WorldWideScience

Sample records for asperger syndrome

  1. [Asperger syndrome in contemporary fictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourre, F; Aubert, E; Andanson, J; Raynaud, J-P

    2012-12-01

    During recent years, fictions featuring a character with Asperger syndrome have been increasingly produced in literature, cinema and TV. Thus, the public has gradually discovered the existence of this specific category of autism spectrum, which is far removed from old popular representations of autistic disorders, often associated with mental retardation. To describe the reactions generated by these characters in order to identify their major functions and also to try to explain their recent increase in fictions. First, we explored international publications concerning this topic. A group of experienced clinicians systematically examined works of fiction produced between 2000 and 2010 that included a character with Asperger syndrome. More than 30 productions have been identified and analyzed using a method adapted from focus group. Over 30 productions have been recorded and analyzed. The reactions generated by these characters are described. They range from fascination to empathy; if these heroes sometimes induce laughter (because of comedy situations), they also lead us to question our vision of the world and ask ourselves about notions such as difference, normality and tolerance. We illustrate this phenomenon with examples from literature, cinema or television. Four hypotheses are proposed trying to explain the recent multiplication of these fictional characters with Asperger syndrome. The first puts forward authors' informative and educational motivations, these authors being aware of this issue. The second is supported by the "hero" concept, which has evolved gradually into the figures of the scientific world and the so-called "Geek" community. The third hypothesis, a metaphorical one, considers these heroes as symbols of a future society: a hyper systematized society, devoid of empathy, as if to warn of a risk of evolution of humanity toward a generalized mental blindness. The fourth and last hypothesis explores the personal resonance, supported by

  2. Anxiety in Asperger's Syndrome: Assessment in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal J.; Wood, Christopher; Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is a major problem for many people with Asperger's syndrome who may have qualitatively different fears from a non-Asperger's syndrome population. Research has relied on measures developed for non-Asperger's syndrome populations that require reporting past experiences of anxiety, which may confound assessment in people with Asperger's…

  3. Gender dysphoria in Asperger's syndrome: a caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of Asperger's syndrome is reported as above average in young people presenting with gender dysphoria. Patients with Asperger's syndrome, however, are prone to obsessive preoccupations. This paper points out that the apparent dysphoria may in some cases prove to be a transient obsession. Cases from the author's clinical practice were reviewed. Two young men with histories suggesting Asperger's syndrome presented with strong convictions of gender dysphoria, asking for hormonal and surgical treatment. Treatment was withheld and after several years both came to repudiate their 'transgender phase'. Patients asking for sex reassignment should be assessed for indications of Asperger's syndrome. Irreversible treatments should be withheld until it is clear there is a genuine issue of transsexualism.

  4. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocourkova J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome. Keywords: Asperger syndrome, suicidal behavior, adolescence

  5. PRAGMATIC DEFICITS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME

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    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  6. Asperger Syndrome: A Primer for Behavioral Interventionists

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    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Houghteling, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Children and adolescents with Asperger Syndrome are intellectually capable, rigid and often obsessive, adhere to stereotypic routines, demonstrate difficulties with pragmatic language and characteristically lack social skills. While the extent of these behaviors may wax and wane and vary by individual, they are in stark contrast with the high…

  7. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

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    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  8. Biological Factors Associated with Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickarby, Geoff; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews Asperger Syndrome, a form of developing autism with average intelligence, in 12 boys (ages 5 to late teens). Examination of family histories, medical history and findings, obstetric, and neonatal data found no common environmental factors and supports a brain damage hypothesis. (DB)

  9. Asperger syndrome: an update Síndrome de Asperger

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    Ami Klin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the history and clinical features of Asperger syndrome, and considers guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment. A review of issues related to external validity is provided, which points out the limitations of current research, and lists several potentially beneficial areas of investigation into the nosologic status of the condition. It concludes with a discussion of the unequivocal need of individuals with severe social disabilities for comprehensive and adequate educational services and other treatments irrespective of the fact that the validity and the utility of this specific diagnostic concept is far from resolved.Esse artigo realiza uma revisão da história e do quadro clínico da síndrome de Asperger, considerando orientações para a avaliação clínica e o tratamento. Aspectos da validade dessa entidade nosográfica, as limitações das pesquisas atuais e as potenciais vantagens dessa linha de investigação são revisadas. Conclui discutindo a necessidade da implementação de serviços educacionais e o estabelecimento de outras intervenções de maneira adequada para o atendimento de indivíduos com graves alterações da sociabilidade, independentemente da validade e utilidade desse diagnóstico.

  10. Sensory Integration Used with Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Analisa L.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory Integration Program on Children with Asperger's Syndrome This literature review will document the effects of a parent implemented Sensory Integration Program upon children diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome in order to discern its influence upon these children's overall ability to attend to learning and social development. The infrequency…

  11. Theory of Mind in Adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind was assessed in 32 adults with HFA, 29 adults with Asperger syndrome and 32 neurotypical adults. The HFA and Asperger syndrome groups were impaired in performance of the Strange stories test and the Faux-pas test and reported more theory of mind problems than the neurotypical adults. The three groups did not differ in performance of…

  12. Presentation of Depression in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Review

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    Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…

  13. Conversational behaviour of children with Asperger syndrome and conduct disorder.

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    Adams, Catherine; Green, Jonathan; Gilchrist, Anne; Cox, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    Social communication problems in individuals who have Asperger syndrome constitute one of the most significant problems in the syndrome. This study makes a systematic analysis of the difficulties demonstrated with the use of language (pragmatics) in adolescents who have Asperger syndrome. Recent advances in discourse analysis were applied to conversational samples from a group of children with Asperger syndrome and a matched control group of children with severe conduct disorder. Two types of conversation were sampled from each group, differing in emotional content. The results showed that in these contexts children with Asperger syndrome were no more verbose as a group than controls, though they showed a tendency to talk more in more emotion-based conversations. Children with Asperger syndrome, as a group, performed similarly to control subjects in ability to respond to questions and comments. However, they were more likely to show responses which were problematic in both types of conversation. In addition, individuals with Asperger syndrome showed more problems in general conversation than during more emotionally and socially loaded topics. The group with Asperger syndrome was found to contain a small number of individuals with extreme verbosity but this was not a reliable characteristic of the group as a whole.

  14. Should the DSM V drop Asperger syndrome?

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    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2010-09-01

    The DSM IV defines Asperger syndrome (AS) as a pervasive developmental (autistic spectrum) disorder characterized by social deficits and rigid focused interests in the absence of language impairment and cognitive delay. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, there has been a dramatic increase in its recognition both in children and adults. However, because studies have generally failed to demonstrate a clear distinction between AS and autism, some researchers have called for its elimination from the forthcoming DSM V. This report argues for a modification of its diagnostic criteria and its continued retention in the diagnostic manual.

  15. Did Mozart suffer from Asperger syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Michele

    2015-05-01

    The most reliable biographies of Mozart highlight elements that are compatible with current diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome including qualitative impairment in social interaction and stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. Furthermore, numerous features are documented including difficulty in communicating his emotional state and in inferring the mental state of his interlocutors, motor clumsiness, specific skills and genius, left-handedness, special sense of humour, physical developmental abnormalities, bizarre thinking, overvalued ideas and delusions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Alanko, Lauri; Appelberg, Björn; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable th...

  17. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome

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    Dudova I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Jana Kocourkova, Jiri Koutek Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. Keywords: eating disorders, early-onset anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorders, Asperger syndrome, diagnostics, therapy

  18. [Asperger's syndrome, little teachers: special skills].

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    Etchepareborda, M C; Díaz-Lucero, A; Pascuale, M J; Abad-Mas, L; Ruiz-Andrés, R

    2007-03-02

    Asperger's syndrome (AS) is characterised by its effects on reciprocal social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, difficulty in accepting changes, inflexible thinking and reduced fields of interest, but also by the presentation of special skills. On the occasion of the centenary of the birth of Hans Asperger, we briefly review the history of this researcher and offer a short description of the clinical features of the condition, including social interaction, communication, limited concerns and interests, routines and inflexibility, which are key points when it comes to reaching a diagnosis. Later, we also focus on Savant syndrome, which is a very common subgroup within AS and which is characterised by the patient's outstanding ability is certain special skills, such as hypermnesia, hyperlexia and hypercalculia, in mental feats concerning the perpetual calendar and in several branches of the arts, such as drawing, painting, sculpture and music. We discuss several famous cases of savants and explain some of the theories about its pathophysiology. Having special skills is a distinguishing mark of AS and identifying and facilitating them would provide us with a potential tool with which to accomplish suitable job opportunities.

  19. Elever med Aspergers Syndrom : En studie om hur den traditionella skolan, respektive specialskolan arbetar med elever som har Aspergers Syndrom.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Anna-Lena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the report was to compare the differences between a special needs school and a more traditional school when it comes to working with children with Aspergers syndrome. Furthermore I wanted to find out the differences in resources when it comes to helping these children. I used interviews as a method to elucidate how the schools work with children with Asperger syndrome. I interviewed teachers and special educational needs teacher from each of the two schools to understand how th...

  20. Zespół Aspergera = Asperger syndrome

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    Oliwia Beck

    2016-07-01

    Oliwia Beck1,2, Mateusz Łakomski1, Agnieszka Radzimińska3, Magdalena Weber-Rajek3, Walery Żukow4   1Katedra i Klinika Geriatrii, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, UMK w Toruniu 2Katedra Zdrowia Publicznego, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy UMK w Toruniu 3Katedra Fizjoterapii, Zakład Podstaw Fizjoterapii, Collegium Medicum im. Ludwika Rydygiera w Bydgoszczy, UMK w Toruniu 4Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego, Bydgoszcz     Słowa kluczowe: zespół Aspergera Key words: Asperger syndrome     Abstrakt   Zespół Aspergera - jedno z pięciu ogólnych zaburzeń rozwoju charakteryzujące się poważnymi trudnościami w kontaktach społecznych i ograniczonym, stereotypowym, powtarzającym się repertuarem zainteresowań i aktywności. Autyzm różni się przede wszystkim tym, że mowa i zdolności poznawcze, są znacznie nie naruszone. Zespół ten jest często określana jako ciężka niezręczność. Zespół Aspergera należy do kategorii całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju. W systemie klasyfikacji – DSM-5 – zespół Aspergera nie występuje, natomiast występuje spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych. Do objawów zespołu Aspergera zalicza się: zaburzenia komunikacji werbalnej i niewerbalnej, egocentryzm, upośledzenie umiejętności społecznych, stereotypowość zachowań, zawężenie zainteresowań, problemy z koordynacją. Manifestacja symptomów zmienia się w ciągu życia. Postawienie właściwej diagnozy jest trudne, szczególnie u osób dorosłych. Najczęściej dzieci z zespołem Aspergera nie wymagają leczenia farmakologicznego. Niekiedy zastosowanie leków może być zalecone ze względu na objawy towarzyszące - depresyjne, lękowe, nasilone rytuały, natręctwa. Leki mogą być również stosowane w przypadku nasilonych zaburzeń koncentracji uwagi, impulsywności i nadmiernej ruchliwości, agresji. Sposób dawkowania zwykle nie wymaga ich podawania na terenie szkoły.     Abstract

  1. Asperger Syndrome: Tests of Right Hemisphere Functioning and Interhemispheric Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen L.; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Ellis, Hadyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Eight participants with Asperger syndrome (AS) (ages 10-41) were assessed in the following areas: the pragmatics of language and communication; verbal and visual memory; visual-spatial abilities; and bimanual motor skills. Results confirmed the close similarity in the neuropsychologic profiles of non-verbal learning disabilities syndrome and AS.…

  2. Brief report: human figure drawings by children with Asperger's syndrome.

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    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no differences between the diagnostic groups on the tree or house drawing scores. The human figure drawing scores of children with Asperger's syndrome were significantly lower than those of the typically developing children, and there was a positive correlation between human figure drawing scores and communication sub-scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, for the Asperger's group. These results suggest that the selective deficit in generating human figure representations may derive from a relative lack of interest in the social world, and/or limited practice in drawing people.

  3. [Asperger syndrome with highly exceptional calendar memory: a case report].

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    Sevik, Ali Emre; Cengel Kültür, Ebru; Demirel, Hilal; Karlı Oğuz, Kader; Akça, Onur; Lay Ergün, Eser; Demir, Başaran

    2010-01-01

    Some patients with pervasive developmental disorders develop unusual talents, which are characterized as savant syndrome. Herein we present neuropsychological examination and brain imaging (fMRI and brain SPECT) findings of an 18-year-old male with Asperger syndrome and highly unusual calendar memory. Neuropsychological evaluation of the case indicated mild attention, memory, and problem solving deficits, and severe executive function deficits that included conceptualization, category formation, and abstraction. Functional MRI findings showed activation above the baseline level (Psavant syndrome.

  4. Brief Report: Human Figure Drawings by Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no…

  5. Cell Phone Use by Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

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    Durkin, Kevin; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathy; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    While young people have generally been at the forefront of the adoption and use of new communications technologies, little is known of uses by exceptional youth. This study compares cell phone use by a group of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (n = 35) with that by a group of adolescents with typical development (n = 35). People with Asperger…

  6. Brief Report: Should the DSM V Drop Asperger Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The DSM IV defines Asperger syndrome (AS) as a pervasive developmental (autistic spectrum) disorder characterized by social deficits and rigid focused interests in the absence of language impairment and cognitive delay. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, there has been a dramatic increase in its recognition both in children and adults. However,…

  7. Head Circumference in Autism, Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipitofrontal circumference (OFC, measured at birth and after 16 months of age, was compared in 50 consecutive patients with Asperger syndrome, 50 diagnosed with autistic disorder, and 50 with ADHD and followed at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Goteborg University, Sweden.

  8. Leisure time of families with children suffering from Asperger syndrome

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    Zumarova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asperger' s syndrome is one of the pervasive developmental disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases (tenth revision. Problems of this type of disability are found in many areas, for example – the system of care, diagnosis, education, the number of organizations that deal with this condition and provide these services. Recent research has shown an increase in autism spectrum disorders (every hundredth child is born with this diagnosis. Children with Asperger syndrome are intrinsically “blind” in public and seem rude, and these situations are not easy for their parents. The most difficult area for parents is free time. Children cannot organize their leisure time, plus the ability to meaningfully spend their time is very limited. Incidence of organizations offering leisure activities for people with autism is usually larger in big cities, because the concentration of these children is greater. The aim of this paper is to characterize the basic theoretical background and find out what leisure time possibilities exist for a family having a child with Asperger's syndrome. How can a family with a child with Asperger's syndrome spend leisure time?

  9. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben; Mouridsen, Svend Erik Birkebæk

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3...

  10. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order

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    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  11. Asperger Syndrome or Autistic Disorder? The Diagnostic Dilemma.

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    Freeman, B. J.; Cronin, Pegeen; Candela, Pete

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the difficulties in diagnosing Asperger syndrome (AS) and differentiating AS from autism. It stresses the need for gathering a developmental history and reviews considerations in conducting different assessments related to medical condition, psychological condition, communication, language, occupational and physical therapy,…

  12. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

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    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  13. Supporting Students with Asperger Syndrome on College Campuses: Current Practices

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    Barnhill, Gena P.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of students with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) enrolling in college, it has become apparent that support services are greatly needed to assist these students in navigating college life, both academically and socially. Yet, there is a dearth of research describing the specific supports needed…

  14. Behavioral, Cognitive and Neural Markers of Asperger Syndrome

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    Farnaz Faridi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asperger syndrome (AS is a subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD characterized by major problems in social and nonverbal communication, together with limited and repetitive forms of behavior and interests. The linguistic and cognitive development in AS is preserved which help us to differentiate it from other subtypes of ASD. However, significant effects of AS on cognitive abilities and brain functions still need to be researched. Although a clear cut pathology for Asperger has not been identified yet, recent studies have largely focused on brain imaging techniques to investigate AS. In this regard, we carried out a systematic review on behavioral, cognitive, and neural markers (specifically using MRI and fMRI studies on AS. In this paper, behavior, motor skills and language capabilities of individuals with Asperger are compared to those in healthy controls. In addition, common findings across MRI and fMRI based studies associated with behavior and cognitive disabilities are highlighted. 

  15. [The problems of diagnosis and correction of autism in children (an example of Asperger's syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovchuk, N M; Severnyĭ, A A

    Based on the analysis of literature and own clinical experience, we discuss diagnostic issues of early autistic disorders in children. Main differential-diagnostic signs that permit to differentiate mild forms of autism in childhood diagnosed as Asperger's syndrome from childhood schizophrenia, residual organic CNS damage, circular affective disorders are described. Cases of Asperger's syndrome followed up for many years and recommendations for social and psychological adaptation of children and adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in different age periods are presented.

  16. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome Using a Consultation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihan, Aileen; Kinsella, William; Honan, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A case study design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural consultation as a method for improving the social skills of adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Two case studies were conducted. In each study, two teachers implemented a social skills programme with two to three adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in a group setting with…

  17. Strategies to Increase the Physical Activity Participation of Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome in Community Programs

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    Hamm, Jessica; Driver, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Currently one in 50 American school-age children is diagnosed with Autism. Although Asperger Syndrome is no longer acknowledged as a separate diagnosis, this article refers to high-functioning individuals with Autism as having Asperger Syndrome, since it is a culturally relevant term. One of the most challenging times for individuals with Asperger…

  18. Recognition of Facial Expressions and Prosodic Cues with Graded Emotional Intensities in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

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    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group…

  19. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

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    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  20. Recognition of facial expressions and prosodic cues with graded emotional intensities in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Kanai, Chieko; Ohta, Haruhisa; Yokoi, Hideki; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the ability of adults with Asperger syndrome to recognize emotional categories of facial expressions and emotional prosodies with graded emotional intensities. The individuals with Asperger syndrome showed poorer recognition performance for angry and sad expressions from both facial and vocal information. The group difference in facial expression recognition was prominent for stimuli with low or intermediate emotional intensities. In contrast to this, the individuals with Asperger syndrome exhibited lower recognition accuracy than typically-developed controls mainly for emotional prosody with high emotional intensity. In facial expression recognition, Asperger and control groups showed an inversion effect for all categories. The magnitude of this effect was less in the Asperger group for angry and sad expressions, presumably attributable to reduced recruitment of the configural mode of face processing. The individuals with Asperger syndrome outperformed the control participants in recognizing inverted sad expressions, indicating enhanced processing of local facial information representing sad emotion. These results suggest that the adults with Asperger syndrome rely on modality-specific strategies in emotion recognition from facial expression and prosodic information.

  1. Syndrome or Difference: A Critical Review of Medical Conceptualisations of Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of vast social differences. People of different ages, cultures, religions, gender and sexual orientation have, and indeed are expected to have, distinct differences in their behaviour, and in the way that they see the world. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is no different. People with AS have different personality types and have…

  2. Asperger Syndrome In Adulthood: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tufan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Asperger’s syndrome (AS is one of the disorders classified under pervasive developmental disorders. Individuals with AS have problems in social interaction, unusual special interests, and a tendency to ritualized behavior. AS is a chronic disorder that affects the social, occupational, sexual and psychological functionality of individiuals with AS. This review was prepared on the basis of a selective literature review by Pubmed and information in relevant reference books. As a result, longitudinal studies are deemed to be necessary to be able understand the features of AS in adulthood.

  3. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  4. Is synaesthesia more common in patients with Asperger syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina eNeufeld

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence from case reports that synaesthesia is more common in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC. Further, genes related to synaesthesia have also been found to be linked to ASC and, similar to synaesthetes, individuals with ASC show altered brain connectivity and unusual brain activation during sensory processing. However, up to now a systematic investigation of whether synaesthesia is more common in ASC patients is missing.The aim of the current pilot study was to test this hypothesis by investigating a group of patients diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS using questionnaires and standard consistency tests in order to classify them as grapheme-colour synaesthetes. The results indicate that there are indeed many more grapheme-colour synaesthetes among AS patients. This finding is discussed in relation to different theories regarding the development of synaesthesia as well as altered sensory processing in autism.

  5. Improving Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, Monica E

    2007-01-01

    The effects of a multicomponent intervention involving self-regulated strategy development delivered via video self-modeling on the written language performance of 3 students with Asperger syndrome were examined. During intervention sessions, each student watched a video of himself performing strategies for increasing the number of words written and the number of functional essay elements. He then wrote a persuasive essay. The number of words written and number of functional essay elements included in each essay were measured. Each student demonstrated gains in the number of words written and number of functional essay elements. Maintenance of treatment effects at follow-up varied across targets and participants. Implications for future research are suggested. PMID:17624076

  6. Auditory cortical change detection in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Tuulia; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Näätänen, Risto; Kujala, Teija

    2007-03-06

    The present study investigated whether auditory deficits reported in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) are also present in adulthood. To this end, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from adults with AS for duration, pitch, and phonetic changes in vowels, and for acoustically matched non-speech stimuli. These subjects had enhanced mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitudes particularly for pitch and duration deviants, indicating enhanced sound-discrimination abilities. Furthermore, as reflected by the P3a, their involuntary orienting was enhanced for changes in non-speech sounds, but tended to be deficient for changes in speech sounds. The results are consistent with those reported earlier in children with AS, except for the duration-MMN, which was diminished in children and enhanced in adults.

  7. Síndrome de Asperger e TOC: comorbidade ou unidade? Asperger syndrome and OCD: comorbidity or unity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Aranha Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Comportamentos repetitivos, estereotipias e interesses restritos são alguns dos principais sintomas que compõem o transtorno de Asperger. Todavia, até que ponto é possível diferenciá-los de sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos que preencham critérios para transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC? Muitas vezes, não é possível. Este trabalho relata o caso de um paciente com síndrome de Asperger e TOC. Abordamos até que ponto é realmente importante a distinção de um TOC como comorbidade distinta do Asperger, bem como nossa conduta terapêutica, na qual um inibidor seletivo da recaptura de serotonina (ISRS em doses altas (fluoxetina foi fundamental para melhor adaptação do paciente a suas funções socioocupacionais, melhorando significativamente sua qualidade de vida.Repetitive behavior, stereotypies and restricted interests are some of the main symptoms that compound the Asperger’s disorder. However, until what point is possible to differentiate them from obsessive-compulsive symptoms that meet criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD? Many times, that’s not possible. This work reports the case of a patient with Asperger syndrome and OCD. We bring up until what point is really important the distinction of OCD as a comorbidity different from Asperger, and also our therapeutic conduct, in which high doses of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - SSRI - (fluoxetine was fundamental to a better socio-occupational adjustment of the patient, significantly improving his quality of life.

  8. Insomnia is a frequent finding in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wendt Lennart

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental disorder belonging to autism spectrum disorders with prevalence rate of 0,35% in school-age children. It has been most extensively studied in childhood while there is scarcity of reports concerning adulthood of AS subjects despite the lifelong nature of this syndrome. In children with Asperger syndrome the initiation and continuity of sleep is disturbed because of the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS. It is probable that sleep difficulties are present in adulthood as well. Our hypothesis was that adults with AS suffer from difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep and nonrestorative sleep (insomnia. Methods 20 AS without medication were compared with 10 healthy controls devoid of neuropsychiatric anamnesis. Clinical examination, blood test battery and head MRI excluded confounding somatic illnesses. Structured psychiatric interview for axis-I and axis-II disorders were given to both groups as well as Beck Depression Inventory and Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised version. Sleep quality was assessed with sleep questionnaire, sleep diary during 6 consecutive days and description of possible sleep problems by the participants own words was requested. Results compared with controls and with normative values of good sleep, AS adults had frequent insomnia. In sleep questionnaire 90% (18/20, in sleep diary 75% (15/20 and in free description 85% (17/20 displayed insomnia. There was a substantial psychiatric comorbidity with only 4 AS subject devoid of other axis-I or axis-II disorders besides AS. Also these persons displayed insomnia. It can be noted that the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses in AS subjects was virtually similar to that found among patient with chronic insomnia. Conclusions the neuropsychiatric deficits inherent of AS predispose both to insomnia and to anxiety and mood disorders. Therefore a careful assessment of sleep quality should be an

  9. Social Perception and WAIS-IV Performance in Adolescents and Adults Diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth…

  10. Using Symbolic Interactionism Insights as an Approach to Helping the Individual with Asperger's Syndrome Overcome Barriers to Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines a case for using symbolic interactionism as a tool to help individuals with Asperger's syndrome reconcile situations in which communication might prove challenging. This study builds on previous work carried out by the author which describes an autoethnographical approach to help the individual with Asperger's syndrome gain…

  11. Screening for Asperger Syndrome in School-Age Children: Issues and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Campbell, Audrey; Keran, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many children with Asperger syndrome are not identified prior to school entry, and difficulties associated with the condition may only become evident when a child enters school. Failure to identify children with the syndrome may lead to increased risk for psychopathology, and lack of understanding of the reasons for social and communicative…

  12. Unique Theory of Mind Differentiation in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine if ToM abilities of children with autism and Asperger syndrome differentiate into Intrapersonal ToM and Social ToM. A battery of Social and Intrapersonal ToM tasks was administered to 39 children with autism and 34 children with Asperger syndrome. For both groups of children, ToM differentiated and Intrapersonal ToM was stronger than Social ToM. This asymmetry was greater for children with autism, whose Social ToM was especially weak. These results support a differentiated, as opposed to integrated, ToM. Moreover, the findings provide a more thorough understanding of the cognitive abilities associated with autism and Asperger syndrome.

  13. Risk factors for autism and Asperger syndrome. Perinatal factors and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Nils G S; Källén, Karin B M

    2011-03-01

    Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR), obstetrical and demographic information was retrieved for 250 children with autism or Asperger syndrome who were born in Malmoe, Sweden, and enrolled at the local Child and Youth Habilitation Center. The reference group consisted of all children born in Malmoe during 1980-2005. Obstetric sub-optimality (prematurity, low Apgar scores, growth restriction, or macrosomia) was positively associated with autism but not with Asperger syndrome. Maternal birth outside the Nordic countries was positively associated with autism (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95%CI: 1.6-3.1) and negatively associated with Asperger syndrome (OR: 0.6; 95%CI: 0.3-0.97). The highest risk estimate for autism was found among children to women who were born in sub-Saharan Africa (OR: 7.3), or in East Asia (OR: 3.4).

  14. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-04-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they are capable of deriving scalar implicatures, which are generally considered to be pragmatic inferences. Participants were presented with underinformative sentences like "Some sparrows are birds". This sentence is logically true, but pragmatically inappropriate if the scalar implicature "Not all sparrows are birds" is derived. The present findings indicate that the combined ASD group was just as likely as controls to derive scalar implicatures, yet there was a difference between participants with autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome, suggesting a potential differentiation between these disorders in pragmatic reasoning. Moreover, our results suggest that verbal intelligence is a constraint for task performance in autistic disorder but not in Asperger syndrome.

  15. Conditional reasoning in Asperger's syndrome and depersonalization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma Jane; Dumigan, Rachael; Schoenberg, Poppy; Mauricio, Sierra; Murphy, Declan G; David, Anthony S

    2012-09-01

    Conditional reasoning premises can be systematically manipulated to elicit specific response patterns. This is useful for investigating the reasoning style of people who report clinical symptoms. We administered a standardized conditional reasoning task to 16 participants with a diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome (AS), 16 participants with a diagnosis of depersonalization disorder (DPD), and 32 intelligence-quotient-matched controls. Premises were manipulated for a) context, with some being embedded within extra statements, and b) content, neutral or emotional. Both the AS and DPD participants were less likely to incorporate exceptions to the given premises than the controls, indicating difficulties with mental flexibility, although this effect was less marked in the DPD group. It seems the AS participants were also less influenced than the controls by statements that highlight possible alternative consequences. However, this effect was less robust than that observed with statements detailing exceptions, suggesting it may be because of general problems with executive function rather than difficulties in processing contextual information. We did not observe the expected difference between the DPD participants and the controls when reasoning with emotional premises. Overall, these data suggest that the DPD and AS participants have distinct reasoning styles, which may be of use for interventions based on cognitive change.

  16. Emotion regulation in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C; Huber, Oswald; Gross, James J

    2012-08-01

    It is generally thought that individuals with Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) have deficits in theory of mind. These deficits have been previously linked to problems with social cognition. However, we reasoned that AS/HFA individuals' Theory of Mind deficits also might lead to problems with emotion regulation. To assess emotional functioning in AS/HFA, 27 AS/HFA adults (16 women) and 27 age-, gender-, and education-matched typically developing (TD) participants completed a battery of measures of emotion experience, labeling, and regulation. With respect to emotion experience, individuals with AS/HFA reported higher levels of negative emotions, but similar levels of positive emotions, compared with TD individuals. With respect to emotion labeling, individuals with AS/HFA had greater difficulties identifying and describing their emotions, with approximately two-thirds exceeding the cutoff for alexithymia. With respect to emotion regulation, individuals with AS/HFA used reappraisal less frequently than TD individuals and reported lower levels of reappraisal self-efficacy. Although AS/HFA individuals used suppression more frequently than TD individuals, no difference in suppression self-efficacy was found. It is important to note that these differences in emotion regulation were evident even when controlling for emotion experience and labeling. Implications of these deficits are discussed, and future research directions are proposed.

