characteristics. Methods We analyzed the phenotypic characteristics (macro- and micromorphology, conidial size, vesicles size, antifungal susceptibility and thermotolerance at 28, 37 and 48°C of A. section Fumigati isolates from Mexico (MX, Argentina (AR, Peru (PE and France (FR. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test to detect significant differences. Two dendrograms among isolates were obtained with UPGMA using the Euclidean distance index. One was drawn for phenotypic data, and the other for phenotypic and genotypic data. A PCoA was done for shown isolates in a space of reduced dimensionality. In order to determine the degree of association between the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics AFLP, we calculated the correlation between parwise Euclidean distance matrices of both data sets with the nonparametric Mantel test. Results No variability was found in the macromorphology of the studied isolates; however, the micromorphology and growth rate showed that the PE isolates grew at a faster rate and exhibited the widest vesicles in comparison to the isolates from MX, AR and FR. The dendrogram constructed with phenotypic data showed three distinct groups. The group I and II were formed with isolates from PE and FR, respectively, while group III was formed

  19. Taxonomy of Aspergillus section Petersonii sect. nov encompassing indoor and soil-borne species with predominant tropical distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurjevič, Ž.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Hubka, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 10 (2015), s. 2441-2462. ISSN 0378-2697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus arenarius * Multilocus phylogeny * Scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2014

  20. Puesta a punto del método de PCR en tiempo real para la cuantificación de Aspergillus carbonarius en uvas Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Garmendia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La ocratoxina A (OTA es una micotoxina que ha sido detectada en uvas y vinos. Es producida por Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus carbonarius y especies pertenecientes al agregado Aspergillus niger. En los últimos años se ha descrito la presencia de Aspergillus aculeatus y Aspergillus japonicus en la superficie de uvas y su capacidad de producir OTA. A pesar de que la concentración detectada de cepas pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri fue < 100/g de uva, se han aislado, identificado y caracterizado 56 cepas de Aspergillus pertenecientes a la Sección Nigri. El 51 % fue identificado como A. niger, el 39 % como A. japonicus, 5 % como A. tubingensis -like y 5 % como A. foetidus. Ninguna cepa de A. carbonarius fue aislada. Debido a que esta especie ha sido descrita como la principal responsable de la presencia de OTA en uvas y vinos por su capacidad de producir altas concentraciones de OTA, se requiere un método más sensible que los métodos convencionales para detectar y cuantificar la presencia de A. carbonarius en uva. En este trabajo se optimizó la técnica de PCR en tiempo real para la detección y cuantificación de esta especie en uvas d e la variedad Tannat.

  1. Revision of .i.Aspergillus./i. section .i.Flavipedes./i.: seven new species and proposal of section .i.Jani./i. sect. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, V.; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, M.; Jurjevič, Ž.; Peterson, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-208. ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/0536 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aspergillus flavipes * cave mycobiota * Fennellia * multilocus phylogeny * PCR fingerprinting * soil fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.471, year: 2014

  2. Molecular ecology of aspergillus section flavi species : approaches to understand the role of aflatoxin genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Hadi, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to integrate and correlate the effect of ecophysiological factors on the life cycle of Aspergillus flavus by carrying out complementary work on gene expression of the aflatoxin gene cluster, with growth, sporulation and phenotypic toxin production. This information was used to understand the role of ecological factors on key biosynthetic genes and examine the use of such information for control of aflatoxin production using RNA interference. Ecologica...

  3. Antifungal impact of volatile fractions of Peumus boldus and Lippia turbinata on Aspergillus section Flavi and residual levels of these oils in irradiated peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María Alejandra; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the antifungal properties of essential oil (EO) vapors from boldo and poleo on Aspergillus section Flavi and the residual levels of the oils in peanut, irradiated peanuts conditioned at three water activities (0.98, 0.95, 0.93) were treated with 2 and 3 μL/g of boldo and 3 and 5 μL/g of poleo. EO treatments produced the greatest impact on fungal growth parameters, followed by oil concentrations and aW levels. The three main components in peanut exposed to oil vapors were piperitone oxide, α-terpinene and eucalyptol for boldo and β-caryophyllene epoxide, limonene and piperitenone for poleo. Residues of boldo and poleo EO were significantly decreased from 24.7 to 100% and from 26.6 to 99.7% at the end of the incubation period, respectively. The application of nontoxic boldo oil as fumigant in the control of Aspergillus section Flavi may represent a potential alternative antifungal treatment, without significant residues after 35 days. PMID:24211775

  4. Cloning and Characterization of the Aspergillus ochraceoroseus Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 has been reported from members of Aspergillus section Flavi, Aspergillus section Nidulantes, and a newly proposed section, Aspergillus section Ochraceorosei that consists of Aspergillus ochraceoroseus and the closely related A. rambellii. A. och...

  5. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Eva M; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; Patiño, Belén; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2011-09-15

    Contamination of barley by moulds and mycotoxins results in quality and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in stored barley in Spain has been studied. Species-specific PCR assays were used for detection of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. steynii, A. westerdijkiae, A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate in mycotoxin-positive barley samples at different incubation times (0, 1 and 2 days). Classical enumeration techniques (CFU/g) in different culture media for evaluation of Aspergillus in sections Flavi, Circumdati and Nigri were also used. One hundred and five barley kernel samples were collected in Spanish grain stores from 2008 to 2010, and analyzed using a previously optimized method involving accelerated solvent extraction, cleanup by immunoaffinity column, liquid chromatographic separation, post-column derivatization with iodine and fluorescence detection. Twenty-nine samples were contaminated with at least one of the studied mycotoxins. AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, and OTA were detected in 12.4%, 2.9%, 4.8%, 2.9%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. Aflatoxins and OTA co-occurred in 4.8% of the samples. Maximum mycotoxin levels (ng/g) were 0.61 (AFB1), 0.06 (AFB2), 0.26 (AFG1), 0.05 (AFG2), and 2.0 (OTA). The results of PCR assays indicated the presence of all the studied species, except A. westerdijkiae. The PCR assays showed high levels of natural contamination of barley with the studied species of Aspergillus which do not correspond to the expected number of CFU/g in the cultures. These results suggest that a high number of non-viable spores or hyphae may exist in the samples. This is the first study carried out on the levels of aflatoxins and OTA in barley grain in Spain. Likewise, this is the first report on the presence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. in barley grain naturally

  6. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  7. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M. Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets. PMID:27444945

  8. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets. PMID:27444945

  9. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; Gunasekara, T. D. C. P.; Bulugahapitiya, U.; Ranasinghe, K. N. P.; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; Weerasekara, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients’ toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P onychomycosis. Aspergillus species were most commonly isolated n = 180 (71%) followed by dermatophytes, yeasts, and other molds n = 75 (29%). Of the patients having Aspergillus onychomycosis, 149 (83%) were in the > age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63%) had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation. PMID:26693433

  10. New species in .i.Aspergillus./i. section .i.Fumigati./i. from reclamation sites in Wyoming (USA) and revision of .i.A. viridinutans./i. complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena; Hubka, Vít; Dudová, Zuzana; Matsuzawa, T.; Kubátová, A.; Yaguchi, T.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2014), s. 253-274. ISSN 1560-2745 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08085; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) GAUK 607812 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus fumigatus * heterothallic species * MAT locus * Neosartorya udagawae * PCR fingerprinting * soil fungi Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.221, year: 2014

  11. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...... analysis. The sequence data used to delimitate subgeneric taxa included partial calmodulin, rDNA and RNA polymerase gene sequences. In our phylogenic structure of Aspergillus extrolite data of the various Aspergillus taxa collected from ex-type cultures and numerous other isolates are also discussed. A new...... subgeneric classification is proposed which includes 8 subgenera and 22 sections within the Aspergillus genus. Characteristics of these taxa are shortly discussed in this chapter....

  12. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  13. Aspergillus spinal epidural abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spinal epidural abscess developed in a renal transplant recipient; results of a serum radioimmunoassay for Aspergillus antigen were positive. Laminectomy disclosed an abscess of the L4-5 interspace and L-5 vertebral body that contained hyphal forms and from which Aspergillus species was cultured. Serum Aspergillus antigen radioimmunoassay may be a valuable, specific early diagnostic test when systemic aspergillosis is a consideration in an immunosuppressed host

  14. Clonality and sex impact aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species in Aspergillus section Flavi commonly infect agricultural staples such as corn, peanuts, cottonseed, and tree nuts and produce an array of mycotoxins, the most potent of which are aflatoxins. Aspergillus flavus is the dominant aflatoxin-producing species in the majority of crops. Populatio...

  15. Metabolomics of Aspergillus fumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important species in Aspergillus causing infective lung diseases. This species has been reported to produce a large number of extrolites, including secondary metabolites, acids, and proteins such as hydrophobins and extracellular enzymes. At least 226 potentially...

  16. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T M Wijesuriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. Three hundred diabetic patients were included. Clinical examinations of patients' toenails were performed by a clinical microbiologist. Laboratory identification was done, and pathogens were identified to the species level by morpho-physiological methods. All inferential statistics were tested at P age group. In men, Aspergillus onycomycosis was seen in 82%. Among patients who had Aspergillus nail infection, 114 (63% had diabetes for a period of > years. Among patients who were engaged in agricultural activities, 77% were confirmed to have infected nails due to Aspergillus species. Conclusion: Aspergillus niger was the most common pathogen isolated from toenail infection. Aspergillus species should be considered as an important pathogen in toenail onychomycosis in diabetic patients. Risk factors associated with Aspergillus onychomycosis were age, gender, duration of diabetes, length of exposure to fungi, and occupation.

  17. Regulation of Development in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2010-01-01

    Members of the genus Aspergillus are the most common fungi and all reproduce asexually by forming long chains of conidiospores (or conidia). The impact of various Aspergillus species on humans ranges from beneficial to harmful. For example, several species including Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger are used in industry for enzyme production and food processing. In contrast, Aspergillus flavus produce the most potent naturally present carcinogen aflatoxins, which contaminate various pl...

  18. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.; Cabral, D.; Varga, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces......Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... aflatoxins G(1) and G(2), aflavarins, aflatrem, aflavinines, parasiticolides and paspaline. This species also includes several isolates previously assigned to A. flavus group II and three Australian soil isolates. A. arachidicola produces aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2), kojic acid, chrysogine and...

  19. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...

  20. Nonfunctionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a Strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a Disrupted aflR Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Yu, Jiujiang; Abe, Keietsu; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.; Koyama, Yasuji

    2002-01-01

    Aspergillus sojae belongs to the Aspergillus section Flavi but does not produce aflatoxins. The functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene (aflRs) was examined by transforming it into an ΔaflR strain of A. parasiticus, derived from a nitrate-nonutilizing, versicolorin A (VERA)-accumulating strain. The A. parasiticus aflR gene (aflRp) transformants produced VERA, but the aflRs transformants did not. Even when aflRs was placed under the control of the amylase gene (amyB) promoter of Aspergillus or...

  1. (+)-Geodin from Aspergillus terreus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnest, Mads Holger; Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Leber, Blanka; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Harris, Pernille

    The fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2R)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], C(17)H(12)Cl(2)O(7), was isolated from Aspergillus terreus. The crystal structure contains two independent molecules in...

  2. Studies on Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro studies were conducted on conidia of Aspergillus flavus Link (aflatoxin producing) and Aspergillus flavus oryzae (non-toxigenic) strains isolated and identified in this laboratory. These strains differed in resistance to heat and gamma radiation, the toxigenic strain being more resistant to both treatments. Results of tests on dose-modifying factors indicated that composition, temperature and pH of suspending media affected radiation resistance. On the other hand, the size of the initial population and the age of the conidia did not influence the radiation resistance of either strain. Studies on thermal inactivation of the conidia suggested that the temperature employed was more important than the time of heat treatment. Conidia of both strains showed a synergistic effect of combined heat and radiation treatments, although a heat-radiation sequence was more effective than a radiation-heat sequence. (author)

  3. Pituitary aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907

  4. 21 CFR 173.120 - Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carbohydrase and cellulase derived from Aspergillus niger. 173.120 Section 173.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...) Aspergillus niger is classified as follows: Class, Deuteromycetes; order, Moniliales; family,...

  5. Aspergillus-Related Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Al-Alawi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus is a ubiquitous dimorphic fungus that causes a variety of human diseases ranging in severity from trivial to life-threatening, depending on the host response. An intact host defence is important to prevent disease, but individuals with pre-existing structural lung disease, atopy, occupational exposure or impaired immunity are susceptible. Three distinctive patterns of aspergillus-related lung disease are recognized: saprophytic infestation of airways, cavities and necrotic tissue; allergic disease including extrinsic allergic alveolitis, asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia; and airway and tissue invasive disease -- pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, acute bronchopneumonia, angioinvasive aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing aspergillosis and invasive pleural disease. A broad knowledge of these clinical presentations and a high index of suspicion are required to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of the potentially lethal manifestations of aspergillus-related pulmonary disease. In the present report, the clinical, radiographic and pathological aspects of the various aspergillus-related lung diseases are briefly reviewed.

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Arné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood.

  7. MICROFUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS OF GRAPES FROM EASTERN SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated an endogenous mycobiota of grapes in Eastern wine region, Slovakia and detection a potentially pathogenic isolates to produce selected mycotoxins. Intact berries from four wine grape cultivars were tested. Seven/eight berries superficially sterilized from each samples were placed on a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar in a total of 50 and incubated at 25 °C, 5 - 7 days. A total of 582 isolates were obtained that belonged to ten genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and one unidentified genus Mycelium sterillium without creation fruiting bodies. The most frequent were genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis and Penicillium with 100 % frequention. The most frequent Aspergillus species was Aspergillus section Nigri (100 % and Penicillium species was Penicillium chrysogenum (50 %. The largest number of isolates belonged to Alternaria (275 isolates, Cladosporium (114 isolates and Penicillium (92 isolates. For that reason the relative density of both genera were the highest 42 %, 19.6 % and 15.8 %, respectively. The selected isolates – Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus section Nigri, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested for patulin, citrinin, penitrem A, roquefortin C, ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1, G1 and cyclopiazonic acid producing ability. Out of 11 strains 54 % produced at least one mycotoxin. In our research ochratoxigenic microfungi (some species of Aspergillus section Nigri were found in grape samples but without production of OTA.

  8. Allergens/Antigens, Toxins and Polyketides of Important Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Bhetariya, Preetida J.; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P.

    2011-01-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important specie...

  9. Role of Aspergillus lentulus 14-α Sterol Demethylase (Cyp51A) in Azole Drug Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado, Emilia; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that some morphologically atypical Aspergillus fumigatus strains are different species belonging to the section Fumigati. Aspergillus lentulus, one of these sibling species, is increasingly reported in patients under corticosteroid treatment. MICs of most antifungals in clinical use are elevated against A. lentulus, and it shows primary resistance to azole drugs. Two A. lentulus cytochrome P450 14-α sterol demethylases, encoded by A. lentulus cyp51A (Alcyp51A)...

  10. 76 FR 16297 - Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... exemptions for experimental use of Aspergillus flavus AF36 on pistachio (72 FR 28871, May 23, 2007) (FRL-8129... Findings In the Federal Register of March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9596) (FRL-8811-2), EPA issued a notice pursuant..., 2003 (68 FR 41541) (FRL-7311-6). Those health effects data were the basis for establishing...

  11. Aspergillus infections in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jill; Brunel, Shan F; Warris, Adilia

    2016-07-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) suffer from chronic lung infection and airway inflammation. Respiratory failure secondary to chronic or recurrent infection remains the commonest cause of death and accounts for over 90% of mortality. Bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex have been regarded the main CF pathogens and their role in progressive lung decline has been studied extensively. Little attention has been paid to the role of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi in the pathogenesis of non-ABPA (allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) respiratory disease in CF, despite their frequent recovery in respiratory samples. It has become more apparent however, that Aspergillus spp. may play an important role in chronic lung disease in CF. Research delineating the underlying mechanisms of Aspergillus persistence and infection in the CF lung and its link to lung deterioration is lacking. This review summarizes the Aspergillus disease phenotypes observed in CF, discusses the role of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)-protein in innate immune responses and new treatment modalities. PMID:27177733

  12. Aspergillus mediastinitis after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Caballero

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The clinical features of postoperative Aspergillus mediastinitis may be paucisymptomatic, emphasizing the need for a low index of suspicion in cases of culture-negative mediastinitis or in indolent wound infections. In addition to surgical debridement, the central component of antifungal therapy should include amphotericin B or voriconazole.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der D.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipas

  14. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  15. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta-xylosidases. The...

  16. Ochratoxin A-Produktion durch Aspergillus ochraceus

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlencoert, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A, one of the 5 most important mycotoxins in food safety, is produced by several Aspergillus and Penicillium strains growing on grain, grapes and coffee. OTA biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. depends more on the complex interaction of diverse environmental conditions than on a single growth factor or even the genetic ability to produce OTA. No apparent connection between biomass and OTA production was observed. OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus could be controlled by the pH of...

  17. Developmental regulators in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Soo; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen causing severe and usually fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This fungus produces a large number of small hydrophobic asexual spores called conidia as the primary means of reproduction, cell survival, propagation, and infectivity. The initiation, progression, and completion of asexual development (conidiation) is controlled by various regulators that govern expression of thousands of genes associated with formation of the asexual developmental structure conidiophore, and biogenesis of conidia. In this review, we summarize key regulators that directly or indirectly govern conidiation in this important pathogenic fungus. Better understanding these developmental regulators may provide insights into the improvement in controlling both beneficial and detrimental aspects of various Aspergillus species. PMID:26920882

  18. Regulatory processes in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars

    Filamentous fungi are extensively used in the fermentation industry for synthesis of numerous products. One of the most important, is the fungus Aspergillus niger, used industrially for production of organic acids, and homologous as well as heterologous enzymes. This fungus has numerous of advant...... fumonisin production, identified. These formed the basis for the subsequent examinations, which resulted in the identification of azelaic acid, a plant hormone and a very potent fumonisin inducer....

  19. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  20. Transcriptional profiling of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Veen, van der, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    The industrially important fungus Aspergillus niger feeds naturally on decomposing plant material, of which a significant proportion is lipid. Examination of the A. niger genome sequence suggested that all proteins required for metabolic conversion of lipids are present, including 63 predicted lipases. In contrast to polysaccharide-degrading enzyme networks, not much is known about the signaling and regulatory processes that control lipase expression and activity in fungi. This project was ai...

  1. Asexual Sporulation in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Thomas H; Wieser, Jenny K.; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    1998-01-01

    The formation of mitotically derived spores, called conidia, is a common reproductive mode in filamentous fungi, particularly among the large fungal class Ascomycetes. Asexual sporulation strategies are nearly as varied as fungal species; however, the formation of conidiophores, specialized multicellular reproductive structures, by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans has emerged as the leading model for understanding the mechanisms that control fungal sporulation. Initiation of A. nid...

  2. The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Heddergott, C.; Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J P

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of invasive aspergillosis is absolutely required for efficient therapy of this fungal infection. The identification of fungal volatiles in patient breath can be an alternative for the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus that still remains problematic. In this work, we investigated the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by A. fumigatus in vitro, and we show that volatile production depends on the nutritional environment. A. fumigatus produces a multiplicity of VO...

  3. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  4. Liver injury in invasive aspergillus. Echographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus is the second most common mycoses in immuno compromised patients. The invasive form is associated with a mortality of approximately 100%. We present a case of invasive aspergillus in a heart transplant recipient in whom ultrasound disclosed the presence of liver injury which was later confirmed by necropsy. We review the available literature. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by agar gel double immunodiffusion and IgG ELISA in feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrs, V R; Ujvari, B; Dhand, N K; Peters, I R; Talbot, J; Johnson, L R; Billen, F; Martin, P; Beatty, J A; Belov, K

    2015-03-01

    Feline upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) is an emerging infectious disease. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the diagnostic value of detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies using an agar gel double immunodiffusion (AGID) assay and an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA; and (2) to determine if an aspergillin derived from mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus can be used to detect serum antibodies against cryptic Aspergillus spp. in Aspergillus section Fumigati. Sera from cats with URTA (group 1: n = 21) and two control groups (group 2: cats with other upper respiratory tract diseases, n = 25; group 3: healthy cats and cats with non-respiratory, non-fungal illness, n = 84) were tested. Isolates from cats with URTA comprised A. fumigatus (n = 5), A. flavus (n = 1) and four cryptic species: Aspergillus felis (n = 12), Aspergillus thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri, n = 1), Aspergillus lentulus (n = 1) and Aspergillus udagawae (n = 1). Brachycephalic purebred cats were significantly more likely to develop URTA than other breeds (P = 0.013). The sensitivity (Se) of the AGID was 43% and the specificity (Sp) was 100%. At a cut-off value of 6 ELISA units/mL, the Se of the IgG ELISA was 95.2% and the Sp was 92% and 92.9% for groups 2 and 3 cats, respectively. Aspergillus-specific antibodies against all four cryptic species were detected in one or both assays. Assay Se was not associated with species identity. Detection of Aspergillus-specific antibodies by IgG ELISA has high Se and Sp for diagnosis of feline URTA. PMID:25634077

  6. Aspergillus Osteomyelitis of the Skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Simon; King, Richard; Chumas, Paul; Russell, John; Liddington, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis of the craniofacial skeleton is rare, with fungal pathogens least commonly implicated. The authors present 2 patients of osteomyelitis of the skull caused by Aspergillus spp. and discuss the diagnosis, clinicopathological course, and management strategies.Late recurrence seen in this type of infection warrants long-term follow-up and a high index of suspicion for the clinical signs associated with recurrence.Such patients would benefit from their surgical debridement being planned and managed via a specialist craniofacial unit, so as to utilize the most aesthetically sensitive approach and the experience of specialists from several surgical disciplines. PMID:27391523

  7. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Gomes; Roberto da Silva; Alcides Serzedello

    1998-01-01

    Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of a...

  8. Aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Person, A. K.; Chudgar, S. M.; Norton, B. L.; Tong, B. C.; Stout, J E

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. Most are attributed to Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus. Aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. A 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. Chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolid...

  9. Nonfunctionality of Aspergillus sojae aflR in a strain of Aspergillus parasiticus with a disrupted aflR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Matsushima, Kenichiro; Yu, Jiujiang; Abe, Keietsu; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E; Koyama, Yasuji

    2002-08-01

    Aspergillus sojae belongs to the Aspergillus section Flavi but does not produce aflatoxins. The functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene (aflRs) was examined by transforming it into an DeltaaflR strain of A. parasiticus, derived from a nitrate-nonutilizing, versicolorin A (VERA)-accumulating strain. The A. parasiticus aflR gene (aflRp) transformants produced VERA, but the aflRs transformants did not. Even when aflRs was placed under the control of the amylase gene (amyB) promoter of Aspergillus oryzae, the amy(p)::aflRs transformants did not produce VERA. A chimeric construct containing the aflRs promoter plus the aflRs N- and aflRp C-terminal coding regions could restore VERA production, but a construct containing the aflRp promoter plus the aflRp N- and aflRs C-terminal coding regions could not. These results show that the A. sojae aflR promoter is functional in A. parasiticus and that the HAHA motif does not affect the function of the resulting hybrid AflR. We conclude that the lack of aflatoxin production by A. sojae can be attributed, at least partially, to the premature termination defect in aflRs, which deletes the C-terminal transcription activation domain that is critical for the expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. PMID:12147467

  10. Genetic diversity of Aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and Aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Hui, Teresa W S; Lee, Kim-Chung; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Jasper F W; Wu, Andrea L; Cheung, Mei; Tse, Brian P H; Wu, Alan K L; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Que, Tak-Lun; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen Aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. Twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus sydowii [n=4], Aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], Aspergillus terreus [n=2], Aspergillus flavus [n=1], Aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and Aspergillus unguis [n=1]). Isolates of A. terreus, A. flavus, and A. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The 13th isolate (HKU49(T)) possessed unique morphological characteristics different from other Aspergillus spp. Molecular characterization also unambiguously showed that HKU49(T) was distinct from other Aspergillus spp. We propose the novel species Aspergillus hongkongensis to describe this previously unknown fungus. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed most Aspergillus isolates had low MICs against itraconazole and voriconazole, but all Aspergillus isolates had high MICs against fluconazole. A diverse spectrum of Aspergillus species is associated with onychomycosis. Itraconazole and voriconazole are probably better drug options for Aspergillus onychomycosis. PMID:26658315

  11. Putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomee, JFC; Kauffman, HF

    2000-01-01

    Various putative virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus have been studied over the past decades. A. fumigatus gliotoxin is a potent inhibitor of the mucociliary system. Several fungal metabolites interfere with phagocytosis and opsonization including toxins, 'conidial inhibitory factor', 'A. fum

  12. Aflaquinolones A-G: Secondary metabolites from marine and fungicolous isolates of Aspergillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven new compounds (aflaquinolones A-G; 1-7) containing dihydroquinolin-2-one and terpenoid units have been isolated from two different fungal sources. Two of these metabolites (1 and 2) were obtained from a Hawaiian fungicolous isolate of Aspergillus sp. (section Flavipedes; MYC-2048=NRRL 58570), ...

  13. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    , because this species differs distinctly from the two other species, P. alliaceus and P. albertensis. Neopetromyces muricatus has flesh-coloured ascostromata and an anamorph in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Circumdati, whereas other Petromyces species have black ascostromata and anamorphs in...

  14. Post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of Aspergillus nidulans and comparison to Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Pedro M.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Kolenova, Katarina; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Benoit, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S.; Trejo-Aguilar, Blanca; Visser, Hans; van Solingen, Piet; Pakula, Tiina; Seiboth, Bernard; Battaglia, Evy; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; de Jong, Jan F.; Ohm, Robin A.; Aguilar, Mariana; Henrissat, Bernard; Nielsen, Jens; Stålbrand, Henrik; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The plant polysaccharide degradative potential of Aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. Manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the A. nidulans ORFs...

  15. Aspergillus waksmanii sp nov and Aspergillus marvanovae sp nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubka, Vít; Peterson, S.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 63, FEB 2013 (2013), s. 783-789. ISSN 1466-5026 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD * DNA-SEQUENCES * NEOSARTORYA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.798, year: 2013

  16. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of activity at pH 4.5 and 7.0. A. flavipes RNases were more sensitive to temperature: 50% of the initial activity was lost after 1 hour at 70ºC. After this heat treatment, RNase of A. sulphureus lost 30% of this activity and that of A. fischeri only 16%. The nucleotides released by enzimatic hydrolysis of RNA were separated by ion exchange chromatography in a AG-1X8-formiate column and identified by paper chromatography. This procedure indicated that the raw enzymatic extract of Aspergillus flavipes is able to hydrolyze RNA, releasing 3'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 4.5 and 3' and 5'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 7.0 and 8.5. This result suggests that this strain produces two different types of RNase, one acidic and other alcaline, with different specificities.A produção de ribonucleases extracelulares pelos fungos Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus e A. fischeri foi estudada em meio semi-sintético por períodos de 24 a 144 horas, em "shaker" a 30ºC. Após o cultivo, o meio foi separado da massa micelial por filtração, sendo o filtrado utilizado como solução enzimática bruta. As três espécies produziram maior quantidade de biomassa e ribonuclease após 96 horas de cultivo. O estudo das RNases como extrato enzimático bruto demonstrou que existe grande similaridade entre as enzimas das três espécies, com temperaturas ótimas de 55ºC e dois picos de atividade a pH 4,5 e a pH 7,0. A RNAse produzida pelo fungo A. flavipes demonstrou ser mais

  17. Neuroimaging features of cerebral aspergillus abscess: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Bai

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Cerebral aspergillus abscesses possess some degree neuroimaging features on traditional CT/MR imaging. Combined with patient's clinical history, CT/MRI examination could facilitate early diagnosis of aspergillus abscesses in central nervous system.

  18. Aspergillus species: An emerging pathogen in onychomycosis among diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesuriya, T. M.; Kottahachchi, J.; T. D. C. P. Gunasekara; Bulugahapitiya, U.; K. N. P. Ranasinghe; Neluka Fernando, S. S.; M M Weerasekara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Approximately, 33% patients with diabetes are afflicted with onychomycosis. In the past, nondermatophyte molds have been regarded as opportunistic pathogens; recently, Aspergillus species are considered as emerging pathogens of toenail infections. In Sri Lanka, the prevalence of Aspergillus species in onychomycosis among diabetics is not well documented. Objective: To determine the proportion of Aspergillus onychomycosis, risk factors and knowledge among diabetics. Materials and...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  20. Combined molecular and biochemical approach identifies Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus as two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parenicova, L.; Skouboe, P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Rossen, L.; Hoor-Suykerbuyk, M.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined nine Aspergillus japonicus isolates and 10 Aspergillus aculeatus isolates by using molecular and biochemical markers, including DNA sequences of the ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 region, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and secondary-metabolite profiles. The DNA sequence of...... the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene could not be used to distinguish between A. japonicus and A. aculeatus but did show that these two taxa are more closely related to each other than to other species of black aspergilli. Aspergillus niger pyruvate kinase (pkiA) and...

  1. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  2. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Loudill, Cameron; Tammara, Anita; Chow, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200) with pain and redness in both eyes - right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an unknown iatrogenic seed

  3. A rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus endophthalmitis is a devastating inflammatory condition of the intraocular cavities that may result in irreparable loss of vision and rapid destruction of the eye. Almost all cases in the literature have shown an identified source causing aspergillus endophthalmitis as a result of direct extension of disease. We present a rare case of bilateral aspergillus endophthalmitis. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, congenital Hirschsprung disease, and recent culture-positive candida pyelonephritis with hydronephrosis status post-surgical stent placement presented with difficulty opening her eyes. She complained of decreased vision (20/200 with pain and redness in both eyes – right worse then left. Examination demonstrated multiple white fungal balls in both retinas consistent with bilateral fungal endophthalmitis. Bilateral vitreous taps for cultures and staining were performed. Patient was given intravitreal injections of amphotericin B, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and started on oral fluconazole. Patient was scheduled for vitrectomy to decrease organism burden and to remove loculated areas of infection that would not respond to systemic antifungal agents. Four weeks after initial presentation, the fungal cultures revealed mold growth consistent with aspergillus. Patient was subsequently started on voriconazole and fluconazole was discontinued due to poor efficacy against aspergillus. Further workup was conducted to evaluate for the source of infection and seeding. Transthoracic cardiogram was unremarkable for any vegetation or valvular abnormalities. MRI of the orbits and sinuses did not reveal any mass lesions or bony destruction. CT of the chest was unremarkable for infection. Aspergillus endophthalmitis may occur because of one of these several mechanisms: hematogenous dissemination, direct inoculation by trauma, and contamination during surgery. Our patient's cause of bilateral endophthalmitis was through an

  4. Identification and toxigenic potential of the industrially important fungi, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives of...... the wild molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. All four species are classified to the A. flavus group. Strains of the A. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological similarity. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic, whereas wild molds...... are associated with the carcinogenic aflatoxins. Thus, reliable identification of individual strains is very important for application purposes. This review considers the pheno- and genotypic markers used in the classification of A. flavus group strains and specifically in the identification of A...

  5. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI; ADENIRAN EUNICE ADERONKE

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP), an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried...

  6. Enumeration and identification of Aspergillus group and Penicillium species in poultry feeds from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Dalcero, A M; Chiacchiera, S M; Miazzo, R; Saenz, M A

    1998-01-01

    A total of 180 samples of poultry feeds were collected during 1996 and 1997 from different factories in the south of the province of Córdoba-Argentina. They were examined for the occurrence of Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus group species. Likewise, the capacity to produce aflatoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi group was determined. The predominant species of Aspergillus were A. flavus and A. parasiticus. For Penicillium spp., P. brevicompactum, P. purpurogenum and P. oxalicum were identified. Less frequently isolated were A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. orizae, A. parvulus, A. tamarii, A. terreus, and P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. minioluteum, P. pinophylum, P. restrictum, P. variable and others. The mean value counts ranged from 1 x 10(3) to 9.5 x 10(4) CFU/g for the Aspergillus spp. and from 1.2 x 10(3) to 2.5 x 10(5) CFU/g for the Penicillium spp. When cultured on autoclaved rice kernels for 1 week in the dark at 25 degrees C, mycotoxin production by strains of A. flavus was as follows: 21 of the 45 assayed strains (47%) produced aflatoxins. From them, 24% of the isolates produced AFB1 and AFB2 with levels from 181 to 14545 and 6 to 3640 micrograms/kg respectively. Only 10 strains produced AFB1 with levels from 10 to 920 micrograms/kg. Fifty percent of the A. parasiticus strain was toxicogenic; six aflatoxicogenic profiles were identified. Only 10% of the strains produced all of the aflatoxins. These results showed that a potential exists for the production of mycotoxins by the Aspergillus section flavi and the Penicillium spp. They also suggested an association of mycotoxicosis with poultry feeds in Argentina. PMID:9850595

  7. Study of effect ultraviolet radiation on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the results of ultraviolet radiation effects on Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus to reach the quality control standards are presented. The purpose was to test the effect of ultraviolet radiation in 254 nanometer wavelength for fungi decontamination with respect to the exposure time of radiation and the distance between samples and radiation source. The ultraviolet radiation effects on plates containing Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi were studied in the exposure time duration of 30, to 360 seconds of a fixed distance, and also for variable distances from 10 to 40 cm at a given exposure time. It is shown that in the exposure time of more than 360 second the ultraviolet radiation exposure highly decreases the number of Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus fungi colonies. By reducing the distance, the number of colonies decreases and it is minimized at a 10 cm distance in the time exposure of 360 second. The above results show that the ultraviolet radiation is an effective method for food decontamination and can be used in industry

  8. Organic acid production by Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de

    2006-01-01

    . Specielt Aspergillus niger er interessant i forbindelse med produktion af organiske syrer, idet denne organisme tolerer lavt pH, kan give høje produktudbytter, og kan give høje produktiviteter som allerede illustreret i anvendelsen af denne organisme i produktionen af citronsyre. Disse faktorer gør A...

  9. Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, S.W.; Varga, Janos; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2008-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus and its teleomorphs is discussed based on multilocus sequence data. DNA sequence analysis was used to formulate a nucleotide sequence framework of the genus and to analyze character changes in relationship to the phylogeny hypothesized from the DNA sequence...

  10. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  11. ASPERGILLUS BOMBYCIS GENOTYPES (RFLP) FROM SILKWORM CULTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen isolates of Aspergillus bombycis from samples of dust, insect frass, and soil collected from 8 silkworm rearing facilities in Japan, as well as single silkworm rearing facilities in Indonesia and Malaysia, were subjected to DNA fingerprinting. PstI digests of total genomic DNA from each is...

  12. Diversity of carbohydrate metabolism in species of A spergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Hainaut, Matthieu; Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Theobald, Sebastian; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Lyhne, Ellen Kirstine; Kogle, Martin Engelhard; Kuo, Alan; Riley, Robert; de Vries, R.P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and its close relatives in Aspergillus section Nigri are of broad interest to the scientific community including applied, medical and basic research. The fungi are prolific producers of native and heterologous proteins, organic acids (in particular citrate......), and secondary metabolites (including bioactives and toxins such as ochratoxin A).Because of these abilities they represent a substantial economic interests in bioenergy applications. In a project collaboration with the US Joint Genome Institute and JBEI we are sequencing 300 different species of...

  13. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Cameiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Sartori, Daniele;

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigate...... in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius....

  14. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species......, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...

  15. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when...... comparing with or without the presence of Pseudomonas. Conclusion: All Aspergilli tested, with the exception of A. fumigatus, triggered the upregulation of phenazine-1-carboxamide and phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by P. aeruginosa. Surprisingly no changes in secondary metabolite profiles were...

  16. Restriction endonuclease analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Burnie, J P; Coke, A.; Matthews, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To develop a genome based DNA fingerprinting system for Aspergillus fumigatus mould. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 21 isolates obtained from eight patients with an aspergilloma. This was with a freeze-dried mycelial extract fragmented in liquid nitrogen. DNA was subsequently purified by phenol-chloroform extraction followed by ultracentrifugation on a caesium chloride gradient. The DNA was restricted by EcoRI and Xba I. RESULTS: All isolates were identical when cut by EcoRI; Xba I del...

  17. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani; Nandigam Srujana; Guntur Preethi; Tandale Swati

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of co...

  18. SYNTHESIS OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES BY ASPERGILLUS SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantabathini Venkata Pavani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the biosynthesis of nanomaterials have demonstrated the important role of microorganisms in nanotechnology. The organisms show a unique potential in environmentally friendly production and accumulation of nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes. The present study proposed a green process for synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Aspergillus species. Syntheses of copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. The extracellular synthesis of copper nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Transmission electron microscopy.

  19. L-histidine utilization in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Polkinghorne, M A; Hynes, M J

    1982-01-01

    Histidase activity rather than uptake of L-histidine is the limiting factor for the utilization of histidine as the sole nitrogen source for Aspergillus nidulans. Histidine cannot act as the sole carbon source, and evidence is presented indicating that this is attributable to an inability to convert histidine to L-glutamate in vivo. It has been shown that this fungus lacks an active urocanase enzyme and that histidine is quantitatively converted to urocanate, which accumulates in the extracel...

  20. Degradation of melanin by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Luther, J P; Lipke, H.

    1980-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melani...

  1. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Sartori, Daniele; Copetti, Marina V.; Balajee, Arun; Fungaro, Maria Helena P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The fol...

  2. Comparative Reannotation of 21 Aspergillus Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamov, Asaf; Riley, Robert; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-03-08

    We used comparative gene modeling to reannotate 21 Aspergillus genomes. Initial automatic annotation of individual genomes may contain some errors of different nature, e.g. missing genes, incorrect exon-intron structures, 'chimeras', which fuse 2 or more real genes or alternatively splitting some real genes into 2 or more models. The main premise behind the comparative modeling approach is that for closely related genomes most orthologous families have the same conserved gene structure. The algorithm maps all gene models predicted in each individual Aspergillus genome to the other genomes and, for each locus, selects from potentially many competing models, the one which most closely resembles the orthologous genes from other genomes. This procedure is iterated until no further change in gene models is observed. For Aspergillus genomes we predicted in total 4503 new gene models ( ~;;2percent per genome), supported by comparative analysis, additionally correcting ~;;18percent of old gene models. This resulted in a total of 4065 more genes with annotated PFAM domains (~;;3percent increase per genome). Analysis of a few genomes with EST/transcriptomics data shows that the new annotation sets also have a higher number of EST-supported splice sites at exon-intron boundaries.

  3. The current status of species recognition and identification in Aspergillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Aspergillus is a large economically important genus of fungi. In agriculture, some of the 250 species in this genus cause disease in plants and animals and some also produce poisons (mycotoxins) in foods and feeds. Aspergillus is a major killer of immunosuppressed people, such as diabeti...

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus conidial melanin modulates host cytokine response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.Y.A. Chai (Louis); M.G. Netea (Mihai); J. Sugui (Janyce); A.G. Vonk (Alieke); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A. Warris (Adilia); K.J. Kwon-Chung (Kyung); B. Jan Kullberg (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced

  5. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R A; Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Hong, S-B; Hubka, V; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Susca, A; Tanney, J B; Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Szigeti, G; Yaguchi, T; Frisvad, J C

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker. PMID:25492982

  6. Effect of serum components on biofilm formation by Aspergillus fumigatus and other Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuren, Tuya; Toyotome, Takahito; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Muraosa, Yasunori; Yahiro, Maki; Wang, Dan-Ni; Watanabe, Akira; Taguchi, Hideaki; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm production by microorganisms is critical for their pathogenicity. Serum promotes biofilm production by Aspergillus fumigatus; however, its effects on other Aspergillus spp. have not been reported. We analyzed biofilm formation by five Aspergillus spp., i.e., A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. niger, and A. terreus, and examined the effects of serum/serum proteins such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), fetuin A, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on hyphal growth, hyphal branching, and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation. The antifungal susceptibility of A. fumigatus isolates that formed biofilms was also examined. All serum/serum proteins promoted the growth of all these fungal species; growth promotion was most evident with FBS, followed by fetuin A and BSA. This effect was most evident in case of A. fumigatus and least evident in case of A. terreus. Electron microscopy showed thick ECM layers surrounding fungal cell walls after culture with FBS, particularly in A. fumigatus. An increase in hyphal branching caused by fetuin A was the highest in case of A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Biofilm-forming A. fumigatus showed resistance to most antifungal agents, although a synergism of micafungin and amphotericin B was suggested. Our results indicate that serum promotes biofilm formation, including thick ECM, by many Aspergillus spp., particularly A. fumigatus, and that this may be closely related to its virulence. PMID:24858605

  7. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta;

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740...

  8. The population genomics of mycotoxin diversity in Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins, and especially the aflatoxins, are an enormous problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic known natural compound. The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aspergillus flavus and A. par...

  9. Comparing Empetro nigri-Pinetum and Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis soils in terms of organic matter stocks and ecochemical indices in the Słowiński National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonczak Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted comparative studies on soil organic matter stocks and indices of the soil’s ecochemical state under Empetro nigri-Pinetum (En-P and Vaccinio uliginosi-Betuletum pubescentis (Vu-Bp in the Słowiński National Park. The investigated plant communities are associated with Arenosols that developed from eolian sands and are exposed to high groundwater levels. The presence of fossil Histosol at a depth of 75 cm in the Vu-Bp stand, which lies below the current groundwater level, is the factor that sets both stands apart. The fossil soil strongly differs from Arenosol in terms of its chemical composition. A high abundance of nutrients in bioavailable forms in the soil is one of the reasons for natural renewal of downy birch in the stand, which presence in turn affects the turnover of elements and the properties of Arenosol. The results of our studies confirm the existence of strong feedback between the soil and plant communities. Soils under the mixed pine-birch Vu-Bp stand are characterized by smaller stocks of organic matter and total organic carbon (TOC contained in the ectohumus as compared to the soils under the pure pine En-P stand. The opposite is found in the humic horizon. Additionally, in the Vu-Bp stand we observed greater accumulation of total nitrogen (TN in ectohumus, which is reflected in lower TOC:TN ratios. The contents of TN and TOC:TN ratios in humic horizons were similar in both stands. The soils under En-P were more strongly acidified, especially in O-horizons. Mineral horizons in both stands were characterized by a very small sorptive capacity, which increased in ectohumus and fossil soil. Significant differences between the stands were observed in the ionic composition of sorptive complexes. The soils under Vu-Bp stand were more strongly saturated with basic cations, predominantly calcium. In soil solums of both stands, we observed a deficit of bioavailable potassium and magnesium, which was partially compensated by

  10. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS...... sequences to characterize this taxon. A. bertholletius is represented by nineteen isolates from samples of brazil nuts at various stages of production and soil close to Bertholletia excelsa trees. The following extrolites were produced by this species: aflavinin, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid, tenuazonic...

  11. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A...

  12. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen; Lima Francieli Arrias de; Pedrinho Sophia Renata Fazzano; Lenartovicz Veridiana; Souza Cristina Giatti Marques de; Peralta Rosane Marina

    1999-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v) starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10) and temperature (from 25 to 42oC). Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamy...

  13. Aspergillus endophthalmitis in orthotopic liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini Hamid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a patient with drug-induced liver failure who developed endogenous endophthalmitis after liver transplantation. Our patient′s clinical course was so fulminant that the eye was lost in less than 1 month, without any response to therapy. Recognition of this infection is important because many patients die of disseminated Aspergillus infection, which may be detected early with bedside funduscopic examination by an ophthalmologist. Probably if the patient had referred to us earlier, it may have been possible to save the eye.

  14. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, a new mould species closely related to A. fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Jos; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Meijer, Martin; Bader, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Two isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati were recovered from German soil on itraconazole containing agar media. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characterization of both isolates show that they represent a novel species named Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis (holotype CBS H-22119(HT), ex-type CBS 139183(T) = IBT 33878 = DTO 316-A3). The species is phylogenetically related to A. fischeri and A. fumigatus. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis can be differentiated from A. fischeri by its higher growth rate at 50°C. Furthermore, A. oerlinghausenensis is protoheterothallic as only the MAT1-1 idiomorph was detected, while A. fischeri is homothallic. The species differs from A. fumigatus by a weak sporulation on malt extract agar at 25°C, a floccose colony texture on Czapek yeast extract agar and malt extract agar and subglobose instead of subclavate vesicles. The cyp51A promoter region of A. oerlinghausenensis deviates from the previously reported cyp51A promoter regions in A. fumigatus and potentially presents a novel azole resistance conferring modification. Due to the close relationship of A. oerlinghausenensis with A. fischeri and A. fumigatus, this species is placed in a good position for comparative studies involving these species. PMID:26667219

  15. Scleral buckle infection with aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaimed Manal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a case of scleral buckle infection with Aspergillus flavus in a tertiary eye center in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective case report of a 28-year-old Saudi male who presented with a six-month history of conjunctival injection and discharge from the left eye which had undergone uncomplicated conventional retinal detachment surgery, at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in the form of cryopexy, subretinal fluid drainage and scleral buckle (grooved segmental sponge and circumferential band with sleeve for a macula on retinal detachment four years earlier. A diagnosis of infected extruded scleral buckle was made and the buckle was removed. Results: The infected scleral buckle was removed under local anesthesia with administration of sub-conjunctival irrigation of 50 mg solution of Vancomycin, and sub-conjunctival injection of 25mg of Vancomycin. Post operative microbiological studies revealed infection with silver staining of moderate Aspergillus flavus hyphae. Visual acuity of the left eye improved from 20/200 before surgery to 20/60 in the two years follow-up visit. Conclusion: This case report indicates the importance of considering infection with multiple organisms - including fungal ones - in cases of scleral buckle infections in our population.

  16. Aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-dong; HU Xiao-peng; YIN Hang; WANG Wei; ZHANG Xin; MA Lin-lin; WANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungal infections are associated with a high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplants.The present study aimed to investigate the aspergillus pneumonia in renal transplant recipients, and its diagnosis as well as treatment.Methods Approximately 2000 cases of renal transplants were retrospectively studied and we focused on cases hospitalized during August 1, 2005 and February 1, 2007, as the study period. The clinical database and electronic records were analyzed. Recently published literature was reviewed.Results There was more diabetes and hypertension in the infected group than in the non-infected group (86% vs 62% and 57% vs 39%, respectively). Eighty-six percent of recipients from the infected group had delayed graft function. Seven cases with aspergillus pneumonia were identified based on either fungal culture or radiology. Of the 7 cases, 4 died in a few days after diagnosis. Liposomal amphotericin B was used as a first-line therapy.Conclusions Incidences of fungal infection are increasing among renal transplant recipients. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical steps in curing aspergillosis.

  17. Isolation of Aspergillus species from Nasal Cavity and Bedroom of Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Allergic Rhinitis in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Eidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence, frequency and comparison of Aspergillus spp. in nasal cavity and bedroom of healthy volunteers and patients with allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a group of patients with allergic rhinitis (N=50 were selected based on positive skin prick test. Healthy volunteers were chosen to be in the comparison group by matching in age, gender, and no history of respiratory system disease. Samples from nasal cavity and different parts of bedroom were collected and cultured. Cultured Aspergillus spp. was identified by standard mycological techniques. Results: The most common species isolated from all samples of healthy volunteers was A. flavus (88%, followed by A. niger (76% and A. fumigatus (74%. A. flavus (56% was the predominant species isolated from all samples of patients, followed by A. niger (34% and A. fumigatus (6%. Conclusion: A. flavus was the most prevalent species of Aspergillus both healthy volunteers and patients. The presence of Aspergillus in homes does not necessarily imply a cause and effect relationship with illness, but we speculate that A. flavus may be a major source of aeroallergens along with A. niger and A. fumigatus; and should alert physicians and healthcare professionals to do more vigorous environmental testing.

  18. Aspergillus in the lung: diverse and coincident forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus has traditionally been regarded as belonging to one of the following, apparently distinct, entities: saprophytic aspergilloma; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA); and invasive aspergillosis (IPA); which may be further categorised as angioinvasive, acute or chronic airway invasive [1]. It is not always obvious that there is overlap between these entities, and that in any given patient more than one Aspergillus-related pathological process can co-exist [2]. The aim of this article is to review the clinical and imaging features of the main categories of Aspergillus-related pulmonary disease and, in particular, to highlight the overlap between them. (orig.)

  19. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to Alternaria and Aspergillus in baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaustermeyer, W B; Bardana, E J; Hale, F C

    1977-05-01

    In two cases of baker's asthma pulmonary hypersensitivity was found to the fungi Alternaria and Aspergillus. Provocative bronchial challenge revealed a dual response; an immediate and an Arthus type hypersensitivity to Aspergillus in the first case. A primary binding assay revealed high titres of anti-Aspergillus antibody in the serum. In the second case intradermal and bronchial challenge suggested an immediate type I hypersensitivity response to Alternaria. The suspected organisms were present in the room air of the bakeries. It is suggested that an immunological response to these airborne fungi may have contributed to the pathogenesis of baker's asthma. PMID:561668

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J.; Cavaglieri, L.; Vital, H.; Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C.; Astoreca, A.; Orlando, J.; Carú, M.; Dalcero, A.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B 1 and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  2. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. PMID:26321727

  3. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.

    2000-01-01

    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  4. Septic arthritis due to tubercular and Aspergillus co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus septic arthritis is a rare and serious medical and surgical problem. It occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative organism followed by Aspergillus flavus. The most common site affected is knee followed by shoulder, ankle, wrist, hip and sacroiliac joint. Debridement and voriconazole are primary treatment of articular aspergilosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported cases of co-infection of tuberculosis (TB and Aspergillus infecting joints. We report a case of co-infection of TB and A. flavus of hip and knee of a 60-year-old male, with type 2 diabetes mellitus. He was treated with debridement, intravenous voriconazole, and antitubercular drugs.

  5. Polyphasic taxonomy of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, S.B.; Go, S.J.; Shin, H.D.;

    2005-01-01

    The variability within Aspergillus fumigalus Fresenius and related species was examined using macro-, micro-morphology, growth temperature regimes and extrolite patterns. In addition, DNA analyses including partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and actin gene sequences were used. Detailed examination ...

  6. Nutrient environment influences competition among Aspergillus flavus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structures of Aspergillus flavus populations, shaped by intraspecific competition, influence the incidences and severities of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrie...

  7. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klejnstrup, Marie L.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Holm, Dorte Koefoed;

    2012-01-01

    including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are...... publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten...... polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols....

  8. Microbial transformation of curcumol by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Shi-Yu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Tian-Xian; Qiu, Feng

    2013-02-01

    Curcumol is a representative index component for the quality control of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling, an antivirus and anticancer drug in China. Microbial transformation of curcumol (1) by Aspergillus niger AS 3.739 yielded two products. Their structures were elucidated as 3alpha-hydroxycurcumol (2) and 3alpha-(4'-methoxy-succinyloxy)-curcumol (3) by extensive spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and HRESI-MS. Among them, 3 is a new compound. Esterification of the substrate with succinic acid is a novel reaction in the field of microbial transformation of natural products. Compound 2, the major transformation product of 1, was a high regio- and stereo-specific hydroxylation product and showed significant antiviral effects. PMID:23513713

  9. Aspergillus: a primer for the novice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J W

    2009-01-01

    Aspergillus is a genus of molds named after the morphological structure that bears asexual spores, the aspergillum, which resembles a liturgical device. This genus contains several species of positive or negative economic importance in industry, agriculture and medicine. The majority of aspergilli, including most species of economic importance, are known to reproduce only by asexual spores. Genome projects have been completed for A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae; several other species are also being sequenced. The data from these genome projects have been useful in elucidating aspects of phylogeny, the evolution of sexuality and the extent of secondary metabolite diversity. To date, however, the impact on drug discovery, diagnosis of aspergillosis, and our understanding of fungal pathogenesis has been less pronounced. PMID:19253144

  10. Synthesis of lead nanoparticles by Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavani, K V; Kumar, N Sunil; Sangameswaran, B B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the current demand to develop green technologies in material synthesis, a natural process in the synthesis of lead particles by Aspergillus species to suit such technology is reported. The fungal strain was grown in medium containing different concentrations of lead (0.2-1.5 mM) to determine its resistance to heavy metals. The organism was found to utilize some mechanism and accumulate lead particles outside and inside the cell. The extracellular presence of lead particles in the range of 1.77-5.8 microm was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of particles of lead in the 5-20 nm size range was found on the cell surface, in the periplasmic space and in the cytoplasm and was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:22708348

  11. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10 and temperature (from 25 to 42oC. Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamylase, were separated by ion exchange chromatography. Both partially purified enzymes had optimal activities at pH values between 4.5 and 6.0 and were stable under acid conditions (pH 4.0-7.0. The enzymes exhibited optimal activities at temperatures between 50o and 60o C and were stable for more than ten hours at 55oC.

  12. Studies on Aspergillus Flavus Link. Isolated From Maize in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Houshyar-Fard Mahmoud; Rouhani Hamid; Falahati-Rastegar Mahrokh; Mahdikhani-Moghaddam Esmat; Malekzadeh-Shafaroudi Saeed; Probst Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus flavus population structure from maize kernels was examined. During 2011, samples were collected from two main grain maize production areas in Iran (Fars and Ardebil provinces), shortly before harvest. One-hundred nine A. flavus isolates were recovered on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicole (DRBC) agar and Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus medium (AFPA) and grouped into morphotypes and Vegetative Compatibility Groups (VCGs) based on morphological (e.g. sclerotia production), p...

  13. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of th...

  14. Aspergillus Mycoviruses Are Targets and Suppressors of RNA Silencing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, T. M.; Andrewski, M. D.; Roossinck, M J; Keller, N P

    2007-01-01

    RNA silencing can function as a virus defense mechanism in a diverse range of eukaryotes, and many viruses are capable of suppressing the silencing machinery targeting them. However, the extent to which this occurs between fungal RNA silencing and mycoviruses is unclear. Here, three Aspergillus dsRNA mycoviruses were partially characterized, and their relationship to RNA silencing was investigated. Aspergillus virus 1816 is related to Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom virus 1 and suppre...

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus Conidial Melanin Modulates Host Cytokine Response

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Louis; Netea, Mihai; SUGUI, JANYCE; Vonk, Alieke; van de Sande, Wendy; Warris, Adilia; Kwon-Chung, Kyung; Jan Kullberg, Bart

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMelanin biopigments have been linked to fungal virulence. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia are melanised and are weakly immunogenic. We show that melanin pigments on the surface of resting Aspergillus fumigatus conidia may serve to mask pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced cytokine response. The albino conidia induced significantly more proinflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as compared to melanised wild-type conidia. Blocking ...

  16. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2012-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of op...

  17. Immobilization of Isolated Lipase From Moldy Copra (Aspergillus Oryzae)

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati Dali; A. B. D. Rauf Patong; M.Noor Jalaluddin; Pirman; Baharuddin Hamzah

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme immobilization is a recovery technique that has been studied in several years, using support as a media to help enzyme dissolutions to the reaction substrate. Immobilization method used in this study was adsorption method, using specific lipase from Aspergillus oryzae. Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus oryzae. Enzyme was immobilized by adsorbed on silica gel. Studies on free and immobilized lipase systems for determination of optimum pH, optimum ...

  18. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, de, G.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding genes. This thesis describes the purification and characterisation of two accessory enzymes from Aspergillus , feruloyl esterase A (FaeA) andα-glucuronidase A (AguA), and the activities of these enz...

  19. Survey of Philippine coffee beans for the presence of ochratoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvindia, Dionisio G; de Guzman, Monica F

    2016-05-01

    In 2012 to 2014, Philippine green coffee beans from Coffea arabica in Benguet and Ifugao; Coffea canephora var. Robusta in Abra, Cavite, and Ifugao; and Coffea liberica and Coffea excelsea from Cavite were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The presence of fungal species was evaluated both before and after surface sterilization. There were remarkable ecological and varietal differences in the population of OTA-producing species from the five provinces. Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, and Penicillium verruculosum were detected from Arabica in Benguet and Ifugao while Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus japonicus were isolated in Excelsa, Liberica, and Robusta varieties from Abra, Cavite, and Davao. Contamination by Aspergillus and Penicillium species was found on 59 and 19 %, respectively, of the 57 samples from five provinces. After disinfection with 1 % sodium hypochlorite, the levels of infection by Aspergillus and Penicillium fell to 40 and 17 %, respectively. A total of 1184 fungal isolates were identified to species level comprising Aspergillus sections Circumdati (four species), Clavati (one), Flavi (one), Fumigati (one), Nigri (three), and Terrie (one). Within section Circumdati, 70 % of A. ochraceus produced OTA as high as 16238 ng g(-1) while 40 % of A. westerdijkiae produced maximum OTA of 36561 ng g(-1) in solid agar. Within section Nigri, 16.76 % of A. niger produced OTA at the highest 18439 ng g(-1), 10 % of A. japonicus at maximum level of 174 ng g(-1), and 21.21 % of A. carbonarius yielded maximum OTA of 1900 ng g(-1). Of the 12 species of Penicillium isolated, P. verruculosum was ochratoxigenic, with a maximum OTA production of 12 ng g(-1). PMID:26814977

  20. Nickel accumulation and nickel oxalate precipitation by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyarosy, A; Laidlaw, R D; Kilaas, R; Echer, C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2002-07-01

    A strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from a metal-contaminated soil was able to grow in the presence of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, and unusually high levels of nickel on solid (8.0 mM) and in liquid (6.5 mM) media. This fungus removed >98% of the nickel from liquid medium after 100 h of growth but did not remove the other metals, as determined by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Experiments with non-growing, live fungal biomass showed that nickel removal was not due to biosorption alone, as little nickel was bound to the biomass at the pH values tested. Furthermore, when the protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoremetoxy) phenyl hydrazone (FCCP) was added to the actively growing fungus nickel removal was inhibited, supporting the hypothesis that energy metabolism is essential for metal removal. Analytical electron microscopy of thin-sectioned fungal biomass revealed that metal removed from the broth was localized in the form of small rectangular crystals associated with the cell walls and also inside the cell. X-ray and electron diffraction analysis showed that these crystals were nickel oxalate dihydrate. PMID:12111174

  1. Utilization of Low-Cost Ellagitannins for Ellagic Acid Production and Antimicrobial Phenolics Enhancing By Aspergillus awamorii and Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three fungal strains, Aspergillus awamorii A9, Aspergillus awamorii A23 and Aspergillus oryzae O2, were selected out of ten fungal strains for their activeness in converting pomegranate peel ellagitannins into ellagic acid. When pomegranate peel was fermented by Aspergillus awamorii A9, the highest yields of ellagic acid (7.93±0.23 mg/g solid substrate) and total soluble phenolics (14.61±0.36 mg/g solid substrate) were produced at 5 and 10 days of incubation, respectively. Also, blue berry pomace, red grape pomace, strawberry pomace were evaluated as low cost ellagitannin sources for ellagic acid and soluble phenolics production. The antimicrobial activity of soluble phenolics extracted from fermented pomegranate peel and strawberry pomace was tested against two food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). This study also revealed that 3 kGy enhanced the activity of antimicrobial phenolics

  2. Biosynthetic Pathway of the Reduced Polyketide Product Citreoviridin in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Shyang; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Wang, Clay C C

    2016-03-18

    Citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of F1-ATPase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. These potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. The identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in Aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in Aspergillus nidulans are reported. Two intermediates were isolated that allowed the proposal of the biosynthetic pathway of citreoviridin. PMID:26954888

  3. The Aspergillus Genome Database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the Aspergillus research community

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Martha B.; Chibucos, Marcus C; Costanzo, Maria C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Inglis, Diane O.; Lotia, Adil; Orvis, Joshua; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Sherlock, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the Aspergilli. AspGD combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of Aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple Aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring ...

  4. Neopetromyces gen. nov and an overview of teleomorphs of Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Species in the anamorph genus Aspergillus are associated with several teleomorphic genera in the Eurotiales and the most important mycotoxin producers are concentrated in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati. A new genus, Neopetromyces, is proposed for the recently described Petromyces muricatus, beca...

  5. The potential impact of the pulmonary microbiome on immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus-related lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an infection or allergic response caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. The most common forms of aspergillosis are allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus also plays an important role in fungal s

  6. Sporogenic Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Development of Aspergillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, Ana M.; Hinze, Lori L.; Gardner, Harold W.; Keller, Nancy P

    1999-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. are frequently occurring seed-colonizing fungi that complete their disease cycles through the development of asexual spores, which function as inocula, and through the formation of cleistothecia and sclerotia. We found that development of all three of these structures in Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus parasiticus is affected by linoleic acid and light. The specific morphological effects of linoleic acid include induction of precocious and increased ...