  17. A Pooled Genome-Wide Association Study of Asperger Syndrome.

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    Varun Warrier

    Full Text Available Asperger Syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, alongside the presence of unusually repetitive, restricted interests and stereotyped behaviour. Individuals with AS have no delay in cognitive and language development. It is a subset of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC, which are highly heritable and has a population prevalence of approximately 1%. Few studies have investigated the genetic basis of AS. To address this gap in the literature, we performed a genome-wide pooled DNA association study to identify candidate loci in 612 individuals (294 cases and 318 controls of Caucasian ancestry, using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping version 6.0 array. We identified 11 SNPs that had a p-value below 1x10-5. These SNPs were independently genotyped in the same sample. Three of the SNPs (rs1268055, rs7785891 and rs2782448 were nominally significant, though none remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Two of our top three SNPs (rs7785891 and rs2782448 lie in loci previously implicated in ASC. However, investigation of the three SNPs in the ASC genome-wide association dataset from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium indicated that these three SNPs were not significantly associated with ASC. The effect sizes of the variants were modest, indicating that our study was not sufficiently powered to identify causal variants with precision.

  18. Impaired exploratory eye movements in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Takashi; Morita, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Ishii, Youhei; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-03-01

    Previous eye-tracking studies using an eye mark recorder have reported that disturbances in exploratory eye movements in adult schizophrenic patients are associated with social functioning. The current study sought to determine whether exploratory eye-movement disturbances are present in children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. MATERIALS/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 23 children with AS and 23 age-matched TD children. We measured exploratory eye movements using an EMR-8B eye mark recorder and an exploratory eye movement-measuring device. Eye movements were recorded while participants freely observed a geometric figure (free viewing task), and while they complied with the instructions of an experimenter (repeat-comparison task). We assessed eye fixation points (EFPs) and total eye scanning length (TESL) in all tasks, and measured the responsive search score (RSS) in the repeat-comparison task. In the free viewing task, children with AS exhibited significantly shorter TESL compared with TD children. In the repeat-comparison task, children with AS exhibited significantly lower RSS. Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with both EFP and TESL, but not RSS. The current results revealed that children with AS exhibited dysfunction in exploratory eye movements. Thus, assessing exploratory eye movements in a repeat-comparison task may be useful for detecting social impairment among children with AS. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unique Theory of Mind Differentiation in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tine, Michele; Lucariello, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if ToM abilities of children with autism and Asperger syndrome differentiate into Intrapersonal ToM and Social ToM. A battery of Social and Intrapersonal ToM tasks was administered to 39 children with autism and 34 children with Asperger syndrome. For both groups of children, ToM differentiated and Intrapersonal ToM was stronger than Social ToM. This asymmetry was greater for children with autism, whose Social ToM was especially weak. These results support...

  20. Removal of Asperger's syndrome from the DSM V: community response to uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsloe, Sarah M; Babrow, Austin S

    2016-01-01

    The May 2013 release of the new version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM V) subsumed Asperger's syndrome under the wider diagnostic label of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The revision has created much uncertainty in the community affected by this condition. This study uses problematic integration theory and thematic analysis to investigate how participants in Wrong Planet, a large online community associated with autism and Asperger's syndrome, have constructed these uncertainties. The analysis illuminates uncertainties concerning both the likelihood of diagnosis and value of diagnosis, and it details specific issues within these two general areas of uncertainty. The article concludes with both conceptual and practical implications.

  1. Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kevin K; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E; McAlonan, Gráinne M

    2011-11-01

    The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay--essentially, the "absence of language delay." To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders. We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism. The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right cerebellum, putamen and precuneus

  2. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Soulières

    Full Text Available A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM, an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated.

  3. The Level and Nature of Autistic Intelligence II: What about Asperger Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated. PMID:21991394

  4. Atypical pattern of discriminating sound features in adults with Asperger syndrome as reflected by the mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, T; Aho, E; Lepistö, T; Jansson-Verkasalo, E; Nieminen-von Wendt, T; von Wendt, L; Näätänen, R

    2007-04-01

    Asperger syndrome, which belongs to the autistic spectrum of disorders, is characterized by deficits of social interaction and abnormal perception, like hypo- or hypersensitivity in reacting to sounds and discriminating certain sound features. We determined auditory feature discrimination in adults with Asperger syndrome with the mismatch negativity (MMN), a neural response which is an index of cortical change detection. We recorded MMN for five different sound features (duration, frequency, intensity, location, and gap). Our results suggest hypersensitive auditory change detection in Asperger syndrome, as reflected in the enhanced MMN for deviant sounds with a gap or shorter duration, and speeded MMN elicitation for frequency changes.

  5. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Jeanie; Strulovitch, Jack; Tagalakis, Vicki; Meng, Linyan; Fombonne, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a social skills training group for adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) was evaluated. Parents of six groups of adolescents (n = 46, 61% male, mean age 14.6) completed questionnaires immediately before and after the 12-week group. Parents and adolescents were surveyed regarding their…

  6. Treatment of Chronic Skin-Picking in an Adolescent With Asperger Syndrome and Borderline Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, R.B.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Rispoli, M.; Regester, A.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a 17-year-old girl with Asperger syndrome and borderline intellectual disability with a 5-year history of chronic skin-picking. Our intervention approach included an initial functional assessment to identify variables maintaining skin-picking, followed by evaluation of a

  7. Narrative Competence and "Internal State Language" of Children with Asperger Syndrome and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Anna-Lena; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Becker, Katja; Kauschke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The central question of the present study was whether there are differences between children with Asperger Syndrome (AS), children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls (HC) with respect to the organization of narratives and their verbalization of internal states. Oral narrations of a wordless picture book…

  8. Brief Report: CANTAB Performance and Brain Structure in Pediatric Patients with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Zotter, Sibylle; Pixner, Silvia; Starke, Marc; Haberlandt, Edda; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Egger, Karl; Schocke, Michael; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Marksteiner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    By merging neuropsychological (CANTAB/Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and structural brain imaging data (voxel-based-morphometry) the present study sought to identify the neurocognitive correlates of executive functions in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to healthy controls. Results disclosed subtle group…

  9. Functional Analysis of Inappropriate Social Interactions in Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roantree, Christina F.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the inappropriate social interactions of 3 students with Asperger's syndrome whose behavior was maintained by social positive reinforcement. We tested whether inappropriate social behavior was sensitive to social positive reinforcement contingencies and whether such contingencies could be reversed to increase the probability of…

  10. A New Computerised Advanced Theory of Mind Measure for Children with Asperger Syndrome: The ATOMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae B.; Sofronoff, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the ability of children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) to attribute mental states to characters in a new computerised, advanced theory of mind measure: The Animated Theory of Mind Inventory for Children (ATOMIC). Results showed that children with AS matched on IQ, verbal comprehension, age and gender performed equivalently on…

  11. Social Competence Intervention for Elementary Students with Aspergers Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine P.; O'Connor, Karen V.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Lierheimer, Kristin; McGhee, Stephanie D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite frequent reports of academic success, individuals with high functioning autism or Aspergers Syndrome (HFA/AS) often manifest deficits in social abilities. These deficits can lead to daily difficulties, and negative long-term outcomes. Deficits in social competency are evident in this population from an early age, as children with HFA/AS…

  12. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  13. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Judith; Hagoort, Peter; Buitelaar, Jan; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Geurts, Bart

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched controls (n = 28) to investigate whether they…

  14. An Exploration of Causes of Non-Literal Language Problems in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ingerith; McDonald, Skye

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS), a high functioning variant of Autism, are often noted to possess intact language ability, yet fail to use this language capacity to engage in interactive communication. This difficulty using language in a social context has been referred to as a deficit in pragmatic language. In particular, difficulty…

  15. Narrative Discourse in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Livia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report a study comparing the narrative abilities of 12 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) versus 12 matched controls. The study focuses on the use of referential expressions (temporal expressions and anaphoric pronouns) during a story-telling task. The aim was to assess pragmatics skills in people with HFA/AS in…

  16. Pragmatic Inference Abilities in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes studies involving pragmatic language comprehension and inference abilities in individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Systematic searches of three electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified 20 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of:…

  17. Parents of Children with Asperger Syndrome or with Learning Disabilities: Family Environment and Social Support

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    Heiman, Tali; Berger, Ornit

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the family environment and perceived social support of 33 parents with a child diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and 43 parents with a child with learning disability, which were compared to 45 parents of children without disabilities as a control group. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale and Social Support Scale…

  18. Brief Report: Should Asperger Syndrome Be Excluded from the Forthcoming DSM-V?

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    Kaland, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is a "pervasive developmental disorder," characterized by social impairments and focused, circumscribed interests and activities in the absence of significant language impairment and cognitive delay. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, there has been a dramatic increase in its recognition both in children and adults. Some…

  19. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  20. Punishment and Sympathy Judgments: Is the Quality of Mercy Strained in Asperger's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Shelley; Fitzpatrick, Sian; Drury, Helena; Taylor, Isabelle; Lagnado, David

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about wrongdoing in people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and matched healthy controls in relation to car accident scenarios. The two groups made similar judgments with respect to degree of driver negligence for both fines imposed and sympathy ratings. They also made similar judgments of fines in relation to the type…

  1. Judgments of Cause and Blame: Sensitivity to Intentionality in Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Shelley; Lagnado, David; Fitzpatrick, Sian; Drury, Helena; Taylor, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to intentionality in people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and matched controls was investigated using two scenario-based tasks. The first compared intentional and unintentional human actions and physical events leading to the same negative outcomes. The second compared intentional actions that varied in their subjective and objective…

  2. Audiovisual Speech Perception and Eye Gaze Behavior of Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalasti, Satu; Katsyri, Jari; Tiippana, Kaisa; Laine-Hernandez, Mari; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Audiovisual speech perception was studied in adults with Asperger syndrome (AS), by utilizing the McGurk effect, in which conflicting visual articulation alters the perception of heard speech. The AS group perceived the audiovisual stimuli differently from age, sex and IQ matched controls. When a voice saying /p/ was presented with a face…

  3. The Needs of College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have seen increases in students identified as having autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or Asperger's syndrome (AS). The purpose of this study was to analyze the needs of college students with autism spectrum disorders. The study implemented a naturalistic inquiry design incorporating three data collection formats. A…

  4. Superior Nonverbal Intelligence in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Some early studies showed discordance in cognitive strengths and weaknesses in individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger's syndrome (AS). The present study administered the French version of Colored Raven's Progressive Matrices in 14 children with HFA/AS and in 26 chronological age matched peers with typical development. We found…

  5. An Examination of Handedness and Footedness in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulakis, R.; Scharoun, S. M.; Bryden, P. J.; Fletcher, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control deficits have been documented in children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS), but the extent to which these disorders affect the children's footedness must be delineated. Twelve typically developing (TD) children and 12 children with HFA/AS, ages 6-9 years, were recruited. Motor control skills were assessed…

  6. Brief Report: Cognitive Performance in Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: What Are the Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Stefano; Contena, Bastianina

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders include autistic and Asperger's Syndrome (AS), often studied in terms of executive functions (EF), with controversial results. Using Planning Attention Simultaneous Successive theory (PASS; Das et al. in "Assessment of cognitive processes: the PASS theory of intelligence." Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA, 1994),…

  7. Similar Developmental Trajectories in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: From Early Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Boyle, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to chart the developmental trajectories of high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from early childhood to adolescence using the presence and absence of structural language impairment (StrLI) as a way of differentiating autism from Asperger syndrome (AS). Method: Sixty-four…

  8. Cognitive Differences in Pictorial Reasoning between High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahyoun, Cherif P.; Soulieres, Isabelle; Belliveau, John W.; Mottron, Laurent; Mody, Maria

    2009-01-01

    We investigated linguistic and visuospatial processing during pictorial reasoning in high-functioning autism (HFA), Asperger's syndrome (ASP), and age and IQ-matched typically developing participants (CTRL), using three conditions designed to differentially engage linguistic mediation or visuospatial processing (visuospatial, V; semantic, S;…

  9. Mathematics Interventions for Students with High Functioning Autism/Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jeffrey B.; Zager, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Teachers are often at a loss when considering how to address mathematics difficulties for students with high functioning autism/Asperger's syndrome (HFA/AS). Students may show difficulty remembering operations throughout an equation, organizing information on the page, and comprehending the language in instructions of word problems. These…

  10. Risk Factors for Autism and Asperger Syndrome: Perinatal Factors and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Nils G. S.; Kallen, Karin B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Using the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR), obstetrical and demographic information was retrieved for 250 children with autism or Asperger syndrome who were born in Malmoe, Sweden, and enrolled at the local Child and Youth Habilitation Center. The reference group consisted of all children born in Malmoe during 1980-2005. Obstetric…

  11. Do Adults with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome Differ in Empathy and Emotion Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Charlotte B.; Allison, Carrie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Cassidy, Sarah; Langdon, Peter E.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether adults with high functioning autism (HFA) showed greater difficulties in (1) their self-reported ability to empathise with others and/or (2) their ability to read mental states in others' eyes than adults with Asperger syndrome (AS). The Empathy Quotient (EQ) and "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test…

  12. Linguistic Characteristics of Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hye Kyeung

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic characteristics of high functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Each group consisted of 10 participants who were matched on sex, chronological age, and intelligence scores. Participants generated a narrative after watching a brief video segment of the Social Attribution Task video. Each…

  13. Pragmatic Inferences in High-Functioning Adults with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, L.B.W.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  14. White Matter Integrity in Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Deeley, Quinton; Sundram, Fred; Daly, Eileen M.; Barker, Gareth J.; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese A. M. J.; Schmitz, Nicole; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome and autism, is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a consensus that ASD has a biological basis, and it has been proposed that it is a "connectivity" disorder. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  15. Pragmatic inferences in high-functioning adults with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, J.; Hagoort, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Geurts, B.

    2009-01-01

    Although people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have severe problems with pragmatic aspects of language, little is known about their pragmatic reasoning. We carried out a behavioral study on high-functioning adults with autistic disorder (n = 11) and Asperger syndrome (n = 17) and matched

  16. Cognitive and Academic Distinctions between Gifted Students with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Assouline, Susan G.; Stinson, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive and academic profiles of high ability students with autism spectrum disorder were examined. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of autism (high functioning) or Asperger syndrome and at least one ability and/or achievement index standard score of 120 or above. Results indicated that despite the restricted range of cognitive abilities,…

  17. Distinct Patterns of Grey Matter Abnormality in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M.; Suckling, John; Wong, Naikei; Cheung, Vinci; Lienenkaemper, Nina; Cheung, Charlton; Chua, Siew E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism exists across a wide spectrum and there is considerable debate as to whether children with Asperger's syndrome, who have normal language milestones, should be considered to comprise a subgroup distinct other from high-functioning children with autism (HFA), who have a history of delayed language development. Magnetic resonance…

  18. Profiles of Social Communicative Competence in Middle School Children with Asperger Syndrome: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Harn, William E.

    2006-01-01

    Among characteristics of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS) are difficulties in social communication. This study describes the social communicative competence of two middle school children with AS participating in conversations in three different situational contexts. The conversations were transcribed and submitted to three kinds of…

  19. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  20. Do Resource Bases Enable Social Inclusion of Students with Asperger Syndrome in a Mainstream Secondary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Floriane; Perepa, Prithvi

    2017-01-01

    This research identifies the way in which one secondary school with a resourced provision for students with Asperger syndrome promotes social inclusion for them, and the perceptions of staff members and parents on the social experience of schooling for these children. Interviews were conducted with five teachers, two learning support assistants,…

  1. Confusion and Inconsistency in Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome: A Review of Studies from 1981 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shilpi; Woolfson, Lisa Marks; Hunter, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of past and current research on the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) in children. It is suggested that the widely used criteria for diagnosing AS in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM)-IV are insufficient and invalid for a reliable diagnosis of AS. In addition, when these diagnostic…

  2. A Comparison of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Profiles of Individuals with and without Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, K. V.; Hudry, Kristelle; Michalaria, Georgia; Swami, Viren; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which the socioemotional impairments of Asperger syndrome (AS) might be extreme manifestations of individual differences within the general population remains under-explored. We compared the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 30 individuals with AS against the profiles of 43 group-matched controls using the Trait…

  3. Ecological Approaches to Transition Planning for Students with Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Claire L.; Parkinson Coles, Kallie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a compelling case for the increased role of social workers in work with individuals with autism and Asperger's syndrome in secondary school settings, specifically in transition planning for postsecondary educational pursuits. Social work education prepares social workers to address micro, mezzo, and macro levels of practice…

  4. Challenges in Social Communication in Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Emily; Lennon, Laurie

    2004-01-01

    Despite the inclusion of Asperger syndrome in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994) 10 years ago, there is ongoing debate regarding its validity as a diagnostic construct, particularly relative to the diagnosis of autistic disorder when it is not accompanied…

  5. High School General Education English Teachers' Perception of IEP Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Mary Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative design study was to better understand the experiences of high school general education English teachers who have students with Asperger Syndrome in their classes. More specifically, this researcher wanted to better understand the teacher's perception of the IEP-denoted accommodations the general education teachers…

  6. Understanding the Friendship Processes of Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome: A Phenomenological Study of Reflective College Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kammie Bohlken

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study shed light on the reflective college experiences of 11 individuals with Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism from a competence rather than a deficit model of disability (Biklen, 2005). Using Goleman's model of Social Intelligence (2006) as a theoretical framework, the cognitive, behavioral, and affective…

  7. Brief Report: Insight into Illness and Social Attributional Style in Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Shad, Mujeeb U.; Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    A number of psychiatric illnesses have been recognized to have some level of insight deficits, including developmental disorders, such as Asperger's Syndrome (ASP). However insight into illness has not been empirically investigated in ASP and little research has examined how individuals with ASP view their deficits. This is the first study to…

  8. Exploring Language Profiles for Children with ADHD and Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Wenche Andersen; Biringer, Eva; Helland, Turid; Heimann, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the present study was to investigate communication impairments in a Norwegian sample of children with ADHD and children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and to explore whether children with ADHD can be differentiated from children with AS in terms of their language profiles on the Norwegian adaptation of the Children's…

  9. Teaching Organizational Skills to Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorminy, Kimberly Powers; Luscre, Deanna; Gast, David L.

    2009-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a file box system plus self-monitoring on the organizational skills of four fourth and fifth grade students with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Instruction took place in general education classrooms and consisted of teaching…

  10. Experiences of University Life for Students with Asperger's Syndrome: A Comparative Study between Spain and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, Sue; Carpio de los Pinos, Carmen; Forrester-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that young people with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) are likely to experience increased anxiety during new social situations; yet, studies have been regionally and culturally bound. The aim of this study was to explore how higher education students with AS experienced attending university in two European countries: the…

  11. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  12. A brief historic review of the conceptions of Autism and Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tamanaha, Ana Carina [UNIFESP; Perissinoto, Jacy [UNIFESP; Chiari, Brasilia Maria [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar historicamente os conceitos do Autismo Infantil e da síndrome de Asperger. Por meio de revisão de literatura os autores buscaram mostrar as modificações, ao longo do tempo, das concepções teóricas e das descrições clínicas destes quadros.The aim of this study was to review historically the concepts of Autism and Asperger syndrome. Through literature review, the authors evidence the changes on theoretical concepts and clinical descriptions of Autism and Aspe...

  13. A case series of five individuals with asperger syndrome and sexual criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has increased in recent years and so has the focus on high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. A subset of Asperger individuals appears to have a propensity to engage in acts of violence, particularly sexual crimes, which may best be attributed to the core features of their pathology such as “mind-blindness” and paucity of central coherence. This paper is an account on five such cases encountered in our hospital for whom various assessments were done including Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, intelligence quotient assessment by Binet Kamat test of intelligence, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Ritvo Asperger's and Autism Diagnostic Scale, and Gillberg's criteria for diagnosis. These cases gained legal attention and “undeserved” outcomes. By drawing parallels from other countries, a few suggestions have been highlighted in the paper that can be considered to discard glaring deficits in the criminal law system in India in this context.

  14. Camus's L'étranger and the first description of a man with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2018-01-01

    The continued discussion about the meaning of Camus's famous novel, L'étranger , provoked a re-reading, and this, in turn, led to its clinical analysis and further investigation. The book rests entirely on the thoughts, words and actions of its central character, Meursault, and these were found to show impairment of social relationships, communication and interaction, with other traits diagnostic of the Asperger's subgroup of the autism spectrum disorder. It was then found that Camus had based Meursault on his close friend Galindo, and a search was therefore made for evidence of Galindo's character; this revealed him to be an intelligent but odd person, who exhibited the characteristic impairment of social and personal behavior of Asperger's syndrome. Thus, Camus had recognized and understood his friend's strange behavior before Asperger's syndrome had been defined; his use of it for the creation of Meursault is therefore the first published account of a man with this disorder. Many of the interpretations and ideas developed from Meursault's words, thoughts and actions must now be reconsidered, as they are a misreading of the words and behavior of a man with Asperger's syndrome. The outcome of this clinical examination of L'étranger is unique; it shows that a precise account of a person with a neurobehavioral disorder was made by a novelist before the disorder had been clinically defined.

  15. Autismo e síndrome de Asperger: uma visão geral Autism and Asperger syndrome: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Klin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Autismo e síndrome de Asperger são entidades diagnósticas em uma família de transtornos de neurodesenvolvimento nos quais ocorre uma ruptura nos processos fundamentais de socialização, comunicação e aprendizado. Esses transtornos são coletivamente conhecidos como transtornos invasivos de desenvolvimento. Esse grupo de condições está entre os transtornos de desenvolvimento mais comuns, afetando aproximadamente 1 em cada 200 indivíduos. Eles estão também entre os com maior carga genética entre os transtornos de desenvolvimento, com riscos de recorrência entre familiares da ordem de 2 a 15% se for adotada uma definição mais ampla de critério diagnóstico. Seu início precoce, perfil sintomático e cronicidade envolvem mecanismos biológicos fundamentais relacionados à adaptação social. Avanços em sua compreensão estão conduzindo a uma nova perspectiva da neurociência ao estudar os processos típicos de socialização e das interrupções específicas deles advindas. Esses processos podem levar à emergência de fenótipos altamente heterogêneos associados ao autismo, o paradigmático transtorno invasivo de desenvolvimento e suas variantes. Esta revisão foca o histórico, a nosologia e as características clínicas e associadas aos dois transtornos invasivos de desenvolvimento mais conhecidos - o autismo e a síndrome de Asperger.Autism and Asperger syndrome are diagnostic entities in a family of neurodevelopmental disorders disrupting fundamental processes of socialization, communication and learning, collectively known as pervasive developmental disorders. This group of conditions is among the most common developmental disorders, affecting 1 in every 200 or so individuals. They are also the most strongly genetically related among developmental disorders, with recurrence risks within sibships of the order of 2 to 15% if a broader definition of affectedness is adopted. Their early onset, symptom profile, and chronicity

  16. Art-therapy and Asperger Syndrome: ¿why, and what for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Regis Sansalonis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain the reason and importance of using art-therapy in groups dealing with Asperger Syndrome, through a bibliographic review, specially of secondary sources as a research work. Finally, it is recognized the scarce bibliography found, and the need of continuing to investigate art-therapy in this social group, still unknown by most of the society.

  17. Social Anxiety in High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-01-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…

  18. Cortical processing of speech and non-speech sounds in autism and Asperger syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lepistö, Tuulia

    2008-01-01

    Autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by deficient social and communication skills, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour. The language development in individuals with autism is significantly delayed and deficient, whereas in individuals with AS, the structural aspects of language develop quite normally. Both groups, however, have semantic-pragmatic language deficits. The present thesis investigated auditory processing in individual...

  19. Memory for self-performed actions in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tiziana Zalla; Elena Daprati; Anca-Maria Sav; Pauline Chaste; Daniele Nico; Marion Leboyer

    2010-01-01

    Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect). Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS). We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from...

  20. Electrophysiological Signs of Supplementary-Motor-Area Deficits in High-Functioning Autism but Not Asperger Syndrome: An Examination of Internally Cued Movement-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Bradshaw, John L.; Iansek, Robert; Tonge, Bruce J.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor dysfunction is common to both autism and Asperger syndrome, but the underlying neurophysiological impairments are unclear. Neurophysiological examinations of motor dysfunction can provide information about likely sites of functional impairment and can contribute to the debate about whether autism and Asperger syndrome are variants of…

  1. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

  2. A Concise History of Asperger Syndrome: the short reign of a troublesome diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eBarahona-Correa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1944 by Hans Asperger, it was not before 1994 that Asperger Syndrome (AS was included in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, only to disappear in the Manual’s 5th edition in 2013. During its brief existence as a diagnostic entity, AS aroused immense interest and controversy. Similar to patients with autism, AS patients show deficits in social interaction, inappropriate communication skills, and interest restriction, but also display a rich variety of subtle clinical characteristics that for many distinguish AS from autism. However, difficulties operationalising diagnostic criteria and differentiating AS from autism ultimately led to its merging into the unifying category of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Here we briefly review the short history of this fascinating condition.

  3. Cystic fibrosis, common variable immunodeficiency and Aspergers syndrome: an immunological and behavioural challenge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is of particular importance in Ireland as the Irish population has both the highest incidence (2.98\\/10,000) and the highest carrier rate (1 in 19) in the world. Primary immunodeficiency has not been previously reported as co-existing with CF. CASE REPORT: We report a unique case of CF associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome--common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). DISCUSSION: Our patient has CF, CVID and the additional comorbidity of Aspergers syndrome. The challenges inherent in diagnosing and treating such a case are outlined herein and the successful management of this case is evidenced by the well-preserved lung function of our patient.

  4. Cystic fibrosis, common variable immunodeficiency and Aspergers syndrome: an immunological and behavioural challenge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2009-08-07

    INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is of particular importance in Ireland as the Irish population has both the highest incidence (2.98\\/10,000) and the highest carrier rate (1 in 19) in the world. Primary immunodeficiency has not been previously reported as co-existing with CF. CASE REPORT: We report a unique case of CF associated with a primary immunodeficiency syndrome-common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). DISCUSSION: Our patient has CF, CVID and the additional comorbidity of Aspergers syndrome. The challenges inherent in diagnosing and treating such a case are outlined herein and the successful management of this case is evidenced by the well-preserved lung function of our patient.

  5. Avaliação da linguagem oral e escrita em sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger Language assessment in subjects with Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Ziliotto Dias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar e caracterizar provas fonoaudiológicas de linguagem oral e escrita de sujeitos com Síndrome de Asperger comparativamente a um grupo de sujeitos com desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: avaliou-se 44 sujeitos que constituíram dois grupos: o grupo Asperger, composto por 22 sujeitos diagnosticados por equipe multidisciplinar como portadores de Síndrome de Asperger, conforme os critérios do DSM-IV; e o grupo de comparação, denominado grupo de baixo risco para alterações do desenvolvimento, também com 22 participantes, pareados com os sujeitos do grupo Asperger segundo a idade cronológica. Todos os sujeitos eram do sexo masculino, com idade cronológica entre 10 e 30 anos e quociente intelectual maior ou igual a 68 e foram submetidos à Prova de Consciência Fonológica, Teste de Vocabulário por Imagem Peabody, Prova de Leitura de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Compreensão de Leitura, Prova de Escrita sob Ditado de Palavras e Pseudopalavras, Prova de Escrita Semidirigida de Textos. RESULTADOS: a análise estatística revelou diferenças estaticamente significantes entre as medianas da prova de consciência fonológica e entre as médias do teste de vocabulário por imagem Peabody e prova de compreensão de leitura nos dois grupos estudados (pPURPOSE: to evaluate and characterize the oral and written language of subjects with Asperger Syndrome and compare them with a group of subjects with typical development. METHODS: a total of 44 subjects were assessed and divided in two groups. The Asperger group was composed by 22 subjects diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome by an expert clinical team following the DSM-IV criteria. The comparison group, referred to as low risk for developmental disorders was also composed by 22 subjects matched with the subjects in Asperger group by chronological age. All the assessed subjects were right-handed males, with chronological ages between 10 and 30 years and intelligence quotients above

  6. Asperger syndrome in a boy with a balanced de novo translocation: t(17;19)(p13.3;p11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-10

    The cause of Asperger syndrome is unknown. It is classified as a form of childhood autism. Familial aggregation in infantile autism has been reported. Asperger syndrome has also been considered as being genetically transmitted and certain of its characteristics have tended to occur in other relatives, especially in the fathers. We describe a 10-year-old boy with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a balanced de novo translocation (t(17;19)9p13.3;p11). His parents are not consanguineous and are healthy, as are his three brothers. 5 refs.

  7. Success of behaviour modification in a child with Asperger's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Šteh, Urška

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this degree dissertation is the success rate of behaviour modification in a child with the autistic spectrum disorder Asperger’s syndrome. I decided to pursue this subject based on my work in a kindergarten, where I became acquainted with a boy with Asperger’s syndrome. The issue I encountered was that I could find no sources where the method of behaviour modification was implemented with persons that have Asperger’s syndrome. For this reason I decided to determine, by using...