  7. Sexual structures in Aspergillus: morphology, importance and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, David M

    2009-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus comprises a few hundred species sharing a common asexual spore forming structure, the aspergillum. Approximately one-third of these species also produce a sexual stage, all but five of which are known to be homothallic. Sexual stages associated with Aspergillus fall into approximately ten different genera, reflecting a tremendous degree of phylogenetic and biological diversity. Sexual stages in Aspergillus are plectomycetous, typical for the order in which it resides, the Eurotiales. Theoretically, a homothallic Aspergillus species can produce both asexual conidia and sexual ascospores in both clonal and recombinant fashion, although the actual significance of these potential modes of reproduction is unclear. Aspergillus species with known sexual stages tend to be minor players in infections of humans, perhaps because of their tendency to produce fewer asexual spores compared to their non-teleomorphic congeners. The discovery of population genetic and genomic evidence for sex in species with no known sexual stage indicates that no assumptions can be made about the clonal versus recombinant life histories of a species based on its known mitotic and/or meiotic reproductive modes. PMID:18608901

  8. Overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawi, H; Khanh, N Q; Gassen, H

    2000-10-01

    One of the major problems with the production of biotechnologically valuable proteins has been the purification of the product. For Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several techniques for the purification of intracellular proteins, but these are time consuming and often result in poor yields. Purification can be considerably facilitated, if the product is secreted from the host cell. In the work presented, we have constructed an expression vector (pSGNH2) for the secretion of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI; EC 5.3.4.1) from Aspergillus niger, in which the retention signal His-Asp-Glu-Leu (H-D-E-L) was modified to Ala-Leu-Glu-Gln (A-L-E-Q) via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The PDI gene was placed under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter. This expression vector was transformed into A. niger NRRL3, resulting in PDI secretion into the medium. The catalytic activity of overexpressed PDI from A. niger was indistinguishable from that of PDI isolated from bovine liver. With further strain improvement and optimization of culture conditions, it could be possible to raise the PDI production to the bioprocessing scale. PMID:10977899

  9. Genetics of Polyketide Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Klejnstrup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. Some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. Filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. The majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making discovery and analysis difficult. Fortunately, the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi are publicly available, greatly facilitating the establishment of links between genes and metabolites. This review covers the attempts being made to trigger the activation of polyketide metabolism in the fungal model organism Aspergillus nidulans. Moreover, it will provide an overview of the pathways where ten polyketide synthase genes have been coupled to polyketide products. Therefore, the proposed biosynthesis of the following metabolites will be presented; naphthopyrone, sterigmatocystin, aspyridones, emericellamides, asperthecin, asperfuranone, monodictyphenone/emodin, orsellinic acid, and the austinols.

  10. Fingernail Onychomycosis Due to Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Min; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Sohng, Seung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some species of nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with nail invasion. Aspergillus niger is a nondermatophytic mold which exists as an opportunistic filamentous fungus in all environments. Here, we report a case of onychomycosis caused by A. niger in a 66-year-old female. The patient presented with a black discoloration and a milky white base and onycholysis on the proximal portion of the right thumb nail. Direct microscopic examination of scrapings after potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation revealed dichotomous septate hyphae. Repeated cultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) without cycloheximide produced the same black velvety colonies. No colony growth occurred on SDA with cycloheximide slants. Biseriate phialides covering the entire vesicle with radiate conidial heads were observed on the slide culture. The DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of the clinical sample was a 100% match to that of A. niger strain ATCC 16888 (GenBank accession number AY373852). A. niger was confirmed by KOH mount, colony identification, light microscopic morphology, and DNA sequence analysis. The patient was treated orally with 250 mg terbinafine daily and topical amorolfine 5% nail lacquer for 3 months. As a result, the patient was completely cured clinically and mycologically. PMID:23197914

  11. Apical control of conidiation in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oiartzabal-Arano, Elixabet; Perez-de-Nanclares-Arregi, Elixabet; Espeso, Eduardo A; Etxebeste, Oier

    2016-05-01

    The infection cycle of filamentous fungi consists of two main stages: invasion (growth) and dispersion (development). After the deposition of a spore on a host, germination, polar extension and branching of vegetative cells called hyphae allow a fast and efficient invasion. Under suboptimal conditions, genetic reprogramming of hyphae results in the generation of asexual spores, allowing dissemination to new hosts and the beginning of a new infection cycle. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, asexual development or conidiation is induced by the upstream developmental activation (UDA) pathway. UDA proteins transduce signals from the tip, the polarity site of hyphae, to nuclei, where developmental programs are transcriptionally activated. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this tip-to-nucleus communication mechanism, emphasizing its dependence on hyphal polarity. Future approaches to the topic will also be suggested, as stimulating elements contributing to the understanding of how apical signals are coupled with the transcriptional control of development and pathogenesis in filamentous fungi. PMID:26782172

  12. Diagnostic tools to identify black Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Robert A.; Noonim, P.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present taxonomy of the black aspergilli reveals that there are 19 accepted taxa. However the identification of species of Aspergillus section Nigri is often problematic in spite of the existence of numerous methods proposed. An overview is provided of phenotypic and molecular methods to...... identify the accepted species of the black aspergilli. Colony morphology, conidial size and ornamentation of the ex type cultures is presented in a pictorial overview. The temperature range of all species is given and their growth characteristics on creatine agar and boscalid agar, a medium which was...... evaluation of the usefulness of various techniques and genomic loci for species identification of black aspergilli is presented....

  13. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Kim, Young Min; Youm, Yoon Seok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Jeong, Ae Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings.

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure and mycotoxin production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Cavaglieri, L., E-mail: lcavaglieri@arnet.com.a [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Vital, H. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Secao de Defesa Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cristofolini, A.; Merkis, C. [Departamento de Microscopia Electronica, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto. Ruta 36 km 601 (5800) Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Astoreca, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Orlando, J.; Caru, M. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecologicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Dalcero, A. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC), Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CIC-CONICET) (Argentina); Rosa, C.A.R. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Inmunologia Veterinaria, Universidad Federal Rural de Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ) (Brazil); Member of Consejo Nacional de Pesquisas (CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation (2 kGy) on Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus ultrastructure. Moreover, the influence on aflatoxin B{sub 1} and ochratoxin A production was also observed. Irradiated A. flavus strain showed a dull orangish colony while control strain showed the typical green color. Minor differences were observed on stipes, metulae and conidia size between control and irradiated A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Irradiated fungi showed ultrastructural changes on cell wall, plasmalema and cytoplasm levels. The levels of mycotoxins produced by irradiated strains were two times greater than those produced by control strains. Successive transferences of irradiated strains on malt extract agar allowed the fungus to recuperate morphological characteristics. Although minor changes in the fungal morphology were observed, ultrastructural changes at cell wall level and the increase of mycotoxin production ability were observed. Inappropriate storage of irradiated food and feed would allow the development of potentially more toxicogenic fungal propagules.

  16. Ochratoxin A and ochratoxin-producing fungi on cereal grain in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihong, Liang; Kunlun, Huang; Yunbo, Luo

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is known to be the main contaminant of cereal grain and has become increasingly important in recent years. Therefore, a survey of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA contamination in China is a special challenge. This paper summarises data on cereals and moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus ochraceus, for example) and on grain and OTA from 1973 by searching Chinese information databases (NCKI, VIP, DuXiu etc.), calculating the OTA-producing mould detection rate, referring to sampling locations, latitude and temperature, and also combining six grain-producing areas of ochratoxigenic fungi and OTA positive rate through a comprehensive analysis. It is concluded that in China rice (excluding shell rice) has less OTA contamination than wheat or maize. The contamination of cereal grains with Aspergillus section Nigri (formerly of the A. niger group) is a serious problem in China, and these fungi may be the main ochratoxigenic fungi on cereals. PMID:25571918

  17. Recombinant bacterial hemoglobin alters metabolism of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Diano, Audrey; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the ...... to attenuate unwanted side effects resulting from oxygen limitation during industrial fermentations with A. niger.......The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used extensively for the production of enzymes and organic acids. A major problem in industrial fermentations with this fungus is to ensure sufficient supply of oxygen required for respiratory metabolism of the fungus. In case of oxygen limitation, the...... behind the strong gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Analysis of secreted metabolites, oxygen uptake, CO2 evolution and biomass formation points towards a relief of stress in the mutant expressing VHB when it is exposed to oxygen limitation. Our findings therefore point to an interesting strategy...

  18. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process

  19. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E.; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech, E-mail: wuwu@ch.pw.edu.pl

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Citric acid fermentation process (production) by Aspergillus niger. • Qualitative/quantitative monitoring of standard culture and culture infected with yeast. • Electronic tongue based on potentiometric and voltammetric sensors. • Evaluation of the progress and the correctness of the fermentation process. • The highest classification abilities of the hybrid electronic tongue. - Abstract: Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  20. Variability in Galactomannan detection by platelia Aspergillus EIA™ according to the Aspergillus species Variabilidade na detecção de galactomanana pelo Platelia Aspergillus EIA® de acordo com a espécie de Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the extent to which different Aspergillus species release galactomannan (GM in vitro. Marked variability was observed in GM reactivity between and within Aspergillus species, with A. terreus strains showing the highest GM indexes. The in vivo significance of these findings remains to be determined.O estudo objetivou investigar a liberação in vitro de galactomanana (GM em distintas espécies patogênicas de fungos do gênero Aspergillus. Grande variabilidade foi detectada tanto intra quanto inter espécies, sendo as cepas da espécie A. terreus relacionadas aos maiores índices de GM detectados. O significado in vivo destes achados permanece em aberto, porém merece investigação.

  1. Phosphate solubilizing ability of two Arctic Aspergillus niger strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Mohan Singh,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many filamentous fungi were isolated from the soils of Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen, Svalbard, and were screened in vitro for their phosphate solubilizing ability. Two strains of Aspergillus niger showed good tricalcium phosphate (TCP solubilizing ability in Pikovskaya's medium. The TCP solubilization index was calculated at varying levels of pH and temperatures. The ability of Aspergillus niger strain-1 to solubilize and release inorganic-P was 285 µg ml–1, while Aspergillus niger strain-2 solubilized 262 µg ml–1 from 0.5% TCP after seven days. This is the first report of TCP solubilization by Arctic strains that may serve as very good phosphate solubilizers in the form of biofertilizer.

  2. Heterologous expression of Aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohner, Sebastian C; Czermak, Peter

    2016-06-25

    Fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. They can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is Pectinex Ultra, which is produced with Aspergillus aculeatus. Here we used the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus Aspergillus terreus. A synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative β-fructofuranosidase ATEG 04996 (XP 001214174.1) from A. terreus NIH2624 was secreted as a functional protein into the extracellular medium. At 60°C, the purified A. terreus enzyme generated the same pattern of oligosaccharides as Pectinex Ultra, but at lower temperatures it also produced oligomers with up to seven units. We achieved activities of up to 986.4U/mL in high-level expression experiments, which is better than previous reports of optimised Aspergillus spp. fermentations. PMID:27084521

  3. Aspergillus sellar abscess: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus sellar abscess is a very rare form of fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS. In this report, we describe the successful treatment of a patient with aspergillus sellar abscess. A 65-year-old woman presented with headache, nasal discharge and decreased visual acuity. The diagnosis of sellar mass was made on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination. The computed tomography (CT scan revealed sellar enlargement and sellar floor bony destruction. After hospitalization the patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Histopathological examination of the sellar mass revealed aspergillosis. Postoperatively, amphotericine-B and itraconazole therapy was started. During a six-month follow-up, the patient′s headache and inertia disappeared, visual acuity improved. Aspergillus sellar abscess must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a sellar mass. The correct diagnosis of pituitary aspergillosis can only be achieved by histopathological examination. Surgical intervention and antifungal therapy should be considered the optimal treatment.

  4. Biosorption potency of Aspergillus niger for removal of chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shaili; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus niger isolated from soil and effluent of leather tanning mills had higher activity to remove chromium. The potency of Aspergillus niger was evaluated in shake flask culture by absorption of chromium at pH 6 and temperature 30 degrees C. The results of the study indicated removal of more than 75% chromium by Aspergillus niger determined by diphenylcarbazide colorimetric assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry after 7 days. Study of microbial Cr(VI) reduction and identification of reduction intermediates has been hindered by the lack of analytical techniques that can identify the oxidation state with subcellular spatial resolution. Therefore, removal of chromium was further substantiated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which indicated an accumulation of chromium in the fungal mycelium. PMID:16874547

  5. Acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in a presumed immunocompetent host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Varun; Rajagopalan, Natarajan; C, Shivaprasad; Patil, Mahantesh; Varghese, Jaicob

    2012-01-01

    Infection from Aspergillus results in a wide range of diseases from simple Aspergillus pneumonia to fatal invasive Aspergillosis. Though the fungus is known to predominantly affect the immunocompromised host, it has also been known to cause acute pneumonia in immunocompetent hosts which is invariably fatal. It presents as an acute pneumonia with bilateral chest infiltrates on radiograph. Early clinical suspicion and microbiological identification by measures such as broncho alveolar lavage and initiation of therapy with voricanozole significantly increase the chances of survival. In this article the authors discuss a case of acute community acquired Aspergillus pneumonia in an immunocompetent host who survived due to early identification and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal medication. PMID:22605848

  6. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  7. Upstream and Downstream Regulation of Asexual Development in Aspergillus fumigatus†

    OpenAIRE

    Mah, Jae-Hyung; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2006-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces a large quantity of asexual spores (conidia), which are the primary agent causing invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. We investigated the mechanisms controlling asexual sporulation (conidiation) in A. fumigatus via examining functions of four key regulators, GpaA (Gα), AfFlbA (RGS), AfFluG, and AfBrlA, previously studied in Aspergillus nidulans. Expression analyses of gpaA, AfflbA, AffluG, AfbrlA, and AfwetA thr...

  8. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe. PMID:26344029

  9. Antifungal Effects of Thyme, Agastache and Satureja Essential Oils on Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mardani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus,Aspergillus flavus and Fusarum solani exposed to the essential oils including Thyme, Agastache and Satureja were studied. Disc Diffusion Method was used to evaluate the fungal growth inhibitory effects of the essential oils. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of the oils were determined and compared with each other. The results showed that all three essential oils examined, had antifungal effects against three fungi species. The MIC data revealed that Thyme oil was the most effective essential oil with the MIC of 62.5 μl ml-1.

  10. Bola fúngica por Aspergillus fumigatus em cavidade pleural Aspergillus fumigatus fungus ball in the pleural cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Silva Guazzelli; Cecília Bittencourt Severo; Leonardo Santos Hoff; Geison Leonardo Fernandes Pinto; José Jesus Camargo; Luiz Carlos Severo

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Relatar os casos de 6 pacientes com bola fúngica (BF) na cavidade pleural por Aspergillus fumigatus. MÉTODOS: Entre 1980 e 2009, foram diagnosticados 391 pacientes com BF aspergilar no Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (RS). O diagnóstico de BF na cavidade pleural foi definido com exames de imagem demonstrando derrame e espessamento pleural com nível líquido; exame micológico direto demonstrando hifas septadas, consistentes com Aspergillus sp.; e cultura positiva para A...

  11. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404 and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542 were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP, an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried, ground, pre-treated with alkali and steam, re-dried and used as substrate in media containing mineral salt medium and inocula of A. niger and A. terreus. Fermentation was submerged at pH 5.0; 10% substrate concentration; 10 mL inocula size; temperature 250 C for five days with carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC as control. Optimization experiments were conducted by varying fermentation parameters. Results of physico-chemical analysis revealed carbohydrate 65.9%; sugars 22.60%; protein 5.38%; fibre 3.48%; fat 4.0% ash 4.02% and moisture 8.13%. Itaconic acid yield of 67.67+1.20 mg mL-1 and 70.67+2.60 mg mL-1 produced by A. niger and A. terreus from SPP respectively. The CMC yielded 3.00 +0.6 mg mL-1. Results of the optimization experiments showed higher yields of itaconic acid by A. niger and A. terreus to 112.67+5.20 mg mL-1 and 115.67+5.30 mg mL-1 from SPP respectively at pH 4.0; 10% substrate concentration; 5 mL inocula size on Day-5 of the fermentation. This represented an increase in product yield by both organisms and supports the potential use of this waste for the industrial production of itaconic acid.

  12. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores: Strain typing and protein identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Miroslav; Pešlová, Kateřina; Žabka, Martin; Hajdúch, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 280, 1-3 (2009), s. 162-168. ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aspergillus * spore * protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  13. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Pulse and pulse-chase experiments have been performed to study L-[S-35] methionine incorporation and protein secretion kinetics in Aspergillus oryzae. Pulse experiments confirmed the mechanism of methionine uptake reported previously for Penicillium chrysogenum (Benko et al., 1967). Pulse...

  14. Genetic relationships among strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.; Iamanaka, B.T.; Sartori, D.; Schaoavaloff, M.E.; Fungaro, M.H.P.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...

  15. Metabolic control analysis of Aspergillus niger L-arabinose catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, M.J.L.; Prathumpai, Wai; Visser, J.; Ruijter, G.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of the L-arabinose/D-xylose catabolic pathway of Aspergillus niger was constructed based on the kinetic properties of the enzymes. For this purpose L-arabinose reductase, L-arabitol dehydrogenase and D-xylose reductase were purified using dye-affinity chromatography, and their...

  16. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  17. Nuclear heterogeneity in conidial populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a major producer of aflatoxin and an opportunistic pathogen for a wide range of hosts. Understanding genotypic and phenotypic variations within strains of A. flavus is important for controlling disease and reducing aflatoxin contamination. A. flavus is multinucleate and predomi...

  18. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.;

    2003-01-01

    dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  19. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytop

  20. Genetic Analysis of the TOR Pathway in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgibbon, Gregory J.; Morozov, Igor Y; Jones, Meriel G.; Caddick, Mark X.

    2005-01-01

    We identified five genes encoding components of the TOR signaling pathway within Aspergillus nidulans. Unlike the situation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single Tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the TOR pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism.

  1. Study on radiation sterilization of aspergillus niger pectinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of radiation sterilization of aspergillus niger pectinase liquid by 60Co γ-rays was reported. When absorbed dose was from 1 to 25 kGy, enzyme activity didn't reduce. When absorbed dose was 15 kGy. There are no active strains in the enzyme liquid; and enzyme activity of the enzyme liquid preserved had better preserved effect

  2. Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-12-01

    Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

  3. Sexual Reproduction in Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus nomius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that exhibit carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Aspergillus nomius is a potent producer of aflatoxins and was formerly considered to be strictly asexual in reproduction. In this research, mating-type genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were ...

  4. The maize rachis affects Aspergillus flavus movement during ear development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to follow infection in ears of maize hybrids resistant and susceptible to the fungus. Developing ears were needle-inoculated with GFP-transformed A. flavus 20 days after silk emergence, and GFP fluorescence in the pith was evalu...

  5. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  6. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prathumpai, W.; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; Vondervoort, van de P.J.I.; Groot, de M.J.L.; McIntyre, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out, an

  7. Production of Aspergillus niger beta-mannosidase in Pichia pastoris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fliedrová, Barbora; Gerstorferová, Daniela; Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2012), s. 159-164. ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/0321; GA ČR GD305/09/H008; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Keywords : Beta-mannosidase * Aspergillus niger * Cloning Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2012

  8. Novofumigatonin, a New Orthoester Meroterpenoid from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille; Fristrup, Peter; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2008-01-01

    Novofumigatonin (1), a new metabolite, has been isolated from Aspergillus novofumigatus. The structure and relative stereochemistry were determined from HR ESI MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The absolute configuration was assigned using vibrational circular...

  9. epi-Aszonalenins A, B, and C from Aspergillus novofumigatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Harris, Pernille;

    2006-01-01

    Three new benzodiazepines have been isolated from an unusual chemotype of Aspergillus novofumigatus: epi-aszonalenins A, B, and C. The structures were elucidated by use of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques and HR ESI MS. The relative configuration was established on the basis ...

  10. Cryptic Sexuality in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance (e.g. A. sojae, A. oryzae, A. niger) as well as pathogens and toxin producers (e.g. A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans). With the exception of A. nidulans, which is a homot...

  11. Cryptic Sexuality Influences Aflatoxigenicity in Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascomycetous fungi of the genus Aspergillus comprise a wide variety of species of biotechnological importance as well as pathogens and toxin producers. Recent studies report A. fumigatus to be heterothallic and possibly undergoing sexual reproduction. We therefore investigated whether compatible mat...

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aspergillus niger Strain An76

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Weili; Cheng, Zhi; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Liu, Lin; Gao, Peiji; Wang, Lushan

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger has become one of the most important fungi in industrial biotechnology, and it can efficiently secrete both polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and organic acids. We report here the 6,074,961,332-bp draft sequence of A. niger strain An76, and the findings provide important information related to its lignocellulose-degrading ability.

  13. AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION REVEALS DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF AFLATOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS NRRL 3357 AND ASPERGILLUS PARASITICUS SRRC 143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate aflatoxin production, the biosynthesis of the toxin in A. flavus and A. parasiticus grown in yeast extract su...

  14. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Chung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxybenzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxybenzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid. Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu–Glu–Leu–Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxybenzoic acid and (sulfooxybenzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  15. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  16. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1992-09-01

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B[sub 1] and G[sub 1] with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author).

  17. Expression of an alpha-galactosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R A; Power, R F G

    2002-02-01

    A gene encoding alpha-galactosidase activity was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC686 and separately placed under the control of transcriptional elements regulating alpha-amylase expression in Aspergillus oryzae and glucoamylase expression in A. awamori. Following transformation of both A. oryzae and A. awamori with their respective expression vectors, induction of heterologous alpha-galactosidase from positively selected clones was effected through the addition of soluble starch (10% wt/vol) to the growth medium. Upon induction in A. oryzae, a transcriptional instability resulted in degradation of mRNA encoding heterologous alpha-galactosidase, thus preventing expression of the active enzyme. The use of a gene fusion strategy in A. awamori overcame this instability and resulted in stable expression of S. cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase. Subsequent to initial (shake flask) experiments, a series of scale-up and optimisation studies led to heterologous expression of the recombinant enzyme in batch fermentation at 51 U mg(-1) total extracellular protein. This was higher than previously published works, which reported extracellular levels of heterologous alpha-galactosidase up to 38 U mg(-1) total protein. Analysis of crude extracts of the fermentation medium revealed significant differences between the activity parameters reported previously in the literature for this enzyme and those observed here. The recombinant enzyme exhibited thermostability properties not previously reported for S. cerevisiae alpha-galactosidase, a trait which would make it suitable for use in processes requiring high temperatures. PMID:12074058

  18. Enhanced aflatoxin production by aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus after low dose gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores of Aspergillus parasiticus IFO 30179 and A. flavus var. columnaris S46 were irradiated at 0.05, 0.2 and 0.4 kGy in the synthetic low salts (SL) broth, and the effect on aflatoxin production was examined after 10 days incubation at 30 or 25degC. In these two strains, irradiation of spores at 0.05 kGy resulted in higher B1 or G1 production than the non-irradiated controles. However, spores of the both strains irradiated at 0.2 or 0.4 kGy produced less aflatoxins than non-irradiated controles. In the SL broth, apparent stimulation by low dose irradiation was slight, and these enhanced effects were not observed after reinfection to fresh SL broth. In the case of food samples, the levels of aflatoxin B1 and G1 with A. parasiticus were increased from 15 to 90% by incubation of irradiated spores at 1 kGy in autoclaved polished rice, black pepper, white pepper and red pepper. These enhancement would be induced by change of composition in each substrates. Mutations of fungi induced by irradiation is not effective for enhancement of aflatoxin production. (author)

  19. Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium diffusion assay. At the fifth, seventh and ninth days the mycelial diameter (Ø mm and spore production were also determined. FUN-1 staining was performed to assess cell viability after broth macrodilution assay. Trans-anethole, zingiberene, menthol and thymol are the major component of essential oils of fennel, ginger, mint and thyme, respectively. The effective concentrations for fennel, ginger, mint and thyme were 50, 80, 50 and 50% (oil/DMSO; v/v, respectively. The four essential oils analysed in this study showed antifungal effect. Additionally, FUN-1 staining showed to be a suitable method to evaluate cell viability of potential mycotoxigenic fungi A. flavus and A. parasiticus after treatment with essential oils.

  20. Aspergillus as a multi-purpose cell factory: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aspergilli have a long history in biotechnology as expression platforms for the production of food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and enzymes. The achievements made during the last years, however, have the potential to revolutionize Aspergillus biotechnology and to assure Aspergillus a dominant place among microbial cell factories. This mini-review will highlight most recent breakthroughs in fundamental and applied Aspergillus research with a focus on new molecular tools, te...

  1. In Vitro Interactions between Target of Rapamycin Kinase Inhibitor and Antifungal Agents against Aspergillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Ding, Xiaozhen; Liu, Zhun; Wu, Qingzhi; Zeng, Tongxiang; Sun, Yi

    2016-06-01

    In vitro interactions of INK128, a target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase inhibitor, and antifungals, including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, against Aspergillus spp. were assessed with the broth microdilution checkerboard technique. Our results suggested synergistic effects between INK128 and all azoles tested, against multiple Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus isolates. However, no synergistic effects were observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B or caspofungin. No antagonism was observed for any combination. PMID:26976874

  2. Immunosuppressive Compounds Exhibit Particular Effects on Functional Properties of Human Anti-Aspergillus TH1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tramsen, Lars; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Roeger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Salzmann-Manrique, Emilia; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Klingebiel, Thomas; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at high risk for invasive aspergillosis. Whereas adoptive immunotherapy transferring donor-derived anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells has been shown to be beneficial for HSCT recipients suffering from invasive aspergillosis, little is known about the impact of commonly used immunosuppressants on the functional properties of anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells. Anti-Aspergillus TH1 cells were coincubated with different concentrations of methyl...

  3. Invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch with infectious Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Watanabe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient with pulmonary bullae died of massive hemoptysis. At autopsy a hole was observed in the aortic wall. A microscopic examination indicated small Aspergillus lesions in pulmonary bullae and extensive necrotic lesions with Aspergillus hyphae in the media of the thoracic aorta. These findings led to a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in the aortic arch. This is a rare case in which Aspergillus invaded the aorta in a patient without hematologic neoplasms or neutropenia.

  4. Production of biologically active recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P P; Lo, J Y; Duke, M; May, G S; Headon, D R; Conneely, O M

    1992-07-01

    We report the production of recombinant human lactoferrin in Aspergillus oryzae. Expression of human lactoferrin (hLF), a 78 kD glycoprotein, was achieved by placing the cDNA under the control of the A. oryzae alpha-amylase promoter and the 3' flanking region of the A. niger glucoamylase gene. Using this system, hLF is expressed and secreted into the growth medium at levels up to 25 mg/l. The recombinant lactoferrin is indistinguishable from human milk lactoferrin with respect to its size, immunoreactivity, and iron-binding capacity. The recombinant protein appears to be appropriately N-linked glycosylated and correctly processed at the N-terminus by the A. oryzae secretory apparatus. Lactoferrin is the largest heterologous protein and the first mammalian glycoprotein expressed in the Aspergillus system to date. Hence, this expression system appears suitable for the large-scale production and secretion of biologically active mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:1368268

  5. Decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The decolorization of Direct Black 22 by Aspergillus ficuum has been studied. It was found that Aspergillus ficuum could effectively decolorize Direct Black 22 especially when grown as pelleted mycelia. Results showed that the media containing Direct Black 22 at 50 mg/L could be decolorized by 98.05% of the initial color in 24 h. The optimum pH and temperature of decolorization are 4.0 and 33 ℃ respectively. Aeration was quite beneficial to decolorization. Medium composition and the concentration of Direct Black 22 could affect the rate of decolorization. The dye degraded products assayed by UV-visible spectrophotometer and macroscopic observation showed that the decolorization of Direct Black 22 by mycelial pellets includes two important processes: bioadsorption and biodegradation.The degradation experiment agree with the Michaelis-Menten kinetics equation

  6. Biosorption of Cadmium by Fungal Biomass of Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI YANG; JIAN-LONG WANG; ZHI XING

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution by waste fungal biomass of Aspergillus niger, originated from citric acid fermentation industry. Methods Batch adsorption test was used to study the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm. The Cd2+ concentration was measured with atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) HITACHI 180-80. Results The biosorption achieved equilibrium within 30 min. The adsorption isotherm could be described by Freundlich adsorption model, and the constants KF and 1/n were determined to be 2.07 and 0.18, respectively, and the correlation efficiency was 0.97. The optimal pH for Cd adsorption was 6.0. The cadmium-laden biomass could be effectively regenerated using 0.1 N HCl. Conclusion The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, a by-product of fermentation industry, is a potential biosorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

  7. Different species of Aspergillus involved in ungual pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years non dermatophyte fungi (NDF are often described as responsible for onychomycosis. The problem related to these fungi concern their identification and treatment. Nowadays a number of Aspergillus were observed in this kind of pathologies but the identification at level of species is frequently omitted. In this work we analysed 26 cases of onychomycosis caused by Aspergillus, belonging to 8 different species. The identification were based on micro- and macro-morphological characteristics; physiological characters; and molecular analysis (B-tubulin gene. 3 species are very interesting: A. perii, a species recently described; A.nominus, never described before in onychomycosis, and A.melleus, likely a new opportunistic fungus involved in medical mycology. Though the identification of these fungi is an additional workload for the laboratory of medical mycology, there is the need to increase the number of identified NDF in order to improve the management of onychomycosis.

  8. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  9. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to Aspergillus flavus: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang-qiang; LI Li; ZHU Min; ZHANG Chao-ying; WANG Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Infections caused by opportunistic organisms which have been known as etiologic agents of disease become more and more frequent.Aspergillus spp. is one of the agents. Fungi of aspergillus genus are widely distributed in nature, particularly in the soil and in the decomposed vegetation. They are frequent opportunist pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The most frequent causative organisms that cause cutaneous aspergillosis are A.fumigatus and A.flavus.1-3 In this report, we present a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis manifested by ulceration of the shank due to A. flavus. The patient had no deficiency of immunological status and severe disease associated with fungal infection. Excellent response was shown to anti-fungal therapy.

  10. Fumonisin and Ochratoxin Production in Industrial Aspergillus niger Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Thrane, Ulf;

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is perhaps the most important fungus used in biotechnology, and is also one of the most commonly encountered fungi contaminating foods and feedstuffs, and occurring in soil and indoor environments. Many of its industrial applications have been given GRAS status (generally regarded...... as safe). However, A. niger has the potential to produce two groups of potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins: fumonisins and ochratoxins. In this study all available industrial and many non-industrial strains of A. niger (180 strains) as well as 228 strains from 17 related black Aspergillus species...... were examined for mycotoxin production. None of the related 17 species of black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. Fumonisins (B(2), B(4), and B(6)) were detected in 81% of A. niger, and ochratoxin A in 17%, while 10% of the strains produced both mycotoxins. Among the industrial strains the same ratios...

  11. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products. The...... objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have....... Sixty-six A. niger strains were isolated and screened for a fumonisin production, and 77 % produced fumonisin on agar media. Worst-case scenarios were made by inoculation of A. niger on grapes and solidified the thought that a potential fumonisin production/contamination in grapes and derived products...

  12. Fumonisins in Aspergillus niger: Industrial and food aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper;

    Introduction: Fumonisins are toxic seconday metabolites from Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusaria, from Tolypocladium and Aspergillus niger 1,2. Being a generalist Aspergillus niger is the workhorse in a very large number of industrial applications, and is also a common contaminant in foods...... ever used in biotechnology could produce fuminisins B2, B4 & B6. The strains could be subdivided into two clades (representing A. niger and the “phylospecies” A. awamori), and there were fumonisin producers in both clades. Ochratoxin A was also produced by strains in both clades, but only...... of approximately 6% of the strains. None of the other species in the black Aspergilli produced fumonisins. One strain (NRRL 337), called the “food fungus”, because it is used for single cell protein based on cheap growth substrates, produced both fumonisins and ochratoxin A. Industrial citric acid producers...

  13. Metabolic control analysis of xylose catabolism in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Gabelgaard, J.B.; Wanchanthuek, P.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I.; de Groot, M.J.L.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A kinetic model for xylose catabolism in Aspergillus is proposed. From a thermodynamic analysis it was found that the intermediate xylitol will accumulate during xylose catabolism. Use of the kinetic model allowed metabolic control analysis (MCA) of the xylose catabolic pathway to be carried out......, and flux control was shown to be dependent on the metabolite levels. Due to thermodynamic constraints, flux control may reside at the first step in the pathway, i.e., at the xylose reductase, even when the intracellular xylitol concentration is high. On the basis of the kinetic analysis, the general...... dogma specifying that flux control often resides at the step following an intermediate present at high concentrations was, therefore, shown not to hold. The intracellular xylitol concentration was measured in batch cultivations of two different strains of Aspergillus niger and two different strains of...

  14. Analysis and prediction of gene splice sites in four Aspergillus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2009-01-01

    , splice site prediction program called NetAspGene, for the genus Aspergillus. Gene sequences from Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common mould pathogen, were used to build and test our model. Compared to many animals and plants, Aspergillus contains smaller introns; thus we have applied a larger window...... better splice site prediction than other available tools. NetAspGene will be very helpful for the study in Aspergillus splice sites and especially in alternative splicing. A webpage for NetAspGene is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetAspGene....

  15. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bras H. de; Leal, Paulo C. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: bho@ufpr.br; Souza Filho, Jose Dias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-04-01

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11{beta},13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16{beta}-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  16. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Júnior L.M.; Macedo G.R.; Duarte M.M.L.; Silva E.P.; Lobato A.K.C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was als...

  17. Protein secretion in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Weenink, Xavier Oswin

    2008-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms, which represent a separate taxonomic group organisms within the fungal kingdom, apart from the yeasts. These fungi always need a substrate to grow on, this can be living or dead material. Fungi possess the capacity to secrete high levels of enzymes. Because of this specific property, fungi are already used for centuries as miniature factories for the production of extracellular proteins. Aspergillus niger is an attractive organism beca...

  18. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  19. Raw starch conversion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Aspergillus tubingensis amylases

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor, Marko J; Rose, Shaunita H.; van Zyl, Willem H; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2013-01-01

    Background Starch is one of the most abundant organic polysaccharides available for the production of bio-ethanol as an alternative transport fuel. Cost-effective utilisation of starch requires consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) where a single microorganism can produce the enzymes required for hydrolysis of starch, and also convert the glucose monomers to ethanol. Results The Aspergillus tubingensis T8.4 α-amylase (amyA) and glucoamylase (glaA) genes were cloned and expressed in the laboratory ...

  20. Calcineurin Controls Growth, Morphology, and Pathogenicity in Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, William J.; Cramer, Robert A; Perfect, B. Zachary; Asfaw, Yohannes G.; Sauer, Theodor C.; Najvar, Laura K.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Thomas F. Patterson; Benjamin, Daniel K., Jr.; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin is implicated in a myriad of human diseases as well as homeostasis and virulence in several major human pathogenic microorganisms. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infectious death in the rapidly expanding immunocompromised patient population. Current antifungal treatments for invasive aspergillosis are often ineffective, and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. We demonstrate that a mutant of A. fumigatus lacking the calcineurin A (cnaA) catalyt...

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae Vacuolar Protein Sorting Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Ohneda, Mamoru; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) system in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which has unique cell polarity and the ability to secrete large amounts of proteins, was evaluated by using mutants that missort vacuolar proteins into the medium. Vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was used as a vacuolar marker. Twenty dfc (dim EGFP fluorescence in conidia) mutants with reduced intracellular EGFP fluorescence in conidia were isolated by ...

  2. The transmission of cytoplasmic genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, A

    1997-01-01

    IntroductionThis manuscript concerns the spread of selfish cytoplasmic genes in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. A.nidulans is a common soil fungus that grows vegetatively by forming a network (mycelium) of hyphae and reproduces via sexual ascospores and asexual conidiospores. Cytoplasmic genes are genes that are located in the cell cytoplasm and not in the cell nucleus where most genes are situated. The cytoplasmic genes investigated in this research are the genomes of mitochondria and virus...

  3. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  4. Eosinophil Deficiency Compromises Lung Defense against Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, Lauren M.; Scopel, Michaella; Nelson, Michael P.; Burg, Ashley R.; Dunaway, Chad W; Steele, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the mold Aspergillus fumigatus may result in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive aspergillosis (IA), depending on the host's immune status. Neutrophil deficiency is the predominant risk factor for the development of IA, the most life-threatening condition associated with A. fumigatus exposure. Here we demonstrate that in addition to neutrophils, eosinophils are an important contributor to the clearance of A. fumigatus f...

  5. crnA encodes a nitrate transporter in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Unkles, S.E.; Hawker, K L; Grieve, C; Campbell, E I; Montague, P.; Kinghorn, J R

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Aspergillus nidulans crnA gene for the transport of the anion nitrate has been determined. The crnA gene specifies a predicted polypeptide of 483 amino acids (molecular weight 51,769). A hydropathy plot suggests that this polypeptide has 10 membrane-spanning helices with an extensive hydrophilic region between helices six and seven. No striking homology was observed between the crnA protein and other reported membrane proteins of either prokaryotic or eukaryotic...

  6. Nutrient Environments Influence Competition among Aspergillus flavus Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mehl, Hillary L.; Cotty, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The population dynamics of Aspergillus flavus, shaped in part by intraspecific competition, influence the likelihood and severity of crop aflatoxin contamination. Competition for nutrients may be one factor modulating intraspecific interactions, but the influences of specific types and concentrations of nutrients on competition between genotypes of A. flavus have not been investigated. Competition between paired A. flavus isolates on agar media was affected by varying concentrations of carbon...

  7. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya KARACA; Merih KIVANÇ

    2012-01-01

    Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13) dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with dif...

  8. Modelling Aspergillus fumigatus infections in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Beernaert, Lies Angèle; Pasmans, Frank; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In vivo modelling of aspergillosis in birds allows the evaluation of control measures and the study of host-pathogen interactions. In this study the impact of the use of different inoculation routes and immunosuppression on the course of an infection with Aspergillus fumigatus in racing pigeons (Columba livia domestica) was examined. A. fumigatus conidia were inoculated in the thoracic air sac, lung or trachea in immunocompetent or immunosuppressed pigeon squabs. Immunosup...

  9. Developmental regulation of laccase levels in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, D. J.; Timberlake, W E

    1980-01-01

    Asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus nidulans contain a dark green pigment which is not present in other cell types. Synthesis of this pigment is catalyzed, in part, by a developmentally controlled p-diphenol oxidase, or laccase, encoded at the gamma A genetic locus (A. J. Clutterbuck, J. Gen. Microbiol. 70:423-435, 1972). We have investigated the mechanisms regulating expression of the gamma A gene of A. nidulans. Vegetative hyphae grown in submerged culture lacked detectable laccase enzy...

  10. Clustering of spore-specific genes in Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, W C; Timberlake, W E

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the chromosomal organization of genes that are expressed specifically in the asexual spores (conidia) of the Ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans, using two experimental approaches. In the first, 30 different recombinant clones, containing long nuclear DNA inserts and at least one spore-specific gene, were selected randomly. The total number of spore-specific genes present in each clone was then determined by RNA blot analysis. In the second approach, several chromosoma...

  11. Biotransformation of steviol derivatives by Aspergillus niger and Fusarium moniliforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steviol derivatives have been submitted to biotransformations by fungi. Methyl ent-11β,13-dihydroxy-15,16-epoxikauran-19-oate was hydroxylated at C-11 by Aspergillus niger, whereas ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid was hydroxylated at C-6 and C-7 by Fusarium moniliforme. The hydroxylation at non-activated positions at the carbon skeleton is discussed in connection with the properties of important polyhydroxylated diterpenoids described in the literature. (author)

  12. Pectinases of Aspergillus niger: A Molecular and Biochemical Characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Parenicová, L.

    2000-01-01

    The major topics of this thesis are the microfilamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and the pectinases a group of extracellular enzymes. Many 'products' of this species hold the GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) status and thus pectinases find a broad range of applications in food, feed and beverage industries.Pectinases are enzymes which degrade pectin, a heteropolysaccharide found in the middle lamella and the primary cell wall of higher plants. The number of pectinase-encoding genes identifi...

  13. Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Hijab; Mehta, Hitendra B; Garg, Prashant; Kodial, Harish

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks o...

  14. Voriconazole for the treatment of refractory Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hijab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis in a 53-year-old, well-controlled diabetic female who did not respond to standard antifungal treatment. She was started on topical natamycin eye drops, but the infiltrate continued to progress. Topical amphotericin B and systemic ketoconazole was added, however, there was no response and the infiltrate increased further. She was then switched to topical and systemic voriconazole. Steady resolution of the infiltrate was noted within 2 weeks of therapy.

  15. Diketopiperazines produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus Brazilian strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven diketopiperazines, corresponding to the cycles (L)-Pro-(L)-Phe, (L)-Pro-Gly, (L)-Pro- (L)-Pro, (L)-Pro-(L)-Val, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Leu, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Phe, and (L)-Pro-(L)-Leu, were isolated from the Aspergillus fumigatus fermentation broth. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were determined on the basis of NOESY experiments and by using a modified version of Marfey's method using HPLC, respectively. (author)

  16. Diketopiperazines produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus Brazilian strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Niege A.J.C; Pupo, Monica T.; Carvalho, Ivone; Campo, Vanessa L. Campo; Bastos, Jairo K. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: jkbastos@fcfrp.usp.br; Duarte, Marta Cristina T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2005-11-15

    Seven diketopiperazines, corresponding to the cycles (L)-Pro-(L)-Phe, (L)-Pro-Gly, (L)-Pro- (L)-Pro, (L)-Pro-(L)-Val, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Leu, (L)-4-OH-Pro-(L)-Phe, and (L)-Pro-(L)-Leu, were isolated from the Aspergillus fumigatus fermentation broth. The relative and absolute stereochemistries were determined on the basis of NOESY experiments and by using a modified version of Marfey's method using HPLC, respectively. (author)

  17. A rare pigmented keratitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mauricio; Vélez; Kepa; Balparda; Ana; María; Díaz

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Sir,I am Mauricio Vélez,from the Department of Ophthalmology,Cornea Service Director,Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana in Medellín,Colombia.Below,I would like to share an interesting case I managed recently,which I’ve entitled"A rare pigmented keratitis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus".Fungi are a relatively uncommon cause of microbial keratitis

  18. Growth and production of amylotic enzymes by aspergillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mary B.

    1987-01-01

    The growth and production of ©¿-amylase and amyloglucosidase by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 3112 and A. niger CBS 26265 were investigated, with a view to obtaining optimal levels of both these enzymes in shake flask culture, and subsequently on the large scale. The effect of various parameters, such as carbon source, nitrogen source, presence/absence of buffering agents, carbon:nitrogen ratio , pH values, and time were examined. Following the screening of ten strains of As...

  19. Acquired antifungal drug resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: epidemiology and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Susan Julie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2011-04-01

    Voriconazole is the recommended agent for invasive aspergillosis, with lipid amphotericin B or caspofungin as second line treatment choices. Being the only agents available in oral formulation, azoles are used in chronic infections and often over longer time periods. In addition to being used in clinical medicine, azoles are employed extensively in agriculture. Azole-resistant Aspergillus has been isolated in azole naïve patients, in azole exposed patients and in the environment. The primary underlying mechanism of resistance is as a result of alterations in the cyp51A target gene, with a variety of mutations found in clinical isolates but just one identified in a environmental strain (a point mutation at codon 98 accompanied by a tandem repeat in the promoter region). Much less is currently known about echinocandin resistance in Aspergillus, in part because susceptibility testing is not routinely performed and because the methods suffer from technical difficulties and suboptimal reproducibility. Clinical breakthrough cases have been reported however, and resistance has been confirmed in vivo. In this paper we review the current knowledge on epidemiology, susceptibility testing and underlying mechanisms involved in azole and echinocandin resistance in Aspergillus. PMID:20795765

  20. EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON -AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE FROM SOME AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amylases are one of the most important and oldest industrial enzymes. The optimization of production of α -amylase from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae fungi, using different agro-wastes as sole carbon sources, was performed. The highest productivity of α -amylase by the two organisms was recorded at pH 6 and incubation temperature at 300C when the two organisms were grown on potato peels (PPs) and/or wheat straw (Ws) after days of cultivation. Pre-treated PPs and Ws with 20 kGy gave the best enzyme productivity by the two organisms compared with untreated ones. Also, exposing the inoculums of A. niger and A.oryzae to 0.5 and 0.75 kGy, respectively, led to enhancement of α-amylase to 48 and 46 μ/ml, respectively

  1. Cesarean Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arise with the mother and/or baby during pregnancy or labor. An emergency C-section might be required if: labor stops ... of possible problems with the placenta during future pregnancies. In the case of emergency C-sections, the benefits usually far outweigh the ...

  2. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li;

    2016-01-01

    The invalidly published name Aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of Aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. Reinvestigation of this strain (Y-30462=DSMZ 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated...

  3. Phytase Production by Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01 through Submerged and Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunashree B. Shivanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the industrially important processes for the development of microbial metabolites that has immense applications in various fields. This has prompted to employ fermentation as a major technique in the production of phytase from microbial source. In this study, a comparison was made between submerged (SmF and solid-state fermentations (SSF for the production of phytase from Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and Aspergillus ficuum SGA 01. It was found that both the fungi were capable of producing maximum phytase on 5th day of incubation in both submerged and solid-state fermentation media. Aspergillus niger CFR 335 and A. ficuum produced a maximum of 60.6 U/gds and 38 U/gds of the enzyme, respectively, in wheat bran solid substrate medium. Enhancement in the enzyme level (76 and 50.7 U/gds was found when grown in a combined solid substrate medium comprising wheat bran, rice bran, and groundnut cake in the ratio of 2 : 1 : 1. A maximum of 9.6 and 8.2 U/mL of enzyme activity was observed in SmF by A. niger CFR 335 and A.ficuum, respectively, when grown in potato dextrose broth.

  4. 302 Screening for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Patients with Aspergillus + Asthma From 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Approximately 25% of patients with persistent asthma have immediate skin reactivity to Aspergillus species. The purpose of this study was to screen all patients with immediate hypersensitivity to Aspergillus for evidence of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA). Methods All patients with asthma underwent immediate cutaneous testing including prick (epicutaneous) with a mix of Aspergillus species and if negative, intradermal at 1000 PNU/mL, Aspergillus fumigatus (Af). Sera ...

  5. Phenotypic differentiation of species from Aspergillus section Flavi on neutral red desiccated coconut agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanda, O. O.; Adetunji, M. C.; Ezekiel, C. N.;

    2014-01-01

    isolates produced aflatoxins in the culture medium in varying quantities. Plates of aflatoxigenic A. flavus L strains fluoresced bluish purple/lavender around the colony on the obverse and pastel blue on the reverse side due to aflatoxin B production while those of A. minisclerotigenes, A. parasiticus...

  6. The biodiversity of Aspergillus section Flavi in brazil nuts: From rainforest to consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderari, Thaiane O.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    A total of 288 brazil nut samples (173 kernel and 115 shell) from the Amazon rainforest region and São Paulo State, Brazil were collected at different stages of brazil nut production. Samples were analysed for: percentages of aflatoxigenic fungal species and potential for aflatoxin production and...

  7. Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against aspergillus species and its interaction with common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-juan; CHEN Wei; XU Hui; WAN Zhe; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased in frequency in immunocompromised patients with a variety of diseases. The poor prognosis might be due to limited treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of ibuprofen against clinical isolates of aspergillus species, as well as its interaction with azoles or with amphotericin B or with micafungin.Methods Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against 10 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were tested with both disk diffusion assay and standard broth microdilution method. To determine whether ibuprofen combined with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, or micafungin had interactive effects on aspergillus spp., we used both disk diffusion assay and Chequerboard method.Results As for disk diffusion method, ibuprofen produced a zone of growth inhibition with diameters of (20.1±3.9) mm at 48 hours of incubation. As for broth microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of ibuprofen against aspergillus spp. were 1000-2000 μg/ml, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges of that was 2000-8000 μg/ml. For 2 of 5 isolates, when ibuprofen combined with itraconazole or voriconazole, the zones of growth inhibition were larger than those of the individual drug. The results of Chequerboard method showed that fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranges were 1.125-2.500.Conclusions Ibuprofen is active against aspergillus spp.. And ibuprofen does not affect the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B or micafungin against aspergillus spp..

  8. A rare case of onychomycosis caused by Emericella quadrilineata (Aspergillus tetrazonus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, D.; M R Capoor; Ramesh, V; Gupta, S.; Shivaprakash, M. R.; Chakrabarti, A

    2015-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common chronic nail disorder where dermatophytes are the predominant pathogens. However, non-dermatophytic moulds like Aspergillus can also be implicated as the causative agents. Herein, we report a rare case of onychomycosis due to Emericella quadrilineata ( Aspergillus tetrazonus) in an apparently immunocompetent host.

  9. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  10. Critical stages of extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus in whole-blood specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, P.L.; Perry, M.D.; Loeffler, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Klingspor, L.; Bretagne, S.; McCulloch, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Finnstrom, N.; Donnelly, J.P.; Barnes, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A standardized protocol for extracting DNA from Aspergillus fumigatus has been proposed by the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI). Using meta-regression analysis, the EAPCRI showed certain stages of the process to be critical to providing a satisfactory analytical sensitivity. The study in

  11. Sexual reproduction influences aflatoxin chemotype diversity in worldwide populations of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic polyketides produced by several Aspergillus species that contaminate food crops worldwide. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of aflatoxin contamination of oil-rich crops. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered and convert acetat...

  12. Triazole Fungicides Can Induce Cross-Resistance to Medical Triazoles in Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, E.; Camps, S.M.T.; Karawajczyk, A.; Schaftenaar, G.; Kema, G.H.J.; Lee, van der H.A.; Klaassen, C.H.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Azoles play an important role in the management of Aspergillus diseases. Azole resistance is an emerging global problem in Aspergillus fumigatus, and may develop through patient therapy. In addition, an environmental route of resistance development has been suggested through exposure to 1

  13. Aspergillus Flavus Endocarditis of the Native Mitral Valve in a Bone Marrow Transplant Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Tolga; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Ekinci, Abdurrahman; Tanrikulu, Nursen; Sahin, Mazlum; Demirsoy, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 36 Final Diagnosis: Aspergillus flavus endocarditis Symptoms: Malaise • fatigue and dyspnea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Mitral vale replacemnet Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Infective endocarditis due to Aspergillus species is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It mostly occurs after the implantation of prosthetic heart valves. Parenteral nutrition, immunosuppression, broad-spectrum antibiotic regimens, and illegal intravenous dr...

  14. Radiological abnormalities associated with Aspergillus colonization in a cystic fibrosis population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine if sputum colonization with Aspergillus species in patients with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) correlates with radiological abnormalities and/or a reduction in pulmonary function (FEV1). Methods: We prospectively evaluated 32 PWCF utilizing high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax and pulmonary function testing (PFT). The cohort was assessed as two groups: Aspergillus positive (n = 16) and Aspergillus negative (n = 16) based on sputum culture for Aspergillus species. A modified Bhalla scoring system was applied to each HRCT scan by two blinded radiologists. Results: Aspergillus positive patients had more severe and significant bronchiectasis compared to those Aspergillus negative (p < 0.05). This was most marked in the right upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL). Total Bhalla score was clinically significant in both groups and approached statistical significance between groups (p = 0.063). No difference in pulmonary function between the groups was detected. Conclusion: PWCF colonized by Aspergillus species have greater radiological abnormalities undetectable by PFTs. Early radiological evaluation of Aspergillus colonized PWCF is therefore warranted.

  15. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Gouka, R.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Verrips, C.T.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (VHHs) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding VHHs were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting VHH fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA level

  16. First reported case of Aspergillus granulosus infection in a cardiac transplant patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Fakih, M G; Barden, G E; Oakes, C A; Berenson, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of disseminated infection with Aspergillus granulosus in a cardiac transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy. This is the first reported case in which this organism has been described as a pathogen. This organism bears morphological features different from those of more common Aspergillus species and should be considered a potential pathogen in immunocompromised patients.

  17. Description of a cellulose-binding domain and a linker sequence from Aspergillus fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, M; Ebbelaar, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; van der Valk, H

    2002-01-01

    A family I cellulose-binding domain (CBD) and a serine- and threonine-rich linker peptide were cloned from the fungi Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus aculeatus. A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein comprising GST and a peptide linker with the CBD fused to its C-terminus, was express

  18. Mutantes letais termossensíveis em Aspergillus nidulans Temperature sensitive lethal mutants in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. de Oliveira

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras termossensíveis (42ºC de A. nidulans foram obtidas pela irradiação com U.V. Dentre 18 mutantes termossensíveis, 3 demonstraram que o determinante da termossensibilidade era causado por efeitos associados com o núcleo e foram selecionados para estudos posteriores. Foram sintetizados diplóides entre amostras normais e os três mutantes (mais um exibindo letalidade 42ºC e foi verificada uma completa recessividade em todos os casos. Para fins comparativos forma feitas tentativas para o alelo correspondente, mostraram resultados bastante diferentes quando experimentados em diferentes tempos de incubação inicial a 37ºC e depois transferidos para 41ºC. Os herocários praticamente não apresentaram resposta adaptativa às mudanças de temperatura. A ligeira diferença de comportamento heterocários: heterozigoto provavelmente é resultante do efeito de dosagem. Os resultados reafirmam e oferecem confiança na estabilidade dos heterocários quando em condições constantes de meio.Temperature sensitive strains (42ºC of Aspergillus nidulans were obtaines by U.V. irradiation. The mutant alleles had not been located and among 18 thermosensitive mutants theree gave clear evidence that the determinant of thermosensitivity was caused by effects associated with the nucleus and were selected for further studies. Diploids have been synthesised between normal straisn and the three latter variants eschibiting lethality at 42ºC and a complete recessivity of the character in each case was shown. For comparative purposes attempts were made to find instances of "adaptation". Nutritionally balanced heterokaryons, between tsl and the wild tipe strains for the corresponding alleles had show quite different results when experience on increasing initial incutation time at 37ºC ant then were transfered to 41ºC. Heterokaryons had not showed adaptative reponse to the changes of temperature. The heterokaryon: heterozygote slight difference of behavior

  19. Three-dimensional models of 14?-sterol demethylase (Cyp51A) from Aspergillus lentulus and Aspergillus fumigatus: an insight into differences in voriconazole interaction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aspergillus lentulus, an Aspergillus fumigatus sibling species, is increasingly reported in corticosteroid-treated patients. Its clinical significance is unknown, but the fact that A. lentulus shows reduced antifungal susceptibility, mainly to voriconazole, is of serious concern. Heterologous expression of cyp51A from A. fumigatus and A. lentulus was performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess differences in the interaction of Cyp51A with the azole drugs. The absence o...

  20. Growth Inhibition of Aspergillus niger by Cinnamaldehyde and Eugenol

    OpenAIRE

    Narumol MATAN

    2007-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol against Aspergillus niger, major spoilage mold of fruits and nuts, were investigated. A. niger inoculated on agar plates was exposed to paper discs impregnated with 10 μL of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at various concentrations (10 - 100 mg/ml) before incubating at 25 °C for 3 days. Antifungal activities of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were examined at various temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 37 °C. ...

  1. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Susca, A.,; Cozzi, G.;

    2007-01-01

    species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations...... occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A...

  2. Chromosomal duplication strains of Aspergillus nidulans and their instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with chromosomal duplication were obtained after gamma irradiation followed by crossing of the translocated strains with normal strains. From 20 analysed colonies, 12 have shown translocations induced by irradiation. Segregants from four of these translocation strains crossed to normal strains have shown to be unstable although presenting normal morphology. Two segregants were genetically analysed. The first one has shown a duplication of part of linkage groups VIII and the second one presented a duplication of a segment of linkage group V. These new duplication strains in A. nidulans open new perspectives of a more detailed study of the instability phenomenon in this fungus. (Author)

  3. Production of extremophilic bacterial cellulase enzymes in aspergillus niger.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John Michael

    2013-09-01

    Enzymes can be used to catalyze a myriad of chemical reactions and are a cornerstone in the biotechnology industry. Enzymes have a wide range of uses, ranging from medicine with the production of pharmaceuticals to energy were they are applied to biofuel production. However, it is difficult to produce large quantities of enzymes, especially if they are non-native to the production host. Fortunately, filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger, are broadly used in industry and show great potential for use a heterologous enzyme production hosts. Here, we present work outlining an effort to engineer A. niger to produce thermophilic bacterial cellulases relevant to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  4. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  5. Metabolism of p-Cresol by the Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Kerina H.; Trudgill, Peter W.; Hopper, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 28282 was shown to grow on p-cresol as its sole source of carbon and energy. A pathway for metabolism of this compound was proposed. This has protocatechuate as the ring-fission substrate with cleavage and metabolism by an ortho-fission pathway. The protocatechuate was formed by two alternative routes, either by initial attack on the methyl group, which is oxidized to carboxyl, followed by ring-hydroxylation, or by ring-hydroxylation as the first step wit...

  6. Kinetics of the nuclear division cycle of Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergen, L G; Morris, N R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed the cell cycle kinetics of Aspergillus nidulans by using the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU) and a temperature-sensitive cell cycle mutant nimT that blocks in G2. HU rapidly inhibits DNA synthesis (S), and as a consequence progression beyond S to mitosis (M) is blocked. Upon removal of HU the inhibition is rapidly reversible. Conidia (asexual spores) of nimT were germinated at restrictive temperature to synchronize germlings in G2 and then downshifted to permissive t...

  7. Vacuolar Membrane Dynamics in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus oryzae†

    OpenAIRE

    Shoji, Jun-ya; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Vacuoles in filamentous fungi are highly pleomorphic and some of them, e.g., tubular vacuoles, are implicated in intra- and intercellular transport. In this report, we isolated Aovam3, the homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae VAM3 gene that encodes the vacuolar syntaxin, from Aspergillus oryzae. In yeast complementation analyses, the expression of Aovam3 restored the phenotypes of both Δvam3 and Δpep12 mutants, suggesting that AoVam3p is likely the vacuolar and/or endosomal syntaxin in A...

  8. Chitosan Obtained from Cell Wall of Aspergillus Niger Mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hui-li; LIN Wen-luan; LIN Jian-ming

    2004-01-01

    Chitin from cell walls of Aspergillus Niger mycelium was prepared. A new method for the preparation of high deacetylation degree chitosan was studied in a dilute sodium hydroxide solution at a high pressure. The experimental results indicate that the deacetylation degree of the chitosan can reach 80% under the condition of a 5.00 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution at 0.1 MPa of pressure for 1 h. This method shows the advantages of the applications in the industry production and environment protection.

  9. Novel Sexual-Cycle-Specific Gene Silencing in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Czaja, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Bruce L. Miller

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel sexual-cycle-specific gene-silencing system in the genetic model Aspergillus nidulans. Duplication of the mating type matAHMG gene in this haploid organism triggers Mat-induced silencing (MatIS) of both endogenous and transgenic matA genes, eliminates function of the encoded SRY structural ortholog, and results in formation of barren fruiting bodies. MatIS is spatiotemporally restricted to the prezygotic stage of the sexual cycle and does not interfere with vegetative growth...

  10. Biosynthesis of pectinolytic enzymes by Aspergillus on apple pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro; Petreska, Meri; Ziberoski, Jugoslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pulp utilization. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts by submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus. Different concentration on apple pulp and different pH initial on the bases were studied, and all other process parameters were same. Results of different concentration on apple pulp gived maximal endo- PG with 1% apple pulp, during from 96 h, and the growth of the micr...

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengsong; Chen, Dan; Shen, Yiping; Ye, Baodong

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a haploid filamentous fungus that is common in the environment and has been implicated in human infections. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. flavus has been determined by high-throughput sequencing technology in this work. Our study revealed that the mitochondrial genome of A. flavus is 31,602 bp long, with an A + T content of 74.83%, which consists of a usual set of mitochondrial proteins and RNA genes, including large and small ribosomal RNAs, 15 proteins, and 20 tRNA genes and contains two introns. Notably, it also contains two hypothetical proteins without obvious homology to any known proteins. All structural genes are located on one strand and are apparently transcribed in one direction. Codon usage analysis indicated that all protein coding genes employ the standard fungal mitochondrial start and stop codons; and the nucleotide bias toward AT was also reflected in the codon usage. The complete mitochondrial genomes of A. flavus would be useful for future investigation of the genetic, evolution, and clinical identification of Aspergillus species. PMID:25922962

  12. Morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus irradiated on peanut grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the morphological changes of Aspergillus ochraceus inoculated on peanuts and irradiated. The effects of radiation on the morphology of the fungus were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The experiments were performed with samples of peanuts in natura (raw and peeled) purchased in supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were inoculated with the fungal strain Aspergillus ochraceus (CMT 00145) in petri plates that were kept incubated in a BOD germination chamber at 25 degree C for 5 days. They were then exposed to gamma radiation from a cesium-137 source to doses of 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 kGy at an average dose rate of approximately 1.6 kGy/h. Radiosensitivity as well as morphological and microscopic changes induced by irradiation were investigated for colonies kept for 7 days in MEA medium at 25 degree C. Inactivation was found to occur for all colonies irradiated with 5 kGy and for none irradiated with 2.0 kGy or less. Also investigated was the time needed for irradiated colonies to resume growth. The impact of irradiation on the morphological and microscopic characteristics of the fungus were found to become significant at doses above 1 kGy, causing some structures to gradually shrink or even vanish with increasing dose. (author)

  13. Aspergillus flavus: A potential Bioremediator for oil contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Avasn Maruthi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly treatment for oily contaminated sites by the use of microorganisms. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to establish the performance of fungal isolates in degradation of organic compounds contained in soils contaminated with petrol and diesel. As a result of the laboratory screening, two natural fungal strains capable of degrading total organic carbons (TOC were prepared from isolates enriched from the oil contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic conditions, with TOC removal percentage varied from 0.7 to 32% depending on strains type and concentration. Strains Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger exhibited the highest TOC removal percentage of 32 and 21%, respectively, before nutrient addition. TOC removal rate was enhanced after addition of nutrients to incubated flasks. The highest TOC reduction (45% was estimated after addition of combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur to Phanerocheate chrysosporium strains. Results of experimental work carried out elucidate that the fungi like Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Aspergillus niger were capabled of producing enzymes at a faster rate to decompose the substrate hydrocarbon and released more CO2 and hence these potential fungi can be utilized effectively as agents of biodegradation in waste recycling process and Bioremediation of oil contaminated sites.