  8. Socio-Dramatic Affective-Relational Intervention for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome & High Functioning Autism: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called "socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention" (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill…

  9. Epilepsy in Individuals with a History of Asperger's Syndrome: A Danish Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2013-01-01

    We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…

  10. Performance of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism on advanced theory of mind tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaland, Nils; Callesen, Kirsten; Møller-Nielsen, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of advanced theory of mind tasks have been developed, there is a dearth of information on whether performances on different tasks are associated. The present study examined the performance of 21 children and adolescents with diagnoses of Asperger syndrome (AS) and 20 typically...

  11. Teaching Theory of Mind: A Curriculum for Children with High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Syndrome, and Related Social Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordetx, Kirstina

    2012-01-01

    This book provides teachers and other professionals with a highly effective, easy-to-follow curriculum for teaching children with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome and related social challenges to relate to and interact with others successfully by developing a solid, basic foundation in Theory of Mind (ToM). Dr. Kirstina Ordetx provides…

  12. Language and ToM Development in Autism versus Asperger Syndrome: Contrasting Influences of Syntactic versus Lexical/Semantic Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Jessica; Peterson, Candida

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) development by a sample of 63 children aged 5-12 years (24 with Asperger syndrome, 19 with high-functioning autism, and 20 age-matched typical developers) was assessed with a five-task false-belief battery in relation to both lexical (vocabulary) and syntactic (grammar) language skills. Contrary to some previous research, no…

  13. Social Attribution in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: An Exploratory Study in the Chinese Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Hu, Zhou-yi; Cui, Ji-fang; Wang, Ya; McAlonan, Grainne M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine social attribution in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS). A sample of 20 boys (9 with HFA and 11 with AS) and 20 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. All participated in two tasks measuring social attribution ability, the conventional Social Attribution Task…

  14. Oral Language Impairments in Developmental Disorders Characterized by Language Strengths: A Comparison of Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothers, M. E.; Cardy, J. Oram

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are developmental disorders in which linguistic ability is reported to be stronger than in disorders from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis. Children and adults with AS and NLD share pragmatic weaknesses, atypical social behaviours, and some cognitive features. To date,…

  15. Adults with Asperger Syndrome with and without a Cognitive Profile Associated with "Non-Verbal Learning Disability." A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyden, Agneta; Niklasson, Lena; Stahlberg, Ola; Anckarsater, Henrik; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika; Wentz, Elisabet; Rastam, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) are both characterized by impairments in motor coordination, visuo-perceptual abilities, pragmatics and comprehension of language and social understanding. NLD is also defined as a learning disorder affecting functions in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study investigates…

  16. Use of Context in Pragmatic Language Comprehension by Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Leinonen, Eeva; Kuusikko, Sanna; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ryder, Nuala; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing relevance theory, this study investigated the ability of children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) to use context when answering questions and when giving explanations for their correct answers. Three groups participated in this study: younger AS/HFA group (age 7-9, n = 16), older AS/HFA group (age 10-12, n =…

  17. Maternal Perceptions of the Importance of Needs and Resources for Children with Asperger Syndrome and Nonverbal Learning Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Liza

    2003-01-01

    A survey examined the perceptions of 404 mothers on the availability and importance of various resources for their children (ages 4-17) with Asperger syndrome or nonverbal learning disorder. A significant number (20-30%) reported that pragmatics training, social skills training, smaller classes, or a trained aide were not made available. (Contains…

  18. Multirater Congruence on the Social Skills Assessment of Children with Asperger Syndrome: Self, Mother, Father, and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) who attend mainstream settings face social skills deficits that have not been adequately explored. This study aims to examine social skills through self-reports of children with AS (N = 21) and a matched group of typically developing peers, as well as reports from their mothers, fathers, and teachers. Results…

  19. "What about Us?" Exploring What It Means to Be a Management Educator with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah; Kaupins, Gundars

    2018-01-01

    Very little is known on the subject of educators with Asperger's syndrome (AS), and the available information pales in comparison to the enormous literature studying students with AS. While there are many resources for engaging students with AS, and increasing awareness of how AS affects student learning, discussions about the implications for…

  20. "How Can a Chord Be Weird if It Expresses Your Soul?" Some Critical Reflections on the Diagnosis of Aspergers Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper questions the way in which the diagnosis of Aspergers syndrome has come to be widely accepted and used as an essentially medical category. It does so by drawing upon sociological and historical analyses of society, psychiatry and psychology, as well as the writings of service users, other practitioners in the autistic spectrum disorder…

  1. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  2. Decoding of Emotion through Facial Expression, Prosody and Verbal Content in Children and Adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Jennifer L.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the ability to decode emotion through facial expression, prosody, and verbal content between 14 children with Asperger's Syndrome (AS) and 16 typically developing peers. The ability to decode emotion was measured by the Perception of Emotion Test (POET), which portrayed the emotions of happy, angry, sad, and…

  3. An Exploration of Support Factors Available to Higher Education Students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Emily N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the support factors available to students with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome in higher education that contribute to their success as perceived by the students. Creswell's (2009) six step method for analyzing phenomenological studies was used to…

  4. A 380-kb Duplication in 7p22.3 Encompassing the LFNG Gene in a Boy with Asperger Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T.; de Brouwer, A.F.; de Leeuw, N.; Obihara, C.C.; Brunner, H.G.; Vries, L.B.A. de

    2012-01-01

    De novo genomic aberrations are considered an important cause of autism spectrum disorders. We describe a de novo 380-kb gain in band p22.3 of chromosome 7 in a patient with Asperger syndrome. This duplicated region contains 9 genes including the LNFG gene that is an important regulator of NOTCH

  5. High-Functioning Autism/Asperger Syndrome in Schools: Assessment and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansosti, Frank J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.; Cowan, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Meeting a growing need for school-based practitioners, this book provides vital tools for improving the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of students with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Research-based best practices are presented for conducting meaningful assessments; collaborating with teachers, students, and…

  6. Quality of Communication Life in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Quality of Communication Life Scale (QCL; Paul et al., 2004) for a group of individuals with developmental communication disorders--adolescents with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Perceptions of quality of…

  7. The Construction and Evaluation of Three Measures of Affectionate Behaviour for Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Lee, Jessica; Sheffield, Jeanie; Attwood, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Children with Asperger's syndrome are often reported by their parents as having difficulties communicating affection. This study aimed to develop a valid measure of affectionate behaviour that could be used to investigate and quantify these anecdotal reports and then be used in further intervention research. Using parent and expert focus…

  8. Navigating the Social World: A Curriculum for Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome, High Functioning Autism and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Jeanette L.

    This volume presents a curriculum developed specifically to develop the social, emotional, and organizational skills of individuals with Asperger's Syndrome or high functioning autism. The book offers ideas and techniques drawn from various disciplines including cognitive behavioral therapy, applied behavioral therapy, education, and occupational…

  9. Mastering Social and Organization Goals: Strategy Use by Two Children with Asperger Syndrome during Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Vishram, Alysha

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data supports the effectiveness of Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) for children with Asperger syndrome (AS). Children with AS often experience social and organizational difficulties spanning daily occupations. This case study explored the pattern of Global Strategies and Domain-Specific Strategies…

  10. Self- Versus Teacher Management of Behavior for Elementary School Students with Asperger Syndrome: Impact on Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Karrie A.; Lang, Russell; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy J.; O'Reilly, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of a token economy and a self-management intervention in an inclusive kindergarten classroom. Two 5-year-old children with Asperger syndrome who were struggling to follow classroom rules participated in the study. An ABACABAC (A = baseline, B = token economy, C =…

  11. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years after Initial Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, I. Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had "never" met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and…

  12. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  13. Photoanthropometric study of dysmorphic features of the face in children with autism and asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Piotr; Kapinos-Gorczyca, Agnieszka; Ziora, Katarzyna; Oświęcimska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Childhood autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and by a pattern of stereotypical behaviors and interests. The aim of this study was to estimate the dysmorphic facial features of children with autism and children with Asperger syndrome. The examination was conducted on 60 children (30 with childhood autism and 30 with Asperger syndrome). The photo anthropometric method used in this study followed the protocol established by Stengel-Rutkowski et al. The performed statistical analysis showed that in patients with childhood autism, the anteriorly rotated ears and the long back of the nose appeared more often. In the group of children with autism, there was a connection between the amount of dysmorphies and the presence of some somatic diseases in the first-degree relatives. There was also a connection between the motor coordination and the age the child began to walk. In patients with childhood autism, there were certain dysmorphies (like the anterior rotated ears and the long back of the nose) which appeared more often. Although the connection was not statistically significant, it seemed to concur with data from the literature. Formulation of the other conclusions would require broader studies e.g. dealing with a familial analysis of dysmorphic features.

  14. Abnormal auditory forward masking pattern in the brainstem response of individuals with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Källstrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Johan Källstrand1, Olle Olsson2, Sara Fristedt Nehlstedt1, Mia Ling Sköld1, Sören Nielzén21SensoDetect AB, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Abnormal auditory information processing has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In the present study auditory processing was investigated by recording auditory brainstem responses (ABRs elicited by forward masking in adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS. Sixteen AS subjects were included in the forward masking experiment and compared to three control groups consisting of healthy individuals (n = 16, schizophrenic patients (n = 16 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients (n = 16, respectively, of matching age and gender. The results showed that the AS subjects exhibited abnormally low activity in the early part of their ABRs that distinctly separated them from the three control groups. Specifically, wave III amplitudes were significantly lower in the AS group than for all the control groups in the forward masking condition (P < 0.005, which was not the case in the baseline condition. Thus, electrophysiological measurements of ABRs to complex sound stimuli (eg, forward masking may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology of AS. Future studies may further point to specific ABR characteristics in AS individuals that separate them from individuals diagnosed with other neurodevelopmental diseases.Keywords: asperger syndrome, auditory brainstem response, forward masking, psychoacoustics

  15. Photoanthropometric Study of Dysmorphic Features of the Face in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ziora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and by a pattern of stereotypical behaviors and interests. The aim of this study was to estimate the dysmorphic facial features of children with autism and children with Asperger syndrome . Methods: The examination was conducted on 60 children (30 with childhood autism and 30 with Asperger syndrome. The photo anthropometric method used in this study followed the protocol established by Stengel-Rutkowski et al . Results: The performed statistical analysis showed that in patients with childhood autism, the anteriorly rotated ears and the long back of the nose appeared more often. In the group of children with autism, there was a connection between the amount of dysmorphies and the presence of some somatic diseases in the first-degree relatives. There was also a connection between the motor coordination and the age the child began to walk. Discussion: In patients with childhood autism, there were certain dysmorphies (like the anterior rotated ears and the long back of the nose which appeared more often. Although the connection was not statistically significant, it seemed to concur with data from the literature . Conclusion: Formulation of the other conclusions would require broader studies e.g. dealing with a familial analysis of dysmorphic features.

  16. A randomised controlled trial of a CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronoff, Kate; Attwood, Tony; Hinton, Sharon

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief CBT intervention for anxiety with children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS). A second interest was to evaluate whether more intensive parent involvement would increase the child's ability to manage anxiety outside of the clinic setting. Seventy-one children aged ten to twelve years were recruited to participate in the anxiety programme. All children were diagnosed with AS and the presence of anxiety symptoms was accepted on parent report via brief interview. Children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: intervention for child only, intervention for child and parent, wait-list control. The two intervention groups demonstrated significant decreases in parent-reported anxiety symptoms at follow-up and a significant increase in the child's ability to generate positive strategies in an anxiety-provoking situation. There were a number of significant differences between the two interventions to suggest parent involvement as beneficial. The sample of children with AS in this study presented with a profile of anxiety similar to a sample of clinically diagnosed anxious children. The intervention was endorsed by parents as a useful programme for children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and exhibiting anxiety symptoms, and active parent involvement enhanced the usefulness of the programme. Limitations of the study and future research are discussed.

  17. Visual acuity in adults with Asperger's syndrome: no evidence for "eagle-eyed" vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkmer, Marita; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Danielsson, Henrik; Bram, Staffan; Lönebrink, Mikael; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2011-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication. Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently, Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been the subject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt. The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger's syndrome and compared their results with 25 control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart. The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity. Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger's syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visual perception in ASC are not explained by this factor. A continued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in persons with ASC is therefore warranted. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Asperger syndrome and the supposed obligation not to bring disabled lives into the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Pat

    2010-09-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) is an autistic spectrum condition that shares the range of social impairments associated with classic autism widely regarded as disabling, while also often giving rise to high levels of ability in areas such as maths, science, engineering and music. The nature of this striking duality of disability and ability is examined, along with its implications for our thinking about disability and the relevance of levels and kinds of disability to reproductive choices. In particular, it may be seen as posing a challenge to John Harris's influential position in reproductive ethics relating to disability. The paper argues that if, as Harris maintains, there is a quite general moral obligation to avoid bringing disabled lives into the world regardless of the level of disability, then AS must be seen as having a strong claim to be exempt from such an obligation. However, a broader critique of Harris's position leads to the conclusion that, in fact, this putative obligation does not exist.

  19. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  20. Social anxiety in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-10-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 +/- 1.7 years) and 305 community subjects (M = 12.2 +/- 2.2 years). Children and adolescents completed the SPAI-C and SASC-R, and their parents completed the CBCL Internalizing scale. Adolescents with HFA/AS scored higher than the community sample on all measures. Behavioural avoidance and evaluative social anxiety increased by age within the HFA/AS group, whereas behavioural avoidance decreased by age in control participants. Data support that HFA/AS in adolescents may be associated with clinically relevant social anxiety symptoms.

  1. Increasing the Understanding and Demonstration of Appropriate Affection in Children with Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sofronoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to examine relationships between affectionate behavior in children with Asperger syndrome and variables likely to influence its expression (e.g., tactile sensitivity, social ability. It also evaluated the impact of a cognitive behavioral intervention that aimed to improve a child's understanding and expression of affection. Twenty-one children, aged 7 to 12 years, participated in the trial. The results showed significant correlations between measures of affection and tactile sensitivity and social ability. After attending the 5-week program, parents identified significant increases in the appropriateness of children's affectionate behavior both towards immediate family and people outside the immediate family, despite reporting no significant changes in their child's general difficulties with affectionate behavior. There was a significant improvement in children's understanding of the purpose of affection. The findings are discussed as well as the limitations of the study.

  2. Autobiographical accounts of sensing in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwin, Marie; Ek, Lena; Schröder, Agneta; Kjellin, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Sensory experiences in Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) were explored by qualitative content analysis of autobiographical texts by persons with AS/HFA. Predetermined categories of hyper- and hyposensitivity were applied to texts. Hypersensitivity consists of strong reactions and heightened apprehension in reaction to external stimuli, sometimes together with overfocused or unselective attention. It was common in vision, hearing, and touch. In contrast, hyposensitivity was frequent in reaction to internal and body stimuli such as interoception, proprioception, and pain. It consists of less registration, discrimination, and recognition of stimuli as well as cravings for specific stimuli. Awareness of the strong impact of sensitivity is essential for creating good environments and encounters in the context of psychiatric and other health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Social competence intervention for youth with Asperger Syndrome and high-functioning autism: an initial investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichter, Janine P; Herzog, Melissa J; Visovsky, Karen; Schmidt, Carla; Randolph, Jena; Schultz, Tia; Gage, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    Individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS) exhibit difficulties in the knowledge or correct performance of social skills. This subgroup's social difficulties appear to be associated with deficits in three social cognition processes: theory of mind, emotion recognition and executive functioning. The current study outlines the development and initial administration of the group-based Social Competence Intervention (SCI), which targeted these deficits using cognitive behavioral principles. Across 27 students age 11-14 with a HFA/AS diagnosis, results indicated significant improvement on parent reports of social skills and executive functioning. Participants evidenced significant growth on direct assessments measuring facial expression recognition, theory of mind and problem solving. SCI appears promising, however, larger samples and application in naturalistic settings are warranted.

  4. Categorical and dimensional structure of autism spectrum disorders: the nosologic validity of Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp-Becker, Inge; Smidt, Judith; Ghahreman, Mardjan; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Becker, Katja; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2010-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether a differentiation of autistic subtypes, especially between Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning-autism (HFA) is possible and if so, whether it is a categorical or dimensional one. The aim of this study was to examine the possible clustering of responses in different symptom domains without making any assumption concerning diagnostic appreciation. About 140 children and adolescents, incorporating 52 with a diagnosis of AS, 44 with HFA, 8 with atypical autism and 36 with other diagnoses, were examined. Our study does not support the thesis that autistic disorders are discrete phenotypes. On the contrary, it provides evidence that e.g. AS and autism are not qualitatively distinct disorders, but rather different quantitative manifestations of the same disorder.

  5. Psychiatric comorbidities in asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several psychiatric conditions, both internalizing and externalizing, have been documented in comorbidity with Asperger Syndrome (AS and High Functioning Autism (HFA. In this review we examine the interplay between psychiatric comorbidities and AS/HFA. In particular, we will focus our attention on three main issues. First, we examine which psychiatric disorders are more frequently associated with AS/HFA. Second, we review which diagnostic tools are currently available for clinicians to investigate and diagnose the associated psychiatric disorders in individuals with AS/HFA. Third, we discuss the challenges that clinicians and researchers face in trying to determine whether the psychiatric symptoms are phenotypic manifestations of AS/HFA or rather they are the expression of a distinct, though comorbid, disorder. We will also consider the role played by the environment in the manifestation and interpretation of these symptoms. Finally, we will propose some strategies to try to address these issues, and we will discuss therapeutic implications.

  6. Disembedding performance in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the findings, reported in earlier studies, that individuals with autism spectrum disorders process visuo-spatial tasks faster than typically developing control persons. The participants in the present study were children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13), and a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13). The results showed that the participants in the clinical group performed marginally less well than those in the control group on both the Block Design Test and the Embedded Figures Test, but the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, earlier findings suggesting that individuals with autism spectrum disorders solve non-social cognitive tasks faster than typically developing control persons were not replicated. The results are discussed with special reference to the hypothesis of weak central coherence.

  7. Psychiatric comorbidities in asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Several psychiatric conditions, both internalizing and externalizing, have been documented in comorbidity with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). In this review we examine the interplay between psychiatric comorbidities and AS/HFA. In particular, we will focus our attention on three main issues. First, we examine which psychiatric disorders are more frequently associated with AS/HFA. Second, we review which diagnostic tools are currently available for clinicians to investigate and diagnose the associated psychiatric disorders in individuals with AS/HFA. Third, we discuss the challenges that clinicians and researchers face in trying to determine whether the psychiatric symptoms are phenotypic manifestations of AS/HFA or rather they are the expression of a distinct, though comorbid, disorder. We will also consider the role played by the environment in the manifestation and interpretation of these symptoms. Finally, we will propose some strategies to try to address these issues, and we will discuss therapeutic implications. PMID:22731684

  8. Maternal discipline of children with Asperger Syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Liza

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated how often mothers of children with Asperger Syndrome and nonverbal learning disorders reported using either psychological aggression (shouting, cursing, name calling) or corporal punishment (spanking, hitting) when disciplining their children, and also examined the correlates of these methods of discipline. A descriptive study of 41l mothers with children between ages 4 and 17 years. Mothers were recruited by placing an invitation on two national Web sites; one for parents of children with Asperger syndrome and one for parents of children with nonverbal learning disabilities. An anonymous, mailed survey was used and a 70% response rate was obtained. The Conflict Tactics Scale-Child Form was used to measure psychological aggression and corporal punishment. Univariate analyses were used to describe the child and maternal characteristics and maternal rates of discipline. The correlates of maternal discipline were measured using bivariate analyses. The overall reported use of any corporal punishment (slaps on the hand, arm, and leg; hitting on the buttocks with a belt or brush; spanking on the buttocks with a hand; pinching and shaking) during the past year was 58%. The yearly use of any psychological aggression (screaming and yelling, cursing, threatening to hit or spank, threatening to kick out or send away, calling the child "dumb" or "lazy") was 95%. Spanking declined with increasing age of the child and the mother. Mothers who used psychological aggression were more likely to use corporal punishment with their child. Informed nurses working with these populations can use the results of this study to help address the stresses felt by these mothers, and to teach alternative strategies of coping to mothers who are in danger of using psychological aggression and corporal punishment.

  9. Asperger's in the Holmes family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric L

    2013-09-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes' brother) is a formally described case of Asperger's syndrome a half century before Asperger's description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock.

  10. The relationship between theory of mind and autobiographical memory in high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Noga; Nadler, Benny; Eviatar, Zohar; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2010-06-30

    The relationship between theory of mind (ToM) and autobiographical memory (AM) in high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome (AS) has never been investigated. Here, we show that ToM abilities could be predicted by levels of AM in HFA and AS as compared to controls, suggesting that difficulties in AM are closely related to ToM impairments in HFA and AS.

  11. Answering Contextually Demanding Questions: Pragmatic Errors Produced by Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Leinonen, Eeva; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ryder, Nuala; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined irrelevant/incorrect answers produced by children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (7-9-year-olds and 10-12-year-olds) and normally developing children (7-9-year-olds). The errors produced were divided into three types: in Type 1, the child answered the original question incorrectly, in Type 2, the child gave a…

  12. Social communication impairments in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome: Slow response time and the impact of prompting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2011-01-01

    , and understanding intentions. The participants in the AS group showed significant impairments in social communication. They needed significantly longer response times to solve the tasks and required significantly more prompt questions than the control persons. When analyzing the AS participants' performances before......In the present study children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (N = 13) and a matched control group of typically developing children and adolescents were presented with 26 vignettes of daily life situations, including irony, metaphors, contrary emotions, jealousy, social blunders...

  13. An Investigation of the "Jumping to Conclusions" Data-Gathering Bias and Paranoid Thoughts in Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a data-gathering bias, in the form of jumping to conclusions, and links to paranoid ideation was investigated in Asperger syndrome (AS). People with AS (N = 30) were compared to a neurotypical control group (N = 30) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Beads tasks, with self-report measures of depression, general anxiety,…

  14. Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of children with AS and HFA and their families to identify genes and genetic interactions that are linked to AS and HFA. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Autism Spectrum Disorder × What research is being done? Many of the ...

  15. The effects of awareness training on tics in a young boy with Tourette syndrome, Asperger syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskow, Katie M; Klatt, Kevin P

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown habit reversal training (HRT) to be effective in reducing tics. In some studies, tics have been reduced by implementing only a few components of HRT. The current study investigated the first step, awareness training, for treating tics in a young boy with Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed a reduction in all tics. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS. Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adults diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind, empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. Executive functions did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome.

  17. Integrating intention and context: assessing social cognition in adults with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Rattazzi, Alexia; Gonzalez-Gadea, María L.; Torralva, Teresa; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are an evident clinical feature of the Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many daily life problems of adults with AS are related to social cognition impairments, few studies have conducted comprehensive research in this area. The current study examined multiple domains of social cognition in adults with AS assessing the executive functions (EF) and exploring the intra and inter-individual variability. Fifteen adult's diagnosed with AS and 15 matched healthy controls completed a battery of social cognition tasks. This battery included measures of emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), empathy, moral judgment, social norms knowledge, and self-monitoring behavior in social settings. We controlled for the effect of EF and explored the individual variability. The results indicated that adults with AS had a fundamental deficit in several domains of social cognition. We also found high variability in the social cognition tasks. In these tasks, AS participants obtained mostly subnormal performance. EF did not seem to play a major role in the social cognition impairments. Our results suggest that adults with AS present a pattern of social cognition deficits characterized by the decreased ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual information in order to access to the social meaning. Nevertheless, when social information is explicitly presented or the situation can be navigated with abstract rules, performance is improved. Our findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with AS as well as for the neurocognitive models of this syndrome. PMID:23162450

  18. Impaired recognition of facial emotions from low-spatial frequencies in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Saalasti, Satu; Tiippana, Kaisa; von Wendt, Lennart; Sams, Mikko

    2008-01-01

    The theory of 'weak central coherence' [Happe, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 5-25] implies that persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a perceptual bias for local but not for global stimulus features. The recognition of emotional facial expressions representing various different levels of detail has not been studied previously in ASDs. We analyzed the recognition of four basic emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear and happiness) from low-spatial frequencies (overall global shapes without local features) in adults with an ASD. A group of 20 participants with Asperger syndrome (AS) was compared to a group of non-autistic age- and sex-matched controls. Emotion recognition was tested from static and dynamic facial expressions whose spatial frequency contents had been manipulated by low-pass filtering at two levels. The two groups recognized emotions similarly from non-filtered faces and from dynamic vs. static facial expressions. In contrast, the participants with AS were less accurate than controls in recognizing facial emotions from very low-spatial frequencies. The results suggest intact recognition of basic facial emotions and dynamic facial information, but impaired visual processing of global features in ASDs.

  19. Experiences of handwriting and using a computerized ATD in school: adolescents with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Ingrid; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents with Asperger's syndrome (AS), often have handwriting difficulties that affect their academic performance. The purpose of this descriptive multiple-case mixed-method study was to highlight how adolescents with AS experience writing in the school setting when writing by hand and when using a computerized Assistive Technology Device (ATD), for writing. A qualitative content analysis approach was used, including interviews with five adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. This was complemented by asking the adolescents to rate their perceived performance and satisfaction of writing with and without the ATD. All adolescents described handwriting difficulties, but a reduced ability to express oneself in writing was also common. Initiating and completing writing tasks was often so demanding that it caused resistance to the activity. Several advantages when using the ATD were described by the participants and the self-ratings showed higher scores for performance of and satisfaction with writing when the ATD was used. The results show that teachers' encouragement seemed to be important for the initiation and continuation of use of the ATD.

  20. Motor imagery in Asperger syndrome: testing action simulation by the hand laterality task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Conson

    Full Text Available Asperger syndrome (AS is a neurodevelopmental condition within the Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD characterized by specific difficulties in social interaction, communication and behavioural control. In recent years, it has been suggested that ASD is related to a dysfunction of action simulation processes, but studies employing imitation or action observation tasks provided mixed results. Here, we addressed action simulation processes in adolescents with AS by means of a motor imagery task, the classical hand laterality task (to decide whether a rotated hand image is left or right; mental rotation of letters was also evaluated. As a specific marker of action simulation in hand rotation, we assessed the so-called biomechanical effect, that is the advantage for judging hand pictures showing physically comfortable versus physically awkward positions. We found the biomechanical effect in typically-developing participants but not in participants with AS. Overall performance on both hand laterality and letter rotation tasks, instead, did not differ in the two groups. These findings demonstrated a specific alteration of motor imagery skills in AS. We suggest that impaired mental simulation and imitation of goal-less movements in ASD could be related to shared cognitive mechanisms.

  1. Memory for self-performed actions in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Zalla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect. Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS. We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from the enactment effect when recalling a list of previously performed items vs. items that were only visually and verbally experienced through three experimental tasks (Free Recall, Old/New Recognition and Source Memory. The results showed that while performance on Recognition and Source Memory tasks was preserved in individuals with AS, the enactment effect for self-performed actions was not consistently present, as revealed by the lower number of performed actions being recalled on the Free Recall test, as compared to adults with typical development. Subtle difficulties in encoding specific motor and proprioceptive signals during action execution in individuals with AS might affect retrieval of relevant personal episodic information. These disturbances might be associated to an impaired action monitoring system.

  2. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela L Scroggins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child.

  3. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Memory for self-performed actions in individuals with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalla, Tiziana; Daprati, Elena; Sav, Anca-Maria; Chaste, Pauline; Nico, Daniele; Leboyer, Marion

    2010-10-12

    Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect). Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS). We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from the enactment effect when recalling a list of previously performed items vs. items that were only visually and verbally experienced through three experimental tasks (Free Recall, Old/New Recognition and Source Memory). The results showed that while performance on Recognition and Source Memory tasks was preserved in individuals with AS, the enactment effect for self-performed actions was not consistently present, as revealed by the lower number of performed actions being recalled on the Free Recall test, as compared to adults with typical development. Subtle difficulties in encoding specific motor and proprioceptive signals during action execution in individuals with AS might affect retrieval of relevant personal episodic information. These disturbances might be associated to an impaired action monitoring system.

  6. Becoming a member of the work force: perceptions of adults with Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Beate; Kinébanian, Astrid; Prodinger, Birgit; Heigl, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that comparatively few adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) participate in the competitive work force. The purpose of this study was to gain in-depth knowledge about contextual factors, which contribute to successful labor market participation in some adults with AS. This study was conducted by indepth-interviewing six adults with AS working in the competitive job market in Switzerland. A developmental and hermeneutic narrative approach was used for data collection and analysis. Two in-depth narrative interviews were conducted with each participant. A narrative analysis according to the theories of Paul Ricoeur was performed. Results showed that participants received pre-vocational requisites during their childhood through parents and friends that provided a feeling of security in social contexts. For participants, a supportive school setting resulted in academic achievements. The narratives reveal participants' capacities for understanding and adapting to social norms. Participants' understanding of their own needs was essential to the successful labor market participation. However, disclosure is rare and social stigma is still present. This study showed that successful labor participation of adults with AS can be enhanced through adequate social support already in the early stages of an individual's lifetime.

  7. Oxytocin Promotes Facial Emotion Recognition and Amygdala Reactivity in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Gregor; Kumbier, Ekkehardt; Heinrichs, Markus; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has recently been shown to enhance eye gaze and emotion recognition in healthy men. Here, we report a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that examined the neural and behavioral effects of a single dose of intranasal oxytocin on emotion recognition in individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS), a clinical condition characterized by impaired eye gaze and facial emotion recognition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether oxytocin would enhance emotion recognition from facial sections of the eye vs the mouth region and modulate regional activity in brain areas associated with face perception in both adults with AS, and a neurotypical control group. Intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin improved performance in a facial emotion recognition task in individuals with AS. This was linked to increased left amygdala reactivity in response to facial stimuli and increased activity in the neural network involved in social cognition. Our data suggest that the amygdala, together with functionally associated cortical areas mediate the positive effect of oxytocin on social cognitive functioning in AS. PMID:24067301

  8. Performance of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism on advanced theory of mind tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaland, Nils; Callesen, Kirsten; Møller-Nielsen, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Although a number of advanced theory of mind tasks have been developed, there is a dearth of information on whether performances on different tasks are associated. The present study examined the performance of 21 children and adolescents with diagnoses of Asperger syndrome (AS) and 20 typically developing controls on three advanced theory of mind tasks: The Eyes Task, the Strange Stories, and the Stories from Everyday Life. The participants in the clinical group demonstrated lower performance than the controls on all the three tasks. The pattern of findings, however, indicates that these tasks may share different information-processing requirements in addition to tapping different mentalizing abilities.

  9. Uma breve revisão histórica sobre a construção dos conceitos do Autismo Infantil e da síndrome de Asperger A brief historic review of the conceptions of Autism and Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carina Tamanaha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar historicamente os conceitos do Autismo Infantil e da síndrome de Asperger. Por meio de revisão de literatura os autores buscaram mostrar as modificações, ao longo do tempo, das concepções teóricas e das descrições clínicas destes quadros.The aim of this study was to review historically the concepts of Autism and Asperger syndrome. Through literature review, the authors evidence the changes on theoretical concepts and clinical descriptions of Autism and Asperger syndrome with time.

  10. Neurological abnormalities in recent-onset schizophrenia and Asperger-Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan eHirjak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurological abnormalities including a variety of subtle deficits such as discrete impairments in sensory integration, motor coordination, and sequencing of complex motor acts are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia and commonly referred to as neurological soft signs (NSS. Asperger-Syndrome (AS is characterized by sensory-motor difficulties as well. However, the question whether the two disorders share a common or a disease-specific pattern of NSS remains unresolved. Method: A total of 78 age- and education-matched participants (26 patients with recent-onset schizophrenia, 26 individuals with AS, and 26 healthy controls were recruited for the study. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs, with age, years of education and medication included as covariates, were used to examine group differences on total NSS and the five subscale scores. Discriminant analyses were employed to identify the NSS subscales that maximally discriminate between the three groups. Results: Significant differences among the three groups were found in NSS total score and on the five NSS subscales. The two clinical groups differed significantly in the NSS subscale „motor coordination. The correct discriminant rate between patients with schizophrenia and individuals with AS was 61.5%. The correct discriminant rate was 92.3% between individuals with AS and healthy controls, and 80.8% between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings provide new evidence for the presence of NSS in AS and lend further support to previously reported difficulties in movement control in this disorder. According to the present results, schizophrenia and AS seem to be characterized by a different pattern of NSS.

  11. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Emotional preferences and goals and emotion dysregulation in children with Asperger's syndrome and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Gummerum, Michaela

    2018-02-05

    Emotion goals lie at the heart of emotion regulation, as people have to first decide what emotions they want to feel before engaging in emotion regulation. Given that children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are characterized by exhibiting difficulties in emotion regulation, studying whether they display similar or different emotion goals compared to typically developing (TD) children may provide insightful information. Thirty AS and 30 TD children (10-12 years) reported about their general (i.e., how they want to feel in general) and contextualized (i.e., how they want to feel when confronting vs. collaborating with someone) emotion goals, and about their difficulties in emotion regulation through questionnaires. Results showed that both groups did not differ in their general emotional goals and in their contextualized emotion goals for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed from TD children in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. These emotion goals predicted their difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour. The obtained results support the need to further study emotion goals as an aspect of emotion dysregulation, namely the difficulties to engage in goal-directed behaviour when experiencing different emotions. AS and TD children did not differ in their general emotion goals. AS and TD children did not vary in their preferences for happiness for collaboration and anger for confrontation. AS children only differed in a higher preference for sadness for collaboration and happiness for confrontation. Understanding emotion goals might help practitioners to develop better interventions. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Insomnia in school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedje Hans

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asperger syndrome (AS and high-functioning autism (HFA are pervasive developmental disorders (PDD in individuals of normal intelligence. Childhood AS/HFA is considered to be often associated with disturbed sleep, in particular with difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep (insomnia. However, studies about the topic are still scarce. The present study investigated childhood AS/HFA regarding a wide range of parent reported sleep-wake behaviour, with a particular focus on insomnia. Methods Thirty-two 8–12 yr old children with AS/HFA were compared with 32 age and gender matched typically developing children regarding sleep and associated behavioural characteristics. Several aspects of sleep-wake behaviour including insomnia were surveyed using a structured paediatric sleep questionnaire in which parents reported their children's sleep patterns for the previous six months. Recent sleep patterns were monitored by use of a one-week sleep diary and actigraphy. Behavioural characteristics were surveyed by use of information gleaned from parent and teacher-ratings in the High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire, and in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Parent-reported difficulties initiating sleep and daytime sleepiness were more common in children with AS/HFA than in controls, and 10/32 children with AS/HFA (31.2% but none of the controls fulfilled our definition of paediatric insomnia. The parent-reported insomnia corresponded to the findings obtained by actigraphy. Children with insomnia had also more parent-reported autistic and emotional symptoms, and more teacher-reported emotional and hyperactivity symptoms than those children without insomnia. Conclusion Parental reports indicate that in childhood AS/HFA insomnia is a common and distressing symptom which is frequently associated with coexistent behaviour problems. Identification and treatment of sleep problems need to be a routine

  14. SERT Ileu425Val in autism, Asperger syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Jens R; DeGuzman, Theresa B; McMahon, Francis; Rudnick, Gary; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D; Murphy, Dennis L

    2008-02-01

    SERT I425V, an uncommon missense single nucleotide polymorphism producing a gain-of-function of the serotonin transporter (SERT), was originally found to segregate with a primarily obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but complexly comorbid phenotype in two unrelated families. As two individuals with SERT I425V and OCD also had Asperger syndrome (AS), an autism spectrum disorder, and as other rare SERT variants have recently shown significant associations with autism, we set out to extend our original OCD study by genotyping additional autism/AS and OCD samples. Case-control association study of SERT I425V in 210 AS/autism probands and 215 controls, plus 335 OCD probands and their family members. SERT I425V was not found in any of the individuals with AS/autism, OCD alone or OCD comorbid with AS and other disorders, or in controls. This results in new estimates of SERT I425V having a 1.5% prevalence in 530 individuals with OCD from five unrelated families genotyped by us and by one other group and a 0.23% frequency in four control populations totaling 1300 individuals, yielding a continuing significant OCD-control difference (Fisher's exact test corrected for family coefficient of identity P=0.004, odds ratio=6.54). As several other uncommon, less well quantitated genetic variations occur with an OCD phenotype, including chromosomal anomalies and some other rare gene variants (SGCE, GCH1 and SLITRK1), a tentative conclusion is that OCD resembles other complex disorders in being etiologically heterogeneous and in having both highly penetrant familial subtypes associated with rare alleles or chromosomal anomalies, as well as having a more common, polygenetic form that may involve polymorphisms in such genes as BDNF, COMT, GRIN2beta, TPH2, HTR2A and SLC1A1.

  15. Local Information Processing in Adults with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Usefulness of Neuropsychological Tests and Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.

    2011-01-01

    Local information processing in 42 adults with high functioning autism, 41 adults with Asperger syndrome and 41 neurotypical adults was examined. Contrary to our expectations, the disorder groups did not outperform the neurotypical group in the neuropsychological measures of local information processing. In line with our hypotheses, the…

  16. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cognitive Functioning from the Perspective of Parents of School-Aged Children with Asperger's Syndrome Utilizing the PedsQL[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A.; Heffer, Robert W.; Varni, James W.

    2009-01-01

    HRQOL as a multidimensional construct has not been previously investigated in children with Asperger's Syndrome. The objective of the present study was to examine the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL[TM] 4.0 Generic Core Scales and PedsQL[TM] Cognitive Functioning Scale parent proxy-report versions in school-aged…

  18. A Comparison of Video Feedback and in Vivo Self-Monitoring on the Social Interactions of an Adolescent with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    State, Talida M.; Kern, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Difficulties with social interactions and restrictive and repetitive interest patterns or behaviors are common among individuals with Asperger syndrome. These difficulties often pose barriers to establishing and maintaining social relationships. In the current study, 2 different interventions were compared that focused on improving the social…

  19. Mind-Reading Difficulties in the Siblings of People with Asperger's Syndrome: Evidence for a Genetic Influence in the Abnormal Development of a Specific Cognitive Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, L.; Espie, C. A. E.; Knott, F.; Salt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggests that the phenotype associated with Asperger's syndrome (AS) includes difficulties in understanding the mental states of others, leading to difficulties in social communication and social relationships. It has also been suggested that the first-degree relatives of those with AS can demonstrate similar…

  20. Young People with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome Planning for and Anticipating the Move to College: What Supports a Positive Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Wendy; Beresford, Bryony

    2014-01-01

    For many young people in England, the move into continuing education involves a transfer from the school where they were educated to a further education college. For those with high-functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome, this can be a challenging process. Past research has demonstrated some of the problems that these young people can…

  1. The Effect of Diagnostic Labels on the Affective Responses of College Students towards Peers with "Asperger's Syndrome" and "Autism Spectrum Disorder"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition," the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum…

  2. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,…

  3. LEGO[R] Therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme: An Evaluation of Two Social Skills Interventions for Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gina; Granader, Yael; Humphrey, Ayla; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    LEGO[R] therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme (SULP) were evaluated as social skills interventions for 6-11 year olds with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. Children were matched on CA, IQ, and autistic symptoms before being randomly assigned to LEGO or SULP. Therapy occurred for 1 h/week over 18 weeks. A no-intervention…

  4. The Use of Peer-Mediated Interventions to Promote the Generalization of Social Competence for Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carla; Stichter, Janine P.

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in social competence are core deficits for individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Syndrome (HFA/AS). As the incidence rate for these disorders continues to increase so does the urgency to identify evidence-based interventions that can remediate core deficits in order to provide these individuals with independence as…

  5. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Perceptions of Software Professionals on the Asperger's Syndrome/High Functioning Autism Spectrum and the Success of Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who have Asperger's Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, as a group, are chronically underemployed and underutilized. Many in this group have abilities that are well suited for various roles within the practice of software development. Multiple studies have shown that certain organizational and management changes in the software…

  6. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Alessandro; Pesarin, Anna; Murino, Vittorio; Cristani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs). SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech), it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  7. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tavano

    Full Text Available Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs. SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech, it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  8. A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantam Digby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health and social profile of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS living in the community. We conducted a study to describe the living, employment and psycho-social situation of a community sample of forty two adults and adolescents with AS, and to describe these indivdiuals' experiences of accessing health services and taking medication. Findings Most respondents (including those over eighteen years of age lived at home with their parents. Most had trouble reading and responding to other people's feelings, and coping with unexpected changes. Difficulties with life skills, such as cleaning, washing and hygiene were prevalent. The majority of respondents were socially isolated and a large minority had been sexually or financially exploited. Almost all respondents had been bullied. Mental health problems such as anxiety or depression were common. 30% of respondents said that they regularly became violent and hit other people and 15% had attempted suicide. More positively, the majority of respondents felt that they could access health services if they had a health problem. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a relatively poor social and health profile for many people with Asperger syndrome living in the community, with high levels of social problems and social exclusion, and difficulties managing day to day tasks such as washing and cleaning; these findings support the results of other studies that have examined psycho-social functioning in this group.

  9. [Social skills training groups for children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andanson, J; Pourre, F; Maffre, T; Raynaud, J-P

    2011-05-01

    First described in 1944 by Hans Asperger, Asperger syndrome (AS) is now considered in international diagnostic classifications as one of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The main symptoms of AS are severe impairment in social interaction and communication, and restricted interests, without significant delay in cognitive and language development. Its prevalence is not clearly established but might be around 0.26 per 1000. Symptoms of high-functioning autism (HFA), which is not an official diagnostic category, are quite similar. Children and adolescents with AS or HFA mostly have a social skills deficit, in connection with a lack of understanding concerning the rules governing social interactions. This deficit often leads to social isolation and peer rejection, which can alter their quality of life. Their lack of social skills can also have effects on success at school or work, integration among peers and mental health. According to recent guidelines of the French national authority for health (Haute autorité de santé, HAS) about the special needs of persons with PDD, professionals have to develop evidence-based interventions, emphasizing social interactions and participation, as described by the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF): social and professional participation as well as participation in leisure activities, clubs and societies, etc. To explore the studies that give evidence of the value of these social skills training groups, to review the methods and programs worked out in these groups, and to highlight the best general operating principles to be adopted and combined. Systematic searches of electronic databases, journals, and reference lists identified 12 studies published since 1984, involving social competence group interventions, led by psychotherapists who were trained in cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT), for children and adolescents from 6 to 18years old with a

  10. Impairments in multisensory processing are not universal to the autism spectrum: no evidence for crossmodal priming deficits in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nicole; R Schneider, Till; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K

    2011-10-01

    Individuals suffering from autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show a tendency for detail- or feature-based perception (also referred to as "local processing bias") instead of more holistic stimulus processing typical for unaffected people. This local processing bias has been demonstrated for the visual and auditory domains and there is evidence that multisensory processing may also be affected in ASD. Most multisensory processing paradigms used social-communicative stimuli, such as human speech or faces, probing the processing of simultaneously occuring sensory signals. Multisensory processing, however, is not limited to simultaneous stimulation. In this study, we investigated whether multisensory processing deficits in ASD persist when semantically complex but nonsocial stimuli are presented in succession. Fifteen adult individuals with Asperger syndrome and 15 control persons participated in a visual-audio priming task, which required the classification of sounds that were either primed by semantically congruent or incongruent preceding pictures of objects. As expected, performance on congruent trials was faster and more accurate compared with incongruent trials (crossmodal priming effect). The Asperger group, however, did not differ significantly from the control group. Our results do not support a general multisensory processing deficit, which is universal to the entire autism spectrum. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Beyond the others’ world : An essay about the experience of social work with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Shavrina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents a reflection on being a foreign and inexperienced social worker within a Norwegian social work context. I discuss challenges I have met in my work with when Asperger syndrome is diagnosed and reflect on power relations and the issue of self-determination within the field, in addition to analysing some critical incidents that made me rethink and reconstruct all of my experiences. I view my story from different angles and find different perspectives that show various ways of perceiving one thing. I discover the dangerousness of thinking in “black and white” and placing things in exclusive extremes, and lastly, I understand that I need to learn to solve problems by changing attitudes towards them.

  12. Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Tuula; Kuusikko, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Haapsamo, Helena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine psychiatric symptoms in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders reported by multiple informants. Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR), while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Teachers of adolescents with AS/HFA completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The informants reported significantly more psychiatric symptoms, especially withdrawn, anxious/depressed, social and attention problems, in adolescents with AS/HFA than in controls. In contrast to findings in the general population, the psychiatric problems of adolescents with AS/HFA are well acknowledged by multiple informants, including self-reports. However, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more commonly reported by adolescents with AS/HFA and their teachers than their parents, indicating that some emotional distress may be hidden from their parents.

  13. A social competence intervention for young children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minne, Elizabeth Portman; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2012-11-01

    The key features of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) include marked and sustained impairment in social interactions. A multi-session, small group program was developed to increase social perception based on the assumption perceptual or interpretive problems underlying these social difficulties. Additionally, the group format espoused a play therapy orientation and the use of sociodramatic play was the primary therapeutic modality used. Qualitative analyses of the data resulted in an explanation of the key changes in social interactions that took place through the course of the intervention. Although each participant's experience in this group was unique, all children in this program demonstrated improvements in their social interactions, as they experienced development both emotionally and behaviorally. Findings suggest that, despite their rigid interests and behavior patterns, the social limitations of these children improved when provided with the necessary environmental resources.

  14. Socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention for adolescents with asperger syndrome & high functioning autism: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called 'socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention' (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit among this population. SDARI was administered as a six-week summer program in a community human service agency. Nine SDARI participants and eight age- and diagnosis-group matched adolescents not receiving SDARI were compared on child- and parent-report of social functioning at three week intervals beginning six weeks prior to intervention and ending six weeks post-intervention. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to estimate growth trends between groups to assess treatment outcomes and post-treatment maintenance. Results indicated significant improvement and post-treatment maintenance among SDARI participants on several measures of child social functioning. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  15. The Mind behind the Message: Advancing Theory-of-Mind Scales for Typically Developing Children, and Those with Deafness, Autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3-2 years (n = 184) with typical development, deafness, autism, or Asperger syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of H. M. Wellman and D. Liu's (2004) 5-step ToM Scale, added a statistically reliable 6th step to the scale…

  16. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  17. Theory of mind, severity of autistic symptoms and parental correlates in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar Shimoni, Hagit; Weizman, Abraham; Yoran, Roni Hegesh; Raviv, Amiram

    2012-05-15

    This study addresses the theory of mind (ToM) ability of Asperger's syndrome/high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) children and their parents and the severity of the autistic symptoms. Fifty-three families, each consisting of a mother, father and a child, participated in this study (N=159). The 53 children in the sample included 25 children diagnosed with AS/HFA and 28 typically developing (TD) children. The Social Attribution Task (SAT) and tests assessing autistic symptoms were used. AS/HFA children had lower scores than TD children on three of the SAT indices (Person, ToM Affective, and Salience). Fathers of AS/HFA children did not have lower scores than fathers of TD children on the SAT task, whereas mothers of AS/HFA children had lower scores on the Person index, a pattern similar to seen in their children, suggesting a possible genetic contribution of mothers to ToM deficit in AS/HFA children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social challenges and supports from the perspective of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana; Yates, Gregory B

    2008-03-01

    The study describes the perspectives of individuals with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disabilities (ASDs) regarding social challenges and supports. Eighteen adults with ASDs were individually interviewed. They were asked to describe their experiences navigating their social worlds, and recommend effective social supports and strategies for improving social connectedness. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed a number of common experiences including a profound sense of isolation, difficulty initiating social interactions, challenges relating to communication, longing for greater intimacy, desire to contribute to one's community, and effort to develop greater social/self-awareness. Commonly recommended social supports included external supports (e.g. activities based on shared interests, highly structured or scripted social activities, and small groups or dyads); communication supports (e.g. alternative modes of communication, explicit communication, and instruction in interpreting and using social cues); and self-initiated strategies for handling social anxiety (e.g. creative/improvisational outlets, physical activity, spiritual practice/organized religion, and time spent alone).

  19. Auditory perception and attention as reflected by the brain event-related potentials in children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, T; Silokallio, S; Nieminen-von Wendt, T; Alku, P; Näätänen, R; Kujala, T

    2006-10-01

    Language development is delayed and deviant in individuals with autism, but proceeds quite normally in those with Asperger syndrome (AS). We investigated auditory-discrimination and orienting in children with AS using an event-related potential (ERP) paradigm that was previously applied to children with autism. ERPs were measured to pitch, duration, and phonetic changes in vowels and to corresponding changes in non-speech sounds. Active sound discrimination was evaluated with a sound-identification task. The mismatch negativity (MMN), indexing sound-discrimination accuracy, showed right-hemisphere dominance in the AS group, but not in the controls. Furthermore, the children with AS had diminished MMN-amplitudes and decreased hit rates for duration changes. In contrast, their MMN to speech pitch changes was parietally enhanced. The P3a, reflecting involuntary orienting to changes, was diminished in the children with AS for speech pitch and phoneme changes, but not for the corresponding non-speech changes. The children with AS differ from controls with respect to their sound-discrimination and orienting abilities. The results of the children with AS are relatively similar to those earlier obtained from children with autism using the same paradigm, although these clinical groups differ markedly in their language development.

  20. History and First Descriptions of Autism: Asperger Versus Kanner Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chown, Nick; Hughes, Liz

    2016-06-01

    When reading Michael Fitzgerald's chapter entitled 'Autism: Asperger's Syndrome-History and First Descriptions' in 'Asperger's Disorder' edited by Rausch, Johnson and Casanova, a while ago, one of us was struck by his contention that Kanner was guilty of plagiarism as well as non-attribution of Asperger's 1938 paper 'Das psychisch abnorme kind' (Fitzgerald in Asperger's disorder. Informa Healthcare, New York, 2008) published in a Vienna weekly. Steve Silberman has discovered evidence that Kanner rescued Asperger's chief diagnostician from the Nazis in 1944 so must have been aware of Asperger's work and conclusions. Fitzgerald was on the right track but it appears that Kanner may have plagiarised Asperger's ideas rather than his 1938 paper.

  1. Asperger's in the Holmes Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes' brother) is a formally described case of Asperger's syndrome a half century before Asperger's description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock.

  2. The mind behind the message: Advancing theory of mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic grou...

  3. Impaired induction of long-term potentiation-like plasticity in patients with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Janzarik, Wibke G; Delvendahl, Igor; Münchau, Alexander; Biscaldi, Monica; Mainberger, Florian; Bäumer, Tobias; Rauh, Reinhold; Mall, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity by paired associative stimulation (PAS) in patients with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). PAS with an interstimulus interval between electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulation of 25 ms (PAS(25)) was performed in patients with HFA/AS (n=9; eight males, one female; mean age 17 y 11 mo, SD 4 y 5 mo) and in typically developing age-matched volunteers (n=9; five males, four females; mean age 22 y 4 mo, SD 5 y 2 mo). The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials was measured before PAS(25), immediately after stimulation, and 30 minutes and 60 minutes later. A PAS protocol adapted to individual N20 latency (PAS(N20+2)) was performed in six additional patients with HFA/AS. Short-interval intracortical inhibition was measured using paired-pulse stimulation. In contrast to the typically developing participants, the patients with HFA/AS did not show a significant increase in motor-evoked potentials after PAS(25). This finding could also be demonstrated after adaptation for N20 latency. Short-interval intracortical inhibition of patients with HFA/AS was normal compared with the comparison group and did not correlate with PAS effect. Our results show a significant impairment of LTP-like plasticity induced by PAS in individuals with HFA/AS compared with typically developing participants. This finding is in accordance with results from animal studies as well as human studies. Impaired LTP-like plasticity in patients with HFA/AS points towards reduced excitatory synaptic connectivity and deficits in sensory-motor integration in these patients. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  5. Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia: Overlap of self-reported autistic traits using the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    In clinical practice, the differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS) versus schizophrenia can be a challenge. Some self-report instruments-such as the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ)-have been portrayed as proxies for the diagnosis of AS. However, it has not been demonstrated to what extent autistic traits-as measured by the AQ-separate AS from schizophrenia. To examine the AS-schizophrenia discriminating ability of the AQ. The AQ is a 50-item self-administered questionnaire (with score range 0-50) for measuring "autistic traits" in adults. Here, it was completed by 136 individuals: 36 with schizophrenic psychosis, 51 with AS and 49 non-clinical comparison cases. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for the total AQ score was performed to examine the discriminating power of the instrument. Both individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with AS scored significantly higher on AQ than the non-clinical group. The mean total AQ score (± standard deviation) of the AS group (26.7 ± 8.9; range 9-44) was significantly higher than that of the schizophrenia group (22.7 ± 6.2; range 10-35) (P = 0.041). However, when using the full Likert scale for scoring, the difference did not reach significance. In the ROC analysis of total AQ scores for AS versus schizophrenia, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.65 (P = 0.02). Although mean AQ scores separated AS and schizophrenia at a group comparison level, significant overlap of AQ scores across the two diagnostic groups clearly reduces the discriminating power of the AQ in the separation of schizophrenia from AS.

  6. From High Intellectual Potential to Asperger Syndrome: Evidence for Differences and a Fundamental Overlap – A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Boschi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of clinicians point to similar clinical features between some children with High Intellectual Potential (HIP or Giftedness = Total IQ > 2 SD, and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD without intellectual or language delay, formerly diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome. Some of these common features are social interaction impairments, special interests, and in some cases high-verbal abilities. The aim of this article is to determine whether theses similarities exist at more fundamental levels, other than clinical, and to explore the literature in order to provide empirical support for an overlap between ASD and HIP.Method: First, comparative studies between ASD and HIP children were sought. Because of a lack of data, the respective characteristics of ASD and HIP subjects were explored by a cross-sectional review of different areas of research. Emphasis was placed on psychometric and cognitive evaluations, experimental and developmental assessments, and neurobiological research, following a bottom-up procedure.Results: This review highlights the existence of similarities in the neurocognitive, developmental and neurobiological domains between these profiles, which require further study. In addition, the conclusions of several studies show that there are differences between HIP children with a homogeneous Intellectual Quotient profile and children with a heterogeneous Intellectual Quotient profile.Conclusion: HIP seems to cover different developmental profiles, one of which might share features with ASD. A new line of investigation providing a possible starting-point for future research is proposed. Its implications, interesting from both clinical and research perspectives, are discussed.

  7. Brief report: cognitive flexibility and focused attention in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism as measured on the computerized version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaland, Nils; Smith, Lars; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess mental flexibility and set maintenance of a group of individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13; mean age 16,4), as compared with a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13; mean age 15...

  8. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Camus's L'étranger and the first description of a man with Asperger's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sam Shuster Department of Dermatology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: The continued discussion about the meaning of Camus’s famous novel, L’étranger, provoked a re-reading, and this, in turn, led to its clinical analysis and further investigation. The book rests entirely on the thoughts, words and actions of its central character, Meursault, and these were found to show impairment of social relationships, communication and interaction, with other traits diagnostic of the Asperger’s subgroup of the autism spectrum disorder. It was then found that Camus had based Meursault on his close friend Galindo, and a search was therefore made for evidence of Galindo’s character; this revealed him to be an intelligent but odd person, who exhibited the characteristic impairment of social and personal behavior of Asperger’s syndrome. Thus, Camus had recognized and understood his friend’s strange behavior before Asperger’s syndrome had been defined; his use of it for the creation of Meursault is therefore the first published account of a man with this disorder. Many of the interpretations and ideas developed from Meursault’s words, thoughts and actions must now be reconsidered, as they are a misreading of the words and behavior of a man with Asperger’s syndrome. The outcome of this clinical examination of L’étranger is unique; it shows that a precise account of a person with a neurobehavioral disorder was made by a novelist before the disorder had been clinically defined.Keywords: Asperger’s syndrome, Camus, Meursault, L’étranger

  10. Inclusion of Immersive Virtual Learning Environments and Visual Control Systems to Support the Learning of Students with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Gonzalo; Pomares, Jorge; Lledo, Asuncion

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the use of immersive virtual reality systems in the educational intervention with Asperger students. The starting points of this study are features of these students' cognitive style that requires an explicit teaching style supported by visual aids and highly structured environments. The proposed immersive virtual reality…

  11. Role of Two Types of Syntactic Embedding in Belief Attribution in Adults with or without Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Clémentine Burnel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of syntax in belief attribution (BA is not completely understood in healthy adults and understudied in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Embedded syntax could be useful either for the development of Theory of Mind (ToM (Emergence account or more generally over the lifespan (Reasoning account. Two hypotheses have been explored, one suggesting that embedding itself (Relatives and Complement sentences and Metarepresentation account is important for ToM and another one considering that the embedding of a false proposition into a true one (Complement sentences and Misrepresentation account is important. The goals of this study were to evaluate (1 the role of syntax in ToM (Emergence vs. Reasoning account, (2 the type of syntax implied in ToM (Metarepresentation vs. Misrepresentation account, and (3 the verbally mediated strategies which compensate for ToM deficits in adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS. Fifty NeuroTypical (NT adults and 22 adults with AS were involved in a forced-choice task including ±ToM tasks (BA and a control task, physical causation, PC under four Interference conditions (silence, syllable repetition, relative sentences repetition, and complement sentences repetition. The non-significant ±ToM × Interference interaction effect in the NT group did not support the Reasoning account and thus suggests that syntax is useful only for ToM development (i.e., Emergence account. Results also indicated that repeating complement clauses put NT participants in a dual task whereas repeating relative clauses did not, suggesting that repeating relatives is easier for NT than repeating complements. This could be an argument in favor of the Misrepresentation account. However, this result should be interpreted with caution because our results did not support the Reasoning account. Moreover, AS participants (but not NT participants were more disrupted by ±ToM tasks when asked to repeat complement sentences compared to relative clause

  12. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, S; Wheelwright, S; Skinner, R; Martin, J; Clubley, E

    2001-02-01

    Currently there are no brief, self-administered instruments for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a new instrument to assess this: the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Individuals score in the range 0-50. Four groups of subjects were assessed: Group 1: 58 adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA); Group 2: 174 randomly selected controls. Group 3: 840 students in Cambridge University; and Group 4: 16 winners of the UK Mathematics Olympiad. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 35.8 (SD = 6.5), significantly higher than Group 2 controls (M = 16.4, SD = 6.3). 80% of the adults with AS/HFA scored 32+, versus 2% of controls. Among the controls, men scored slightly but significantly higher than women. No women scored extremely highly (AQ score 34+) whereas 4% of men did so. Twice as many men (40%) as women (21%) scored at intermediate levels (AQ score 20+). Among the AS/HFA group, male and female scores did not differ significantly. The students in Cambridge University did not differ from the randomly selected control group, but scientists (including mathematicians) scored significantly higher than both humanities and social sciences students, confirming an earlier study that autistic conditions are associated with scientific skills. Within the sciences, mathematicians scored highest. This was replicated in Group 4, the Mathematics Olympiad winners scoring significantly higher than the male Cambridge humanities students. 6% of the student sample scored 32+ on the AQ. On interview, 11 out of 11 of these met three or more DSM-IV criteria for AS/HFA, and all were studying sciences/mathematics, and 7 of the 11 met threshold on these criteria. Test-retest and interrater reliability of the AQ was good. The AQ is thus a valuable instrument for rapidly quantifying where any given individual is situated on the continuum from autism to

  13. An 8 year follow-up of a specialist supported employment service for high-ability adults with autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Alcock, Jennifer; Burkin, Catherine

    2005-12-01

    Few supported employment programmes have been specifically designed for people with autism, especially those who are more able. This study examines the outcome of a supported employment service (NAS Prospects) for adults with autism or Asperger syndrome (IQ 60+) over an 8 year period. Approximately 68 percent of clients found employment. Of the 192 jobs, the majority were permanent contracts and most involved administrative, technical or computing work. Assessment of current clients indicates that IQ, language skills and educational attainments are high. However, work has also been found for those of lower abilities. Individuals supported by Prospects show a rise in salaries, contribute more tax and claim fewer benefits. Satisfaction with the scheme is high among clients, employers and support workers. Although the programme continues to incur a financial deficit, this has decreased. Moreover, there are many non-financial benefits, which are difficult to quantify. The importance of specialist employment support of this kind is discussed.