  14. Genetic control of mutation process in Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of UV-induced morphological mutations, the resistance to methyl green and rava → rava+ reversions have been studied in 6 uvs mutants of Aspergillus nidulans. It is shown that in all the uvs mutants the induction curves of different mutation types have a characteristic form with a maximum and a decrease in the mutation number (per number of survived cells) at high UV doses. Maxima of the induction of one mutation type in different uvs strains have been observed at different UV doses (and different survival). Comparative frequencies of the induction of different mutation types are different in different uvs strains. Uvs mutations are found which result in a sharp increase (uvs 19) or decrease down to complete absence (uvs12) or the induction of all the mutation types and mutations (uvs2, 20sup(a), 20sup(b), 26) specifically affecting the induction frequency of certain mutation types. It is concluded that UV-induced mutations in Aspergillus nidulans originate not only during postreplicative recombinative reparation, but also at other reparation ways, possibly, following excision

  15. Polyketides in Aspergillus terreus: biosynthesis pathway discovery and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ying; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Li, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of biosynthesis gene clusters, production improving methods, and bioactivity mechanisms is very important for the development of filamentous fungi metabolites. Metabolic engineering and heterologous expression methods can be applied to improve desired metabolite production, when their biosynthesis pathways have been revealed. And, stable supplement is a necessary basis of bioactivity mechanism discovery and following clinical trial. Aspergillus terreus is an outstanding producer of many bioactive agents, and a large part of them are polyketides. In this review, we took polyketides from A. terreus as examples, focusing on 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. terreus NIH 2624 genome. The biosynthesis pathways of nine PKS genes have been reported, and their downstream metabolites are lovastatin, terreic acid, terrein, geodin, terretonin, citreoviridin, and asperfuranone, respectively. Among them, lovastatin is a well-known hypolipidemic agent. Terreic acid, terrein, citreoviridin, and asperfuranone show good bioactivities, especially anticancer activities. On the other hand, geodin and terretonin are mycotoxins. So, biosynthesis gene cluster information is important for the production or elimination of them. We also predicted three possible gene clusters that contain four PKS genes by homologous gene alignment with other Aspergillus strains. We think that this is an effective way to mine secondary metabolic gene clusters. PMID:27455860

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  17. Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 in flour production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halt, M

    1994-10-01

    This paper discusses the results of investigations of contamination with aflatoxin-producing fungi and aflatoxin B1 affecting 545 samples of wheat grains, 475 samples of intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (like middlings) and 238 samples of flour. A significant contamination with moulds was detected in analyzed samples. Although Aspergillus (34.87%) and Penicillium (32.37%) dominated, other types were also present, e.g., Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Absidia and Trichoderma (listed in order of frequency). The presence of Aspergillus flavus, the known aflatoxin producer, was detected in 9.94% of analyzed samples. Isolates of A. Flavus were capable of producing aflatoxin B1 under favourable conditions. Aflatoxin B1 was found in 76.8% of samples contaminated with A. flavus. The highest contamination with aflatoxin B1 was detected in wheat grain samples (mean value of 16.3 micrograms/kg) and in intermediate products of wheat grain being milled to flour (mean value of 11.13 micrograms/kg). Contamination was lower in flour samples (mean value of 4.13 micrograms/kg). With regard to proposed standards given by the FAO and WHO, under which the content of aflatoxin should not exceed 30 micrograms/kg in food products, only two of 96 samples did not meet these criteria. PMID:7859854

  18. Environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp. in laying hen farms and associated health risks for farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Danesi, Patrizia; Favuzzi, Vincenza; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Pugliese, Nicola; Caroli, Anna; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    Data on the occurrence and epidemiology of Aspergillus spp. in laying hens farms are scant. With the aims of determining levels of airborne contamination in laying hen farms and evaluating the potential risk of infection for workers and animals, 57 air samples from 19 sheds (Group I), 69 from faeces (Group II), 19 from poultry feedstuffs (Group III) and 60 from three anatomical sites (i.e. nostrils, pharynx, ears) of 20 farm workers (Group IV) were cultured. The Aspergillus spp. prevalence in samples ranged from 31.6% (Group III) to 55.5% (Group IV), whereas the highest conidia concentration was retrieved in Group II (1.2 × 10(4) c.f.u. g(-1)) and in Group III (1.9 × 10(3) c.f.u. g(-1)). The mean concentration of airborne Aspergillus spp. conidia was 70 c.f.u. m(-3) with Aspergillus fumigatus (27.3%) being the most frequently detected species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (6.3%). These Aspergillus spp. were also isolated from human nostrils (40%) and ears (35%) (Pdisease in hens, it causes human colonization. Correct management of hen farms is necessary to control environmental contamination by Aspergillus spp., and could lead to a significant reduction of animal and human colonization. PMID:24430250

  19. IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis: a laboratory correlate of disease activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, K D; Hohmann, A W; Martin, A J.; Bradley, J

    1988-01-01

    Serum was collected from 50 patients with cystic fibrosis, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, total IgE and Aspergillus specific IgE antibodies were measured in 41 of the 50. A close association was found between pulmonary function and clinical state, and IgG antibodies to Aspergillus. There was no association between pulmonary function or clinical state and IgE antibodies. It is postulated that in patients with...

  20. Hydrophobic Effect of Amphiphilic Derivatives of Chitosan on the Antifungal Activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ap. de Oliveira Tiera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight amphiphilic derivatives of chitosan were synthesized, characterized and their antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were tested. The derivatives were synthesized using as starting material a deacetylated chitosan sample in a two step process: the reaction with propyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (Pr, followed by reductive amination with dodecyl aldehyde. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the hydrophobic modification of the derivatives on the antifungal activity against the pathogens, the degree of substitution (DS1 by Pr groups was kept constant and the proportion of dodecyl (Dod groups was varied from 7 to 29% (DS2. The derivatives were characterized by 1H-NMR and FTIR and their antifungal activities against the pathogens were tested by the radial growth of the colony and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC methods. The derivatives substituted with only Pr groups exhibited modest inhibition against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, like that obtained with deacetylated chitosan. Results revealed that the amphiphilic derivatives grafted with Dod groups exhibited increasing inhibition indexes, depending on polymer concentration and hydrophobic content. At 0.6 g/L, all amphiphilic derivatives having from 7.0 to 29% of Dod groups completely inhibited fungal growth and the MIC values were found to decrease from 4.0 g/L for deacetylated chitosan to 0.25–0.50 g/L for the derivatives. These new derivatives open up the possibility of new applications and avenues to develop effective biofungicides based on chitosan.

  1. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Budroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182, which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli.

  2. Expression of Innate and Adaptive Immune Mediators in Human Corneal Tissue Infected With Aspergillus or Fusarium

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan, Rajapandian Sivaganesa; Leal, Sixto M.; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu; Geiser, David M.; Pearlman, Eric; Lalitha, Prajna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Fusarium are major causes of corneal ulcers in the United States and in the developing world and result in significant visual impairment and blindness.

  3. Branching is coordinated with mitosis in growing hyphae of Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Filamentous fungi like Aspergillus nidulans can effectively colonize their surroundings by the formation of new branches along the existing hyphae. While growth conditions, chemical perturbations, and mutations affecting branch formation have received great attention during the last decades, the ...

  4. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Recently genome sequence data have become available for Aspergillus and Pichia species of industrial interest. This has stimulated the use of systems biology approaches for large-scale analysis of the molecular and metabolic responses of Aspergillus and Pichia under defined conditions, which has...... resulted in much new biological information. Case-specific contextualization of this information has been performed using comparative and functional genomic tools. Genomics data are also the basis for constructing genome-scale metabolic models, and these models have helped in the contextualization of...... knowledge on the fundamental biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species. Furthermore, with the availability of these models, the engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia is moving from traditional approaches, such as random mutagenesis, to a systems metabolic engineering approach. Here we review the recent...

  5. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  6. Aspergillus specific IgE estimation by radioallergosorbent technique (RAST) in obstructive airways disease at Agra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioallergosorbent technique (RAST) was used to measure the levels of Aspergillus specific IgE in 25 normal controls, 25 cases of extrinsic bronchial asthma and 25 cases of allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis with a view to study the clinical role and its correlation with sputum culture, skin sensitivity and severity of airways obstruction. The test was performed using Pharmacia diagnostic kits with antigen derived from Aspergillus fumigatus. Abnormal levels of Aspergillus specific IgE were observed in 84 per cent cases of bronchial asthma but none of the controls. 86.7 per cent of all cases with positive skin test had positive radioallergosorbent test and there was no false positive reaction. There was a positive correlation of Aspergillus specific IgE with skin test positivity and with FEV1/FVC per cent. (author)

  7. Erratum to: Purification and characterization of a nitrilase from Aspergillus niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Ondřej; Vejvoda, Vojtěch; Plíhal, O.; Pompach, P.; Kavan, D.; Bojarová, Pavla; Bezouška, K.; Macková, M.; Cantarella, M.; Jirků, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Martínková, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2013), s. 3745-3746. ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : nitrilase * Aspergillus niger Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.811, year: 2013

  8. Disruption of the Phospholipase D Gene Attenuates the Virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xianping; Gao, Meihua; Han, Xuelin; Tao, Sha; Zheng, Dongyu; Cheng, Ying; Yu, Rentao; Han, Gaige; Schmidt, Martina; Han, Li

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen that induces serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Phospholipases are key enzymes in pathogenic fungi that cleave host phospholipids, resulting in membrane destabilization and host cell penetration. However, knowledge o

  9. Susceptibility testing of sequential isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from treated patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Tortorano, A.M.; Symoens, F.; Nolard, N.; Viviani, M.A.; Piens, M.A.; Lebeau, B.; Verweij, P.E.; Grillot, R.

    2004-01-01

    Two-hundred sequential Aspergillus fumigatus isolates recovered from 26 immunocompromised patients with invasive aspergillosis or bronchial colonization were tested for their in vitro susceptibility to posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and amphotericin B. Twenty-one patients were

  10. 15 keV N+ implantation to induce mutation of protopectinase-producing Aspergillus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopectinase will be of potential use in industry. The strain of protopectinase-producing Aspergillus sp. XZ-131 was mutagenized by 15 keV N+ ion implantation, with a dose range of 0.52 x 1015 ion/cm2 to 4.68 x 1015 ion/cm2. From the ion implanted Aspergillus sp. XZ-131, the Strain Z-25, which yields high activity protopectinase, was screened out. The protopectinase activity increased by 179% and the protopectinase (U/g dry cell) increased by 84%. In addition, the exponential phase of Aspergillus sp. Z-25 was 24 hours shorter than the Strain XZ-131. The Aspergillus sp. Z-25 yielded high protopectinase activity during stationary phase, the highest protopectinase activity was achieved after 72 h fermentation. (authors)

  11. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  12. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  13. Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotík, Michael; Kyslík, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 1760, - (2006), s. 245-252. ISSN 0006-3002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : epoxide hydrolase * enantioselectivity * aspergillus niger Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Method To Estimate Growth of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus wentii in Mixed Culture on Cellulosic Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Panda, T.; Bisaria, V. S.; Ghose, T. K.

    1989-01-01

    A simple differential method based on measurement of an intracellular pigment of Aspergillus wentii was developed for estimation of the individual growths of two fungi, Trichoderma reesei and A. wentii, in mixed-culture fermentation of an insoluble cellulosic substrate.

  15. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L-1. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  16. BIOSORPTION OF CR (VI BY RESTING CELLS OF ASPERGILLUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sen , M. Ghosh Dastidar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Cr(VI from aqueous solution was studied in a batch bioreactor using the resting cells of filamentous fungal biomass (Aspergillus sp. isolated from industrial wastewaters. The specific Cr(VI removal (mg/g of dried biomass decreased with increase in pH and increased with increase in initial Cr(VI concentration, upto 500 mg/L. By increasing biomass concentration from 2.4 to 5.2 g/L, the specific metal removal remained almost constant. The studies carried out by using the resting cells from various stages of growth indicated maximum Cr(VI removal of 34.8 mg/g using the biomass from the beginning of the stationary phase. The adsorption equilibrium constants Qº (42.9 mg/g and b (0.0091/mg were obtained from the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.

  17. Cultivation characteristics of immobilized Aspergillus oryzae for kojic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, M Y; Rhee, J S

    1992-04-15

    Aspergillus oryzae in situ grown from spores entrapped in calcium alginate gel beads was used for the production of kojic acid. The immobilized cells in flask cultures produced kojic acid in a linear proportion while maintaining the stable metabolic activity for a prolonged production period. Kojic acid was accumulated up to a high concentration of 83 g/L, at which the kojic acid began to crystallize, and, thus, the culture had to be replaced with fresh media for the next batch culture. The overall productivities of two consecutive cultivations were higher than that of free mycelial fermentation. However, the production rate of kojic acid by the immobilized cells was suddenly decreased with the appearance of central cavernae inside the immobilized gel beads after 12 days of the third batch cultivation. PMID:18601027

  18. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  19. Cell wall structure and biogenesis in Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, Akira; Miyazawa, Ken; Abe, Keietsu

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi from the viewpoints of industry, pathogenesis, and mycotoxin production. Fungal cells are exposed to a variety of environmental stimuli, including changes in osmolality, temperature, and pH, which create stresses that primarily act on fungal cell walls. In addition, fungal cell walls are the first interactions with host cells in either human or plants. Thus, understanding cell wall structure and the mechanism of their biogenesis is important for the industrial, medical, and agricultural fields. Here, we provide a systematic review of fungal cell wall structure and recent findings regarding the cell wall integrity signaling pathways in aspergilli. This accumulated knowledge will be useful for understanding and improving the use of industrial aspergilli fermentation processes as well as treatments for some fungal infections. PMID:27140698

  20. Optimization of cultivation conditions for the cellulase producer aspergillus terreus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svistova, I.D.; Zherebtsov, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus was able to synthesize C1-cellulase, Cx-cellulase, endoglucanase and cellobiase in a synthetic minimal medium containing agricultural wastes (sawdust, straw, sugar beet pulp, barley husks, etc) as a sole source of C. The highest enzyme activity was observed with sugar beet pulp whereas the lowest activity occurrred with sawdust. Of various N sources tested, NaNO3 and peptone were most effective. Addition of corn meal, malt sprout, or protein-vitamin concentration (PVC) significantly stimulated enzyme biosynthesis. The optimum culture medium, determined by the mathematical method of experimental factor design was composed of sugar beet pulp 30, KH2PO4 1-4, NaNO3 7.5, and PVC 15 g/L.

  1. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

    2004-10-01

    Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

  2. Biotransformations of organic compounds mediated by cultures of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshikov, Igor A; Woodling, Kellie A; Sutherland, John B

    2015-09-01

    Many different organic compounds may be converted by microbial biotransformation to high-value products for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. This review summarizes the use of strains of Aspergillus niger, a well-known filamentous fungus used in numerous biotechnological processes, for biochemical transformations of organic compounds. The substrates transformed include monocyclic, bicyclic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; azaarenes, epoxides, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other aliphatic and aromatic compounds. The types of reactions performed by A. niger, although not unique to this species, are extremely diverse. They include hydroxylation, oxidation of various functional groups, reduction of double bonds, demethylation, sulfation, epoxide hydrolysis, dechlorination, ring cleavage, and conjugation. Some of the products may be useful as new investigational drugs or chemical intermediates. PMID:26162670

  3. Uranium leaching using mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both of culture temperature and pH value had impacts on the degree of uranium extraction through changing types and concentrations of mixed organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger, and significant interactions existed between them though pH value played a leading role. And with the change of pH value of mixed organic acids, the types and contents of mixed organic acids changed and impacted on the degree of uranium extraction, especially oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid. The mean degree of uranium extraction rose to peak when the culture temperature was 25 deg C (76.14 %) and pH value of mixed organic acids was 2.3 (82.40 %) respectively. And the highest one was 83.09 %. The optimal culture temperature (25 deg C) of A. niger for uranium leaching was different from the most appropriate growing temperature (37 deg C). (author)

  4. In-silico analysis of Aspergillus niger beta-glucosidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo S., L.; Shazilah, K.; Suhaila, S.; Abu Bakar F., D.; Murad A. M., A.

    2014-09-01

    Genomic data mining was carried out and revealed a total of seventeen β-glucosidases in filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger. Two of them belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) while the rest belonged to genes in family 3 (GH3). These proteins were then named according to the nomenclature as proposed by the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), starting from the lowest pI and glycoside hydrolase family. Their properties were predicted using various bionformatic tools showing the presence of domains for signal peptide and active sites. Interestingly, one particular domain, PA14 (protective antigen) was present in four of the enzymes, predicted to be involved in carbohydrate binding. A phylogenetic tree grouped the two glycoside hydrolase families with GH1 and GH3 related organisms. This study showed that the various domains present in these β-glucosidases are postulated to be crucial for the survival of this fungus, as supported by other analysis.

  5. Reversion in variants from a duplication strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of Aspergillus nidulans with a chromosome segment in duplicate, one in normal position and one translocated to another chromosome, are unstable at mitosis. In addition to variants which result from deletions in either of the duplicate segments, which usually have improved morphology, they produce variants with deteriorated morphology. Three deteriorated variants reverted frequently to parental type morphology, both spontaneously and after ultra-violet treatment. Of six reversions analysed genetically, five were due to suppressors and one was probably due to back mutation. The suppressors segregated as single genes and were not linked to the mutation which they suppress. The instability of these so-called 'deteriorated' variants is discussed in relation to mitotic instability phenomena in A. nidulans. (orig.)

  6. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å

  7. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. E.; Shvetsov, A. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  8. Tandem shock waves to enhance genetic transformation of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loske, Achim M; Fernández, Francisco; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-08-01

    Filamentous fungi are used in several industries and in academia to produce antibiotics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceutical compounds. The development of valuable strains usually requires the insertion of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid; however, the protocols to transfer DNA to fungal cells are highly inefficient. Recently, underwater shock waves were successfully used to genetically transform filamentous fungi. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that the efficiency of transformation can be improved significantly by enhancing acoustic cavitation using tandem (dual-pulse) shock waves. Results revealed that tandem pressure pulses, generated at a delay of 300 μs, increased the transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger up to 84% in comparison with conventional (single-pulse) shock waves. This methodology may also be useful to obtain new strains required in basic research and biotechnology. PMID:24680880

  9. Carbon sources effect on pectinase production from Aspergillus japonicus 586

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on the pectinesterases, endo- and exo-polygalacturonase activities from Aspergillus japonicus 586 was evaluated in liquid media (Manachini solutions supplemented with different substrate concentrations. The culture medium was inoculated with 5.10(6 spores/ml and mantained under agitation (140 rpm, at 30°C, during 122 h. The enzyme evaluation was carried out 24 h after filtration. The crude extract from A. japonicus 586 indicated that the best enzymatic activities were afforded in the presence of 0.5% pectin (pectinesterease, 0.2% pectin and 0.2% glycerol (endopolygalacturonase, and 0.5% pectin associated to 0.5% glucose (exopolygalacturonase. Carbon sources concentration, isolated or associated, significantly affects the pectinesterase, and endo- and exopolygalacturonase activities. Pectin, glucose and saccharose, when added to the culture medium in high concentrations, exhibited a repression effect on all the analyzed enzymes.

  10. Biotransformation of germacranolide from Onopordon leptolepies by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Moazami, Nasrin; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein

    2012-01-01

    Terpenes are present in the essential oils obtained from herbs and spices. They are produced by these plant species as a chemical defense mechanism against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, terpenes have attracted great attention in the food industry, e.g., they have been used in foods such as cheese as natural preservatives to prevent fungal growth. Herein, we describe the microbial transformation of onopordopicrin (1) by Aspergillus niger. Four product 11α H-dihydroonopordopicrin (2), 11β H-dihydroonopordopicrin (3), 3β-hydroxy-11β H-dihydroonopordopicrin (4), and 14-hydroxy-11β H-dihydroonopordopicrin (5) were obtained. Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data. All the four compounds were novel. PMID:22186324

  11. Preparation of 3-deacetyl cephalosporins by Aspergillus niger lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, G; Corcelli, A; Palmisano, G; Riva, S

    1996-12-20

    Lipase from Aspergillus niger was used for the selective hydrolysis of the 3-O-acetate of cephalosporin C to give an intermediate useful for further chemical elaborations. This lipase was purified to homogeneity and its properties compared with previously published data that present some discrepancies. The lipase proved to be very effective in catalyzing 3-O-acetate hydrolysis and versatile toward substitution on the beta-lactamic ring. In fact, as an example, two other cephalosporinic derivatives, cephalotin and cefotaxime, were efficiently deacetylated. The lipase was immobilized on Eupergit C and employed continuously in either a column or a batch reactor for 2 months without appreciable loss of activity. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18629943

  12. [A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis accompanied with Aspergillus meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, K; Goto, H; Sakurada, S; Ota, T; Yuasa, K; Iguchi, M; Okamura, T; Ieki, R; Kawamura, T

    1996-06-01

    A 53-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining of chest pain and gait disturbance. Examinations on admission showed that she was immunocompetent except the negative tuberculin test. The chest X-ray showed infiltrative shadows with old tuberculous lesions in the bilateral upper lung fields. In CT, a mass lesion was revealed in the lesion, which destructed the fifth thoracic vertebra and invaded into the epidural space. She died of meningitis on the 18th day after admission. On autopsy, it was made clear that the mass lesion was caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and that the meningitis was the result of the invasion of the fungus into the epidural space. PMID:8741716

  13. Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Neelkamal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For decades, fungi have been recognized as associated with asthma and other reactive airway diseases. In contrast to type I-mediated allergies caused by pollen, fungi cause a large number of allergic diseases such as allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, rhinitis, allergic sinusitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Amongst the fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent cause of severe pulmonary allergic disease, including allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA, known to be associated with chronic lung injury and deterioration in pulmonary function in people with chronic asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF. The goal of this review is to discuss new understandings of host-pathogen interactions in the genesis of allergic airway diseases caused by A. fumigatus. Host and pathogen related factors that participate in triggering the inflammatory cycle leading to pulmonary exacerbations in ABPA are discussed.

  14. Small-angle scattering study of Aspergillus awamori glycoprotein glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, A. E., E-mail: schmidt@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Shvetsov, A. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kuklin, A. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Lebedev, D. V.; Surzhik, M. A.; Sergeev, V. R.; Isaev-Ivanov, V. V. [National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Glucoamylase from fungus Aspergillus awamori is glycoside hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucosidic bonds in glucose polymers and oligomers. This glycoprotein consists of a catalytic domain and a starch-binding domain connected by an O-glycosylated polypeptide chain. The conformation of the linker, the relative arrangement of the domains, and the structure of the full-length enzyme are unknown. The structure of the recombinant glucoamylase GA1 was studied by molecular modelling and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) methods. The experimental SANS data provide evidence that glucoamylase exists as a monomer in solution and contains a glycoside component, which makes a substantial contribution to the scattering. The model of full-length glucoamylase, which was calculated without taking into account the effect of glycosylation, is consistent with the experimental data and has a radius of gyration of 33.4 ± 0.6 Å.

  15. UTILIZING Aspergillus niger FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF TANNERY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bisht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tannery waste water is characterized by highly toxic ammonium, sulfates, surfactants, acids, dyes, sulfonated oils and organic substances, including natural or synthetic tannins. This study was designed to study the potential of Aspergillus niger for bioremediation of tannery effluent. Addition of glucose as a carbon source in the tannery effluent encouraged the growth of A. niger but there was no change in physico-chemical parameters. The toxic effects were mostly reduced after treatment when 20% mineral salt medium was added in tannery effluent. Colour, COD, TS, TDS, TSS, chlorides, sulfides and chromium reduction were 71.9%, 72.1%, 69.0%, 65.0%, 68.1%, 66.8%, 65.7% and 57.8%, respectively.

  16. Structural analysis of biofilms and pellets of Aspergillus niger by confocal laser scanning microscopy and cryo scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, G K; Fujikawa, T; Tsuyumu, S; Gutiérrez-Correa, M

    2010-03-01

    Biomass organization of Aspergillus niger biofilms and pellets stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate were analyzed by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and detectable differences between both types of growth were found. Three-dimensional surface plot analysis of biofilm structure revealed interstitial voids and vertical growth compared with pellets. Growth was lower in biofilm and according to fluorescence profile obtained, biomass density increased at the surface (0-20 microm). However, a decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed through optical sections of pellets even though growth was significantly higher than biofilms. Cryo scanning electron microscopy also showed structural differences. While biofilms showed a spatially ordered mycelium and well structured hyphal channels, pellets were characterized by an entangled and notoriously compacted mycelium. These findings revealed common structural characteristics between A. niger biofilms and those found in other microbial biofilms. Thus, biofilm microstructure may represent a key determinant of biofilm growth and physiology of filamentous fungi. PMID:19919894

  17. Human Leukocytes Kill Aspergillus nidulans by Reactive Oxygen Species-Independent Mechanisms▿

    OpenAIRE

    Henriet, Stefanie S. V.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Verweij, Paul E.; Simonetti, Elles; Holland, Steven M.; Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Warris, Adilia

    2010-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Although Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly encountered Aspergillus species, the presence of A. nidulans appears to be disproportionately high in CGD patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of the NADPH oxidase and the resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS) in host defense against fungi and to clarify their relationship toward A. nidulans. Murine CG...

  18. Pulmonary Aspergillus chest wall involvement in chronic granulomatous disease: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary Aspergillus infection in patients with chronic granulomatous disease tends to involve the chest wall and consequently carries a high mortality rate. We report the findings of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three such cases. We suggest that CT and MRI have a complementary role in evaluating chest wall invasion by pulmonary Aspergillus infection in chronic granulomatous disease. (orig./GDG)

  19. Detection of Aspergillus Galactomannan Antigenemia To Determine Biological and Clinical Implications of Beta-Lactam Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Basile, Maria; Al Jijakli, Ahmad; Souville, Didier; Gay, Frédérick; Philippe, Bruno; Bossi, Philippe; Danis, Martin; Vernant, Jean-Paul; Datry, Annick

    2005-01-01

    Detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) in serum with the Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is useful for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. From May 2003 to November 2004, 65 patients who did not develop aspergillosis had at least two positive sera while receiving a beta-lactam treatment (GM index [GMI], ≥0.5). Of the 69 treatment episodes scored, 41 consisted of a beta-lactam other than piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 29), namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate (n = 25), amoxicillin (...

  20. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC) to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1) Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2) Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermen...

  1. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Tivkaa Amande; Bukola Adebayo-Tayo; Uduak Ndubuisi-Nnaji; Benjamin Ado

    2013-01-01

    Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase produc...

  2. In Vitro Biochemical Study of CYP51-Mediated Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

    OpenAIRE

    Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Parker, Josie E.; Price, Claire L.; Nes, W. David; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of triazole-resistant Aspergillus infections is increasing worldwide, often mediated through mutations in the CYP51A amino acid sequence. New classes of azole-based drugs are required to combat the increasing resistance to existing triazole therapeutics. In this study, a CYP51 reconstitution assay is described consisting of eburicol, purified recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus CPR1 (AfCPR1), and Escherichia coli membrane suspensions containing recombinant A. fumigatus CYP51 prote...

  3. Characterization of oxylipins and dioxygenase genes in the asexual fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkhove Stefanie IC; de Vries Ronald P; Wadman Mayken W; Veldink Gerrit A; Vliegenthart Johannes FG

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. Interestingly, recent genome analysis of A. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. An example of such genes are the dioxygenase genes which in Aspergillus nidulans, have been shown to be connected to oxylipin production and regulation of both sexual and asexual sporulation 234. Nevertheless, the presence of...

  4. Aflatoxin B1-producing Aspergillus in sun-dried medicinal plant materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chinaputi, A.; Lim, S; Petcharat, V.; Chuenchit, S.; Pathanadech, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty sun-dried medicinal plants were obtained from fraditional drug stores in Songkhla Province, Thailand, and examined for Aspergillus and aflatoxin B1. 288 isolates of Aspergillus were obtaines by standard blotter plate and 25 species were identified. The most common species were A. niger with 99 isolates, A. Flavus 84 isolates, A. terreus 33 isolates, A. oryzae 25 isolates, A.nidulans (Emericella nidulans) 10 isolates, A fumigatus 9 isolates and A. chevalieri (Eurotium chevalieri) 8 isola...

  5. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Aspergillus spp. FROM THE WATER USED FOR REHABILITATION OF MAGELLANIC PENGUINS

    OpenAIRE

    Vanice Rodrigues Poester; Gabriel Baracy Klafke; Ângela Leitzke Cabana; Andréa Corrado Adornes; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Melissa Orzechowski Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillosis is the main cause of mortality in captivity penguins. The infection occurs mainly by conidia inhalation of the Aspergillus genus, however, the fungus can also be dispersed by water. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate water quality of the pool where the rehabilitated penguins remain at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos in Rio Grande city, Brazil, searching for the presence of the fungus Aspergillus spp. Water samples were collected weekly during a ten-month period an...

  6. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a patient on mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    MV Pravin Charles; M Ravishankar; Easow, Joshy M; Noyal Mariya Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. often colonise the respiratory tract of critically ill patients in intensive care units and subsequently cause invasive disease. The risk of developing invasive disease is more in immunocompromised patients. Here we report a case of fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus versicolor in a post-operative patient on mechanical ventilation, who did not respond to intravenous itraconazole. We then discuss the challenges involved in the accurate diagnosis of th...

  7. Cellulolytic enzymes on lignocellulosic substrates in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, M. Subhosh; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B. Rajasekhar

    2007-01-01

    The production of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger on lignocellulosic substrates groundnut fodder, wheat bran, rice bran and sawdust in solid state fermentation in a laboratory scale was compared. Czapek Dox liquid broth amended with cellulose (0.5%) was used to moisten lignocellulosic solid supports for cultivation of Aspergillus niger. The production of filter paperase, carboxymethyl cellulase and -glucosidase were monitored at daily intervals for 5 days. The peak production of the...

  8. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kappe, R; Schulze-Berge, A

    1993-01-01

    The Pastorex Aspergillus antigen test for detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the sera of patients with invasive aspergillosis is used in many clinical laboratories. A serum sample contaminated with Penicillium chrysogenum gave a strongly positive reaction (1:128) which was heat stable, was not eliminated by pronase treatment, and was not detected by a normal rabbit globulin control. This observation was shown to be due to cross-reactions of the monoclonal antibody EB-A2 used by...