  14. LEGO therapy and the social use of language programme: an evaluation of two social skills interventions for children with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Gina; Granader, Yael; Humphrey, Ayla; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2008-11-01

    LEGO therapy and the Social Use of Language Programme (SULP) were evaluated as social skills interventions for 6-11 year olds with high functioning autism and Asperger Syndrome. Children were matched on CA, IQ, and autistic symptoms before being randomly assigned to LEGO or SULP. Therapy occurred for 1 h/week over 18 weeks. A no-intervention control group was also assessed. Results showed that the LEGO therapy group improved more than the other groups on autism-specific social interaction scores (Gilliam Autism Rating Scale). Maladaptive behaviour decreased significantly more in the LEGO and SULP groups compared to the control group. There was a non-significant trend for SULP and LEGO groups to improve more than the no-intervention group in communication and socialisation skills.

  15. The mind behind the message: Advancing theory of mind scales for typically developing children, and those with deafness, autism, or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C.; Wellman, Henry M.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Children aged 3 to 12 years (n=184) with typical development, deafness, autism or Asperger Syndrome took a series of theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks to confirm and extend previous developmental scaling evidence. A new sarcasm task, in the format of Wellman and Liu’s (2004) 5-step ToM scale, added a statistically reliable sixth step to the scale for all diagnostic groups. A key previous finding, divergence in task sequencing for children with autism, was confirmed. Comparisons among diagnostic groups, controlling age and language ability, showed that typical developers mastered the six ToM steps ahead of each of the three disabled groups, with implications for ToM theories. The final (sarcasm) task challenged even nondisabled 9-year-olds, demonstrating the new scale’s sensitivity to post-preschool ToM growth. PMID:22304467

  16. Asperger Syndrome (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lack of "common sense" problems with reading, math, or writing skills obsession with complex topics, such ... goals and are suited to your child's developmental level. Remember that your child is part of a ...

  17. Idiom understanding in people with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism Compreensão de expressões idiomáticas em pessoas com síndrome de Asperger/autismo de alto funcionamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vogindroukas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To extend previous research in the development of idiom comprehension by investigating this ability in children with Asperger Syndrome (AS or with High Functioning Autism (HFA. METHODS: Three groups participated in the study. The first group consisted of 27 children with AS/HFA (mean age 11.3 years and the other two consisted of typically developing children and adults, respectively. The Comprehension Test of Idiomatic Phrases (CTIP was administered to all participants. RESULTS: Children with AS/HFA had lower performance compared to the other two groups. No difference was found in the performance between the two typically developing groups. Also, there was no significant correlation between the IQ and the performance for the children with AS/HFA, while positive correlations were revealed between performance and age for the two groups of children. CONCLUSION: The results provide further evidence that children with AS/HFA have difficulties in understanding idioms and they confirm their tendency to make literal interpretations. These impairments are irrelevant to their intelligence and they affect their communication with others. The understanding of these difficulties is important in order to find ways to limit the confusion and the misinterpretations which are observed during the communicative acts with this clinic group.OBJETIVO: Ampliar pesquisas anteriores a respeito do desenvolvimento da compreensão de expressões idiomáticas por meio da investigação dessa habilidade em crianças com síndrome de Asperger (AS ou com autismo de alto funcionamento (HFA. MÉTODOS: Três grupos participaram do estudo. O primeiro grupo era composto por 27 crianças com AS/HFA (média de idade 11 anos e 3 meses e os outros dois eram constituídos, respectivamente, por crianças em desenvolvimento típico e adultos. O Teste de Compreensão de Expressões Idiomáticas (CTIP foi aplicado a todos os participantes. RESULTADOS: Crianças com AS/HFA tiveram

  18. Reliability and validity of Asperger Syndrome Screening Scale%Asperger综合征筛查量表的编制及信效度检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 金宇; 静进; 王惠; 徐桂凤; 魏薇; 修丽娟; 杨文翰; 暴芃

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening scale for Asperger Syndrome (AS) and explore its reliability and validity.Methods: The items of AS screening scale were selected basing on scale development theory and procedure, and adjusted by item analysis method on the pilot study.Sixty-seven children aged 4 ~11 years who met the AS diagnostic criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) and 1050 normal children aged 5 - 11 years from common elementary school were selected, whose parents were arranged to answer the scale to ascertain the demarcation point and test the reliability and validity.Results: The total scale score in AS group was higher than that in normal group (P <0.05).When the total scale score was used to screen for AS, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.98 (P < 0.01), the demarcation point was 49.The test-retest correlation coefficient r was 0.93, each item test-retest r was all above 0.70, and the internal consistency Cronbach’s α was 0.94.When the DSM-Ⅳ was used to be the golden standard, the correlation coefficient r was 0.72.The results of explore factor analysis (EFA) showed that KMO was 0.95, and 50.0% of the total variation could be explained by 6 factors.The scores of each item except for 2 items and total scale in the AS group were higher than that in the normal group ( P < 0.05).Conclusion: The Asperger Syndrome Screening Scale shows good reliability and validity, and could be used widely.%目的:编制一套符合中国文化、具有较好的信度和效度的Asperger综合征(Asperger syndrome,AS)筛查量表.方法:根据量表编制原理和程序编制成Asperger综合征筛查量表初版,经预调查条目分析调整形成量表终版,选取按照精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)标准诊断的AS儿童67例(4~11岁)和小学1050名(5~11岁),由家长进行量表的填答,测算量表划界分并检验其信度和效度.结果:AS组儿童量表总得分高于正常组(P<0.05),

  19. Early screening and diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome (Review)%阿斯博格综合征的早期筛查和诊断(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 静进

    2011-01-01

    @@ 阿斯博格综合征(Asperger's syndrome,AS)是一种与儿童孤独症(autism)有相似特征,以社会交往障碍、狭隘的兴趣、重复刻板行为和动作发育不协调,但具有与年龄相符的语言和认知功能为主要表现的广泛性发育障碍(pervasive develop-mental disorder,PDD).目前,一般将PDD称为孤独症谱系障碍(Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD)[1-3],国内外报道其发病率为2‰~1%(个别报道高达1.5%~2.0%),男女比约为4:1,智商在70以上的高功能PDD,包括高功能孤独症(high functional autism,HFA)和AS,约占总体患者一半以上[4-5].

  20. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  1. Cognitive Orientation to (daily) Occupational Performance (CO-OP) with children with Asperger's syndrome who have motor-based occupational performance goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Sylvia; Brandenburg, Julia

    2009-02-01

    Motor difficulties associated with Asperger's syndrome (AS) are commonly reported, despite these not being diagnostically significant. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is a verbal problem-solving intervention developed for use with children with developmental coordination disorder to address their motor-based difficulties. This paper reports on two case studies of children with AS illustrating the outcomes of CO-OP to address motor-based occupational performance goals. A case study approach was used to document how two children with AS engaged in 10 weekly sessions of CO-OP addressing child-chosen motor-based occupational performance goals and the outcomes of this intervention. Pre and post-intervention assessment using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and the Performance Quality Rating Scale indicated that both children were able to engage in CO-OP intervention to successfully improve their occupational performance. Further research into the application of CO-OP with children with AS is warranted based on preliminary positive findings regarding the efficacy of this intervention to address motor-based performance difficulties in two children with AS.

  2. Asperger综合征儿童的智力结构与临床症状%Relation of intelligence structural to clinical symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠; 静进; 金宇; 刘步云; 王馨

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the intelligence structure characteristics in Asperger syndrome (AS) children and to explore the relation between intelligence composite index with clinic syndrome.Methods:Totally 54 children were selected,including 27 children who were diagnosed as AS according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fouth Edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and 27 control children.The two groups children were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and in the AS group,the Asperger Syndrome Screening Scale was filled by the parents of AS children to assess their clinical symptoms.Results:The AS group scored lower in the full scale intelligence quotient [(96.1 ± 12.0) vs.(105.6 ± 9.4),P < 0.05],perceptual reasoning index [(100.4 ± 13.6) vs.(108.9 ± 11.2),P < 0.05],working memory index [(92.3 ± 10.0) vs.(97.9 ± 9.9),P < 0.05],processing speed index [(92.2 ± 11.5) vs.(107.4 ± 12.8),P < 0.05] and cognitive proficiency index [(90.8 ± 9.3) vs.(102.3 ± 10.6),P < 0.05].Among the 10 core subsets,AS children scored lower than control children in block design [(9.7 ± 3.4) vs.(12.3 ± 2.6),P < 0.05],digit span [(7.9 ± 1.9) vs.(9.0 ±1.9),P <0.05],coding [(8.2±2.2) vs.(11.3 ±3.0),P<0.05] and symbol search [(9.2 ±2.6) vs.(11.6±2.5),P <0.05].There was no canonical correlation between intelligence composite indexes and the scores of clinical symptoms(r =0.34-0.63,Ps > 0.05).Conclusion:Children with AS may have the normal general ability,but lower than the normal.AS children may display a cognitive profile that is general ability index is better than cognitive proficiency index.Further studies investigating the relationship between clinical symptoms and intelligence composite indexes are needed.%目的:探讨Asperger综合征(Asperger syndrome,AS)儿童的智力结构特点及其智力合成指数与其临床症状的相关关系.方法:采用国内修订韦氏儿童智力量表第4

  3. Economic Evaluation Alongside a Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial of Modified Group Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Compared to Treatment-as-Usual in Adults With Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Doble PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing interest in using group cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT with people who have Asperger syndrome (AS and comorbid mental health problems. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of modified group CBT for adults with AS experiencing co-occurring anxiety compared to treatment-as-usual. Methods: Economic evaluation alongside a pilot, multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled crossover trial. Costs from the UK public sector (National Health Service and Social Services and societal perspectives, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, incremental net (monetary benefit (INB, expected value of perfect information, expected value of sample information, expected net gain of sampling, and efficient sample size of a future trial are reported. Results: Over 48 weeks, from the societal perspective, CBT results in additional costs of £6,647, with only a 0.015 incremental gain in QALYs, leading to a negative INB estimate of £6,206 and a 23% probability of cost-effectiveness at a threshold of £30,000/QALY. Results from sensitivity analyses support the unlikely cost-effectiveness of CBT but indicate the potential for cost-effectiveness over longer time horizons. Eliminating decision uncertainty is valued at £277 million, and the efficient sample size for a future trial is estimated at 1,200 participants per arm. Limitations: Relatively small sample size and prevalence of missing data present challenges to the interpretation of the results. Conclusions: Current evidence from this small pilot study suggests that, on average, modified group CBT is not cost-effective. However, there is much decision uncertainty so such a conclusion could be wrong. A large, full-scale trial to reduce uncertainty would be an efficient investment for the UK health economy.

  4. Savant memory for digits in a case of synaesthesia and Asperger syndrome is related to hyperactivity in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Daniel; Billington, Jac; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2007-10-01

    SINGLE CASE: DT is a savant with exceptional abilities in numerical memory and mathematical calculations. DT also has an elaborate form of synaesthesia for visually presented digits. Further more, DT also has Asperger syndrome (AS). We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish whether these conditions may contribute to his savant abilities. In an fMRI digit span study, DT showed hyperactivity in lateral prefrontal cortex when encoding digits, compared with controls. In addition, while controls showed raised lateral prefrontal activation in response to structured (compared to unstructured) sequences of digits, DT's neural activity did not differ between these two conditions. In addition, controls showed a significant performance advantage for structured, compared with unstructured sequences whereas no such pattern was found for DT. We suggest that this performance pattern reflects that DT focuses less on external mathematical structure, since for him all digit sequences have internal structure linked to his synaesthesia. Finally, DT did not activate extra-striate regions normally associated with synaesthesia, suggesting that he has an unusual and more abstract and conceptual form of synaesthesia. This appears to generate structured, highly-chunked content that enhances encoding of digits and aids both recall and calculation. People with AS preferentially attend to local features of stimuli. To test this in DT, we administered the Navon task. Relative to controls, DT was faster at finding a target at the local level, and was less distracted by interference from the global level. The propensity to focus on local detail, in concert with a form of synaesthesia that provides structure to all digits, may account for DT's exceptional numerical memory and calculation ability. This neural and cognitive pattern needs to be tested in a series of similar cases, and with more constrained control groups, to confirm the significance of this association.

  5. Health-related quality of life in parents of school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedje Hans

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated prevalence rate of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD in children is 6 per 1.000. Parenting children who are intellectually impaired and have PDDs is known to be linked to the impaired well-being of the parents themselves. However, there is still little available data on health-related quality of life (HRQL in parents of children with Asperger Syndrome (AS and High-Functioning Autism (HFA, or other PDD diagnoses in children of normal intelligence. The present study aimed to evaluate aspects of HRQL in parents of school-age children with AS/HFA and the correlates with child behaviour characteristics. Methods The sample consisted of 31 mothers and 30 fathers of 32 children with AS/HFA and 30 mothers and 29 fathers of 32 age and gender matched children with typical development. Parental HRQL was surveyed by the use of the 12 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 which measures physical and mental well-being. The child behaviour characteristics were assessed using the structured questionnaires: The High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ and The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results The mothers of children with AS/HFA had lower SF-12 scores than the controls, indicating poorer physical health. The mothers of children with AS/HFA also had lower physical SF-12 scores compared to the fathers. In the AS/HFA group, maternal health was related to behaviour problems such as hyperactivity and conduct problems in the child. Conclusion Mothers but not fathers of children with AS/HFA reported impaired HRQL, and there was a relationship between maternal well-being and child behaviour characteristics.

  6. [French version of screening questionnaire for high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome in adolescent: Autism Spectrum Quotient, Empathy Quotient and Systemizing Quotient. Protocol and questionnaire translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonié, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Masson, Sandrine; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Reboul, Anne; Wicker, Bruno; Chevallier, Coralie; Beaude-Chervet, Véronique; Deleage, Marie-Hélène; Charvet, Dorothée; Barthélémy, Catherine; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Arnaud, Valérie; Manificat, Sabine

    2011-04-01

    No tools are currently available in France, for the detection of autism without mental retardation (high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome here referred as TED SDI). Use of screening tests by first-line clinicians would allow better detection of children who are likely to display such difficulties and to improve patients' care. In England, 3 questionnaires have been evaluated: Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Empathy Quotient (EQ), and Systemizing Quotient (SQ). This is the translation and evaluation of 3 questionnaires in France for TED SDI and control adolescents. The translation of the questionnaires into French required two simultaneous translations, two back-translations and two consensus meetings. This is a cross-sectional study comparing scores obtained with the three AQ, EQ and SQ questionnaires. These questionnaires were completed by the parents of four groups of adolescents 11-18 years: 100 TED SDI adolescents (50 with IQ ≥ 85 and 50 with 70≤IQ<85), 50 adolescents with another psychiatric disorder (TP) and 200 control adolescents (T). 580 questionnaires have been sent to 40 recruiting centres. By the 28th of February, 2010, 277 completed questionnaires were received completed (TED SDI: 70 (70%); TP: 25 (50%) et T: 182 (91%)). In the control group, 92 girls (mean 14.4±1.7 years) and 66 boys (14.5±1.7 years) were recruited. In the TED SDI group, 4 girls (14.3±2.4 years) and 42 boys (14.5±1.7 years) were recruited. One girl (81) and 6 boys (72.2±7.7) have an IQ between 70 and 85, and 3 girls (95.3±4.2) and 36 boys (102.9±12) have an IQ higher than 85. In the TP group, 9 girls (15.9±1.7 years) and 4 boys (15.8±1.9 years) were recruited. The aim of this study is to make the AQ, EQ and SQ questionnaires available in French for French speaking clinicians. This study will allow a rigorous evaluation of the usefulness of the AQ questionnaire in the screening of TED SDI in adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The Occupational Transition Process to Upper Secondary School, Further Education and/or Work in Sweden: As Described by Young Adults with Asperger Syndrome and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baric, Vedrana Bolic; Hemmingsson, Helena; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger syndrome or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This qualitative study was performed in Sweden and comprised interviews with 15 young adults recruited from community based day centres. Support influencing the process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace. The overall understanding shows that the occupational transition process was a longitudinal one starting as early as in middle school, and continuing until the young adults obtained and were able to remain in employment or further education.

  8. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  9. Autism och Asperger syndromtvå studier om pedagogers ochspecialpedagogers kunskaper och erfarenheter

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Pauline; Olsson, Sofia; Simonsson, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Lindgren, P, Olsson, S & Simonsson, D. (2008) Autism och Asperger syndrom – två studier om pedagogers och specialpedagogers kunskaper och erfarenheter (Autism and Asperger syndrome – two studies of teachers´ and special educators´ knowledge and experience). Högskolan, Kristianstad. Specialpedagogiska programmet. Syftet med vårt arbete är att undersöka vilka kunskaper som specialpedagoger inom grund-skola och grundsärskola har, samt hur pedagoger uppfattar sina kunskaper och erfarenheter när d...

  10. A different view on the Necker cube-Differences in multistable perception dynamics between Asperger and non-Asperger observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kornmeier

    Full Text Available During observation of the Necker cube perception becomes unstable and alternates repeatedly between a from-above-perspective ("fap" and a from-below-perspective ("fbp" interpretation. Both interpretations are physically equally plausible, however, observers usually show an a priori top-down bias in favor of the fap interpretation. Patients with Autism spectrum disorder are known to show an altered pattern of perception with a focus on sensory details. In the present study we tested whether this altered perceptual processing affects their reversal dynamics and reduces the perceptual bias during Necker cube observation.19 participants with Asperger syndrome and 16 healthy controls observed a Necker cube stimulus continuously for 5 minutes and indicated perceptual reversals by key press. We compared reversal rates (number of reversals per minute and the distributions of dwell times for the two interpretations between observer groups.Asperger participants showed less perceptual reversal than controls. Six Asperger participants did not perceive any reversal at all, whereas all observers from the control group perceived at least five reversals within the five minutes observation time. Further, control participants showed the typical perceptual bias with significant longer median dwell times for the fap compared to the fbp interpretation. No such perceptual bias was found in the Asperger group.The perceptual system weights the incomplete and ambiguous sensory input with memorized concepts in order to construct stable and reliable percepts. In the case of the Necker cube stimulus, two perceptual interpretations are equally compatible with the sensory information and internal fluctuations may cause perceptual alternations between them-with a slightly larger probability value for the fap interpretation (perceptual bias. Smaller reversal rates in Asperger observers may result from the dominance of bottom-up sensory input over endogenous top-down factors

  11. Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and "race hygiene" in Nazi-era Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Herwig

    2018-01-01

    Hans Asperger (1906-1980) first designated a group of children with distinct psychological characteristics as 'autistic psychopaths' in 1938, several years before Leo Kanner's famous 1943 paper on autism. In 1944, Asperger published a comprehensive study on the topic (submitted to Vienna University in 1942 as his postdoctoral thesis), which would only find international acknowledgement in the 1980s. From then on, the eponym 'Asperger's syndrome' increasingly gained currency in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the conceptualization of the condition. At the time, the fact that Asperger had spent pivotal years of his career in Nazi Vienna caused some controversy regarding his potential ties to National Socialism and its race hygiene policies. Documentary evidence was scarce, however, and over time a narrative of Asperger as an active opponent of National Socialism took hold. The main goal of this paper is to re-evaluate this narrative, which is based to a large extent on statements made by Asperger himself and on a small segment of his published work. Drawing on a vast array of contemporary publications and previously unexplored archival documents (including Asperger's personnel files and the clinical assessments he wrote on his patients), this paper offers a critical examination of Asperger's life, politics, and career before and during the Nazi period in Austria. Asperger managed to accommodate himself to the Nazi regime and was rewarded for his affirmations of loyalty with career opportunities. He joined several organizations affiliated with the NSDAP (although not the Nazi party itself), publicly legitimized race hygiene policies including forced sterilizations and, on several occasions, actively cooperated with the child 'euthanasia' program. The language he employed to diagnose his patients was often remarkably harsh (even in comparison with assessments written by the staff at Vienna's notorious Spiegelgrund 'euthanasia' institution), belying the

  12. Emotional Decoding in Facial Expression, Scripts and Videos: A Comparison between Normal, Autistic and Asperger Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Amenta, Simona; Ferrari, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    ASD subjects are described as showing particular difficulty in decoding emotional patterns. This paper explored linguistic and conceptual skills in response to emotional stimuli presented as emotional faces, scripts (pictures) and interactive situations (videos). Participants with autism, Asperger syndrome and control participants were shown…

  13. Applied cognitive behavioral analysis as an effective tool for the development of communication skills and problem solving behavior in adolescents diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Spilka, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    This Rigorosum Thesis work puts mind to questions how to effectively work with adolescents they were diagnosed with Aspereger's Syndrome. Based on author-led concrete development project, it proves the high efficiency of cognitive behavior techniques for the social learning and the training and improvement of communication skills or additionally for problem behavior solving. Together with those frequently used tools it shows other opportunities how to raise efficiency - especially of Kaizen p...

  14. A black swan in a sea of white noise: using technology-enhanced learning to afford educational inclusivity for learners with Asperger's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, James

    2015-01-01

    Against a backdrop of increasingly vocation-focussed course provision within higher education, of widening participa-tion initiatives intended to promote greater inclusion for learners affected by learning difficulties, and of moves towards greater use of social and collaborative forms of learning, this paper discusses the case of an undergraduate Computing student affected by Asperger’s Syndrome (AS).While there is recognition in the literature of problems associated with face-to-face dialog...

  15. Nederlandse asperges internationaal zwaar onder druk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokkers, R.; Hack, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Door een te hoge kostprijs dreigt de Nederlandse asperge de concurrentie te verliezen met de Duitse en Griekse asperge. Schaarse arbeid en hoge loonkosten drijven de kostprijs op. In dit artikel: aanbevelingen de concurrentiepositie van de Nederlandse aspergesector op de internationale markt te

  16. Opinions of People Who Self-Identify with Autism and Asperger's on "DSM-5" Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Kristen Faye; Krcek, Taylor E.; Sensui, Leonard M.; Spillers, Jessica L. H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Autistic disorder (AD), Asperger's syndrome (AS), and pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) have been removed from the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition" ("DSM-5"). It now contains the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. This study assessed…

  17. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  18. Writing, Asperger Syndrome and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather M.; Klein, Perry D.

    2011-01-01

    This research compared the written compositions of 16 adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and 16 neurotypical control participants, and examined the influence of theory of mind on their writing. Participants ranging in age from 17 years to 42 years, matched on Vocabulary subtest scores from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale…

  19. Exploring the Perception of Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Donna M.; Tyson, Graham A.; Gullifer, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    With current preparation for the release of the fifth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-5) in 2013, many changes have been proposed for the diagnostic criteria, including changes to the pervasive development disorder category--of which Asperger's disorder is a part. Using focus group discussions…

  20. [Autism spectrum syndrome replaces Asperger syndrome and autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Nordin, Viviann

    2014-09-23

    Autism spectrum disorder describes a behaviourally defined impairment in social interaction and communication, along with the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. Although the etiology is mostly unknown, it is evident that biological factors affect the brain and result in the autistic clinical presentation. Assessment for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder should be comprehensive in order to cover all sorts of problems related to the disorder. Knowledge and experience from working with neurological and psychiatric disorders are a prerequisite for quality in the examination. Up to now, there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, but support and adaptations in education are nevertheless important for obtaining sufficient life quality for the patients and the family.

  1. Asperger-nuori matkalla aikuisuuteen - vertaistuesta voimavaroja arjen haasteisiin : Viikonlopputapahtuma 13-18-vuotiaiden Asperger-nuorten perheille

    OpenAIRE

    Sormunen, Mirja

    2012-01-01

    Projektina toteutettavan opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli suunnitella ja järjestää viikonlopputapahtuma 13–18-vuotiaiden Asperger-nuorten perheille. Tavoitteena oli tarjota Asperger-nuorten perheille mahdollisuus saada vertaistukea ja tietoa Aspergerin oireyhtymästä nuoruusiässä ja nuoren aikuistuessa. Siirtymätilanteet ovat haastavia Asperger-henkilöille. Perheen on tärkeä saada tietoa ja tukea siirtymätilanteessa, kun nuori siirtyy perusopetuksesta jatko-opintoihin. Tavoitteena oli, että Aut...

  2. Data analysis in participatory research with adults with Asperger’s syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how data analysis was conducted in a participatory methodology involving adults with Asperger's syndrome as co-researchers. It also explores the findings of the research and discusses how this can inform the research process.

  3. Residuen van diuron en 3,4-dichlooraniline in asperge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goewie; C.E.; Hogendoorn; E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Een vloeistofchromatografische methode voor de gelijktijdige bepaling van het herbicide diuron en zijn voornaamste metaboliet, 3,4- dichlooraniline, op asperges werd ontwikkeld. De methode bestaat uit extractie met dichloormethaan gevolgd door reversed phase chromatografie met UV-detectie. De

  4. Concerns about identity and services among people with autism and Asperger's regarding DSM-5 changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillers, Jessica L H; Sensui, Leonard M; Linton, Kristen F

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]; American Psychiatric Association, 2012 ) now includes a new autism spectrum diagnosis (ASD) with previous separate diagnoses of autism removed. This study explores the concerns of people with Asperger's syndrome (AS) and autistic disorder (AD). Discussion forum data of people with AS and AD (N = 76) were analyzed using phenomenological, inductive-content analysis to gather qualitative data about the concerns of people with AS and AD regarding the changes in the DSM-5. People with AS and AD were concerned about identity, community, the cure movement, and services. They also discussed using advocacy and solidarity to address their concerns.

  5. Propuesta de intervención musical por alumnado asperger

    OpenAIRE

    Revuelta López, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de fin de grado pretende dar a conocer la influencia que tiene la música sobre el proceso de aprendizaje, concretamente en la mejora de las dificultades de los niños con síndrome de Asperger, un trastorno que se da en el aula. El síndrome de Asperger es un trastorno del desarrollo, incluido desde el 2013 en el DSM- V (Manual diagnóstico y estadístico de los trastornos mentales) donde aparece como un único síndrome, junto al autismo, el desintegrativo infantil y no espe...