  9. Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis in a double-lung transplanted patient: unusual radiographic and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis is considered as an early form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, a well-known airway infection in immunocompromised patients. Radiologic features concerning invasive aspergillosis of the airways have been reported. However, we describe here an unusual feature of invasive aspergillus bronchitis, never reported to date, observed in a double-lung transplanted patient. Chest radiograph and CT revealed significant peribronchial thickening without any parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  10. Purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from aspergillus terreus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteases belong to an important class of enzymes known as hydrolases and catalyze hydrolysis of proteins. They act primarily to degrade proteins that are used for energy production and as biosynthetic precursors. In the following study, protease produced from Aspergillus terreus was found to be thermo stable and included in the category of alkaline serine and metallo protease. During partial purification, presence of enzyme in 60% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ indicated small molecular weight polypeptide; later purification with Sephadex G-75 fractionation yielded a single proteolytic active molecule. At final purification step, the increase in specific activity of the enzyme was 7.5 fold with 23% yield. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that alkaline protease of Aspergillus terreus is a monomer with approximate molecular weight of 35 kDa. Optimum pH for protease activity was found in the range of 7.5-11.0 (maximum at pH 8.5), thus apparently classified as an alkaline protease. The enzyme was thermo stable towards high temperature (60 deg. C), however it denatured irreversibly at 70 deg. C showing 80% loss of activity. The maximum proteolytic activity was found at 40 deg. C. The enzyme was effectively inhibited by PMSF, EDTA and urea whereas iodoacetamide and thiourea did not result in any loss in activity while cysteine was found to be activator molecule. The study with metal ions Mg/sup +2/, Mn/sup +2/ and Fe/sup +3/ (1 mM each) showed minute stimulatory effects on enzyme activity. Co/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/ (1 mM) had neither excitatory nor inhibitory effect while Hg/sup +2/ and Cu/sup +2/ (1 mM) slightly reduced the enzyme activity. (author)

  11. Invasive Aspergillus infections in hospitalized patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessolossky M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mireya Wessolossky,1 Verna L Welch,2 Ajanta Sen,1 Tara M Babu,1 David R Luke21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA, USABackground: Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is more prevalent in immunocompromised patients, critical care clinicians need to be aware of the occurrence of IPA in the nontraditional host, such as a patient with chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the IPA patient with chronic lung disease and compare the data with that of immunocompromised patients.Methods: The records of 351 patients with Aspergillus were evaluated in this single-center, retrospective study for evidence and outcomes of IPA. The outcomes of 57 patients with chronic lung disease and 56 immunocompromised patients were compared. Patients with chronic lung disease were defined by one of the following descriptive terms: emphysema, asthma, idiopathic lung disease, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, sarcoid, or pulmonary leukostasis.Results: Baseline demographics were similar between the two groups. Patients with chronic lung disease were primarily defined by emphysema (61% and asthma (18%, and immunocompromised patients primarily had malignancies (27% and bone marrow transplants (14%. A higher proportion of patients with chronic lung disease had a diagnosis of IPA by bronchoalveolar lavage versus the immunocompromised group (P < 0.03. The major risk factors for IPA were found to be steroid use in the chronic lung disease group and neutropenia and prior surgical procedures in the immunocompromised group. Overall, 53% and 69% of chronic lung disease and immunocompromised patients were cured (P = 0.14; 55% of chronic lung patients and 47% of immunocompromised patients survived one month (P = 0.75.Conclusion: Nontraditional patients with IPA, such as those with chronic lung disease, have outcomes and mortality similar to that in the

  12. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    . fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. noyofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoyiridinutans, A. spinosus, A. therrnornutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37 °C...

  13. 曲霉菌性气管支气管炎%Aspergillus tracheobronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海东; 李强

    2011-01-01

    曲霉菌性气管支气管炎是曲霉菌在气道内定植及生长所致疾病的总称,主要包括侵袭性曲霉菌性气管支气管炎、溃疡性曲霉菌性气管支气管炎、伪膜坏死性曲霉菌性气管支气管炎、气管支气管腔内曲菌栓型等4种类型.该病在全身免疫功能损害并气道局部结构破坏的人群中多见.本文对曲霉菌性气管支气管炎发病机制、临床表现、诊断、治疗和预后,以及在常见免疫功能损害人群中的临床特点进行综述.%Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is the generic term for all the diseases caused by planting and growing of Aspergillus in the airway, mainly including invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, ulcerative Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, pseudomembranous necrotizing Aspergillus tracheobronchitis and tracheobronchial aspergilloma. Aspergillus tracheobronchitis is frequently seen in populations with immunodeficiency accompanied with local airway damages. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, imagining findings, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the disease, and the clinical features of populations with impaired general immune function.

  14. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Aspergillus spp. FROM THE WATER USED FOR REHABILITATION OF MAGELLANIC PENGUINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanice Rodrigues Poester

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the main cause of mortality in captivity penguins. The infection occurs mainly by conidia inhalation of the Aspergillus genus, however, the fungus can also be dispersed by water. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate water quality of the pool where the rehabilitated penguins remain at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos in Rio Grande city, Brazil, searching for the presence of the fungus Aspergillus spp. Water samples were collected weekly during a ten-month period and processed within six hours, applying the technique of filtrating membrane, with incubation at 25 ºC and 37 ºC during seven days. Of the forty samples analyzed, thirty-two were positive for the presence of Aspergillus genus, from these 60% correspond to A. fumigatus. Some variables significantly interfered on the isolation of Aspergillus genus and/or Aspergillus fumigatus specie, such as incubation temperature, seasonality and population density. This study showed Aspergillus spp. is present in the water, being one of the possible sources of infections for penguins in rehabilitation.

  15. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

  16. Molecular identification of Aspergillus spp. isolated from coffee beans Identificação molecular de Aspergillus spp. isolados de grãos de café

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    Marciane Magnani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species belonging to the genus Aspergillus are potential producers of ochratoxin A (OA, a mycotoxin with nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Aspergillus that contaminate the inside of coffee beans collected in the stage of maturation and drying, from 16 producing areas located in the northern region of the State of Paraná, in the South of Brazil. A total of 108 isolates of Aspergillus spp. was identified at the species level, by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. The results revealed the presence of potentially ochratoxigenic species in 82% of the geographic regions studied, among which Aspergillus niger was the species most frequently detected, followed by A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius. The presence of A. carbonarius in immature coffee fruits harvested from trees is reported for the first time.Algumas espécies pertencentes ao gênero Aspergillus possuem potencial para produção de Ocratoxina A (OA, uma micotoxina de efeitos nefrotóxicos, imunossupressivos, teratogênicos e carcinogênicos. Com o objetivo de identificar as espécies de Aspergillus que contaminam o interior de grãos de café, foram coletadas amostras em diferentes estádios de maturação do produto, em 16 propriedades produtoras do norte do estado do Paraná. Um total de 108 isolados de Aspergillus spp. foram identificados ao nível de espécie, pelo sequenciamento dos espaços internos transcritos (ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 do DNA ribossomal (rDNA. Os resultados revelaram a presença de espécies potencialmente ocratoxigênicas em 82% das regiões analisadas, sendo dentre estas, Aspergillus niger a espécie mais freqüentemente detectada,seguida por A. ochraceus, e A. carbonarius. É relatada pela primeira vez a presença de A. carbonarius em frutos de café coletados na árvore.

  17. PENGARUH FILTRAT CENDAWAN Aspergillus sp. DAN Fusarium sp. TERHADAP VIABILITAS BENIH DAN PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT SENGON (Paraserianthes falcataria)

    OpenAIRE

    Naning Yuniarti; Tati Suharti; Yulianti Bramasto

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are one of the main causes of damage to seeds. Fungi can be a pathogen or saprophyte such as Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of filtrate fungus Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp on seed viability and seedling growth performance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria). The experiment design used was the Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with treatment: control, filtrate of Aspergillus sp and Fusarium sp filtrate. Each treatment was rep...

  18. Mycotoxigenic potential of fungi isolated from freshly harvested Argentinean blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munitz, Martin S; Resnik, Silvia L; Pacin, Ana; Salas, Paula M; Gonzalez, Hector H L; Montti, Maria I T; Drunday, Vanesa; Guillin, Eduardo A

    2014-11-01

    Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F. semitectum, F. verticillioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus section Nigri strains obtained from blueberries during the 2009 and 2010 harvest season from Entre Ríos, Argentina were analyzed to determine their mycotoxigenic potential. Taxonomy status at the specific level was determined both on morphological and molecular grounds. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs), and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed by HPLC and the trichotecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), T-2 toxin (T-2), fusarenone X (FUS-X), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) by GC. Twenty-five out of forty two strains were able to produce some of the mycotoxins analyzed. Fifteen strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were capable of producing Fumonisin B1 (FB1); two of them also produced Fumonisin B2 (FB2) and one Fumonisin B3 (FB3). One of the F. graminearum isolated produced ZEA, HT-2, and T-2 and the other one was capable of producing ZEA and DON. Two A. alternata isolates produced AOH and AME. Four A. tenuissima were capable of producing AOH and three of them produced AME as well. One Aspergillu flavus strain produced aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing mycotoxigenic capacity of fungal species isolated from blueberries that include other fungi than Alternaria spp. PMID:25098914

  19. Challenges in Whole-Genome Annotation of Pyrosequenced Eukaryotic Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-04-17

    Pyrosequencing technologies such as 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina vastly lower the cost of nucleotide sequencing compared to the traditional Sanger method, and thus promise to greatly expand the number of sequenced eukaryotic genomes. However, the new technologies also bring new challenges such as shorter reads and new kinds and higher rates of sequencing errors, which complicate genome assembly and gene prediction. At JGI we are deploying 454 technology for the sequencing and assembly of ever-larger eukaryotic genomes. Here we describe our first whole-genome annotation of a purely 454-sequenced fungal genome that is larger than a yeast (>30 Mbp). The pezizomycotine (filamentous ascomycote) Aspergillus carbonarius belongs to the Aspergillus section Nigri species complex, members of which are significant as platforms for bioenergy and bioindustrial technology, as members of soil microbial communities and players in the global carbon cycle, and as agricultural toxigens. Application of a modified version of the standard JGI Annotation Pipeline has so far predicted ~;;10k genes. ~;;12percent of these preliminary annotations suffer a potential frameshift error, which is somewhat higher than the ~;;9percent rate in the Sanger-sequenced and conventionally assembled and annotated genome of fellow Aspergillus section Nigri member A. niger. Also,>90percent of A. niger genes have potential homologs in the A. carbonarius preliminary annotation. Weconclude, and with further annotation and comparative analysis expect to confirm, that 454 sequencing strategies provide a promising substrate for annotation of modestly sized eukaryotic genomes. We will also present results of annotation of a number of other pyrosequenced fungal genomes of bioenergy interest.

  20. Gβ-like CpcB plays a crucial role for growth and development of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

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    Qing Kong

    Full Text Available Growth, development, virulence and secondary metabolism in fungi are governed by heterotrimeric G proteins (G proteins. A Gβ-like protein called Gib2 has been shown to function as an atypical Gβ in Gpa1-cAMP signaling in Cryptococcus neoformans. We found that the previously reported CpcB (cross pathway control B protein is the ortholog of Gib2 in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this report, we further characterize the roles of CpcB in governing growth, development and toxigenesis in the two aspergilli. The deletion of cpcB results in severely impaired cellular growth, delayed spore germination, and defective asexual sporulation (conidiation in both aspergilli. Moreover, CpcB is necessary for proper expression of the key developmental activator brlA during initiation and progression of conidiation in A. nidulans and A. fumigatus. Somewhat in accordance with the previous study, the absence of cpcB results in the formation of fewer, but not micro-, cleistothecia in A. nidulans in the presence of wild type veA, an essential activator of sexual development. However, the cpcB deletion mutant cleistothecia contain no ascospores, validating that CpcB is required for progression and completion of sexual fruiting including ascosporogenesis. Furthermore, unlike the canonical GβSfaD, CpcB is not needed for the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST as the cpcB null mutant produced reduced amount of ST with unaltered STC gene expression. However, in A. fumigatus, the deletion of cpcB results in the blockage of gliotoxin (GT production. Further genetic analyses in A. nidulans indicate that CpcB may play a central role in vegetative growth, which might be independent of FadA- and GanB-mediated signaling. A speculative model summarizing the roles of CpcB in conjunction with SfaD in A. nidulans is presented.

  1. The Cell Factory Aspergillus Enters the Big Data Era: Opportunities and Challenges for Optimising Product Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Vera; Fiedler, Markus; Nitsche, Benjamin; King, Rudibert

    2015-01-01

    Living with limits. Getting more from less. Producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. What is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of Aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus. What makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to address key challenges of the twenty-first century? How can these strains become trimmed for better growth on second-generation feedstocks and how can we enlarge their product portfolio by genetic and metabolic engineering to get more from less? On the other hand, what makes it so challenging to deduce biological meaning from the wealth of Aspergillus -omics data? And which hurdles hinder us to model and engineer industrial strains for higher productivity and better rheological performance under industrial cultivation conditions? In this review, we will address these issues by highlighting most recent findings from the Aspergillus research with a focus on fungal growth, physiology, morphology and product formation. Indeed, the last years brought us many surprising insights into model and industrial strains. They clearly told us that similar is not the same: there are different ways to make a hypha, there are more protein secretion routes than anticipated and there are different molecular and physical mechanisms which control polar growth and the development of hyphal networks. We will discuss new conceptual frameworks derived from these insights and the future scientific advances necessary to create value from Aspergillus Big Data. PMID:25616499

  2. Diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne Aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Firoozeh; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Aspergillus species isolated from Tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Thirty-eight Aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. A. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), A. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), A. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), A. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), A. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each A. nidulans, A. amstelodami, A. oryzae, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. flavipes and A. fumigatus were obtained by settle plate method which they were distributed in 18 out of 22 sampling sites examined. Fungal DNA was extracted from cultured mycelia of all Aspergillus isolates on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for amplification of gene fragments in RAPD-PCR using 11 primers. RAPD-PCR data was analyzed using UPGMA software. Resulting dendrogram of combined selected primers including PM1, OPW-04, OPW-05, P160, P54, P10 and OPA14 indicated the distribution of 12 Aspergillus species in 8 major clusters. The similarity coefficient of all 38 Aspergillus isolates ranged from 0.02 to 0.40 indicating a wide degree of similarities and differences within and between species. Taken together, our results showed that various Aspergillus species including some important human pathogenic ones exist in the outdoor air of Tehran by different extents in distribution and diversity and suggested inter- and intra-species genetic diversity among Aspergillus species by RAPD-PCR as a rapid, sensitive and reproducible method. PMID:27116962

  3. Producers and Important Dietary Sources of Ochratoxin A and Citrinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Ruprich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a very important mycotoxin, and its research is focused right now on the new findings of OTA, like being a complete carcinogen, information about OTA producers and new exposure sources of OTA. Citrinin (CIT is another important mycotoxin, too, and its research turns towards nephrotoxicity. Both additive and synergistic effects have been described in combination with OTA. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Aspergillus Section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus, A. westerdijkiae, A. steynii and Aspergillus Section Nigri (Aspergillus carbonarius, A. foetidus, A. lacticoffeatus, A. niger, A. sclerotioniger, A. tubingensis, mostly in subtropical and tropical areas. OTA is produced in foodstuffs by Penicillium verrucosum and P. nordicum, notably in temperate and colder zones. CIT is produced in foodstuffs by Monascus species (Monascus purpureus, M. ruber and Penicillium species (Penicillium citrinum, P. expansum, P. radicicola, P. verrucosum. OTA was frequently found in foodstuffs of both plant origin (e.g., cereal products, coffee, vegetable, liquorice, raisins, wine and animal origin (e.g., pork/poultry. CIT was also found in foodstuffs of vegetable origin (e.g., cereals, pomaceous fruits, black olive, roasted nuts, spices, food supplements based on rice fermented with red microfungi Monascus purpureus and in foodstuffs of animal origin (e.g., cheese.

  4. Comparison of Aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus under various conditions of temperature, light and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Fani makk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Aflatoxins are a large group of mycotoxins. The aim of the present study was the comparison of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus (IR 111 and Aspergillus parasiticus (NRRL 2999 under various conditions of temperature, light, and pH. Methods: In this experimental study, twenty-four flasks were assigned for incubation of each of the fungi A. Flavus and parasiticus at 18, 24, 32 °C. Both flasks were maintained under conditions of light and darkness. The rate of (AFB1 produced by each groups, was measured by thin layer chromatography. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis (SPSS, version 16. Results: The lowest yield of (AFB1 produced by A. Flavus and parasiticus belonged to 32 °C and pH 6.5, respectively. On the other hand, the highest yield of toxin was observed at 24 °C and pH 6. The lighting effects were considerable. According to the studies on the adverse effects of light and the fermentation process, aflatoxin production increased in dark conditions. Conclusion: The results of study showed that A. Parasiticus (NRRL 2999 produced more aflatoxin than A. Flavus (IR 111. Key words: Aflatoxin B1, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus

  5. Analysis of Aspergillus nidulans metabolism at the genome-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Jens

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus nidulans is a member of a diverse group of filamentous fungi, sharing many of the properties of its close relatives with significance in the fields of medicine, agriculture and industry. Furthermore, A. nidulans has been a classical model organism for studies of development biology and gene regulation, and thus it has become one of the best-characterized filamentous fungi. It was the first Aspergillus species to have its genome sequenced, and automated gene prediction tools predicted 9,451 open reading frames (ORFs in the genome, of which less than 10% were assigned a function. Results In this work, we have manually assigned functions to 472 orphan genes in the metabolism of A. nidulans, by using a pathway-driven approach and by employing comparative genomics tools based on sequence similarity. The central metabolism of A. nidulans, as well as biosynthetic pathways of relevant secondary metabolites, was reconstructed based on detailed metabolic reconstructions available for A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and information on the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of A. nidulans. Thereby, it was possible to identify metabolic functions without a gene associated, and to look for candidate ORFs in the genome of A. nidulans by comparing its sequence to sequences of well-characterized genes in other species encoding the function of interest. A classification system, based on defined criteria, was developed for evaluating and selecting the ORFs among the candidates, in an objective and systematic manner. The functional assignments served as a basis to develop a mathematical model, linking 666 genes (both previously and newly annotated to metabolic roles. The model was used to simulate metabolic behavior and additionally to integrate, analyze and interpret large-scale gene expression data concerning a study on glucose repression, thereby providing a means of upgrading the information content of experimental data

  6. Survey of Aspergillus and Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in raw materials and poultry feeds from Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Carina Elizabeth; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the present work were: (1) to determine both mycobiota in raw materials and finisher poultry feed, as well as the ability to produce aflatoxin B1 by A. flavus strains, and (2) to evaluate the natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisins (FBs), gliotoxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin in poultry feed by LC-MS/MS. Nineteen percent of raw materials and 79% of finisher poultry feed samples exceeded the maximum allowed total fungal count (1 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)) to ensure hygienic quality. Aspergillus flavus was the only species belonging to section Flavi which was isolated while Fusarium verticilliodes was the prevalent species. Forty-seven percent of A. flavus strains were aflatoxin B1 producers and the highest frequency of aflatoxigenic strains was isolated from finisher poultry feeds. Principal component analysis showed that corn grains are closely related with total fungal and Fusarium counts. This positive relationship suggests that total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts in poultry feed might come mainly from corn grains. Regarding poultry feeds, in ground finisher type, Aspergillus spp. counts increased as water activity (aw) diminished. A positive relationship among aw, total fungal and Fusarium spp. counts was observed in both ground finisher and ground starter feed. Several mycotoxins were monitored in feeds by applying the LC MS/MS technique. One hundred percent of poultry samples were contaminated with FB1, and the highest levels were detected in pelleted finisher poultry. AFB1, gliotoxin, DAS, HT-2 toxin, and T-2 toxin were not detected in any poultry feed. The scarcity of available mycotoxicological studies from Argentinean poultry feed using a multitoxin analysis technique enhances the contribution of the findings of this report. PMID:23606049

  7. Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase is processed and secreted from transformed Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge-Jensen, B; Andreasen, F; Christensen, T; Christensen, M; Thim, L; Boel, E

    1989-09-01

    The cDNA encoding the precursor of the Rhizomucor miehei triglyceride lipase was inserted in an Aspergillus oryzae expression vector. In this vector the expression of the lipase cDNA is under control of the Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase gene promoter and the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase gene terminator. The recombinant plasmid was introduced into Aspergillus oryzae, and transformed colonies were selected and screened for lipase expression. Lipase-positive transformants were grown in a small fermentor, and recombinant triglyceride lipase was purified from the culture broth. The purified enzymatically active recombinant lipase (rRML) secreted from A. oryzae was shown to have the same characteristics with respect to mobility on reducing SDS-gels and amino acid composition as the native enzyme. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that approximately 70% of the secreted rRML had the same N-terminal sequence as the native Rhizomucor miehei enzyme, whereas 30% of the secreted rRML was one amino acid residue shorter in the N-terminal. The recombinant lipase precursor, which has a 70 amino acid propeptide, is thus processed in and secreted from Aspergillus oryzae. We have hereby demonstrated the utility of this organism as a host for the production of recombinant triglyceride lipases. PMID:2586234

  8. Aspergillus Spondylitis involving the Cervico-Thoraco-Lumbar Spine in an Immunocompromised Patient: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis. Moreover, early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment can prevent the serious complications of fungal infection. To our knowledge, the MR findings of multilevel aspergillus spondylitis in the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine have not been previously described. Here, we report the MR findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. spergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis, and early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment are essential for a good outcome. Although the MR findings of bacterial spondylitis have been fully described, the findings of aspergillus spondylitis have been rarely described, and to the best of our knowledge multilevel involvement of cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine has not been previously reported. Here, we report the MR imaging findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. In conclusion, aspergillus spondylitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with MR findings resembling those of tuberculous spondylitis

  9. The effects of types of media on uranium leaching using metabolite of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influences of different media to uranium leaching applying with metabolite of Aspergillus niger, PSA and glucose-steepwater medium were used for the culture of Aspergillus niger, and the metabolite of Aspergillus niger with different pH value produced in the diverse culture temperature were obtained which was applied on the tests of uranium leaching as leaching agent. The test results show that the maximum leaching rate is 83.05% when the leaching agent is the metabolite of Aspergillus niger produced by PSA, as for the glucose- steepwater medium, the maximum leaching rate is 68.20%. The pH value of the metabolite of Aspergillus niger of the two kinds of media has a significant effect on the leaching rate. When PSA is adopted, the best leaching rate appears at the pH value of metabolite ranging from 2.0 to 2.5, and as for the glucose-steepwater medium, the pH value is below 2.1. (authors)

  10. A genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Pi

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites (SMs produced by Aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. However, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including A. nidulans and A. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. In this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of SM biosynthetic gene clusters in Aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. A total of 52 gene clusters were identified in the draft genome of A. ustus 3.3904, such as the sterigmatocystin biosynthesis pathway that was commonly found in Aspergillus species. In addition, several SM biosynthetic gene clusters were firstly identified in Aspergillus that were possibly acquired by horizontal gene transfer, including the vrt cluster that is responsible for viridicatumtoxin production. Comparative genomics revealed that A. ustus shared the largest number of SM biosynthetic gene clusters with A. nidulans, but much fewer with other Aspergilli like A. niger and A. oryzae. These findings would help to understand the diversity and evolution of SM biosynthesis pathways in genus Aspergillus, and we hope they will also promote the development of fungal identification methodology in clinic.

  11. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection

  12. Aspergillus Spondylitis involving the Cervico-Thoraco-Lumbar Spine in an Immunocompromised Patient: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jeong-Min; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Kim, Sang-Il; Ha, Kee-Yong [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Aspergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis. Moreover, early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment can prevent the serious complications of fungal infection. To our knowledge, the MR findings of multilevel aspergillus spondylitis in the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine have not been previously described. Here, we report the MR findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. spergillosis is a rare cause of spondylitis, and early diagnosis by MR imaging and adequate treatment are essential for a good outcome. Although the MR findings of bacterial spondylitis have been fully described, the findings of aspergillus spondylitis have been rarely described, and to the best of our knowledge multilevel involvement of cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine has not been previously reported. Here, we report the MR imaging findings of aspergillus spondylitis involving the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine in a liver transplant recipient. In conclusion, aspergillus spondylitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with MR findings resembling those of tuberculous spondylitis.

  13. Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus was carried out in a batch reactor to study the effect of initial pH and metal ion concentration, contact time, biomass dose and kinetics and equilibrium Th uptake. Thorium(IV) uptake by A. fumigatus was pH dependent (pH range, 2.0-6.0) and maximum sorption was observed at pH 4.0. The uptake was rapid and the biosorption process reached equilibrium within 2 h of contact times at pH 2-4 and initial Th concentration of 50 and 100 mg/L. The kinetics data fitted well to Lagergren's pseudo-second-order rate equation (r2 > 0.99). A maximum initial sorption rate of 71.94 (mg/g min) and second-order rate constant of 7.82 x 10-2 (g/mg min) were observed at pH 4.0, 50 mg Th/L. The observed maximum uptake of thorium was 370 mg Th/g at equilibrium. Biosorption process could be well described by Langmuir isotherm in comparison to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Sodium bicarbonate was the most efficient desorbing reagent with desorption efficiency of more than 99%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph (ESEM) showed that the surface of the biomass after desorption was intact.

  14. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Jintana Bunnak; Guzman, Z.M. de; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-10-01

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D{sub 10} value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B{sub 1} occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B{sub 1} was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author).

  15. Initial intracellular proteome profile of Aspergillus niger biofilms

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    Gretty K. Villena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An initial profiling of the intracellular proteome of Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 biofilm cultures developed on polyester cloth was carried out by using 2D-PAGE and MS-TOF analysis and it was compared to the proteome of conventionally grown free-living submerged cultures. A number of 2D-PAGE protein spots from both types of cultures were subjected to MS-TOF analysis and data interrogation of the NCBI nr database available for this species. Proteomic maps showed different expression patterns in both culture systems with differentially expressed proteins in each case. In biofilm cultures, 19% and 32% of the selected protein spots were over- expressed and differentially expressed, respectively. On the contrary, in free-living cultures, 44% and 7% of the selected protein spots were over-expressed and differentially expressed, respectively. Although preliminary, results presented in this paper show that there are significant differences between the proteomes of A. niger biofilm and free-living mycelia. It seems that cell adhesion is the most important stimulus responsible for biofilm development which is the basis of Surface Adhesion Fermentation.

  16. Some studies of alpha-amylase production using Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanibolandbalaie, Z; Rostami, K; Mirdamadi, S S

    2008-11-15

    The extracellular alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was studied in submerged fermentation using an Adlof-Kuhner orbital shaker. The effect of initial pH values in the range of 4 to 7.5 on enzyme production was investigated and initial pH medium of 6.2 +/- 0.1 resulted in enhanced alpha-amylase production. The effect of carbon and nitrogen source and composition was examined and it has been observed that corn starch concentration of 15 g L(-1) has sound effect on enzyme production. The medium containing corn starch, sodium nitrate resulted in considerable higher enzyme production. Further, the yeast extract of 2.5 g L(-1) in the medium produced higher enzyme in view to other organic nitrogen sources. The effect of temperature on alpha-amylase production from 20 to 40 degrees C has been studied and at 35 +/- 1 degrees C higher alpha-amylase has been obtained. The effect of shaker's speed on alpha-amylase production from 50 to 200 rpm was investigated. And at about 180 rpm higher enzyme production has been observed. In the present study, it has been found that glucose has repressing effect on a-amylase production using A. oryzae PTCC5164. PMID:19260332

  17. The nucleation of microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings

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    Andrade-Monteiro Cristina de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are filaments composed of dimers of alpha- and beta-tubulins, which have a variety of functions in living cells. In fungi, the spindle pole bodies usually have been considered to be microtubule-organizing centers. We used the antimicrotubule drug Benomyl in block/release experiments to depolymerize and repolymerize microtubules in Aspergillus nidulans germlings to learn more about the microtubule nucleation process in this filamentous fungus. Twenty seconds after release from Benomyl short microtubules were formed from several bright (immunofluorescent dots distributed along the germlings, suggesting that microtubule nucleation is randomly distributed in A. nidulans germlings. Since nuclear movement is dependent on microtubules in A. nidulans we analyzed whether mutants defective in nuclear distribution along the growing hyphae (nud mutants have some obvious microtubule defect. Cytoplasmic, astral and spindle microtubules were present and appeared to be normal in all nud mutants. However, significant changes in the percentage of short versus long mitotic spindles were observed in nud mutants. This suggests that some of the nuclei of nud mutants do not reach the late stage of cell division at normal temperatures.

  18. Pulmonary Immune Responses to Aspergillus Fumigatus in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIRKOV Ivana; EL-MUZGHI Amal Atia Mhfuod; DJOKIC Jelena; NINKOV Marina; POPOV ALEKSANDROV Aleksandra; GLAMOCLIJA Jasmina; KATARANOVSKI Milena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate immunologic mechanisms underlying Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infections in immunocompetent Dark Agouti (DA) and Albino Oxford (AO) rats recognized as being susceptible to some inflammatory diseases in different manners. Methods Lung fungal burden (quantitative colony forming units, CFU, assay), leukocyte infiltration (histology, cell composition) and their function (phagocytosis, oxidative activity, CD11b adhesion molecule expression) and cytokine interferon-γ(IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 and-4 (IL-17 and IL-4) lung content were evaluated following infection (intratracheally, 1x107 conidia). Results Slower reduction of fungal burden was observed in AO rats in comparison with that in DA rats, which was coincided with less intense histologically evident lung cell infiltration and leukocyte recovery as well as lower level of most of the their activities including intracellular myeloperoxidase activity, the capacity of nitroblue tetrazolium salt reduction and CD11b adhesion molecule expression (except for phagocytosis of conidia) in these rats. Differential patterns of changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels (unchanged levels of IFN-γand transient increase of IL-17 in AO rats vs continuous increase of both cytokines in DA rats) and unchanged levels of IL-4 were observed. Conclusion Genetically-based differences in the pattern of antifungal lung leukocyte activities and cytokine milieu, associated with differential efficiency of fungal elimination might be useful in the future use of rat models in studies of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  20. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D10 value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B1 occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B1 was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author)

  1. Putative Aspergillus niger-induced oxalate nephrosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, C J; Truter, M; Bredell, T; Lange, L; Mülders, M S G

    2009-03-01

    A sheep farmer provided a maize-based brewer's grain (mieliemaroek) and bales of Eragrostis curvula hay to ewes and their lambs, kept on zero-grazing in pens. The 'mieliemaroek' was visibly mouldy. After 14 days in the feedlot, clinical signs, including generalised weakness, ataxia of the hind limbs, tremors and recumbency, were noticed. Six ewes died within a period of 7 days. A post mortem examination was performed on 1 ewe. The carcass appeared to be cachectic with mild effusions into the body cavities; mild lung congestion and pallor of the kidneys were observed. Microscopical evaluation revealed nephrosis and birefringent oxalate crystals in the renal tubules when viewed under polarised light. A provisional diagnosis of oxalate nephrosis with subsequent kidney failure was made. Amongst other fungi, Aspergillus niger was isolated from 'mieliemaroek' samples submitted for fungal culture and identification. As A. niger is known to synthesise oxalates, a qualitative screen to detect oxalic acid in the mieliemaroek and purified A. niger isolates was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Oxalic acid was detected, which supported a diagnosis of soluble oxalate-induced nephropathy. PMID:19653520

  2. Hexavalent chromium removal by waste mycelium of Aspergillus awamori

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    VELIZAR K. GOCHEV

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Cr(VI removal potential of waste mycelium from the industrial xylanase-producing strain Aspergillus awamori was evaluated. It was determined by FTIR analysis that amino groups from the major fungal wall constituents, chitin and chitosan, played a key role in the metal binding process. The effect of pH, initial ion concentration, temperature and amount of biomass on the removal was also studied. The removal efficiency increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature and amount of biomass. The mechanism of Cr(VI removal by A. awamori can be explained by a two-stage process involving an initial adsorption stage followed by a reducing stage. The removal process was described by a second-order polynomial and the optimal process parameters for attaining Rmax 94.4 % in 48 h were predicted, i.e., pH 1.5 and t = 40 °C. From both economic and ecological points of view, a promising possibility for the utilization of waste industrial mycelium of A. awamori as a low-cost Cr(VI removal agent was proposed.