  6. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  7. The Use of Psychodrama Techniques for Students with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Samira; Scholwinski, Edward; Lasser, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Asperger's Disorder (AD) is a pervasive developmental disorder affecting social functioning and behavioral interest and activities. The purpose of this article is to inform school counselors of the characteristic features of AD, common interventions being implemented, and the techniques associated with the practice of psychodrama that appear to…

  8. Cyber Bullying in ADHD and Asperger Syndrome Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Robin M.; Fedina, Cristin

    2011-01-01

    Cyber bullying or electronic bullying refers to bullying that occurs through the Internet or cellular phones. With the rise of technology, researchers have shown a keen interest in the topic of cyber bullying. However, that interest has not extended to individuals with special needs. To address this gap in the literature, the current study…

  9. Non linear analyses of speech and prosody in Asperger's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Bang, Dan; Weed, Ethan

    It is widely acknowledged that people on the ASD spectrum behave atypically in the way they modulate aspects of speech and voice, including pitch, fluency, and voice quality. ASD speech has been described at times as “odd”, “mechanical”, or “monotone”. However, it has proven difficult to quantify...... the results in a supervised machine-learning process to classify speech production as either belonging to the control or the AS group as well as to assess the severity of the disorder (as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient), based solely on acoustic features....

  10. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  11. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic…

  12. Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical…

  13. Qualitative or Quantitative Differences between Asperger's Disorder and Autism? Historical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James Ladell

    2009-01-01

    The histories of autism and Asperger's Disorder (AD), based on original contributions by Kanner and Asperger, are reviewed in relation to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Their original articles appear to have influenced the distinction between AD and autism made in the DSM-IV. Based on up-to-date empirical research, however, it appears that AD and…

  14. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  15. Lower limb motor restlessness in Asperger's disorder, measured using actometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Katinka; Tani, Pekka; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Holi, Matti Mikael; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Lauerma, Hannu; Lindberg, Nina; Appelberg, Björn; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2004-08-30

    The movement disturbances and brain imaging findings in Asperger's disorder (AD) suggest a dopaminergic deficit in movement regulation. Movement disorders of different etiologies have been quantified and specified with actometry. We compared 10 AD patients with 10 healthy controls, measuring their rest-activities by actometry. The lower limb motor activity was significantly higher in the AD group. They also displayed a rhythmic, periodic movement pattern similar to akathisia. These findings suggest a hypothesis of idiopathic akathisia and a special sensitivity to adverse effects of neuroleptic drugs.

  16. Cognitive profiles and regional cerebral blood flow changes in individuals with Asperger's disorder and Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motoichiro; Hayashi, Mika; Nozaki, Syoko

    2008-01-01

    Described are differences of the profiles and blood flow (CBF) changes in the title between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). Children with AD syndrome have been suggested to have reasoning and fluid intelligence superior to normally developed ones, and to be of cognitive disability for the spatial composition which is thought to reflect the impairment in the right hemisphere. These characteristics are not suggested in SZ. Presented are examinations by authors of 99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with Patlak method of 7 AD males (average age 24.4 y), 4 AD females (25.5 y), and 4 males and 2 females with SZ (25.8 y). Image analysis is done by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) with standardized brain. Control with the matched age and sex is obtained from database of the normal healthy ones. In AD, clearly lowered CBF is observed in the right lateral and medial parietal lobe and right superior temporal convolution (particularly, in females), and in SZ, in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial regions of frontal lobe of both sides. The finding in the right superior temporal convolution in AD is considered to be important from the aspect of impairment of eye gaze processing. (R.T.)

  17. The Neuropsychology of Male Adults With High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Happé, Francesca; Wheelwright, Sally J; Ecker, Christine; Lombardo, Michael V; Johnston, Patrick; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh M; Spain, Debbie; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Sauter, Disa A; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of cognitive skills, and autistic and comorbid symptomatology. The aims of the study were, first, to determine whether significant differences existed between cases and controls on cognitive tasks, and whether cognitive profiles, derived using a multivariate classification method with data from multiple cognitive tasks, could distinguish between the two groups. Second, to establish whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of autistic symptom severity, and third, whether cognitive skill level was correlated with degree of comorbid psychopathology. Fourth, cognitive characteristics of individuals with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared. After controlling for IQ, ASD and control groups scored significantly differently on tasks of social cognition, motor performance, and executive function (P's Autism Res 2014, 7: 568–581. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24903974

  18. The role of experience in teachers’ social representation of students with autism spectrum diagnosis (Asperger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte Linton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Support from teachers is a key strategy for accommodating students with Asperger syndrome (AS diagnosis in the mainstream classroom. Teachers’ understanding and expectations of students, i.e. their social representations (SR, have a bearing on how they interact and accommodate, but little is known about why. Therefore, the current study examined the idea that teachers’ SR of these students are influenced by their previous experience with AS. To this end, Swedish mainstream teachers were invited to anonymously answer a web-based questionnaire (N = 153. An association task was used to obtain data on teachers’ SR and the content and structure of the SR were explored. Our results suggest that work-related experience of AS and/or private experience shape teachers’ SR of these students relative to teachers with no experience. Moreover, teachers with previous experience had more SR elements related to environment and learning factors while teachers without previous experience had more elements related to the individual’s behavior. Teachers with private experience produced fewer positive elements compared to those with work-related experience only. These results highlight the role of contextual factors and prior experience in forming SR. We conclude that contact with students with AS, e.g. during teacher training, could facilitate accommodation in mainstream schools.

  19. Can tactile sensory processing differentiate between children with autistic disorder and asperger's disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-05-01

    There are debates whether autistic disorder (autism) and Asperger's disorder are two distinct disorders. Moreover, interventional sensory occupational therapy should consider the clinical characteristics of patients. Already, commonalities and differences between Asperger's disorder and autistic disorder are not well studied. The aim of this study is to compare tactile sensory function of children with autistic disorder and children with Asperger's disorder. Tactile sensory function was compared between 36 children with autism and 19 children with Asperger's disorder. The two disorders were diagnosed based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision. The parent-reported Tactile Dysfunction Checklist was used to assess the three aspects of hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, and poor tactile perception and discrimination. Developmental coordination was also assessed. Developmental coordination problems total score was not associated with group. The mean (standard deviation) score of tactile hyper-responsivity was not different between the groups. Tactile hyporesponsivity and poor tactile perception and discrimination scores were statistically higher in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder group. These results for the first time indicated that at least some aspects of tactile perception can differentiate these two disorders. Children with autistic disorder have more tactile sensory seeking behaviors than children with Asperger's disorder. Moreover, the ability of children with autistic disorder for tactile discrimination and sensory perception is less than those with Asperger's disorder. Interventional sensory therapy in children with autistic disorder should have some characteristics that can be different and specific for children with Asperger's disorder. Formal intelligence quotient testing was not performed on all of the children evaluated, which is a limitation to this study. In some cases, a clinical estimation of

  20. Individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical stimuli. In both groups, level-repetition was beneficial at both levels. Furthermore, individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibited difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level compared to control individuals. These findings suggested that there is a problem with the inhibitory mechanism that influences the output of enhanced local visual processing in Asperger's disorder.

  1. Memory illusion in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Yoko; Toichi, Motomi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, 13 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 15 individuals with Asperger's disorder (AD), and age-, and IQ-matched controls were presented a list of sentences auditorily. Participants then evaluated semantically related but new sentences and reported whether they were old or new. The total rates of false recognition for semantically related sentences were similar among the three groups. Nevertheless, memory illusion on some aspects was reduced in HFA participants. These results suggest that HFA have difficulties in semantic association. Although individuals with AD showed no quantitative abnormalities of memory illusion, some contributing factors were atypical. These findings are discussed in terms of schema theory, enhanced perceptual processing hypothesis, and weak central coherence hypothesis.

  2. Síndrome de Asperger: relato de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Viana Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como real objetivo o relato de um caso de Síndrome de Asperger comprado às características descritas na literatura. Metodologia: A partir de um relato de um caso atendido na Clínica Escola de Fonoaudiologia do Centro Universitário Metodista Izabela Hendrix, determinadas características foram comparadas com o descrito na literatura pertinente. Os trabalhos foram lidos, fichados e agrupados, segundos algumas características de abordagem, para posterior análise e comparação com o caso clínico relatado. Discussão e resultados: As crianças com Síndrome de Asperger são, em geral, diferentes entre si. Freqüentemente procedimentos realizados que podem ser indicados para uma criança seriam inadequados para outra. Assim, sugestões apresentadas pela literatura devem ser consideradas para melhorar a assistência à criança, como a compreensão mais abrangente e a reflexão aprofundada em relação a cada caso em específico. Conclusão: O acompanhamento e tratamento fonoaudiológico nesses casos, é de suma importância para o desenvolvimento o mais próximo possível do considerado formal na linguagem e na comunicação destes indivíduos. Vivências clínicas mostram as estratégias que podem ser sugeridas para estas crianças, lembrando que casa criança possui suas particularidades, que devem sempre ser levadas em consideração.

  3. Multidisciplinary treatment of tooth wear in a patient with Asperger’s Syndrome and dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetselaar, P.; Vermaire, J.H.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who is referred by his home physician to a centre for special dental care because of the presence of severe oral pain with an existing dental phobia. The patient has Asperger's Syndrome. Besides his extreme fear for dental treatment and several deep carious

  4. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder Exhibit Difficulty in Switching Attention from a Local Level to a Global Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Masatoshi; Kasai, Tetsuko; Kamio, Yoko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether individuals with Asperger's disorder exhibit difficulty in switching attention from a local level to a global level. Eleven participants with Asperger's disorder and 11 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a level-repetition switching task using Navon-type hierarchical…

  5. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  6. A Comparative Study of the Spontaneous Social Interactions of Children with High-Functioning Autism and Children with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    A comparative observational study was undertaken of the spontaneous social interactions of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder. The sample comprised 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's disorder and 17 typically developing children matched on chronological age and overall mental age. A…

  7. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  8. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  9. Views on the Diagnostic Labels of Autism and Asperger's Disorder and the Proposed Changes in the DSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Donna M.; Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    With the approaching release of the DSM V in 2013, there has been much debate about the proposal to remove the diagnostic label of Asperger's disorder from the new DSM. This study explored how health and education professionals perceive the conditions of autism and Asperger's disorder and their views on the proposed diagnostic changes.…

  10. Use of Gilliam Asperger's disorder scale in differentiating high and low functioning autism and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N

    2011-02-01

    Little is known about the validity of Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS), although it is widely used. This study of 199 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder, 195 with low functioning autism, and 83 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed high classification accuracy (autism vs. ADHD) for clinicians' GADS Quotients (92%), and somewhat lower accuracy (77%) for parents' Quotients. Both children with high and low functioning autism had clinicians' Quotients (M=99 and 101, respectively) similar to the Asperger's Disorder mean of 100 for the GADS normative sample. Children with high functioning autism scored significantly higher on the cognitive patterns subscale than children with low functioning autism, and the latter had higher scores on the remaining subscales: social interaction, restricted patterns of behavior, and pragmatic skills. Using the clinicians' Quotient and Cognitive Patterns score, 70% of children were correctly identified as having high or low functioning autism or ADHD.

  11. EL SÍNDROME DE ASPERGER Y SU CLASIFICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Zúñiga Montero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata sobre el Síndrome de Asperger, que es un trastorno generalizado del desarrollo. Su causa primaria parece ser genética y recientemente fue reconocido como tal por la comunidad científica. Debido a sus características, esta enfermedad es poco conocida por la población e, incluso, por ser tan reciente su descubrimiento, muchos profesionales de las áreas educativa, social y médica no están suficientemente informados al respecto. Muchas familias costarricenses lo presentan. Tradicionalmente, este síndrome se incluye dentro del espectro autista; sin embargo, está contemplado en el DSM IV como Trastorno de Asperger y en el CIE- 10 como Síndrome de Asperger, que lo clasifica como una entidad clínica diferente del autismo.

  12. P300 component of event-related potentials in persons with asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanami, Akira; Okajima, Yuka; Ota, Haruhisa; Tani, Masayuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamagata, Bun; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kanai, Chieko; Takashio, Osamu; Inamoto, Atsuko; Ono, Taisei; Takayama, Yukiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated auditory event-related potentials in adults with Asperger disorder and normal controls using an auditory oddball task and a novelty oddball task. Task performance and the latencies of P300 evoked by both target and novel stimuli in the two tasks did not differ between the two groups. Analysis of variance revealed that there was a significant interaction effect between group and electrode site on the mean amplitude of the P300 evoked by novel stimuli, which indicated that there was an altered distribution of the P300 in persons with Asperger disorder. In contrast, there was no significant interaction effect on the mean P300 amplitude elicited by target stimuli. Considering that P300 comprises two main subcomponents, frontal-central-dominant P3a and parietal-dominant P3b, our results suggested that persons with Asperger disorder have enhanced amplitude of P3a, which indicated activated prefrontal function in this task.

  13. Delayed Video Self-Recognition in Children with High Vo Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Shembrey, Joh; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Two studies are reported which investigate delayed video self-recognition (DSR) in children with autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder relative to one another and to their typically developing peers. A secondary aim was to establish whether DSR ability is dependent on metarepresentational ability. Children's verbal and affective responses to…

  14. Attentional Blink in Young People with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Bradshaw, John

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the temporal characteristics of information processing in individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. The results clearly showed that such people demonstrate an attentional blink of similar magnitude to comparison groups. This supports the…

  15. Brief Report: Inhibition of Return in Young People with Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Moss, Simon A.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the superior search abilities observed in autism/Asperger's disorder may in part be a consequence of a more pronounced inhibition of return (IOR). Contrary to our prediction, IOR in individuals with autism was comparable to the matched comparison group. However, the autism group committed more false…

  16. Social Development in Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, and even in many current research circles, social behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (including those with high functioning autism or Asperger disorder) was considered to be unmodifiable. Mundy, Henderson, Inge, and Coman and McGee and Daly shed new light on this concept of intractability, suggesting that…

  17. Kanner, Asperger, and Frankl: A Third Man at the Genesis of the Autism Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have long speculated about how Kanner and Asperger's descriptions of autistic behavior appeared just 1 year apart in America and Austria even as World War II had severed communication between the two countries. Both conspiracy and serendipity have been alleged, but a simpler explanation has now emerged. Autistic knowledge crossed the…

  18. Differentiation of High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Based on Neuromotor Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayate, Ashwini; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; McGinley, Jennifer L.; Iansek, Robert; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) are characterised by impairments in social interaction, stereotypic behaviours or restricted interests. Although currently listed as distinct clinical disorders, the validity of their distinction remains controversial. This study examined gait in children with autism and AD. Eleven children with high-functioning…

  19. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  20. A different view on the checkerboard? Alterations in early and late visually evoked EEG potentials in Asperger observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Kornmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asperger Autism is a lifelong psychiatric condition with highly circumscribed interests and routines, problems in social cognition, verbal and nonverbal communication, and also perceptual abnormalities with sensory hypersensitivity. To objectify both lower-level visual and cognitive alterations we looked for differences in visual event-related potentials (EEG between Asperger observers and matched controls while they observed simple checkerboard stimuli. METHODS: In a balanced oddball paradigm checkerboards of two checksizes (0.6° and 1.2° were presented with different frequencies. Participants counted the occurrence times of the rare fine or rare coarse checkerboards in different experimental conditions. We focused on early visual ERP differences as a function of checkerboard size and the classical P3b ERP component as an indicator of cognitive processing. RESULTS: We found an early (100-200 ms after stimulus onset occipital ERP effect of checkerboard size (dominant spatial frequency. This effect was weaker in the Asperger than in the control observers. Further a typical parietal/central oddball-P3b occurred at 500 ms with the rare checkerboards. The P3b showed a right-hemispheric lateralization, which was more prominent in Asperger than in control observers. DISCUSSION: The difference in the early occipital ERP effect between the two groups may be a physiological marker of differences in the processing of small visual details in Asperger observers compared to normal controls. The stronger lateralization of the P3b in Asperger observers may indicate a stronger involvement of the right-hemispheric network of bottom-up attention. The lateralization of the P3b signal might be a compensatory consequence of the compromised early checksize effect. Higher-level analytical information processing units may need to compensate for difficulties in low-level signal analysis.

  1. Cognitive profiles of adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Antoinette Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive strengths and weaknesses have been examined. The results show impairment in advanced theory of mind. Furthermore, impairment was found in processing speed. The results pointed to strengths in detailed information processing. No impairment was found in executive

  2. Conversational Behaviors in Youth with High-Functioning ASD and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rhea; Orlovski, Stephanie Miles; Marcinko, Hillary Chuba; Volkmar, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine youth with autism spectrum disorders and 26 with typical development between 12 and 18 years of age were engaged in structured interviews (ADOS). The interviews were videotaped and rated for atypical conversational behaviors by trained raters, using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (Landa et al. "Psychol Med" 22:245-254, 1992). The ASD group…

  3. Eye-Witness Memory and Suggestibility in Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Eamon; Henry, Lucy A.; Happe, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present with a particular profile of memory deficits, executive dysfunction and impaired social interaction that may raise concerns about their recall and reliability in forensic and legal contexts. Extant studies of memory shed limited light on this issue as they involved either…

  4. An Investigation into Social Information Processing in Young People with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Andrea Mary; Hare, Dougal Julian; Wallis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in social functioning are a core feature of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), being linked to various cognitive and developmental factors, but there has been little attempt to draw on normative models of social cognition to understand social behaviour in ASD. The current study explored the utility of Crick and Dodge's (1994) information…

  5. Informing the Public? UK Newspaper Reporting of Autism and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive survey of five leading UK newspapers reveals wide-ranging variation in coverage, from a tendency to rely on medical establishment sources in some to an apparently pro-choice, anti-establishment campaign in others but, generally, a neglect of the perspective of articulate autistics themselves. Based on an enhanced content analysis of…

  6. Enhanced Pure-Tone Pitch Discrimination among Persons with Autism but not Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnel, Anna; McAdams, Stephen; Smith, Bennett; Berthiaume, Claude; Bertone, Armando; Ciocca, Valter; Burack, Jacob A.; Mottron, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Persons with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display atypical perceptual processing in visual and auditory tasks. In vision, Bertone, Mottron, Jelenic, and Faubert (2005) found that enhanced and diminished visual processing is linked to the level of neural complexity required to process stimuli, as proposed in the neural complexity hypothesis.…

  7. The neuropsychology of male adults with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.E.; Happé, F.; Wheelwright, S.J.; Ecker, C.; Lombardo, M.V.; Johnston, P.; Daly, E.; Murphy, C.M.; Spain, D.; Lai, M-C.; Chakrabarti, B; Sauter, D.A.; MRC AIMS Consortium, [Unknown; Baron-Cohen, S.; Murphy, D.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral symptoms, but cognitive abilities may also be useful in characterizing individuals with ASD. One hundred seventy-eight high-functioning male adults, half with ASD and half without, completed tasks assessing IQ, a broad range of

  8. Effects of video modeling on communicative social skills of college students with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rose A; Rispoli, Mandy; Ganz, Jennifer B; Boles, Margot B; Orr, Kristie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical support regarding effective interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a postsecondary community is limited. Video modeling, an empirically supported intervention for children and adolescents with ASD, may prove effective in addressing the needs of individuals with ASD in higher education. This study evaluated the effects of video modeling without additional treatment components to improve social-communicative skills, specifically, eye contact, facial expression, and conversational turntaking in college students with ASD. This study utilized a multiple baseline single-case design across behaviors for two post-secondary students with ASD to evaluate the effects of the video modeling intervention. Large effect sizes and statistically significant change across all targeted skills for one participant and eye contact and turntaking for the other participant were obtained. The use of video modeling without additional intervention may increase the social skills of post-secondary students with ASD. Implications for future research are discussed.

  9. Laterality Biases to Chimeric Faces in Asperger Syndrome: What Is Right about Face-Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    People show a left visual field (LVF) bias for faces, i.e., involving the right hemisphere of the brain. Lesion and neuroimaging studies confirm the importance of the right-hemisphere and suggest separable neural pathways for processing facial identity vs. emotions. We investigated the hemispheric processing of faces in adults with and without…

  10. Trastorno del espectro autista: Síndrome de Asperger. Programa de intervención comunitaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Mayoral, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    El Síndrome de Asperger es un trastorno neurobiológico, caracterizado por falta de sociabilización, intereses restringidos, y déficit lingüístico, así como dificultades para expresar y comprender emociones. Este Trabajo de Fin de Grado, describe en su primera parte, los Trastornos del Espectro Autista y sus rasgos clínicos, y en la segunda parte, el diseño y desarrollo de un Programa de intervención comunitaria en escuelas e institutos. El objetivo es sensibilizar y formar al e...

  11. Potencial de aprendizaje y habilidades sociales en escolares con el trastorno de Asperger.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonete Román, Saray

    2010-01-01

    La mayoría de las investigaciones sobre el Trastorno de Asperger (TA) se han centrado en las características definitorias del trastorno mediante procedimientos estandarizados. Sin embargo, se trata de una perspectiva limitada, especialmente en el ámbito de la interacción social. A partir de los resultados positivos obtenidos desde la evaluación del potencial de aprendizaje en otras alteraciones psicológicas, resulta prometedor plantearse aplicaciones similares para el TA. En este estudio se c...

  12. Neuropsychological functioning of an Asperger child with exceptional skill in arranging picture stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conson, Massimiliano; Salzano, Sara; Grossi, Dario

    2011-08-01

    A striking special ability in arranging picture stories was reported in an Asperger child (C.M.) showing an exceptional performance on Wechsler picture arrangement subtest. Neuropsychological examination did not disclose visuoperceptual and spatial defects, or working memory, attention and executive disorders, but revealed an attentional bias towards local details of complex structures. A specific assessment of C.M.'s understanding of picture stories demonstrated that, with respect to normal controls, he showed an enhanced ability to detect causal links among elements of a story. These findings provide support to the hypothesis that savantism can be related to strong systemizing in autism.

  13. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  14. Social Skills Deficits and Vocal Characteristics of Children with Social Phobia or Asperger's Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sims, Valerie K.; Finnell, Laura Rendon

    2011-01-01

    Social skills deficits are commonly reported among children with social phobia (SP) and children with Asperger's Disorder (AD); however, a lack of direct comparison makes it unclear whether these groups, both of which endorse the presence of social anxiety, have similar or unique skills deficits. In this investigation, the social behaviors of…

  15. Support for Learning Goes beyond Academic Support: Voices of Students with Asperger's Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolic Baric, Vedrana; Hellberg, Kristina; Kjellberg, Anette; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and explore the experiences of support at school among young adults with Asperger's disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and also to examine what support they, in retrospect, described as influencing learning. Purposive sampling was used to enroll participants. Data were collected through…

  16. From Asperger's Autistischen Psychopathen to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Beyond: A Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Luche, Riccardo Dalle; Gesi, Camilla; Moroni, Ilenia; Carmassi, Claudia; Maj, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger's Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's Autistische Psychopathie , from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This model includes, but is not limited to, the so-called broad autism phenotype spanning across the general population that does not fully meet Autism Spectrum Disorder criteria. From this perspective, we propose a subthreshold autism as a unique psychological/behavioral model for research that could help to understand the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading from autistic traits to a broad range of mental disorders.

  17. Motor Proficiency and Emotional/Behavioural Disturbance in Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Another Piece of the Neurological Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John; Saunders, Kerryn; Murphy, Anna; Rinehart, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used…

  18. Practice Brief: Modeling Positive Behaviors for Postsecondary Students with Autism/Asperger's--The Use of "Television Coaching"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Students on the Autism spectrum, including those with Asperger's, are attending postsecondary schools at record rates and bringing with them unique needs and challenges. Although students with this diagnosis qualify for and often use traditional academic accommodations such as testing in a separate room, they also commonly experience academic…

  19. An Investigation of Upper Limb Motor Function in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder Using a Repetitive Fitts' Aiming Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Saunders, Kerryn; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    There is now a growing body of research examining movement difficulties in children diagnosed with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD). Despite this, few studies have investigated the kinematic components of movement that may be disrupted in children diagnosed with these disorders. The current study investigated rapid aiming…

  20. Coping, Daily Hassles and Behavior and Emotional Problems in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism/Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Angela S.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Reid, Sophie C.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2014-01-01

    Although daily hassles and coping are associated with behavior and emotional problems in non-clinical populations, few studies have investigated these relationships in individuals with high-functioning autism/Asperger's Disorder (HFASD). This study examined the relationships between daily hassles, coping and behavior and emotional problems in…

  1. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  2. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported.

  3. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... brain area. For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together ...

  4. Beals Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syndrome. How does Beals syndrome compare with Marfan syndrome? People with Beals syndrome have many of the ... bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments for these problems are the same. ...

  5. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and prednisolone ...

  6. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple lentigines syndrome; Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines ... Genetics Home Reference -- ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines National Organization for Rare Disorders -- ...

  7. Ludoterapia de Criança com Síndrome de Asperger: Estudo de Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pereira Horta Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou discutir o processo psicoterapêutico de um menino de 12 anos de idade com Síndrome de Asperger, um transtorno global do desenvolvimento, atendido em um ambulatório de psicoterapia de um hospital público. O setting terapêutico e a caixa lúdica tiveram que ser modificados e flexibilizados para atender às peculiaridades da criança. São discutidos o vínculo terapêutico e a importância de se manejarem as diferenças entre eu/não-eu para a terapia. Percebeu-se que o atendimento, adaptado às condições do ambulatório público, contribuiu para a capacidade de comunicação e de interação da criança, fato que aponta para a importância do debate sobre a psicoterapia psicodinâmica com esta população e formas de realizá-la.

  8. Neuropsychological mechanisms of Digit Symbol Substitution Test impairment in Asperger Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoran-Hegesh, Roni; Kertzman, Semion; Vishne, Tali; Weizman, Abraham; Kotler, Moshe

    2009-03-31

    Our aim was to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms recruited by adolescents with Asperger Disorder (AD), in comparison to controls, and to detect the underlying mechanisms during the complex information processing required for the performance of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Male adolescents (n=23; mean age 15.1+/-3.6 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of AD were compared with a normal male control group with similar demographic characteristics (n=43; mean age: 15.1+/-3.6 years). A computerized neurocognitive battery was administered and included: Inspection Time (IT), Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Digit Running task (DRT), Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Adolescents with AD performed significantly worse than controls on the DSST. This impaired DSST performance was related to cognitive mechanisms different from those employed by normal controls. Motor slowness and inability to deal with increased amounts of information affected the performance of the AD group, while shifting of attention was the limiting factor in the controls. Both groups were similarly dependent on response selection. This study demonstrated differences in performance in complex cognitive tasks between adolescents with AD and normal controls that may be related to differences in neurocognitive mechanisms underlying information processing. Future neuroimaging studies are needed to clarify the neural network involved in the differences in cognitive performance between AD subjects and normal controls.

  9. Internet communication of outpatients with Asperger's disorder or schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Kunifumi

    2015-03-01

    There is insufficient information about the Internet usage of psychiatric patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the usage of Internet communication among subjects with Asperger's disorder (AD) or schizophrenia. A questionnaire survey was carried out in Japan among 29 outpatients with AD, 32 outpatients with schizophrenia, and 97 age-matched normal volunteers. This study limited the participants to young male adults (20- to 39-year-olds) using the Internet. People with a diagnosis of AD prefer personal computers to mobile phones as their Internet terminal, have an inclination to use anonymous media, and tend to think that they can communicate more correctly through the Internet than face-to-face communication. People with a diagnosis of schizophrenia employ the Internet to a degree almost similar to controls, and tend to rely on unknown persons, but also sometimes feel hurt when communicating on the Internet. Moreover, their sensitivity to the risks of the Internet tends to decrease with the aggravation of their psychotic symptoms. It may be important to pay attention to the excessive use of some limited media by people with a diagnosis of AD. Providing people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia with sufficient information about the risks of the Internet is also important. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Differences and similarities in double special educational needs: high abilities/giftedness x Asperger’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Joyce Wellausen Vieira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed from a literature search in books, articles and theses that have been published since the year 2000 on the theme High Abilities / Giftedness and Asperger’s Syndrome. The objectives of this research were to conduct a search on publications from 2000 to 2011, about the common and different features to the person with Asperger syndrome and high ability gifted, and also relate the number of publications found in Education and Special Education. At theoretical we present the conception of High Abilities / Giftedness of Renzulli (2004 and Gardner (2000 and in the conception of Asperger Syndrome, Mello (2007 and Klin (2006. When analyzing the data, were perceived similarities and differences between the behavioral characteristics of individuals with High Abilities / Giftedness and those with Asperger’s Syndrome. It’s possible point out that there is much evidence that separate these two special educational needs and few similarities between them. But do not neglect that there may be a dual disability between these two particular special educational needs, because there are still few studies that verify theoretically the differences and similarities of these subjects, much less those that investigate these similarities and distinctions in the subjects themselves.

  11. Inteligencia fluida y cristalizada en el autismo de alto funcionamiento y el síndrome de Asperger

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    La inteligencia en los trastornos del espectro autista, especialmente en el autismo de alto funcionamiento y el síndrome de Asperger, ha sido tema de numerosas investigaciones que pretenden establecer la capacidad intelectual que se observa en estos sujetos. Algunos de los resultados más sobresalientes señalan que la inteligencia fluida es uno de los aspectos de desempeño superior en esta población, en comparación con el desempeño en las pruebas que miden inteligencia cristalizada como la esc...

  12. Inclusión del alumnado con síndrome de Asperger en la Universidad de Salamanca

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hernández, Manuel Jesús

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo comienza con la adecuada fundamentación del Trastorno del Espectro Autista y sus criterios de diagnóstico, así como la conceptualización del Síndrome de Asperger y los rasgos característicos del colectivo. Partiendo de esta base, se realiza un análisis del Servicio de Asuntos Sociales que la Universidad de Salamanca ofrece a los estudiantes con dicho diagnóstico, para su posterior reflexión sobre su sistema de actuación y reflejar así las demandas que requiera este recurso...

  13. Fanconi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni-Fanconi syndrome ... Fanconi syndrome can be caused by faulty genes, or it may result later in life due to kidney damage. Sometimes the cause of Fanconi syndrome is unknown. Common causes of Fanconi syndrome in ...

  14. Duane Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Duane Syndrome En Español Read in Chinese What is Duane Syndrome? Duane syndrome, also called Duane retraction syndrome (DRS), ...

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

  16. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults--An International Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J.; Hufnagel, Demetra H.; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ…

  17. The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R). A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lisa M. J.; Naswall, Katharina; Manouilenko, Irina; Nylander, Lena; Edgar, Johan; Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward; Bejerot, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75…

  18. Pseudo-Random Number Generation in Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Further Evidence for a Dissociation in Executive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Moss, Simon A.; Brereton, Avril V.; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    The repetitive, stereotyped and obsessive behaviours, which are core diagnostic features of autism, are thought to be underpinned by executive dysfunction. This study examined executive impairment in individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder using a verbal equivalent of an established pseudo-random number generating task. Different patterns…

  19. A Comparative Study of the Use and Understanding of Self-Presentational Display Rules in Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The use and understanding of self-presentational display rules (SPDRs) was investigated in 21 children with high-functioning autism (FHA), 18 children with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and 20 typically developing (TD) children (all male, aged 4- to 11-years, matched on mental age). Their behaviour was coded during a deception scenario to assess use…

  20. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  1. Hamartomatous polyposis syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Qvist, Niels; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes such as ......Hamartomatous Polyposis Syndromes (HPS) are genetic syndromes, which include Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Juvenile polyposis syndrome, PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (Cowden Syndrom, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba and Proteus Syndrome) as well as hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. Other syndromes...

  2. KEEFEKTIFAN STRATEGI VISUAL DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KETERAMPILAN SOSIAL PADA ANAK DENGAN KONDISI SPEKTRUM AUTIS TIPE SINDROMA ASPERGER (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Wawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kefektifan Strategi Visual dalam Pembelajaran Keterampilan Sosial pada Anak dengan Kondisi Spektrum Autis Tipe Sindroma Asperger (ASD. Perilaku tantrum merupakan perilaku yang sering muncul pada anak spektrum autisme, berupa perilaku  mengamuk, amarah meledak-ledak, jeritan, tangisan, membentur-benturkan kepala, memukul-mukul, menendang, berguling-guling dan kekakuan tubuh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas penerapan strategi visual untuk mengatasi perilaku tantrum pada anak dengan kondisi Autis Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian deskriptif analitik kualitatif. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik sampling dengan kriteria tertentu (purposive sampling. Informan dalam penelitian ini adalah guru pendamping (shadow teacher, orang tua dan guru kelas.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 perencanaan pembelajaran keterampilan sosial dengan strategi visual sudah terencana dengan baik tetapi sistem pendokumentasian masih bersifat umum, (2 pelaksanaan pembelajaran keterampilan sosial dengan strategi visual dilakukan di dalam kelas dan luar kelas, dengan menggunakan gambar-gambar mengenai suatu tindakan yang harus dilakukan oleh anak, (3 evaluasi pembelajaran keterampilan sosial dengan strategi visual sudah dilaksanakan selama proses pembelajaran maupun di akhir pembelajaran, namun belum terdokumentasi dengan baik, (4 penggunaan strategi visual dalam pembelajaran keterampilan sosial pada anak ASD tipe Sindroma Asperger dinilai sangat efektif dilihat dari perubahan perilaku yang signifikan sebelum dan sesudah diberikan pembelajaran keterampilan sosial dengan strategi visual. Implikasi penelitian ini bahwa TPP Al Firdaus perlu menggunakan strategi visual dalam pembelajaran keterampilan sosial pada anak autis serta meningkatkan kualitas guru dan terapis agar penggunaan strategi visual dalam pembelajaran dan terapi untuk anak autis lebih optimal.

  3. Effects of Learning Strategy Training on the Writing Performance of College Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lynn G.; Duffy, Mary Lou; Brady, Michael P.; McCormick, Jazarae

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly entering institutions of higher education. However, many are not prepared for the academic and social demands of postsecondary environments. Although studies have evaluated academic and social interventions for children and adolescents with ASD, little research exists on the college…

  4. Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning…

  5. Face Memory and Object Recognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome and in Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Carter, Alice; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Rahko, Jukka; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) have reported to have impairments in face, recognition and face memory, but intact object recognition and object memory. Potential abnormalities, in these fields at the family level of high-functioning children with ASD remains understudied despite, the ever-mounting evidence that ASDs are genetic and…

  6. Can Gaze Avoidance Explain Why Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome Can't Recognise Emotions from Facial Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; Williamson, Paul; Young, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties recognising emotions from facial expressions. Since eye contact is important for accurate emotion recognition, and individuals with ASD tend to avoid eye contact, this tendency for gaze aversion has been proposed as an explanation for the emotion recognition…

  7. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, blood vessels, ... A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, and ...

  8. Aarskog syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarskog disease; Aarskog-Scott syndrome; AAS; Faciodigitogenital syndrome; Gaciogenital dysplasia ... Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females ...

  9. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. It may be passed down in families. ... history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the disorder ...

  10. Cushing's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    宗, 友厚; 伊藤, 勇; 諏訪, 哲也; 武田, 純; MUNE, Tomoatsu

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen cases of verified Cushing's syndrome, and twelve cases of probable Cushing's syndrome were reviewed and data on them were compared with various reports on Cushing's syndrome in the literature.

  11. Tourette syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome; Tic disorders - Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome is named for Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described this disorder in 1885. The disorder is likely passed down through families. ...

  12. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 153. Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and other systemic complications of liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  13. Inteligencia fluida y cristalizada en el autismo de alto funcionamiento y el síndrome de Asperger

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rivero, Paula Fernanda; Martínez Garrido, Lía Margarita

    2015-01-01

    La inteligencia en los trastornos del espectro autista, especialmente en el autismo de alto funcionamiento y el síndrome de Asperger, ha sido tema de numerosas investigaciones que pretenden establecer la capacidad intelectual que se observa en estos sujetos. Algunos de los resultados más sobresalientes señalan que la inteligencia fluida es uno de los aspectos de desempeño superior en esta población, en comparación con el desempeño en las pruebas que miden inteligencia cristalizada como la esc...

  14. Normal P50 Gating in Children with Autism, Yet Attenuated P50 Amplitude in the Asperger Subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Gitte Falcher; Bilenberg, Niels; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Glenthøj, Birte; Cantio, Cathriona; Oranje, Bob

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are separate disorders, but there is evidence of conversion or comorbid overlap. The objective of this paper was to explore whether deficits in sensory gating, as seen in some schizophrenia patients, can also be found in a group of ASD children compared to neurotypically developed children. An additional aim was to investigate the possibility of subdividing our ASD sample based on these gating deficits. In a case-control design, we assessed gating of the P50 and N100 amplitude in 31 ASD children and 39 healthy matched controls (8-12 years) and screened for differences between groups and within the ASD group. We did not find disturbances in auditory P50 and N100 filtering in the group of ASD children as a whole, nor did we find abnormal P50 and N100 amplitudes. However, the P50 amplitude to the conditioning stimulus was significantly reduced in the Asperger subgroup compared to healthy controls. In contrast to what is usually reported for patients with schizophrenia, we found no evidence for sensory gating deficits in our group of ASD children taken as a whole. However, reduced P50 amplitude to conditioning stimuli was found in the Asperger group, which is similar to what has been described in some studies in schizophrenia patients. There was a positive correlation between the P50 amplitude of the conditioning stimuli and anxiety score in the pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified group, which indicates a relation between anxiety and sensory registration in this group. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Aspectos da pragmática da comunicação em crianças com Síndrome de Asperger

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Rosa Maria da Silva Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Educação (área de especialização em Formação Psicológica de Professores) Neste trabalho pretende-se verificar as diferenças entre crianças diagnosticadas com Síndrome de Asperger e crianças “normais” (que não apresentam aparentemente qualquer tipo de perturbação), no que concerne ao perfil pragmático da comunicação em diversos contextos. O estudo envolve 100 crianças (50 crianças com Síndrome de Asperger e 50 crianças “normais”) dos distritos de Braga, Port...

  16. Relações entre o perfil comunicativo de crianças com síndrome de Asperger e estratégias de professores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Brito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar o perfilcomunicativo de crianças com síndrome deAsperger e as estratégias utilizadas por professorasna comunicação com esses alunos no ensino regular.Participaram cinco crianças, gênero masculino,idades entre cinco e oito anos, com síndrome deAsperger, que frequentavam do Jardim II à 2ª sériee suas professoras. A caracterização da amostrafoi feita por meio de uma Ficha informativa e daEscala de Traços Autísticos. O perfil comunicativodas crianças e os recursos utilizados pelas professorasforam analisados por meio das filmagensrealizadas. Os resultados indicaram que as professorasiniciaram mais a comunicação do que seusalunos com síndrome de Asperger e os recursos utilizadospor elas foram: 1- objeto concreto; 2- gesto;3- escrita; 4-verbalização.

  17. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone that ... your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  18. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes ... and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from birth ...

  19. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions ... agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  20. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reye syndrome is a rare illness that can affect the blood, liver, and brain of someone who has recently ... a viral illness, seek medical attention immediately. Reye syndrome can lead to a coma and brain death, ...

  1. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  2. Caplan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (RP; also known as Caplan syndrome) is swelling (inflammation) and scarring of the ... avoid exposure to inorganic dust. Alternative Names RP; Caplan syndrome; Pneumoconiosis - rheumatoid; Silicosis - rheumatoid pneumoconiosis; Coal worker's ...

  3. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  4. Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado Junior, C.W.; Bresser, A.; Cerri, G.G.; Habr-Gama, A.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of familiar poliposis of colon related to a right mandibular osteoma is reported (this association is usually called Gardner's syndrome). Radiologic pictures ae shown and some commentaries about this syndrome concerning the treatment are made. (author) [pt

  5. Sotos Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ... have also been reported. × Definition Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutation ...

  6. Felty syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA); Felty's syndrome ... The cause of Felty syndrome is unknown. It is more common in people who have had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for a long time. People with ...

  7. Bartter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000308.htm Bartter syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bartter syndrome is a group of rare conditions that affect ...

  8. Pendred Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other possible long-term consequences of the syndrome. Children with Pendred syndrome should start early treatment to gain communication skills, such as learning sign language or cued speech or learning to ...

  9. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and supports a broad program of basic and clinical research on all types of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome. Study of the genetic defects responsible for Dravet syndrome and related ... Publications Definition Dravet ...

  10. Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Down syndrome increases as a woman gets older. Down syndrome cannot be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include ... occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many ... Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of ...

  11. Rowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.

  12. Aicardi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) × Definition Aicardi syndrome is a rare genetic ... from Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, which is an inherited encephalopathy that affects newborn infants.) View Full Definition Treatment There is no ...

  13. Entrenamiento para la mejora de disfunciones atencionales en niños y adolescentes con Síndrome de Asperger a través de estimulación cognitiva directa

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo-Álvarez, María-Ángeles; Frontera-Sancho, María

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza la capacidad de generalización del aprendizaje en niños y adolescentes con Síndrome de Asperger a aspectos cognitivos atencionales con demandas diferentes a las ejercitadas mediante la utilización de un programa de estimulación cognitiva directa. La muestra estuvo constituida por 15 casos con Síndrome de Asperger entre 7 y 15 años (M = 12; DT = 2.7) con dificultades atencionales, medidas a través de instrumentos de orientación psicométrica, a los que se aplicó un pr...

  14. Dravets syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Rasmussen, Niels Henrik; Ousager, Lilian Bomme

    2010-01-01

    Dravet syndrome is an epileptic syndrome of infancy and early childhood. Most cases of Dravet syndrome seem to be due to a genetic defect causing the sodium channel to malfunction. We describe the main features of the syndrome. This epilepsy is medically intractable, but we call attention...... to the fact that some medications are of benefit and some could exacerbate the condition. Early recognition of the syndrome including by genetic testing could possibly improve outcome and reduce the need for other specialized investigations. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Feb-22...

  15. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  16. Análisis del procesamiento local y global en adolescentes con trastorno del espectro autista de alto funcionamiento (síndrome de Asperger)

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Garcés, Juan Vicente

    2017-01-01

    El síndrome de Asperger (SA), actualmente incluido en el Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA), es el perfil cognitivo dentro del autismo que más cercano se encuentra al perfil de desarrollo típico, debido a que no muestra deterioro intelectual ni del lenguaje (a excepción de los procesos más complejos). La adolescencia es un período del desarrollo en el que la maduración física y sexual así como los cambios psicológicos y sociales se van dando progresivamente en la persona, que abandona la in...

  17. Síndrome Asperger: Intervención en la pragmática con alumnos de Educación Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Ortuño-Giné, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente el número de alumnos con Necesidades Educativas Especiales (NEE) ha ido en aumento en las aulas de centros ordinarios. Hoy en día podemos ver muchos alumnos con Trastornos Generalizados de Desarrollo (TGD) o Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA), dentro de los que se encuentra el Síndrome de Asperger, que es con el que más alumnos están escolarizados de forma ordinaria. Para los alumnos con estas características la escuela inclusiva es complicada, ya que padecen un déficit notable...

  18. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  19. Refeeding syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, Padmini; Dash, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal medical condition that may affect malnourished patients in response to an inappropriately rapid overfeeding. This commonly occurs following the institution of nutritional support, especially parenteral or enteral nutrition. The most characteristic pathophysiology of refeeding syndrome relates to the rapid consumption of phosphate after glucose intake and subsequent hypophosphatemia. Refeeding syndrome can manifest as either metabolic changes (hypokala...

  20. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  1. Reye's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that contain aspirin. Some hospitals and medical facilities conduct newborn screenings for fatty acid oxidation disorders to determine which children are at greater risk of developing Reye's syndrome. ...

  2. Marfan Syndrome (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...

  3. Learning about Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional Resources for Marfan Syndrome What is Marfan syndrome? Marfan syndrome is one of the most common inherited ... FAQ Top of page Additional Resources For Marfan Syndrome Marfan syndrome [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Marfan ...

  4. Russell-Silver syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver-Russell syndrome; Silver syndrome; RSS; Russell-Silver syndrome ... One in 10 children with this syndrome has a problem involving chromosome 7. In other people with the syndrome, it may affect chromosome 11. Most of the time, it ...

  5. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Action You are here Home › Retinal Diseases Listen Usher Syndrome What is Usher syndrome? How is Usher syndrome ... available? Are there any related diseases? What is Usher Syndrome? Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  6. The study of cognitive characteristics in Asperger's disorder by using a modified Prisoner's Dilemma game with a variable payoff matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Tayama

    Full Text Available Individuals with Asperger's Disorder (ASP have difficulties in social reciprocity and in providing appropriate cooperative behavior. The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD is a well-known model in game theory that illustrates the paradoxical disposition of interaction between two individuals with opposing interests, and may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of ASP in early childhood. In this study, we investigated the cognitive characteristics of ASP by using a modified PD game. The subjects were 29 individuals with ASP and 28 age- and IQ-matched controls. In the PD game, each of two players has two cards: card 1 represents cooperation and card 2 betrayal. The score each player obtains is decided according to a 2 x 2 payoff matrix and depends on the combination of their selections. The P-score ("P" for punishment is defined as the score that is given when they both select betrayal. Comparing the two groups, the mean P-score at the end of the game and the mean total score were significantly higher in the ASP group, while the rate of selection of cooperative choice in both groups did not differ significantly. The classification of the shape of the graph according to fluctuation of the P-score revealed that in the ASP group only 2 cases (6.9% showed continuous decrease of P-score compared to 8 control cases (28.6% demonstrating similar results. However, the reasons were thought to be different: ASP subjects presumably selected card 2 because of a preference for the number itself, whereas control subjects preferentially chose this card to enhance their chance of winning the competition. It is often difficult to diagnose ASP in the young especially when they lack the distinctive clinical features of ASD in early childhood. Given the limited number of objective tools to evaluate the cognitive characteristics of ASP subjects, the PD game might be a useful diagnostic support tool for ASP.

  7. The study of cognitive characteristics in Asperger's disorder by using a modified Prisoner's Dilemma game with a variable payoff matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, Masaya; Tateno, Masaru; Park, Tae Woo; Ukai, Wataru; Hashimoto, Eri; Saito, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger's Disorder (ASP) have difficulties in social reciprocity and in providing appropriate cooperative behavior. The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) is a well-known model in game theory that illustrates the paradoxical disposition of interaction between two individuals with opposing interests, and may be a useful tool in the diagnosis of ASP in early childhood. In this study, we investigated the cognitive characteristics of ASP by using a modified PD game. The subjects were 29 individuals with ASP and 28 age- and IQ-matched controls. In the PD game, each of two players has two cards: card 1 represents cooperation and card 2 betrayal. The score each player obtains is decided according to a 2 x 2 payoff matrix and depends on the combination of their selections. The P-score ("P" for punishment) is defined as the score that is given when they both select betrayal. Comparing the two groups, the mean P-score at the end of the game and the mean total score were significantly higher in the ASP group, while the rate of selection of cooperative choice in both groups did not differ significantly. The classification of the shape of the graph according to fluctuation of the P-score revealed that in the ASP group only 2 cases (6.9%) showed continuous decrease of P-score compared to 8 control cases (28.6%) demonstrating similar results. However, the reasons were thought to be different: ASP subjects presumably selected card 2 because of a preference for the number itself, whereas control subjects preferentially chose this card to enhance their chance of winning the competition. It is often difficult to diagnose ASP in the young especially when they lack the distinctive clinical features of ASD in early childhood. Given the limited number of objective tools to evaluate the cognitive characteristics of ASP subjects, the PD game might be a useful diagnostic support tool for ASP.

  8. A neurobehavioral examination of individuals with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder using a fronto-striatal model of dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Nicole J; Bradshaw, John L; Tonge, Bruce J; Brereton, Avril V; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2002-06-01

    The repetitive, stereotyped, and obsessive behaviors that characterize autism may in part be attributable to disruption of the region of the fronto-striatal system, which mediates executive abilities. Neuropsychological testing has shown that children with autism exhibit set-shifting deficiencies on tests such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting task but show normal inhibitory ability on variants of the Stroop color-word test. According to Minshew and Goldstein's multiple primary deficit theory, the complexity of the executive functioning task is important in determining the performance of individuals with autism. This study employed a visual-spatial task (with a Stroop-type component) to examine the integrity of executive functioning, in particular inhibition, in autism (n = 12) and Asperger's disorder (n = 12) under increasing levels of cognitive complexity. Whereas the Asperger's disorder group performed similarly to age- and IQ-matched control participants, even at the higher levels of cognitive complexity, the high-functioning autism group displayed inhibitory deficits specifically associated with increasing cognitive load.

  9. Seckel syndrome: an overdiagnosed syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, E; Pembrey, M

    1985-01-01

    Five children in whom a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome had previously been made were re-examined in the genetic unit. One child had classical Seckel syndrome, a sib pair had the features of the syndrome with less severe short stature, and in two children the diagnosis was not confirmed. Seckel syndrome is only one of a group of low birth weight microcephalic dwarfism and careful attention should be paid to fulfillment of the major criteria defined by Seckel before the diagnosis is made. There r...

  10. Burnout Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Panov, Nenad; Stojanov, H; Sumanov, Gorgi; Panova, Blagica; Stojanovski, Angel; Nikolovska, Lence; Jovevska, Svetlana; Trajanovski, D; Asanova, D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing work responsibilities, allocation of duties, loss of energy and motivation in everyday activities, emotional exhaustion, lack of time for themselves, insuffi cient time for rest and recreation, dissatisfaction in private life. All these symptoms can be cause of Burnout Syndrome. Aim: To see the importance of this syndrome, the consequences of job dissatisfaction, the environment, family and expression in drastic chan...

  11. Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are throat- ... spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  12. Fahr's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or 50s, although it can occur at any time in childhood or adolescence. × Definition Fahr's Syndrome is a rare, genetically dominant, inherited ... or 50s, although it can occur at any time in childhood or adolescence. View Full Definition Treatment There is no cure for Fahr's Syndrome, ...

  13. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an often un-diagnosed disease seen in previously healthy young subjects, presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis, fever and elevated markers of inflammation. The syndrome is characterised by infectious thrombosis of the jugular vein due to infection with Fusobacteria, causing...

  14. Ambras syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Malwade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambras syndrome, a form of congenital hypertrichosis lanuginosa, is extremely rare in neonates. It is characterized by typical pattern of hair distribution, dysmorphic facial features and a familial pattern of inheritance. We report a case of Ambras syndrome in a preterm neonate with history of consanguinity and positive family history.

  15. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  16. Noonan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amy E; Allanson, Judith E; Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2013-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic multisystem disorder characterised by distinctive facial features, developmental delay, learning difficulties, short stature, congenital heart disease, renal anomalies, lymphatic malformations, and bleeding difficulties. Mutations that cause Noonan syndrome alter genes encoding proteins with roles in the RAS–MAPK pathway, leading to pathway dysregulation. Management guidelines have been developed. Several clinically relevant genotype–phenotype correlations aid ris...

  17. TAFRO Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Takuro; Sato, Yasuharu

    2018-02-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a newly recognized variant of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that involves a constellation of syndromes: thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), fever (F), reticulin fibrosis (R), and organomegaly (O). Thrombocytopenia and severe anasarca accompanied by relatively low serum immunoglobulin levels are characteristic clinical findings of TAFRO syndrome that are not present in iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS). Lymph node biopsy is recommended to exclude other diseases and to diagnose TAFRO syndrome, which reveals characteristic histopathological findings similar to hyaline vascular-type CD. TAFRO syndrome follows a more aggressive course, compared with iMCD-NOS, and there is no standard treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Goldenhar syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome is a syndrome of complex structures developing from first and second branchial arches during blastogenesis. The etiology of this rare disease is not fully understood, as it has shown itself variable genetically and of unclear causes. The disorder is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features that may vary greatly in range and severity from case to case. Here we present a unique case of Goldenhar syndrome with absence of left condyle, hypoplasia of the zygomatic bone, no pneumatization of the mastoid process, underdeveloped mandible, bifid tongue and the skin tags in the preauricular area.

  19. Cowden syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition with variable expressions that result mainly from mutation in the PTEN gene on arm 10q. It is characterized by multiple hamartomatous neoplasms of the skin, oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, bones, CNS, eyes, and genitourinary tract. Mucocutaneous features include trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomatosis, acral keratosis, and palmoplantar keratosis. Here we present a case of Cowden syndrome in a 14-year-old female patient with the chief complaint of multiple oral papillomatous lesions.

  20. Costello syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukara J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Costello syndrome is a rare, distinctive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome, characterized by soft, loose skin with deep palmar and plantar creases, loose joints, distinctive coarse facial features and skeletal and cardiac abnormalities. The affected patients have a predisposition to develop malignancy, developmental delays and mental retardation. Recently, a 7-year-old male child born to normal nonconsanguineous parents presented to us with abnormal facial features, arrhythmia, mitral valve dysfunction and growth retardation. His cutaneous examination revealed lax and pigmented skin over hands and feet with deep creases, acanthosis nigricans and short curly hairs. Its differentiation from other syndromes with similar clinical features is discussed in this article.

  1. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now What Is Reye’s Syndrome? ...

  2. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Alagille Syndrome Back Alagille ...

  3. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Failure to begin sexual changes expected during puberty Sexual development that "stalls" during teenage years Early end to menstrual cycles not due to pregnancy For most women with Turner syndrome, inability to ...

  4. [Refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševela, Stanislav; Novák, František; Kazda, Antonín; Brodská, Helena

    Despite being known more than 60 years, refeeding syndrome (RS) still bears many uncertainties. For example, its definition is not clear and definite, and the attitude to it varies from the complete neglect to over-prevention.The term "refeeding syndrome" refers to electrolyte and metabolic changes occurring in malnourished patients after the readministration of nutrition. These changes concern especially to phosphates and ions. Potassium, magnesium, naturism and fluids balance are involved. The changes lead to cell energetic metabolism and electric potential disturbances, with related clinical symptoms.Fully developed refeeding syndrome is quite rare; nevertheless it can be fatal for the patient. However, even its development can lead to many complications increasing the patient's morbidity and the length of stay in the hospital. Yet the refeeding syndrome is more or less predictable and if kept in mind also preventable.The aim of this article is to get the reader to know more about this metabolic phenomenon and possible attitudes towards it.

  5. Cockayne syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karikkineth, Ajoy C; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fivenson, Elayne

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a disorder characterized by a variety of clinical features including cachectic dwarfism, severe neurological manifestations including microcephaly and cognitive deficits, pigmentary retinopathy, cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and ambulatory and feeding difficulties...

  6. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  7. Reye Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  8. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... crowding, and osteoporosis (brittle bones). Because of their physical conditions, health concerns, and infertility, some girls and women with TS may have low self- esteem, anxiety, or depression. How is Turner syndrome diagnosed? Physical features may ...

  9. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person cured of Cushing’s syndrome might have some memory loss and slight mental decline. But the change is ... Categories: Family Health, Infants and Toddlers, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: acth, adenomas, hormone, sickness September ...

  10. Levator Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... out other painful rectal conditions (such as thrombosed hemorrhoids , fissures , or abscesses ). The physical examination is often ...

  11. Alport Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs and symptoms may differ, based on age, gender and inherited type of Alport syndrome. For example, ... prevention and treatment of kidney disease. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  12. Gilbert's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not know you have the condition until it's discovered by accident, such as when a blood test ... chemotherapy drug Some protease inhibitors used to treat HIV If you have Gilbert's syndrome, talk to your ...

  13. Potter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter phenotype ... In Potter syndrome, the primary problem is kidney failure. The kidneys fail to develop properly as the baby is ... kidneys normally produce the amniotic fluid (as urine). Potter phenotype refers to a typical facial appearance that ...

  14. Moebius Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delays; high or cleft palate; hearing problems and speech difficulties. Children with Moebius syndrome are unable to move their eyes back and forth. Decreased numbers of muscle fibers have been reported. Deformities of the tongue, jaw, and limbs, such ...

  15. Fraser syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of...

  16. Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy for seizures is usually necessary. Physical and occupational therapies, communication therapy, and behavioral therapies are important in allowing individuals with Angelman syndrome to reach their maximum developmental potential. × Treatment There ...

  17. Joubert Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CEP290 . View Full Definition Treatment Treatment for Joubert syndrome is symptomatic and supportive. Infant stimulation and physical, occupational, and speech therapy may benefit some children. Infants with abnormal breathing ...

  18. Zellweger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallow. Some babies will be born with glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and impaired hearing. Jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding also may occur. Treatment There is no cure for Zellweger syndrome, nor ...

  19. Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood — typically with an artificial kidney machine (dialyzer). Chronic kidney disease. Nephrotic syndrome may cause your ... opportunities Reprint Permissions A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. " ...

  20. Ohtahara Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are more often affected than girls. View Full Definition Treatment Antiepileptic drugs are used to control seizures, but are unfortunately ... Other therapies are symptomatic and supportive. × ... Definition Ohtahara syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by ...

  1. Usher Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to abnormal development of the vestibular hair cells, sensory cells that detect gravity and head movement. RP ... 3 Ben-Rebeh, I., et al. (2016). Genetic analysis of Tunisian families with Usher syndrome type 1: ...

  2. Eagle's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Thaís Gonçalves; Soares,Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira,Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo,Igor Teixeira; Nascimento,Luiz Augusto; Oliveira,Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is diffic...

  3. Barth Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saric, Ana; Andreau, Karine; Armand, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme tafazzin, TAZ, cause Barth syndrome (BTHS). Individuals with this X-linked multisystem disorder present cardiomyopathy (CM) (often dilated), skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia, growth retardation, and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Biopsies of the heart......, liver and skeletal muscle of patients have revealed mitochondrial malformations and dysfunctions. It is the purpose of this review to summarize recent results of studies on various animal or cell models of Barth syndrome, which have characterized biochemically the strong cellular defects associated...

  4. Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, M.I.; Cheema, I.A.; Qasim, G.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Pendred's syndrome in three siblings of a consanguineous marriage, belonging to Rahimyar Khan. The children presented with deafmutism and goiters. The investigations included scintigram, perchlorate discharge test and audiometery. The perchlorate discharge was positive in index case. Bilateral sensorineural hearing defect was detected on Pure Tone Average (PTA) audiometry. Meticulous clinical and laboratory evaluation is mandatory for the detection of rare disorders like Pendred's syndrome. (author)

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... but not all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...