  3. VelC positively controls sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Soo Park

    Full Text Available Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia. In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ΔvelC ΔvosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ΔvosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting.

  4. Plant-like biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccile, Joshua A; Spraker, Joseph E; Le, Henry H; Brandenburger, Eileen; Gomez, Christian; Bok, Jin Woo; Macheleidt, Juliane; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Keller, Nancy P; Schroeder, Frank C

    2016-06-01

    Natural product discovery efforts have focused primarily on microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) containing large multimodular polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases; however, sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed a vast number of BGCs containing smaller NRPS-like genes of unknown biosynthetic function. Using comparative metabolomics, we show that a BGC in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus named fsq, which contains an NRPS-like gene lacking a condensation domain, produces several new isoquinoline alkaloids known as the fumisoquins. These compounds derive from carbon-carbon bond formation between two amino acid-derived moieties followed by a sequence that is directly analogous to isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in plants. Fumisoquin biosynthesis requires the N-methyltransferase FsqC and the FAD-dependent oxidase FsqB, which represent functional analogs of coclaurine N-methyltransferase and berberine bridge enzyme in plants. Our results show that BGCs containing incomplete NRPS modules may reveal new biosynthetic paradigms and suggest that plant-like isoquinoline biosynthesis occurs in diverse fungi. PMID:27065235

  5. Aspergillus flavus-Induced Brain Abscess in an Immunocompetent Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Nawal; Hussain, Ibrahim; Jumaa, Suleiman; Al-Shail, Essam A.

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aspergillosis is an extremely rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent children and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report a 12-year-old immunocompetent male child who was referred to the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in May 2010 after a sudden-onset headache and loss of consciousness. Brain imaging revealed a large right space-occupying occipital lesion and the patient underwent a craniotomy and resection. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotising granulomatous fungal encephalitis with many hyphae engulfed by multinucleated giant histiocytes. Two days later, a computed tomography scan showed debulking of the fungal mass and the patient was discharged on oral voriconazole. However, imaging at a six-week follow-up showed progression of the abnormality. A residual or persistent fungal brain lesion was suspected. Further neurosurgical resection of the lesion was performed and cultures showed growth of Aspergillus flavus. The patient was treated successfully with antifungal therapy over the following two years. PMID:27226920

  6. Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus, a filamentous fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhainsa, Kuber C; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

    2009-06-15

    Thorium biosorption by Aspergillus fumigatus was carried out in a batch reactor to study the effect of initial pH and metal ion concentration, contact time, biomass dose and kinetics and equilibrium Th uptake. Thorium(IV) uptake by A. fumigatus was pH dependent (pH range, 2.0-6.0) and maximum sorption was observed at pH 4.0. The uptake was rapid and the biosorption process reached equilibrium within 2h of contact times at pH 2-4 and initial Th concentration of 50 and 100mg/L. The kinetics data fitted well to Lagergren's pseudo-second-order rate equation (r(2)>0.99). A maximum initial sorption rate of 71.94 (mg/g min) and second-order rate constant of 7.82 x 10(-2) (g/mg min) were observed at pH 4.0, 50 mg Th/L. The observed maximum uptake of thorium was 370 mg Th/g at equilibrium. Biosorption process could be well described by Langmuir isotherm in comparison to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Sodium bicarbonate was the most efficient desorbing reagent with desorption efficiency of more than 99%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph (ESEM) showed that the surface of the biomass after desorption was intact. PMID:19036508

  7. DECOLORIZATION OF BLUE 13 WITH ASPERGILLUS NIVEUS AND FUSARIUM MONILIFORME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya KARACA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the changing world trends has been increasing interest in colored products. In the textile industry, to give the blue color to the textiles the heavily used Ambifiks Blue H5R (Blue 13 dye. This dye has been given from plants in the environment of the receiving water to results from the toxic effects. For reduction of this toxic effect has been isolated Aspergillus niveus and Fusarium moniliforme from porsuk Stream were invastigated because of decolorizasyon capabilities with different physiological conditions (pH, temprature, agitate condition. For A. niveus results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 3, 35°C and 120-150 rpm. For F. moniliforme results have been obtained up to nearly %95 at pH 7, 20°C ve 120 rpm. For A. niveus decolorisation results were close to dead cells and live cells.Dead cells decolorisation were about %90 for F. moniliforme and live cells decolorisation were about %75.

  8. Genetic control of asexual development in aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhayyat, Fahad; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common fungi found in the environment. It is an opportunistic human pathogen causing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Conidia, the asexual spores, serve as the main dispersal and infection agent allowing entrance of the fungus into the host through the respiratory tract. Therefore, understanding the asexual developmental process that gives rise to the conidia is of great interest to the scientific community and is currently the focus of an immense load of research being conducted. We have been studying the genetic basis that controls asexual development and gliotoxin biosynthesis in A. fumigatus. In this review, we discuss the genetic regulatory system that dictates conidiation in this important fungus by covering the roles of crucial genetic factors from the upstream heterotrimeric G-protein signaling components to the more specific downstream central activators of the conidiation pathway. In addition, other key asexual regulators including the velvet regulators, the Flb proteins and their associated regulatory factors are discussed. PMID:25596030

  9. Characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela P; Oliveira, Mariana B; Nagem, Ronaldo A P; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria M

    2016-10-01

    Two xylanases from Aspergillus nidulans, XlnB and XlnC, were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. XlnB and XlnC achieved maximal activities at 60°C and pH 7.5 and at 50°C and pH 6.0, respectively. XlnB showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°C. XlnB had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while XlnC had the best activity against beechwood xylan. Both enzymes were completely inhibited by SDS and HgCl2. Xylotriose at 1mg/ml also totally inibited XlnB activity. TLC analysis showed that the main product of beechwood xylan hydrolysis by XlnB and XlnC was xylotetraose. An additive effect was shown between XlnB and XlnC and the xylanases of two tested commercial cocktails. Sugarcane bagasse saccharification results showed that these two commercial enzymatic cocktails were able to release more glucose and xylose after supplementation with XlnB and XlnC. PMID:27235731

  10. [Effect of microparticles on echinocandin B production by Aspergillus nidulans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kun; Hu, Yibo; Mao, Jian; Zou, Shuping; Zheng, Yuguo

    2015-07-01

    Anidulafungin is an effective antifungal medicine, which can inhibit activities of candida in vitro and in vivo. Echinocandin B (ECB) is the key precursor of Anidulafungin, thus the price and market prospect of Anidulafungin is directly due to the fermentation titer of ECB. In this study, Aspergillus nidulans was used for ECB fermentation, and the influence of adding microparticles on ECB fermentation was studied, such as talcum powder, Al2O3, and glass beads. The particle size and concentration were the key factors for mycelium morphology and ECB production, and ECB production could reach 1 262.9 mg/L and 1 344.1 mg/L by adding talcum powder of 20 g/L (d50 = 14.2 μm) and 7 glass beads (6 mm), an increase by 33.2% and 41.7%, respectively. The results indicated that the mycelium morphology of filamentous microorganisms and the product yield of fermentation could be improved by adding microparticles remarkably, and it provide an important method for the fermentative optimization of filamentous microorganisms. PMID:26647583

  11. Inhaled corticosteroids and Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni, Maria; Katelari, Anna; Dimopoulos, George; Kourlaba, Georgia; Spoulou, Vana; Alexandrou-Athanassoulis, Helen; Doudounakis, Stavros-Eleftherios; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, Chryssa

    2014-10-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus isolation in cultures from respiratory specimens of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is quite common; however, the role of A. fumigatus as a pathogen and whether its presence is associated with progression of pulmonary disease remain unclear. We investigated the association between inhaled corticosteroids and the recovery of A. fumigatus by performing a retrospective cohort study of CF patients born between 1988 and 1996. The patients' medical records from their first visit to the CF Center until December 2010 were reviewed. Outcomes were the occurrence of A. fumigatus first isolation, chronic colonization, or the last visit at the CF Center. A number of possible confounders were included in the multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to identify an independent association between inhaled corticosteroids and colonization status. A total of 121 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (32.2%) had at least one positive culture and 14 (11.6%) developed chronic colonization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the odds of first isolation (odds ratio [OR], 1.165; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.015-1.337; P = 0.029) and chronic colonization (OR, 1.180; 95% CI, 1.029-1.353; P = 0.018). In conclusion, A. fumigatus first isolation and chronic colonization are associated with the duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment. PMID:25056962

  12. [Aspergillus niger alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: isolation, purification and properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzova, N V; Varbanets, L D

    2006-01-01

    alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase has been isolated from liquid culture of micromycete Aspergillus niger and purified 600 times by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange and gel-filtration chromatography on TSK-gels with specific activity 10.5 U/mg of protein. The preparation was homogenic: its molecular mass by the data of gel-filtration on Sepharose 6B was 430 kDa, on PAAGE in the system of DDSNa--70 kDa. That gives every reason to suppose oligomeric structure of the enzyme molecule. The carbohydrate component, including mannose, galactose, glucosamine and two nonidentified hexosamines was observed in alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. Thermo- and pH- optima were 60 degrees C and pH 3.5, respectively. The enzyme was thermo- and pH-stable, resistant in storage. The enzyme was found to exhibit strict specificity in respect ofglycon. It was shown that enzyme was competitively inhibited by substrate and reaction product. Km and Vmax with respect to nitrophenyl substrate were 1.25 mM and 10.5 mkmole/min/mg of protein. The activity of glycosidase tested was independent of the presence of metal ions. The presence of carboxylic group of C-terminal aminoacid and imidazol group of hystidine in active centre of molecule was established. A number of natural and synthetic substrates were able to activate (50-200%) production of A. niger alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. PMID:17290780

  13. A novel non-thermostable deuterolysin from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Katase, Toru; Sakai, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Michio; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Abe, Keietsu; Yamagata, Youhei

    2016-09-01

    Three putative deuterolysin (EC 3.4.24.29) genes (deuA, deuB, and deuC) were found in the Aspergillus oryzae genome database ( http://www.bio.nite.go.jp/dogan/project/view/AO ). One of these genes, deuA, was corresponding to NpII gene, previously reported. DeuA and DeuB were overexpressed by recombinant A. oryzae and were purified. The degradation profiles against protein substrates of both enzymes were similar, but DeuB showed wider substrate specificity against peptidyl MCA-substrates compared with DeuA. Enzymatic profiles of DeuB except for thermostability also resembled those of DeuA. DeuB was inactivated by heat treatment above 80° C, different from thermostable DeuA. Transcription analysis in wild type A. oryzae showed only deuB was expressed in liquid culture, and the addition of the proteinous substrate upregulated the transcription. Furthermore, the NaNO3 addition seems to eliminate the effect of proteinous substrate for the transcription of deuB. PMID:27050120

  14. Bioconversion of tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2014-12-01

    Theabrownins (TB) are water-soluble phenolic compounds associated with the various health benefits of Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented Chinese dark tea. This work reports on the production of theabrownins from infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves using a pure culture of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from a solid-state Pu-erh tea fermentation. A theabrownins yield of 158 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves was obtained in 6 days at 45 °C in an aerobic fermentation. In a 2 l fermenter, the yield of theabrownins was 151 g kg(-1) sun-dried green tea leaves in 48 h of aerobic culture (45 °C, 1 vvm aeration rate, 250 rpm agitation speed). Extracellular polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase of A. fumigatus contributed to this bioconversion. Repeated batch fermentation process was used for producing theabrownins but was less productive than the batch process. PMID:25214210

  15. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin. [Aspergillus ustus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using /sup 13/C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding (1-/sup 14/C)-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the /sup 13/C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in (1-/sup 14/C)-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of (1,2-/sup 13/C/sub 2/)-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus.

  16. Bioremediation of dyes in textile effluents by Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Carlos Renato; Maganha de Almeida, Ana Carolina

    2009-02-01

    In this study Aspergillus oryzae was utilized to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution. Physically induced in its paramorphogenic form to produce standardized mycelial pellets, the non-autoclaved and autoclaved hyphae biomass was applied to biosorb the reactive dyes Procion Red HE7B (PR-HE7B) and Procion Violet H3R (PV-H3R) at different pH values (2.50, 4.50, and 6.50). The best pH for biosorption was 2.50, though the autoclaved demonstrated a higher biosorption capacity than the non-autoclaved pellets. The toxicity level was determined using the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method with Daphnia similis in all bioassays. The calculated toxicity of PV-H3R (LC100 62.50 microg mL(-1)) was higher than to PR-HE7B (LC100 300.00 microg mL(-1)), and its results brought out that the decrease of toxicity levels to zero might be accomplished by adding small quantities of pelletized A. oryzae to the solutions. PMID:18989608

  17. Essential gene identification and drug target prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqi; Sillaots, Susan; Lemieux, Sebastien; Davison, John; Kauffman, Sarah; Breton, Anouk; Linteau, Annie; Xin, Chunlin; Bowman, Joel; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry

    2007-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne filamentous fungal pathogen in humans, causing severe and often fatal invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis have limited modes of action, and few are safe and effective. To identify and prioritize antifungal drug targets, we have developed a conditional promoter replacement (CPR) strategy using the nitrogen-regulated A. fumigatus NiiA promoter (pNiiA). The gene essentiality for 35 A. fumigatus genes was directly demonstrated by this pNiiA-CPR strategy from a set of 54 genes representing broad biological functions whose orthologs are confirmed to be essential for growth in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extending this approach, we show that the ERG11 gene family (ERG11A and ERG11B) is essential in A. fumigatus despite neither member being essential individually. In addition, we demonstrate the pNiiA-CPR strategy is suitable for in vivo phenotypic analyses, as a number of conditional mutants, including an ERG11 double mutant (erg11BDelta, pNiiA-ERG11A), failed to establish a terminal infection in an immunocompromised mouse model of systemic aspergillosis. Collectively, the pNiiA-CPR strategy enables a rapid and reliable means to directly identify, phenotypically characterize, and facilitate target-based whole cell assays to screen A. fumigatus essential genes for cognate antifungal inhibitors. PMID:17352532

  18. Purification and properties of dihydrogeodin oxidase from Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, I; Iijima, H; Tsukita, S; Ebizuka, Y; Sankawa, U

    1987-01-01

    The last step of (+)-geodin biosynthesis is a phenol oxidative coupling, which is one of the most important reactions in biosynthesis of natural products. The enzyme named dihydrogeodin oxidase catalyzes the regio- and stereospecific phenol oxidative coupling reaction to form (+)-geodin from dihydrogeodin. The enzyme was purified from the cell-free extract of Aspergillus terreus, a (+)-geodin producer, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, acid treatment, and column chromatographies on DEAE-cellulose, Hydroxyapatite, chromatofocusing, and Toyopearl HW-55S. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 153,000 by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55S column and 76,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer. The purified enzyme showed an intense blue color and had absorption maxima at 280 and 600 nm, which suggested it to be a blue copper protein. The copper content was found to be 8 atoms per subunit by atomic absorption analysis and no significant amount of other metals was detected by ICP emission spectrometry. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum showed the presence of type 1 and type 2 copper atoms in the enzyme molecule. Sodium azide and ethylxanthate inhibited the enzyme activity, but potassium cyanide and diethyldithiocarbamate, both known as potent copper enzyme inhibitors, were not inhibitory. PMID:3032923

  19. Aspergillus flavus biomass in maize estimated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is strongly correlated with aflatoxin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus causes Aspergillus ear rot of maize and produces aflatoxins. There are published assertions that resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and pathogen colonization are distinct traits in maize. However, the levels of colonization are difficult to characterize for a pathogen such as ...

  20. False-Positive Aspergillus Galactomannan Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Results In Vivo during Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Mordini, Nicola; Cuda, Federica; Lo Nigro, Cristiana; Musso, Maura; Arnelli, Aldo; Cagnassi, Sebastiano; Gallamini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Positive Platelia Aspergillus test results were observed in consecutive serum samples from an immunocompromised host during amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment, and a correlation between plasmatic amoxicillin concentration and galactomannan optical density index was observed. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid vials tested positive for galactomannan but were negative for Aspergillus DNA.

  1. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.;

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the...

  2. Evaluation of intraspecific competition (Aspergillus flavus Link) and aflatoxin formation in suspended disc culture and preharvest maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abilities of non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 32354; 18543; 21882; 21368 as well as domesticated koji strains Aspergillus oryzae (syn. A. flavus var. oryzae) NRRL 451; 1911; 5592; 6271; 30038 to interfere with aflatoxin formation by A. flavus NRRL 3357; 32355 were exami...

  3. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated from Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinye Monica; Palencia, Edwin R.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi produce carcinogenic mycotoxins in peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here, we report nine genome sequences of Aspergillus spp., isolated from Georgia peanut seeds in 2014. The information obtained will lead to further biodiversity studies that are essential for developing control strategies. PMID:27081142

  4. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated From Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi, carcinogen-mycotoxins producers, infect peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here we report 9 genome sequences of Aspergillus spp. isolated from peanut seeds. The information obtained will allow conducting biodiv...

  5. Fermentation Kinetics of Media Optimization for the Production of Alpha Amylase by a New Isolate of Aspergillus Oryzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ikram-ul-Haq; Roheena Abdullah; Hamid Mukhtar; Muhammad Nauman Aftab

    2007-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the isolation and screening of different strains of Aspergillus oryzae for the production of alpha amylase. Ninety strains were isolated from soil and tested for the production of alpha amylase in shake flasks. Of all the strains tested,Aspergillus oryzae GCB-32 and Aspergillus oryzae GCB-35 gave maximum production of alpha amylase. Different culture media were screened for maximum production of alpha amylase by both the strains Aspergillus oryzae GCB-32 and Aspergillus oryzae GCB-35. Kinetic analysis revealed that the values of product yield coefficient (Yp/x) and specific product yield coefficient( qp ) were found highly significant (p ≤ 0.05 ) when medium M1 was used for the enzyme production.

  6. Successful surgical intervention in an unusual case of Aspergillus endocarditis with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari Aval

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Endocarditis due to Aspergillus infection is a rare complication in patients with hematological malignancies. Here, we present a case of aspergillus endocarditis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML successfully treated with antifungal therapy and surgical treatment. The patient was a 51 years old male, a known case of AML who was admitted to our medical center for evacuating his valvular vegetations and repairing his atrial septal defect. He underwent an open heart surgery to relinquish his thromboses and also received an antifungal regimen. The patient tolerated the procedure well and eight months after his surgery, the patient remains asymptomatic. Successful treatment of this severe case of aspergillus endocarditis justifies a multidisciplinary method to be as a safe and effective approach to manage these patients.

  7. Genome-scale analysis of the high-efficient protein secretion system of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lifang; Feizi, Amir; Osterlund, Tobias; Hjort, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae is widely used for the production of industrial enzymes due to its particularly high protein secretion capacity and ability to perform post-translational modifications. However, systemic analysis of its secretion system is lacking, generally due to the...... related fungal species such as Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger. To evaluate the defined component list, we performed transcriptome analysis on three a-amylase over-producing strains with varying levels of secretion capacities. Specifically, secretory components involved in the ER...... overproducing amylase. Conclusion: In combination with the transcriptome data, the most complete secretory component list and the putative secretome, we improved the systemic understanding of the secretory machinery of A. oryzae in response to high levels of protein secretion. The roles of many newly predicted...

  8. Distribution of Aspergillus species among apparently healthy birds in poultry farms in Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara N Kwanashie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study wasconducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of Aspergilllus species among apparently healthy birds in poultryfarms. Trachea swabs from 1500 birds in 52 commercial (10% of birds in eachpoultry farm visited poultry farms were collected for this study. Six speciesof Aspergillus were isolated wasisolated from 718 (47.87% of the birds viz: A. fumigatus made up 52.37% (376 of the Aspergillus isolates followed by A. flavus 21.87% (157, A.niger 11.42% (82, A. terreus8.64% (62, A. restrictus 2.79% (20and A. ochraceous 2.92% (21. Aspergillus species was found to occurthroughout the year in the farms though with a higher incidence during therainy season compared to the dry season.

  9. Effect of different substrates on the production of amino acids by aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, attempts were made to utilize sugarcane waste as carbon source for amino acid production by Aspergillus nigher. Different concentration (0.3N and 0.6N) of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NH/sub 4/OH were used to hydrolyze lignocellulosic material of the sugar cane bagasse to release the fermentable sugar, which were incorporated with mineral medium for the growth of Aspergillus niger and amino acid production. Whereas, molasses was diluted in 2.5% and 5% and was mixed with mineral medium for amino acid production by Aspergillus niger. The results were compaired with sugar cane bagasse for amino acid production. Molasses 5% was found better substrate for higher production of amino acids in comparison to hydrolysates of sugar can bagasse. (author)

  10. Arthritis and Osteomyelitis due to Aspergillus fumigatus: A 17 years old boy with chronic granulomatous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabak Yalcın

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive Aspergillus infections are frequently seen in immunocompromised patients but arthritis is a rare complication of Aspergillus infections in the absence of immune suppressive therapy, trauma or surgical intervention. Case presentation A 17 years old male patient with arthritis and patellar osteomyelitis of the left knee whose further investigations revealed chronic granulomatous disease as the underlying disease is followed. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the synovial fluid and the tissue samples cultures. He was treated with Amphotericin B deoxicolate 0.7 mg/kg/day. Also surgical debridement was performed our patient. Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity developed and the therapy switched to itraconazole 400 mg/day. Itraconazole therapy were discontinued at the 6th month. He can perform all the activities of daily living including. Conclusion We think that, chronic granulomatous disease should be investigated in patients who have aspergillar arthritis and osteomyelitis.

  11. Tissue-specific gene expression in maize seeds during colonization by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaomei; Livingston, David P; Franks, Robert G; Boston, Rebecca S; Woloshuk, Charles P; Payne, Gary A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides are fungal pathogens that colonize maize kernels and produce the harmful mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Management practice based on potential host resistance to reduce contamination by these mycotoxins has proven difficult, resulting in the need for a better understanding of the infection process by these fungi and the response of maize seeds to infection. In this study, we followed the colonization of seeds by histological methods and the transcriptional changes of two maize defence-related genes in specific seed tissues by RNA in situ hybridization. Maize kernels were inoculated with either A. flavus or F. verticillioides 21-22 days after pollination, and harvested at 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-inoculation. The fungi colonized all tissues of maize seed, but differed in their interactions with aleurone and germ tissues. RNA in situ hybridization showed the induction of the maize pathogenesis-related protein, maize seed (PRms) gene in the aleurone and scutellum on infection by either fungus. Transcripts of the maize sucrose synthase-encoding gene, shrunken-1 (Sh1), were observed in the embryo of non-infected kernels, but were induced on infection by each fungus in the aleurone and scutellum. By comparing histological and RNA in situ hybridization results from adjacent serial sections, we found that the transcripts of these two genes accumulated in tissue prior to the arrival of the advancing pathogens in the seeds. A knowledge of the patterns of colonization and tissue-specific gene expression in response to these fungi will be helpful in the development of resistance. PMID:25469958

  12. Environmental and clinical epidemiology of Aspergillus terreus: data from a prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüping, M J G T; Gerlach, S; Fischer, G; Lass-Flörl, C; Hellmich, M; Vehreschild, J J; Cornely, O A

    2011-07-01

    Aspergillus terreus may be resistant to amphotericin B and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Local incidence is influenced by the density of airborne Aspergillus spp. spores which may in turn depend on meteorological factors. Once-weekly environmental samples were collected prospectively inside and outside the University Hospital of Cologne, Germany (UHC) and haematological patients were screened for nasal Aspergillus spp. colonisation and monitored for invasive fungal disease (IFD). RAPD (rapid amplification of polymorphic DNA)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amphotericin B susceptibility testing were performed on all A. terreus isolates. A total of 4919 colony-forming units (cfu) were isolated (2212 indoors, 2707 outdoors). Further identification revealed A. fumigatus (73.5%), A. niger (4.3%), A. flavus (1.7%), A. terreus (0.2%) and non-Aspergillus fungi (20.3%). RAPD-PCR did not reveal clonal relationships between the A. terreus isolates. All A. terreus isolates displayed complete resistance to amphotericin. The B. Aspergillus spp. conidia exposure was lowest in June and highest in November inside and outside UHC. Conidia load correlated with the season and the relative humidity, with increasing spore counts during dry periods. One out of 855 nasal swabs was positive for A. niger. The patient did not develop IFD. A. terreus is unlikely to be a relevant pathogen at the UHC. Results from RAPD-PCR suggested a wide epidemiological variety of strains rather than a common source of contamination. Nasal swab surveillance cultures for early detection of Aspergillus spp. colonisation were not useful in identifying patients who may develop IFD. The risk of IFD at the UHC may increase in autumn and during dry periods. PMID:21440331

  13. Systemic presentation of Aspergillus spp with neurological involvement in a German Shepherd: clinical case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Laura Hernández Tapia; Eduardo Carlos Santoscoy Mejía; José Ramírez Lezama; Roberto A. Cervantes Olivares; Joaquín Arturo Quiroz Mercado

    2010-01-01

    La infección del sistema nervioso en el perro es poco común; posibles causas son Aspergillus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans, Blastomyces dermatidis y Coccidioides immitis. La infección por Aspergillus spp afecta al aparato respiratorio y en pocas ocasiones se presenta de manera diseminada. Sin embargo, en el Pastor Alemán hay mayor incidencia de éste, pues dicha infección se asocia con una deficiencia inmunológica. Se describe el caso de una perra de raza Pastor Alemán, de 1.5 años de edad, ref...

  14. The apple pulp waste used as a nourishing base by Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a low cost process for apple pulp utilization. This actual waste from food and agriculture industry was used as a nourishing base by Aspergillus niger MK-15. The apple pulp combined with corn flour and simple mineral salts was utilized as a nourishing base by submerged production of pectinolytic enzymes by the fungus Aspergillus niger MK-15. Different concentration on apple pulp (1%; 2%; and 3%, w/v) and different pH initial on the bases (4; 5 and 6) were s...

  15. AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation holds tremendous potentials for the production of the enzyme amylase by Aspergillus niger. Different solid substrates like rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, coconut oil cake, gingely oil cake and groundnut oil cake are rich in starch. These agro industrial residues are cheap raw materials for amylase production. Aspergillus niger BAN3E was identified to be the best producer of amylase. When A. niger BAN3E was incubated for 6 days at 37°C it showed high yield of amylase in groundnut oil cake substratein solid state fermentation. Sucrose and nitrogen improved the yield in the same medium.

  16. The infrared spectral transmittance of Aspergillus niger spore aggregated particle swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinying; Hu, Yihua; Gu, Youlin; Li, Le

    2015-10-01

    Microorganism aggregated particle swarm, which is quite an important composition of complex media environment, can be developed as a new kind of infrared functional materials. Current researches mainly focus on the optical properties of single microorganism particle. As for the swarm, especially the microorganism aggregated particle swarm, a more accurate simulation model should be proposed to calculate its extinction effect. At the same time, certain parameters deserve to be discussed, which helps to better develop the microorganism aggregated particle swarm as a new kind of infrared functional materials. In this paper, take Aspergillus Niger spore as an example. On the one hand, a new calculation model is established. Firstly, the cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) model is used to simulate the structure of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle. Secondly, the single scattering extinction parameters for Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle are calculated by using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. Thirdly, the transmittance of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle swarm is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. On the other hand, based on the model proposed above, what influences can wavelength causes has been studied, including the spectral distribution of scattering intensity of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle and the infrared spectral transmittance of the aggregated particle swarm within the range of 8~14μm incident infrared wavelengths. Numerical results indicate that the scattering intensity of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle reduces with the increase of incident wavelengths at each scattering angle. Scattering energy mainly concentrates on the scattering angle between 0~40°, forward scattering has an obvious effect. In addition, the infrared transmittance of Aspergillus Niger spore aggregated particle swarm goes up with the increase of incident wavelengths. However, some turning points of the trend

  17. Characterization of metabolites from a strain of Aspergillus flavus accumulating aflatoxin B2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of aflatoxins and anthraquinone pigments were isolated from a strain of Aspergillus flavus, several of which were fully characterized. The major metabolites isolated were aflatoxin B2 and versicolorin C, which are normally only found as minor products from species of the genus Aspergillus. The identification of these products supports the proposal that aflatoxin B2 can arise independently of aflatoxin B1 and that, in this case, the branch in the pathway occurs at the versicolorins. Other metabolites charaterized were aflatoxin M2, norsolorinic acid, and averufin

  18. Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Flavus on irradiated and non-irradiated stored egyptian bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aflatoxins production by Aspergillus Flavus isolate on several types of egyptian bread samples through a period of 45 days at different temperatures reveled that there was detectable fungal growth but no aflatoxins were produced at 5±1 degree or 37 degree. At 25 degree or 30 degree aflatoxin were produced after 5-6 days on the different bread types. Gamma irradiation of kaiser bread, previously inoculated with Aspergillus Flavus, reduced the amount of aflatoxins produced on subsequent storage for 8 weeks at 26±1 degree. The 5 KGy dose eliminated fungal growth and aflatoxin production. 4 tab

  19. Epidural mass due to Aspergillus flavus causing spinal cord compression - A case report and brief update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendolkar U

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system (CNS is an uncommon disease. Most of the reported cases are of sinocranial spread and cases with contiguous spread to spinal cord from lung and other organs are uncommon. A case of pulmonary aspergillosis with extension to thoracic vertebrae forming a paraspinal mass resulting in neurological deficit due to Aspergillus flavus , is reported. The 43 year old patient did not have any obvious predisposing condition. He presented with loss of motor function and succumbed to the infection despite operative intervention and antifungal therapy. A brief update on CNS aspergillosis is presented along with detailed clinical, radiological and laboratory work up of the patient.

  20. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A. B.; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan; Wosten, Han

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger maximizes the diameter of the vesicle and the spore chain length. The length and width of the conidiophore stalk and vesicle were reduced nearly twofold in a ΔveA strain. The latter implies a fourfo...

  1. AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION USING AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Suganthi; R., Benazir,; J.F., Santhi,; R., Ramesh Kumar,; V., Anjana Hari,; Nitya Meenakshi; Nidhiya; K. A., Kavitha,; G., Lakshmi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Solid state fermentation holds tremendous potentials for the production of the enzyme amylase by Aspergillus niger. Different solid substrates like rice bran, wheat bran, black gram bran, coconut oil cake, gingely oil cake and groundnut oil cake are rich in starch. These agro industrial residues are cheap raw materials for amylase production. Aspergillus niger BAN3E was identified to be the best producer of amylase. When A. niger BAN3E was incubated for 6 days at 37°C it showed high yield of ...

  2. Requirement of Monooxygenase-Mediated Steps for Sterigmatocystin Biosynthesis by Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Nancy P.; Watanabe, Coran M. H.; Kelkar, Hemant S.; Adams, Thomas H; Townsend, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    Sterigmatocystin (ST) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are two polyketide-derived Aspergillus mycotoxins synthesized by functionally identical sets of enzymes. ST, the compound produced by Aspergillus nidulans, is a late intermediate in the AFB1 pathway of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. Previous biochemical studies predicted that five oxygenase steps are required for the formation of ST. A 60-kb ST gene cluster in A. nidulans contains five genes, stcB, stcF, stcL, stcS, and stcW, encoding putative mono...

  3. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  4. A Review on production of echinocandins by Aspergillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswata Goswami*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 For the last two decades Echinocandins have successfully emerged out & gained considerable importance when introduced in the World  Pharma Market. Echinocandins are  new novel class of drugs  for fungal infections. Echinocandins inhibit an enzyme necessary for the formation of fungal cell wall components, thus  disrupts the integrity of the cell wall and eventually leads to cell death. They are fungicidal and less toxic to the host by virtue of their novel mechanism of action. Aspergillus sp is the most investigated species among many fungal species producing secondary metabolites of this kind. Bioprocess parameters help us to understand the relationship between the fungal growth and its secondary metabolite (Echinocandins in large scale The objective  of the present review is to provide an updated & thoughtful overview for the appropriate fermentative production methodology. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M; Linz, John E

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  6. How peroxisomes affect aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Reverberi

    Full Text Available In filamentous fungi, peroxisomes are crucial for the primary metabolism and play a pivotal role in the formation of some secondary metabolites. Further, peroxisomes are important site for fatty acids β-oxidation, the formation of reactive oxygen species and for their scavenging through a complex of antioxidant activities. Oxidative stress is involved in different metabolic events in all organisms and it occurs during oxidative processes within the cell, including peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In Aspergillus flavus, an unbalance towards an hyper-oxidant status into the cell is a prerequisite for the onset of aflatoxin biosynthesis. In our preliminary results, the use of bezafibrate, inducer of both peroxisomal β-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation in mammals, significantly enhanced the expression of pex11 and foxA and stimulated aflatoxin synthesis in A. flavus. This suggests the existence of a correlation among peroxisome proliferation, fatty acids β-oxidation and aflatoxin biosynthesis. To investigate this correlation, A. flavus was transformed with a vector containing P33, a gene from Cymbidium ringspot virus able to induce peroxisome proliferation, under the control of the promoter of the Cu,Zn-sod gene of A. flavus. This transcriptional control closely relates the onset of the antioxidant response to ROS increase, with the proliferation of peroxisomes in A. flavus. The AfP33 transformant strain show an up-regulation of lipid metabolism and an higher content of both intracellular ROS and some oxylipins. The combined presence of a higher amount of substrates (fatty acids-derived, an hyper-oxidant cell environment and of hormone-like signals (oxylipins enhances the synthesis of aflatoxins in the AfP33 strain. The results obtained demonstrated a close link between peroxisome metabolism and aflatoxin synthesis.

  7. Functional characterization of alcohol oxidases from Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A Kiran; Goswami, Pranab

    2006-10-01

    Short chain alcohol oxidase (SCAO), long chain alcohol oxidase (LCAO), secondary alcohol oxidase (SAO), and aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) activities were localized in the microsome of Aspergillus terreus during growth of the fungi on n-hexadecane. Zymogram analysis of the microsomes of n-hexadecane-grown cells in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed distinct bands, H4, H3, H2, and H1, in a sequence of their molecular weight (Mr) from high to low. The Mr of the isozymes corresponding to the bands H4, H3, and H2 were close to each other and were higher than 272 kDa. While, the Mr of the isozyme H1 was found to be approximately 48 kDa. H1 gave activity only as SCAO. Although the substrates for other bands were varied, strong (S), medium (M), and weak (W) activity for the bands were as follows: H2: SAO (S), AAO (S), LCAO (M), SCAO (S); H3: LCAO (S), SCAO (S); H4: SCAO (S), LCAO (W), SAO (W). The pH and temperature optima of these isozymes were found to be 8.5+/-0.5 and 30+/-1 degrees C, respectively. The stability of the isozymes was drastically decreased beyond 30 degrees C. The SAO showed 33% enantiomeric excess for the R(-)2-octanol over S(+)2-octanol, which may be correlated with the lower Michaelis-Menten constant (K (M)) values of the enzyme for the R(-)2-octanol than the S(+)2-octanol. The fluorescence emission spectra of the chromatographically purified SCAO at 443 nm excitation were similar to that obtained with authentic flavin adenine dinucleotide. PMID:16547701

  8. Data on the presence or absence of genes encoding essential proteins for ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Sartori, Daniele; Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2016-06-01

    We present the multiplex PCR data for the presence/absence of genes involved in OTA and FB2 biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger/Aspergillus welwitschiae strains isolated from different food substrates in Brazil. Among the 175 strains analyzed, four mPCR profiles were found: Profile 1 (17%) highlights strains harboring in their genome the pks, radH and the fum8 genes. Profile 2 (3.5%) highlights strains harboring genes involved in OTA biosynthesis i.e. radH and pks. Profile 3 (51.5%) highlights strains harboring the fum8 gene. Profile 4 (28%) highlights strains not carrying the genes studied herein. This research content is supplemental to our original research article, "Prospecting for the incidence of genes involved in ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Brazilian strains of A. niger and A. welwitschiae" [1]. PMID:27054181

  9. Data on the presence or absence of genes encoding essential proteins for ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus welwitschiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Sartori, Daniele; Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Iamanaka, Beatriz Thie; Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2016-01-01

    We present the multiplex PCR data for the presence/absence of genes involved in OTA and FB2 biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger/Aspergillus welwitschiae strains isolated from different food substrates in Brazil. Among the 175 strains analyzed, four mPCR profiles were found: Profile 1 (17%) highlights strains harboring in their genome the pks, radH and the fum8 genes. Profile 2 (3.5%) highlights strains harboring genes involved in OTA biosynthesis i.e. radH and pks. Profile 3 (51.5%) highlights strains harboring the fum8 gene. Profile 4 (28%) highlights strains not carrying the genes studied herein. This research content is supplemental to our original research article, “Prospecting for the incidence of genes involved in ochratoxin and fumonisin biosynthesis in Brazilian strains of A. niger and A. welwitschiae” [1]. PMID:27054181

  10. Potential of volatile compounds produced by fungi to influence sensory quality of coffee beverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamanaka, B. T.; Teixeira, A. A.; Teixeira, A. R. R.;

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are known producers of a large number of volatile compounds (VCs). Several VCs such as 2,4,6 trichloroanisole (TCA), geosmin and terpenes have been found in coffee beverages, and these compounds can be responsible for off-flavor development. However, few studies have related the fungal...... contamination of coffee with the sensory characteristics of the beverage. The aim of this research was to investigate the production of VCs by fungi isolated from coffee and their potential as modifiers of the sensory coffee beverage quality. Three species were isolated from coffee from the southwest of São...... Paulo state and selected for the study: Penicillium brevicompactum, Aspergillus luchuensis (belonging to section Nigri) and Penicillium sp. nov. (related to Penicillium crustosum). VCs produced by the fungal inoculated in raw coffee beans were extracted and tentatively identified by SPME...

  11. Intoxicação experimental por Aspergillus clavatus em ovinos Experimental poisoning by Aspergillus clavatus in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. Bezerra Júnior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a reprodução experimental de doença neurológica em ovinos através da administração de bagaço de malte (resíduo cervejaria contaminado com Aspergillus clavatus. Esse resíduo de cervejaria, cujas amostras revelaram cultura pura de A. clavatus, estava sendo utilizado em duas propriedades, onde ocorreram surtos da doença em bovinos. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se cerca de 2 a 6 dias após a administração do subproduto ou da cultura e a evolução clínica foi de 1,5 a 12 dias. Os sinais clínicos, que foram predominantemente locomotores e respiratórios, incluíram tremores musculares, hiperestesia, taquipnéia progressiva, rigidez de membros pélvicos (mais evidente à locomoção, fraqueza dos posteriores e decúbito. Um ovino também apresentou apoio ocasional sobre os boletos dos membros pélvicos. As anormalidades locomotoras e tremores eram intensificados pelo exercício. Entretanto, em 6 dos 7 ovinos, o apetite e a dipsia eram mantidas até próximo à morte ou eutanásia. O principal achado histológico consistia de degeneração e necrose neuronal cromatolítica em núcleos nervosos específicos do tronco encefálico, cornos ventrais da medula espinhal e gânglios espinhais, trigeminal, estrelado e celíaco. Três ovinos também apresentaram degeneração e necrose leves em músculos dos membros pélvicos e torácicos.This paper describes the experimental reproduction of a neurological condition in sheep by the administration of a beer by-product contaminated with Aspergillus clavatus. Samples of this by-product, in which pure cultures of A. clavatus grew, originated from two farms where outbreaks of A. clavatus poisoning in cattle had occurred. The onset of symptomatology was 2 to 6 days after dosage with the contaminated beer by-product or pure A. clavatus culture. The clinical course lasted from one and a half to 12 days. Clinical signs were predominantly of locomotor and respiratory nature and included muscle

  12. Identification of Two Different 14-α Sterol Demethylase-Related Genes (cyp51A and cyp51B) in Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Aspergillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado, E.; Diaz-Guerra, T. M.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Rodriguez-Tudela, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Two cyp51-related genes (cyp51A and cyp51B) encoding 14-α sterol demethylase-like enzymes were identified in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. PCR amplification using degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved areas of cytochrome P450 demethylases of other filamentous fungi and yeasts allowed the cloning and sequencing of two different homologue genes in A. fumigatus. Southern analysis confirmed that both genes hybridized to distinct genomic loci and that both are re...

  13. Selection arena in Aspergillus nidulans : early progeny choice in a filamentous fungus = Selectie arena in Aspergillus nidulans : vroege selectie van nakomelingen in een filamenteuse schimmel

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggeman, J.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords:selection arena, progeny choice, Aspergillus nidulans , fungus, spores, ascospore, conidiospore, asexual, sexual, fruiting body, cleistothecium, zygote, dikaryon, self-sterility, self-fertility, mutation accumulation, fitness, modular organism, auxotrophic.Chapter 1: IntroductionThe selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes -a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants- could be explained as part of a quality control mechanism: An enlarged array of zygotes is ...

  14. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Choera, Tsokyi; Yun Lim, Fang; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D.; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A.; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P.; Fahy, John V.

    2016-01-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. PMID:27058347

  15. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sheena C; Fischer, Gregory J; Sinha, Meenal; McCabe, Orla; Palmer, Jonathan M; Choera, Tsokyi; Yun Lim, Fang; Wimmerova, Michaela; Carrington, Stephen D; Yuan, Shaopeng; Lowell, Clifford A; Oscarson, Stefan; Keller, Nancy P; Fahy, John V

    2016-04-01

    The immune mechanisms that recognize inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to promote their elimination from the lungs are incompletely understood. FleA is a lectin expressed by Aspergillus fumigatus that has twelve binding sites for fucosylated structures that are abundant in the glycan coats of multiple plant and animal proteins. The role of FleA is unknown: it could bind fucose in decomposed plant matter to allow Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive in soil, or it may be a virulence factor that binds fucose in lung glycoproteins to cause Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Our studies show that FleA protein and Aspergillus fumigatus conidia bind avidly to purified lung mucin glycoproteins in a fucose-dependent manner. In addition, FleA binds strongly to macrophage cell surface proteins, and macrophages bind and phagocytose fleA-deficient (∆fleA) conidia much less efficiently than wild type (WT) conidia. Furthermore, a potent fucopyranoside glycomimetic inhibitor of FleA inhibits binding and phagocytosis of WT conidia by macrophages, confirming the specific role of fucose binding in macrophage recognition of WT conidia. Finally, mice infected with ΔfleA conidia had more severe pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis than mice infected with WT conidia. These findings demonstrate that FleA is not a virulence factor for Aspergillus fumigatus. Instead, host recognition of FleA is a critical step in mechanisms of mucin binding, mucociliary clearance, and macrophage killing that prevent Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. PMID:27058347

  16. The growing promise of Toll-deficient Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying Aspergillus pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable progress over recent years, the prognosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unfavorable, reflecting an incomplete understanding of Aspergillus pathogenesis and suboptimal antifungal efficacy in vivo. Mammalian host systems including rodents and rabbits are important tools in elucidating antifungal drug activity and the immunopathogenesis of IA. Nonetheless, they are hampered by limitations that impose a "bottleneck" in mass screening of novel antifungal compounds and putative Aspergillus virulence factors including their cost, labor intensity and ethical constraints. Drosophila melanogaster is an invertebrate host with a long tract record of genetic studies and a simple, yet highly conserved innate immune system. Herein, we describe our experience using this fly model as a facile, non-laborious, inexpensive pathosystem for high-throughput screening of novel antifungal compounds and putative Aspergillus mutants, and studying antifungal innate immunity. We present three infection protocols (i.e., injection, rolling, ingestion) that introduce Aspergillus either directly into the hemolymph or at different epithelial surfaces of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate attenuated virulence of known hypovirulent Aspergillus strains and protection of Aspergillus-infected flies given oral Aspergillus-active agents such is voriconazole. These protocols can be adapted for similar studies of other fungal pathogens. Crossing and generation of Toll-deficient Drosophila flies takes 3 weeks; Aspergillus conidial preparation takes 3 days; fly inoculation depending on the infection assay takes 1 to 6-8 hours; and assessment of fly survival, Aspergillus strain virulence, Drosophila innate host parameters and/or drug activity takes 4-8 days. PMID:21178494

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies to Hyphal Exoantigens Derived from the Opportunistic Pathogen Aspergillus terreus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. As a result, there is a clinical need to...

  18. Morphological characterization of recombinant strains of Aspergillus oryzae producing alpha-amylase during batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal;

    1997-01-01

    Three alpha-amylase producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae used for recombinant protein production have been studied with respect to growth and protein production. By comparing the three strains with respect to morphology and protein production it is shown that a morphological mutant with a more...... dense mycelium is more efficient in producing alpha-amylase....

  19. Transcription factors as targets for improving Aspergillus niger as cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Bruno, K.S.; Thykær, Jette; Baker, S.E.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    ., 2008). In the present study the effect of modulation of transcription factors in Aspergillus niger, which is an industrially important micro-organism used in various processes including organic acid and enzyme production, was investigated. The strategy described in this work focuses on regulation...

  20. Characterization of a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase A, in the protein secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngiam, C.; Jeenes, D.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Archer, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is important in assisting the folding and maturation of secretory proteins in eukaryotes. A gene, pdiA, encoding PDIA was previously isolated from Aspergillus niger, and we report its functional characterization here. Functional analysis of PDIA showed that it catal

  1. The transcriptomic fingerprint of glucoamylase over-expression in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, M.J.; Jorgensen, T.R.; Nitsche, B.M.; Arentshorst, M.; Park, J.; Ram, A.F.J.; Meyer, V.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus niger are well known for their exceptionally high capacity for secretion of proteins, organic acids, and secondary metabolites and they are therefore used in biotechnology as versatile microbial production platforms. However, system-wide insights int

  2. Characterization of an Aspergillus flavus alkaline protease and its role in the infection of maize kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 33 kDa protein present in Aspergillus flavus infected maize embryo tissue was identified as a fungal alkaline protease (ALP). This protein became one of the major extracellular proteins of A. flavus in potato dextrose broth medium cultural filtrate after 3 days, but was expressed at low levels or ...

  3. Volatile profiles of toxigenic and non-toxigenic Aspergillus flavus using SPME for solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and wetted sterile, cracked corn for 21 and 14 days, respectively. Volatile compounds produced by A. flavus, as well as those present in the PDA controls and sterile cracked corn, were collected using sol...

  4. Aspergillus flavus Blast2GO gene ontology database: elevated growth temperature alters amino acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of a representative gene ontology (GO) database is a prerequisite for a successful functional genomics study. Using online Blast2GO resources we constructed a GO database of Aspergillus flavus. Of the predicted total 13,485 A. flavus genes 8,987 were annotated with GO terms. The mea...

  5. Taichunamides: Prenylated Indole Alkaloids from Aspergillus taichungensis (IBT 19404)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagiyama, Ippei; Kato, Hikaru; Nehira, Tatsuo;

    2016-01-01

    Seven new prenylated indole alkaloids, taichunamides A–G, were isolated from the fungus Aspergillus taichungensis (IBT 19404). Taichunamides A and B contained an azetidine and 4‐pyridone units, respectively, and are likely biosynthesized from notoamide S via (+)‐6‐epi‐stephacidin A. Taichunamides...

  6. Effects of dietary Aspergillus meal prebiotic on turkey poults production parameters and bone qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Aspergillus meal (AM), a prebiotic on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host and have been shown to stimulate calcium and magnesium a...

  7. Application of biotechnology towards the enhancement of maize resistance to aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxins by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus poses serious health hazards to humans and animals worldwide. This important fact and the regulations instituted in many countries to control the occurrence of aflatoxins in foods and feed have stimulated rese...

  8. Induction, isolation, and characterization of aspergillus niger mutant strains producing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Nevalainen, K M

    1981-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger mutant strain, VTT-D-80144, with an improvement of three- to fourfold in the production of extracellular beta-galactosidase was isolated after mutagenesis. The production of beta-galactosidase by this mutant was unaffected by fermentor size, and the enzyme was also suitable for immobilization.

  9. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163. ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  11. RAPID MONITORING BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polumerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventio...

  12. Measurement and analysis on optical characteristics of Aspergillus oryzae spores in infrared band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Hu, Yihua; Gu, Youlin; Chen, Wei; Xu, Shilong; Zhao, Xinying

    2015-10-01

    Spore is an important part of bioaerosols. The optical characteristics of spore is a crucial parameter for study on bioaerosols. The reflection within the waveband of 2.5 to15μm were measured by squash method. Based on the measured data, Complex refractive index of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5μm and 8 to 14 μm were calculated by using Krames-Kronig (K-K) relationship. Then,the mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5μm and 8 to 14μm were obtained by utilizing Mie scattering theory, and the results were analyzed and discussed. The average mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores is 0.51 m2/g in the range of 3 to 5μm and 0.48m2/g in the range of 8 to 14μm. Compared with common inorganic compounds, Aspergillus oryzae spores possesses a good extinction performance in infrared band.

  13. Antisense silencing of the creA gene in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bautista, L. F.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.; Hentzer, Morten; Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Antisense expression of a portion of the gene encoding the major carbon catabolite repressor CREA in Aspergillus nidulans resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of glucose-repressible enzymes, both endogenous and heterologous, in the presence of glucose. The derepression effect was...

  14. RAPID MONITORING BY QPCR FOR PATHOGENIC ASPERGILLUS DURING CARPET REMOVAL FROM A HOSPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring for pathogenic Aspergillus species using a rapid, highly sensitive, quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique during carpet removal in a burn unit provided data which allowed the patients to be safely returned to the re-floored area sooner than if only conventi...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of recombinant -mannosidase from Aspergillus niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demo, G.; Fliedrová, Barbora; Weignerová, Lenka; Wimmerová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2013), s. 288-291. ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/0321; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : b-mannosidase * Aspergillus niger Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2013

  16. Study of the metabolism of flucytosine in Aspergillus species by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of flucytosine (5FC) in two Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger) was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In intact mycelia, 5FC was found to be deaminated to 5-fluorouracil and then transformed into fluoronucleotides; the catabolite alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine was also detected in A. fumigatus. Neither 5-fluoroorotic acid nor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate was detected in perchloric acid extracts after any incubation with 5FC. 5FC, 5-fluorouracil, and the classical fluoronucleotides 5-fluorouridine-5'-mono-, di-, and triphosphates were identified in the acid-soluble pool. Two hydrolysis products of 5-fluorouracil incorporated into RNA, 5-fluorouridine-2'-monophosphate and 5-fluorouridine-3'-monophosphate, were found in the acid-insoluble pool. No significant differences in the metabolic transformation of 5FC were noted in the two species of Aspergillus. The main pathway of 5FC metabolism in the two species of Aspergillus studied is thus the biotransformation into ribofluoronucleotides and the subsequent incorporation of 5-fluorouridine-5'-triphosphate into RNA

  17. Influence of Gene Expression on Variable Aflatoxin Production by Different Strains of Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is a globally distributed fungus. It causes disease in human and crop plants due to the production of numerous conidia dispersed by air movement and possibly by insects. The fungus is an economically important food contaminant because it produces the most potent natural carcinogen...

  18. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of alpha-L-rhamnosides using recombinant alpha-L-rhamnosidase from Aspergillus terreus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Winter, K.; Šimčíková, Daniela; Schlack, B.; Weignerová, Lenka; Pelantová, Helena; Soetaert, W.; Desmet, T.; Křen, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 147, NOV 2013 (2013), s. 640-644. ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13042; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11011 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : alpha-L-Rhamnosidase * Aspergillus terreus * Glycosylation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  19. Assessment of Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Against Bread Spoilage Fungus Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Matei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are generally recognized as safe and can be used against fungi that contaminate various food commodities. The aim of the research was to select LAB strains with high antifungal activity for the biocontrol of Aspergillus ochraceus. The antifungal activity of eight strains of lactic acid bacteria has been evaluated by overlay assay method against the spoilage fungus, Aspergillus ochraceus isolated from white bread. The antifungal effect was assessed by co-cultivation of lactic acid bacteria strains and Aspergillus ochraceus in liquid media and mycelium growth inhibition was monitored for over 14 days. The LAB strains Lpl, LAB 43 and LAB 13 presented intense antifungal activity with large inhibition zones of fungal growth and sporulation, but smaller for Lpa and LAB 15 strains. Total inhibition of mycelia growth was induced by the strains LAB 43, LAB 13 and Lpa. The strains LAB 15 and LAB 35 had a moderate inhibition activity on the mycelia growth. The results of this study demonstrated the antifungal activity of several LAB strains by overlay assay and by co-cultivation method. Therefore, it was confirmed the inhibitory effect of the strains LAB 43 and LAB 13 against Aspergillus ochraceus. The experiment revealed that these LAB strains could be further used as biocontrol agents.

  20. Induction, purification and characterization of alfa-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Aspergillus Niger

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weignerová, Lenka; Filipi, Tomáš; Manglová, Dana; Křen, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 5 (2008), s. 769-774. ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010; GA ČR GA203/05/0172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aspergillus niger * glycosidase library Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2008

  1. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of meroterpenoid yanuthone D in Aspergillus Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Dorte Koefoed; Petersen, Lene Maj; Klitgaard, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    We have elucidated the mode of biosynthesis of the meroterpenoid compound Yanuthone D in Aspergillus niger. We have successfully deleted all cluster genes, and identified a number of intermediates. Structures of the intermediates were solved using a combined approach comprising classical 1D- and 2D...

  2. Prevalence of Aspergillus species in clinical samples isolated in an Indian tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xess Immaculata

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: In recent times, it has become important to determine the prevalence of different Aspergillus species in clinical samples in view of difference in antifungal susceptibility noted in some species. AIMS: To determine the species prevalence of Aspergillus isolates in various clinical samples received in the Mycology Laboratory at our institute. METHOD: Over a period of 4-years, a total of 18,731 samples were processed, and species identification carried out by standard microbiological methods. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifty six samples (2.43% were culture positive for Aspergillus species. A.flavus (46.93% was the most common isolate, followed by A.fumigatus (37.72% and A.niger (15.35%. It was observed that A.fumigatus was the predominant species isolated from blood and respiratory specimens, A.flavus was predominantly isolated from nasal polyps whereas A.niger predominated in nail specimens. Culture positivity was highest in the age group 12-65 years and in males. Sixty-nine patients (15.13% were admitted to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the diverse manifestations caused by Aspergillus species in human beings and also throws light on the different species prevalent locally. The knowledge would prove useful in selecting empirical antifungal therapy and formulating prophylactic and pre-emptive strategies.

  3. Comparative chemistry of Aspergillus oryzae (RIB40) and A. flavus (NRRL 3357)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise; Petersen, Lene Maj;

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus oryzae and A. flavus are important species in industrial biotechnology and food safety and have been some of the first aspergilli to be fully genome sequenced. Bioinformatic analysis has revealed 99.5% gene homology between the two species pointing towards a large coherence in the...

  4. Male and female roles in crosses of Aspergillus nidulans as revealed by vegetatively incompatible parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, I.M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Swart, K.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    To resolve the role of male and female nuclei and mitochondria in cleistothecium formation in the model organism Aspergillus nidulans, we analysed the genetic constituents of cleistothecia, from crosses between vegetatively compatible and incompatible parents. We used markers that enabled us to dete

  5. Applicability of random primer R143 for determination of Aspergillus fumigatus DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erjavec, Z; Brinker, M; Apperloo-Renkema, HZ; Arends, Jan P; De Vries-Hospers, HG; Ruiters, MHJ

    1997-01-01

    The specificity of random primer R143 for Aspergillus fumigatus DNA was determined in order to test its usefulness in establishing the presence of A. fumigatus DNA in fungal cultures. When PCR reaction products of these cultures were compared with those of 21 other bacterial and fungal DNA samples,

  6. Genome wide association mapping of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin accumulation resistance in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of maize with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with sign...

  7. Glucoamylase : green fluorescent protein fusions to monitor protein secretion in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, C.L.; Khalaj, V.; Ram, A.F.J.; Archer, D.B.; Brookman, J.L.; Trinci, A.P.J.; Jeenes, D.J.; Doonan, J.H.; Wells, B.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Robson, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    A glucoamylase: :green fluorescent protein fusion (GLA: :sGFP) was constructed which allows the green fluorescent protein to be used as an in vivo reporter of protein secretion in Aspergillus niger. Two secretory fusions were designed for secretion of GLA: :sGFP which employed slightly different len

  8. Study of the glucoamylase promoter in Aspergillus niger using green fluorescent protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santerre Henriksen, A.L.; Even, S.; Müller, C.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Nielsen, J.

    1999-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger strain expressing a red-shifted green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the cytoplasm under the control of the glucoamylase promoter (PglaA) was characterized with respect to its physiology and morphology. Although xylose acted as a repressor carbon source during batch cultivations,

  9. Efficacy of water dispersible formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus for aflatoxin management in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus in controlling aflatoxin contamination of corn. In 2011, when aflatoxin was present at very high levels, no WDG treatment provided s...

  10. Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: a side-eff ect of environmental fungicide use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, P.A.; Snelders, E.; Kema, G.H.J.; Mellado, E.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis due to multi-azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus has emerged in the Netherlands since 1999, with 6·0–12·8% of patients harbouring resistant isolates. The presence of a single resistance mechanism (denoted by TR/L98H), which consists of a substitution at codon 98 of cyp51A an

  11. Intraspecific competition during infection by Aspergillus flavus is influenced by plant host species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communities of Aspergillus flavus are composed of diverse genotypes that collectively influence incidence and severity of crop aflatoxin contamination. Isolates vary in competitive ability on maize, but empirical data on the extent to which host-specific influences determine outcomes of competition ...

  12. Role of substrate concentration in mitosis and hyphal extension of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae and A. niger grow by apical extension of multinucleate hyphae that are subdivided into compartments by cross-walls called septa. Submerged cultivation, image analysis, and fluorescence microscopy were used to study the role of the carbon source on mitosis ...

  13. In Vitro Interactions between Antifungals and Immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Transplant and Nontransplant Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, William J.; Singh, Nina; Miller, Jackie L.; Benjamin, Daniel K; Schell, Wiley A.; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.

    2004-01-01

    We performed in vitro antifungal checkerboard testing on 12 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates (6 transplant recipients and 6 nontransplant patients) with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, voriconazole, and caspofungin) and three immunosuppressants (FK506, cyclosporine, and rapamycin). We were not able to detect a difference in calcineurin inhibitor antifungal activity against isolates from transplant recipients and nontransplant patients.

  14. Production of Fumonisin B-2 and B-4 by Aspergillus niger on Grapes and Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf;

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured on...

  15. The effect of organic nitrogen sources on recombinant glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger in chemostat culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swift, R.J.; Karandikar, A.; Griffen, A.M.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Robson, G.D.; Trinci, A.P.J.; Wiebe, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    Aspergillus niger B1, a recombinant strain carrying 20 extra copies of the native glucoamylase gene, was grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures supplemented with various organic nitrogen sources (dilution rate 0.12 ± 0.01 h-1, pH 5.4). In cultures supplemented with L-alanine, L-methionine, casa

  16. Overexpression of isocitrate lyase-glyoxylate bypass influence on metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Otero, José Manuel; Olivares Hernandez, Roberto;

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the production of succinate and malate by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger the activity of the glyoxylate bypass pathway was increased by over-expression of the isocitrate lyase (icl) gene. The hypothesis was that when isocitrate lyase was up-regulated the flux towards...

  17. Overexpression of a novel endogenous NADH kinase in Aspergillus nidulans enhances growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hofmann, Gerald;

    2009-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans has paved the way for fundamental research on this industrially important species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a gene encoding for ATP-dependent NADH kinase (ATP: NADH 2'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7...

  18. Aspergillus flavus whole genome and EST sequence releases and construction of homologous gene search blast server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites. These compounds, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, contaminate pre-harvest agricultural crops in the field and post-harvest grains during storage. In order to reduce and eliminate aflatoxin contamination of food and feed...

  19. Aflatoxigenesis induced in Aspergillus flavus by oxidative stress and reduction by phenolic antioxidants from tree nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds, pistachios, and walnuts grown in California have an aggregate value of over $3.3 billion, with a large proportion of the crop being exported. However, these tree nuts can be subject to contamination by aflatoxins, metabolites produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus, and im...

  20. Overproduction of the Aspergillus niger feruloyl esterase for pulp bleaching application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Record, E.; Asther, M.; Sigoillot, C.; Pagès, S.; Punt, P.J.; Delattre, M.; Haon, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Sigoillot, J.C.; Lesage-Meessen, L.; Asther, M.

    2003-01-01

    A well-known industrial fungus for enzyme production, Aspergillus niger, was selected to produce the feruloyl esterase FAEA by homologous overexpression for pulp bleaching application. The gpd gene promoter was used to drive FAEA expression. Changing the nature and concentration of the carbon source