  6. [Poland's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, R; Sasiadek, M

    2000-08-01

    Poland's syndrome consists of the variable clinical features, but always includes unilateral aplasia of the chest wall muscles and ipsilateral anomalies of upper extremity. The incidence of Poland's syndrome, reported by different authors ranges from 1:10,000 to 1:100,000 and is observed more frequently in males than in females with the right side of the body affected more often than the left. The etiology of this syndrome is still discussed. However most of described cases were sporadic, rare familial incidence of Poland's syndrome were also presented. Therefore different etiologic factors of the Poland's syndrome are taken into account: genetic, vascular compromise during early stages of embriogenesis but also teratogenic effect of environmental xenobiotics (e.g. cigarette smoking by pregnant women). The authors present also the case of 20-years old man with inherited bilateral syndactyly with the right side aplasia of major pectoralis muscle and face asymmetry. The familial history was negative in respect to the features, associated with Poland's syndrome.

  7. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intramural Research Home / Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Also known as What Is Metabolic syndrome ... metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Risk Factors A Large Waistline Having a large ...

  8. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the signs and symptoms of Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Marfan syndrome is different from Loeys-Dietz syndrome in that the gene mutation which causes Marfan syndrome is in fibrillin-1 (FBN-1), a protein ...

  9. Milk-alkali syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium-alkali syndrome; Cope syndrome; Burnett syndrome; Hypercalcemia; Calcium metabolism disorder ... Milk-alkali syndrome is almost always caused by taking too many calcium supplements, usually in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium ...

  10. Exogenous Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing syndrome - corticosteroid induced; Corticosteroid-induced Cushing syndrome; Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome ... Cushing syndrome is a disorder that occurs when your body has a higher than normal level of the hormone ...

  11. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  12. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): a scale to assist the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in adults: an international validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J; Hufnagel, Demetra H; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-08-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of the questions and total mean ASD vs. the comparison groups' scores were significantly different (p < .0001). Concurrent validity with Constantino Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult = 95.59%. Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%, test-retest reliability r = .987. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subscales and 4 derived factors were good. We conclude that the RAADS-R is a useful adjunct diagnostic tool for adults with ASD.

  13. Socialização/interação entre pares de alunos com a Síndrome de Asperger, em contexto escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Filomena Maria Ávila e Cardoso dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências da Educação: Educação Especial, especialização em Domínio Emocional e da Personalidade A presente investigação versa a problemática de crianças referenciadas/diagnosticadas com a Síndrome de Asperger (SA), que apresentam grandes dificuldades de socialização/interação com os seus pares, ao iniciarem a escolaridade obrigatória. Perante esta problemática, os objetivo...

  14. SQUED™ Series 28.1 Home-use and Treatment of Autowave Reverberator of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-24

    Autistic Disorder; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive; Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Mental Disorders; Asperger's Syndrome; Neurobehavioral Manifestations; Nervous System Diseases

  15. Second generation antipsychotics in Asperger's Disorder and high functioning autism: a systematic review of the literature and effectiveness of meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochocky, Natalie; Milin, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) have gained increased evidence for the treatment of irritability and aggression in children and adolescents with lower functioning autistic disorder. Individuals with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and High Functioning Autism (HFA) experience significant emotional and behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity. There is a need to review the published literature on SGA treatment efficacy in the AD and HFA populations to provide more effective treatment choices for these subgroups. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the recent English literature on SGA use in children and adolescents (ages 0-24 years) with AD and HFA using the Medline/PubMed and PsychINFO computerized databases. Key search words were 'Asperger', 'high functioning autism', 'autism spectrum disorders (ASD)', and 'pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)' in combination with 'second generation antipsychotics', 'aripiprazole; 'olanzapine', 'quetiapine', 'risperidone', or 'ziprasidone'. Our search yielded 214 citations, however only open-label or randomized-controlled trials (RCT) with ≥25% of their subjects having an IQ≥71 were included in our review. Eleven original studies met our inclusion parameters for review; eight studies for the meta-analysis. These studies, although limited in methodological rigor, and the meta-analytic results suggest that SGAs provide improvement in behavioral symptoms associated with AD and HFA. The majority of the studies reported weight gain as a potentially concerning adverse effect. There is a lack of robustly conducted trials on the use of SGAs in the management of AD and HFA. More research in pharmacological and psychosocial treatments is warranted. Clinicians are cautioned to approach pharmacological treatment prudently balancing benefit with potential cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Meta-analysis of gray matter abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder: should Asperger disorder be subsumed under a broader umbrella of autistic spectrum disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Esther; Radua, Joaquim; Cardoner, Narcis; Happé, Francesca; Mataix-Cols, David

    2011-04-01

    Studies investigating abnormalities of regional gray matter volume in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded contradictory results. It is unclear whether the current subtyping of ASD into autistic disorder and Asperger disorder is neurobiologically valid. To conduct a quantitative meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies exploring gray matter volume abnormalities in ASD, to examine potential neurobiological differences among ASD subtypes, and to create an online database to facilitate replication and further analyses by other researchers. We retrieved studies from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases between June 3, 1999, the date of the first voxel-based morphometry study in ASD, and October 31, 2010. Studies were also retrieved from reference lists and review articles. We contacted authors soliciting additional data. Twenty-four data sets met inclusion criteria, comprising 496 participants with ASD and 471 healthy control individuals. Peak coordinates of clusters of regional gray matter differences between participants with ASD and controls, as well as demographic, clinical, and methodologic variables, were extracted from each study or obtained from the authors. No differences in overall gray matter volume were found between participants with ASD and healthy controls. Participants with ASD were found to have robust decreases of gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala-hippocampus complex and the bilateral precuneus. A small increase of gray matter volume in the middle-inferior frontal gyrus was also found. No significant differences in overall or regional gray matter volumes were found between autistic disorder and Asperger disorder. Decreases of gray matter volume in the right precuneus were statistically higher in adults than in adolescents with ASD. These results confirm the crucial involvement of structures linked to social cognition in ASD. The absence of significant differences between ASD subtypes may have

  17. Pfeiffer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryns Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pfeiffer syndrome is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that associates craniosynostosis, broad and deviated thumbs and big toes, and partial syndactyly on hands and feet. Hydrocephaly may be found occasionally, along with severe ocular proptosis, ankylosed elbows, abnormal viscera, and slow development. Based on the severity of the phenotype, Pfeiffer syndrome is divided into three clinical subtypes. Type 1 "classic" Pfeiffer syndrome involves individuals with mild manifestations including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia and finger and toe abnormalities; it is associated with normal intelligence and generally good outcome. Type 2 consists of cloverleaf skull, extreme proptosis, finger and toe abnormalities, elbow ankylosis or synostosis, developmental delay and neurological complications. Type 3 is similar to type 2 but without a cloverleaf skull. Clinical overlap between the three types may occur. Pfeiffer syndrome affects about 1 in 100,000 individuals. The disorder can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor genes FGFR-1 or FGFR-2. Pfeiffer syndrome can be diagnosed prenatally by sonography showing craniosynostosis, hypertelorism with proptosis, and broad thumb, or molecularly if it concerns a recurrence and the causative mutation was found. Molecular genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis. Management includes multiple-staged surgery of craniosynostosis. Midfacial surgery is performed to reduce the exophthalmos and the midfacial hypoplasia.

  18. Prática clínica no atendimento à síndrome de Asperger com diagnóstico tardio: uma proposta em psicologia sócio histórica

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Alberto José de

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho é originário de um questionamento de práticas clássicas em psicologia clínica na assistência à Síndrome de Asperger com diagnóstico tardio. O terapeuta, que no seu percurso de atendimento clinico e de pesquisa, acumula formação inicial em psicologia social de orientação marxista e formação psicanalítica posterior, transforma seu atendimento a um caso de Síndrome de Asperger baseado num modelo biomédico clássico, em uma prática clínica fundamentada e orientada pela...

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  20. Nutcracker syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this case study is to highlight the symptoms of the Nutcracker Syndrome (NCS), the methods of clinical investigations and the importance of differential diagnosis. Introduction: The NCS refers to left renal vein entrapment caused by abnormal branching patterns of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta. 1,2 Clinical case presentation: A 27 years old female presented to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal discomfort, bloating, loose bowel motions and irregular micro-haematuria. The radiologist's report indicated the findings from computed tomography examination to be consistent with anterior NCS. Discussion: In most of the NCS cases the clinical symptoms are non-specific. 3 The syndrome is caused by a vascular disorder, but its clinical manifestation can relate to a wide range of abdominal, urological, endovascular or gynaecological pathologies. 4 Conclusion: Nutcracker Syndrome is a relatively rare disease and underdiagnosed may lead to left renal vein thrombosis

  1. Compartment syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  2. Usher Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fakin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease with prevalence of 3–6/100.000 and is the most common syndrome that affects vision and hearing. Three subtypes are distinguished on the basis of different degree of hearing loss. All patients develop retinitis pigmentosa with night vision difficulties and constriction of visual field, and ultimately a decline in visual acuity and color vision. Future holds promise for gene therapy. We present a patient with typical clinical picture of Usher syndrome, who started noticing night vision problems at age 13. At age 25 he was operated on for posterior cortical cataracts. At age 34 he has only 5–10° of visual field remaining with 1.0 visual acuity in both eyes. Fundus autofluorescence imaging revealed a typical hyperautofluorescent ring on the border between normal and affected retina.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Ikinci

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome is a combination of risk factors including common etiopathogenesis. These risk factors play different roles in occurence of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancers. Although a compromise can not be achieved on differential diagnosis for MS, the existence of any three criterias enable to diagnose MS. These are abdominal obesity, dislipidemia (hypertrigliceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and reduced high density lipoprotein hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. According to the results of Metabolic Syndrome Research (METSAR, the overall prevalence of MS in Turkey is 34%; in females 40%, and in males it is 28%. As a result of “Western” diet, and increased frequency of obesity, MS is observed in children and in adolescents both in the world and in Turkey. Resulting in chronic diseases, it is thought that the syndrome can be prevented by healthy lifestyle behaviours. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 535-540

  4. Eagle's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves; Soares, Vítor Yamashiro Rocha; Ferreira, Denise Bastos Lage; Raymundo, Igor Teixeira; Nascimento, Luiz Augusto; Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical. PMID:25992033

  5. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  6. Rapunzel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wadan, Ali H.; Al-Saai, Azan S.; Abdoulgafour, Mohamed; Al-Absi, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    An 18-year-old single female patient, presented with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms of anorexia, abdominal pain, and change in bowel habit. Clinically she was anemic, cachectic, and depressed. Abdominal examination revealed mobile epigastric mass. The scalp alopecia and endoscopy coupled by computed tomography scan, confirmed the diagnoses of trichobezoar, but it was not diagnosed as Rapunzel syndrome except after laparotomy, gastrotomy, and enterotomy. There are less than 16 cases of Rapunzel syndrome described worldwide, and this is the first case to be described in the middle east. (author)

  7. Waardenburg syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagra Sunita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a rare inherited and genetically heterogenous disorder of neural crest cell development. Four distinct subtypes showing marked interfamilial and intrafamilial variability have been described. We report a girl showing constellation of congenital hearing impairment with 110 dB and 105 dB loss in right and left ear respectively, hypoplastic blue iridis, white forelock, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal root. Other affected relatives of the family, with variable features of the syndrome, have been depicted in the pedigree.

  8. Olmsted syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Olmsted syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial, keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar keratoderma. New associated features are being reported. Olmsted syndrome is particularly rare in a female patient, and we report such a case in a six year-old Indian girl, who presented with keratoderma of her soles since birth and on her palms since the age of two years along with perioral and perinasal hyperkeratosis. She had sparse, light brown, thin hair. Although the psychomotor development of the child was normal until 18 months of age, the keratoderma plaques had restricted the child′s mobility after that stage.

  9. Eagle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Deepika; Gothi, Rajesh; Rajan, Sriram

    2009-01-01

    Eagle syndrome occurs due to elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, which then may produce a pain sensation due the pressure exerted on various structures in the head and neck. When suspected, imaging helps in identifying the abnormally elongated styloid process or the calcified ligament. In recent years, three-dimensional CT (3DCT) has proved to be valuable in these cases. We report the case of a 62-year-old man with this syndrome in whom imaging with 3DCT conclusively established the diagnosis

  10. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mostly females. Affected females have characteristic features such as short stature, premature ovarian failure, and several other features. Oral manifestations of this condition are not much discussed in the literature. But reported literature includes teeth, palate, periodontal and salivary changes. So the aim of this review is to illustrate the general manifestations, and especially the oral manifestations of Turner syndrome and evaluate their possible management. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(4.000: 246-252

  11. Fenton's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimondi, E.; Albasini, V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report two recent cases of Fenton's syndrome, a very rare carpal fracture-dislocation. After some anatomophysiopathological considerations and a review of the literature, a wider nosographic frame is proposed in which the entity of the dislocation of the head of capitate bone is not essential. According to both the literature and personal findings, the authors remark that this syndrome is always found in the presence of two morphological variants of the distal radioulnar joint. Finally, the authors stress the importance of a corect diagnosis of this lesion to avoid unnecessary attempts of reduction

  12. Reiter's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, S S; Fernandez, J C; Dhurandhar, M W; Fernandez, R J

    1979-01-01

    A case of Reiter's syndrome occurring in a young mate aged 20 years having extensive skin lesions of keratoderina blenoffhagica is presented along with a review of literature. Although urethritis was absent, other clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous lesions led us to the diagnosis. The-possible relationship of postural psoriasis to Reiter's syndrome is discussed. Failure of the patient to respond satisfactorily to steroids, antibiotics etc, prompted the use of rnethotrexate in the case. The result was dramatic, as the patient completely recovered within ten days of starting treatment.

  13. Larsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mahbubul Islam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Larsen syndrome is a rare inherited disorder characterized by congenital dislocation of multiple joints along with other anomalies of heart, face, hands and bones. Larsen syndrome was first described in 1950 by Larsen, Schottstaedt and Bost. In the present report, we describe a 10 year old girl who presented with mid facial hypoplasia with depressed nasal bridge, high arched palate, bilateral talipes equinovarus and high arched feet. On examination, she had short stature (HAZ -3.5 SD with hyperextension of knee joint, fixed flexion of elbow joint. Awareness of this condition and associated complications may help in management and follow up of these patients. 

  14. Joubert syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanua, J.A.; Lopez, J.M.; Recondo, J.A.; Garcia, J.M.; Gaztanaga, R.

    1998-01-01

    Joubert syndrome is a rare malformation of the posterior fossa, mainly affecting the cerebellar vermis, which generally appears as a dysplastic lesion. Other structures of the cervico medullary junction may be involved, with accompanying brainstem hypoplasia according to neuroimaging studies. The diagnosis is usually reached during, childhood, based on a constellation of changes in the child's neurological development that are supported by the results of imaging studied. Respiratory problems are the most common signs in newborns,leading to the suspicion of the presence of this syndrome. (Author) 11 refs

  15. Lemierre's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, D N

    2012-02-01

    Lemierre\\'s syndrome is a rare disease that results in an oropharyngeal infection, which precipitates an internal jugular vein thrombosis and metastatic infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus and has been identified as the causative agent. We describe the case of a young girl whose presentation and diagnosis were confounded by a history of valvular heart disease. Infection of heart valves can produce many of the signs and symptoms associated with Lemierre\\'s syndrome. We describe the diagnosis, investigation and optimal management of this rare disorder.

  16. Meigs' Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.; Khaskheli, M.; Farooq, S.

    2006-01-01

    Meigs' syndrome is a rare clinical condition commonly considered to be associated with malignant ovarian tumour. A case of unmarried female is presented who came with a slowly increasing abdominal mass. Clinical and ultrasonic investigations revealed a mobile, solid right adenexal tumour in the lower abdomen, along with ascites and pleural effusion of the right lung. The level of CA 125 was also raised. Diagnosis of Meigs' syndrome was confirmed after surgical intervention. The tumour was successfully removed and pleural effusion disappeared 15 days after the intervention. Cytomorphologic study of both the tumour and ascitic fluid was negative for malignancy. (author)

  17. [Elsberg syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristine Esbjerg; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2013-12-16

    A syndrome involving acute urinary retention in combination with sacral radiculitis and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was first described by the American neurosurgeon Charles Elsberg in 1931. In many instances the aetiology is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation from sensory neurons. In this case report we present a 34-year-old pregnant woman with previous undiagnosed sensory lumbosacral symptoms. She was hospitalized with HSV-2 meningitis and lumbosacral radiculitis but no genital rash. A week after the onset of symptoms she developed acute urinary retention, thus indicating Elsberg syndrome.

  18. Marfan syndrome masked by Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, J.C.; Engelen, K. van; Timmermans, J.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Mulder, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality. A simultaneous occurrence with Marfan syndrome is extremely rare. We present a case of a 28-year-old female with Down syndrome and a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene. The patient showed strikingly few manifestations of Marfan syndrome.

  19. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  20. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  1. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine M; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and/or ...... LS in this day and age appears to be low, however the syndrome is difficult to recognize, and still requires the full attention of the clinician.......This is a systematic review of cases with Lemierre's syndrome (LS) in the past 5 years. LS is characterized by sepsis often evolving after a sore throat or tonsillitis and then complicated by various septic emboli and thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. Symptoms include sepsis, pain, and....../or swelling in the throat or neck, as well as respiratory symptoms. Laboratory findings show elevated infectious parameters and radiological findings show thrombosis of the internal jugular vein and emboli in the lungs or other organs. The syndrome is often associated with an infection with Fusobacterium...

  2. Sjogren syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Baldini, Chiara; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J.; Jonsson, Roland; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy; Theander, Elke; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Ramos-Casals, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the exocrine glands (mainly the salivary and lacrimal glands) and results in the severe dryness of mucosal surfaces, principally in the mouth and eyes. This disease predominantly affects middle-aged women, but can also be

  3. Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss of interest in normal play Delayed speech development or loss of previously acquired speech abilities Problem behavior or marked mood swings Any clear loss of previously gained milestones in gross motor or fine motor skills Causes Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. ...

  4. Nodding Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Scott Dowell, a CDC director, discusses the rare illness, nodding syndrome, in children in Africa.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/27/2014.

  5. Piriformis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually resume their normal activities. In some cases, exercise regimens may need to be modified in order to reduce the likelihood of recurrence or worsening. Clinical Trials Throughout the U.S. ... Definition Piriformis syndrome is a rare neuromuscular disorder that ...

  6. Hellp syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A 24 years old female presented with hypertension, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia in an unconscious state after undergoing an emergency caesarian section. A diagnosis of HELLP syndrome was made on the above findings. Patient made an uneventful recovery with conservative management. A brief review of the literature is included along with the case report. (author)

  7. Kartagener's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, D K; Ganguly, K C; Alam, S; Hossain, A; Sarker, U K; Das, B K; Haque, M J

    2009-01-01

    Kartagener's Syndrome or Immotile Cilia Syndrome, a variant of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD), is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by defect in the tiny hair like structure, the cilia lining the respiratory tract (upper and lower), sinuses, eustachian tubes, middle ear and fallopian tubes. Here electron microscopy shows abnormal arrangement of ciliary tubules and patients with Kartagener's syndrome has an absence of dynein arms at the base of the cilia. The inability of cilia to move results in inadequate clearance of bacteria from the air passages, resulting in an increased risk of infection and causing bronchiectasis. Another result of ciliary immobility is infertility. A 60 years old lady was diagnosed as a case of Kartagener's syndrome. She had history of chronic cough for 20 years, irregular fever for 20 years and occasional shortness of breath for 5 years. Relevant investigations revealed dextrocardia, situs inversus, bilateral maxillary sinusitis with non pneumatised frontal sinus and bronchiectasis. She was treated with low concentration oxygen inhalation, antibiotic, bronchodilator, chest physiotherapy including postural drainage, vitamins and other supportive treatment.

  8. Carraro syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, H.; Schwarz, R.

    1980-07-01

    The report concerns a girl aged 9 1/2 years who was deaf and dumb and had marked shortening of the calves with deformities of the feet and bilateral, congenital hypoplasia of the tibiae. This syndrome was first described by Carraro in 1931, but there have been no further reports since then.

  9. Rett Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  10. Alagille Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3] Kamath BM, Loomes KM, Piccoli DA. Medical management of Alagille syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2010;50(6): ... 30 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into ... Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  11. Kounis syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neoplastic agents), exposure to radiological contrast media, poison ivy, bee stings, shellfish and coronary stents. In addition to coronary arterial involvement, Kounis syndrome com prises other arterial systems with similar physiologies, such as mesenteric and cerebral circulation resulting in ischaemia/infarction of the vital ...

  12. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  13. Crest syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, B.; Roedl, W.

    1988-01-01

    If a patient has peri- and intra-articular calcinosis, as well as acro-osteolysis and esophageal hypomotility, and rheumatic symptoms, Crest syndrome should be considered as a manifestation of progressive systemic sclerosis. In connection with relevant symptoms on the skin and visceral involvement, radiological studies offer the possibility of classifying progressive systemic sclerosis more accurately. (orig.) [de

  14. Gitelman syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Levtchenko, E.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gitelman syndrome (GS), also referred to as familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia, is characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis in combination with significant hypomagnesemia and low urinary calcium excretion. The prevalence is estimated at approximately 1:40,000 and accordingly, the prevalence

  15. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can treat many of its symptoms. Thanks to new research and treatments, people with Marfan syndrome who are diagnosed early ... This helps doctors stay on top of any new problems. Doctors might also ... or kids with amblyopia or strabismus will probably need to wear glasses. ...

  16. Kartagener's Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    presenting with recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Inability to diagnose this condition may subject the patient to unnecessary and repeated hospital admissions, investigations and treatment failure. KEY WORDS: Kartagener's syndrome, primary cilliary dyskinesia, situs inversus, ...

  17. Characteristics of fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasalam, A D; Hailey, H; Williams, J H G; Moore, S J; Turnpenny, P D; Lloyd, D J; Dean, J C S

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and frequency of autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome (AS; according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV] criteria) in children exposed to anticonvulsant medication in utero. During a 20-year study period, 626 children were born in Aberdeen to mothers taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The study examined long-term effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs in 260 children (122 males, 138 females). Of these, 26 (16 males) were reported by parents to have social or behavioural difficulties. Eleven children (6 males, 5 females) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder and one (female) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for AS. These children comprised 4.6% of the exposed children studied, and 1.9% of all exposed children born during the study period. Mean age of these children at diagnosis was 5 years 4 months (SD 2y 11mo) and 9 years 10 months (SD 3y 10mo) at the time of this study. Other children from the group of 26 had difficulties in areas of speech and language development and social communication but did not meet the criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sodium valproate was the drug most commonly associated with autistic disorder, five of 56 (8.9%) of the study children exposed to sodium valproate alone had either autistic disorder or AS. It was concluded that prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant medication is a risk factor for the development of an ASD. Fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder is characterized by an even sex ratio, absence of regression or skill loss, and language delay in the absence of global delay.

  18. Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is functional renal failure that occurs with advanced liver failure. HRS is considered the most severe complication of cirrhosis. Type 1 HRS develops due to severe reduction of effective circulating volume results in hemodynamic dysfunction. Type 1 HRS is characterized by acute renal failure and rapid deterioration in the function of other organs. It can ocur spontaneously or in the setting of a precipitating event. Type 2 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS, which is characterized by slowly progressive renal failure and refractory ascites. Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for both type. The most suitable and ldquo;bridge treatments and rdquo; or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 106-113

  19. Dravet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incorpora Gemma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "Dravet syndrome" (DS previously named severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI, or epilepsy with polymorphic seizures, is a rare disorder characterized by an early, severe, generalized, epileptic encephalopathy. DS is characterized by febrile and afebrile seizures beginning in the 1st year of life followed by different types of seizures (either focal or generalized, which are typically resistant to antiepileptic drugs. A developmental delay from the 2nd to 3rd year of life becomes evident, together with motor disturbances and personality disorders. Beside the classic syndrome, there are milder cases which have been called severe myoclonic epilepsy borderline (SMEB. DS is caused by a mutation in the neuronal sodium channel gene, SCN1A , that is also mutated in generalized epilepsy with FS+ (GEFS+.

  20. Apert syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly is a rare developmental malformation characterized by craniosynostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, symmetrical syndactyly of hands and feet. The prodromal characteristics for the typical cranio-facial appearance are early craniosynostosis of the coronal suture, cranial base and agenesis of the sagittal suture. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of Apert syndrome with emphasis on craniofacial and oral features in an eighteen-month-old male child. The patient presented with several craniofacial deformities, including brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, flat face, hypertelorism, ocular proptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures. Syndactylies with osseous fusion of the hands and feet were also observed. Intraoral findings included delayed eruption of teeth, high arched palate with pseudo cleft in the posterior one third.

  1. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  2. Paraneoplastiske syndromer

    OpenAIRE

    Røsbekk, Stein Helge

    2007-01-01

    During the last 50 years it has become clear that malignant tumours can induce symptoms unrelated to the mechanical effects of the primary tumour itself or its metastasis. Today, the name Paraneoplastic syndrome is given to those symptom complexes that may affect the blood cells, electrolytes, coagulation system, muscle, skin, nerve and the endocrine system. Endocrine symptoms were first recognised, and different hormones were isolated from the tumour tissue. However, tumour derived hormones ...

  3. Caroli's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numan, F; Cokyueksel, O; Camuscu, S; Demir, K; Dueren, M

    1986-07-01

    In 1958 Caroli described the syndrome of congenital, either segmental or involving the entire bile duct system, saccular extensions of the intrahepatic bile ducts. He differentiated between two types of this disease pattern. The first form concerns pure cystic dilatations of the intrahepatic bile ducts, whereas the second one is combined with hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. Both types are characterised by cystic dilatations in the kidneys and in the extrahepatic bile ducts, pancreas and spleen.

  4. Griscelli syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial albinism with immunodeficiency is a rare and fatal immunologic disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution and variable cellular immunodeficiency. It was initially described in 1978. Primary abnormalities included silvery grayish sheen to the hair, large pigment agglomerations in hair shafts and an abundance of mature melanosomes in melanocytes, with reduced pigmentation of adjacent keratinocytes. We describe a child with Griscelli syndrome who presented with hepatitis, pancytopenia and silvery hair. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic skin and hair examination.

  5. Waardenburg syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Manish; Kavadu, Paresh; Chougule, Sachin

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of Waardenburg syndrome in a female child aged 2yrs. Petrus Johannes Waardenburg(1) , a Dutch Ophthalmologist in 1951 described individuals with retinal pigmentary differences who had varying degrees of hearing loss and dystopia canthorum (i.e., latral displacement of inner canthi of eyes). The disease runs in families with a dominant inheritance pattern with varying degree of clinical presentation. Patient usually present with heterochromic iris, pigmentary abnormalities of ...

  6. [PHACES syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcillo Azcárate, J; Bernabeu-Wittel, J; Fernández-Pineda, I; Conejo-Mir, M D; Tuduri Limousin, I; Aspiazu Salinas, D A; de Agustín Asensio, J C

    2010-04-01

    PHACES syndrome associates a segmental facial hemangioma with cerebral malformations, aortic branches/cranial arteries anomalies, cardiac defects, eye anomalies or ventral wall defects. The aim of this study is to analyze our experience with this syndrome. Retrospective study of the cases seen at our unit in the last year. We treat 4 cases; 3 girls and 1 child. Besides the segmental hemangioma they presented: 3 vascular cerebral malformations; 2 structural cardiopathies; 2 cerebral malformations, 1 microftalmia. We did not find ventral wall defects. A case received treatment with two cycles of metilprednisolone i.v. and oral prednisone, with favourable course; two cases received initial treatment with oral prednisone continued of oral propanolol in rising pattern up to 2 mg/kg/day, Obtaining both the detention of the tumour growth and regression of the lesion, with very good tolerance. A 7-year-old patient has been treated with colouring pulse laser for her residual lesions. When we see a segmental facial hemangioma we must perform a wide diagnostic study in order to discard a PHACES syndrome. Multidisciplinar approach to the patient by a wide expert's group gets an earlier diagnose and improves the outcome. Propranolol is a promising therapeutic alternative.

  7. Anserine syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Milton; Kuromoto, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Knee pain is a common complaint in clinical practice, and pes anserinus tendino-bursitis syndrome (PATB) has been frequently diagnosed based only on clinical features that may cause equivocal interpretations. Patients complain of characteristic spontaneous medial knee pain with tenderness in the inferomedial aspect of the joint. Studies with different imaging modalities have been undertaken during the last years to identify whether these patients suffer from bursitis, tendinitis, or both. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the structural defect responsible for this disturbance. Due to these problems and some controversies, we suggest the term "anserine syndrome" for this condition. Diabetes Mellitus is a known predisposing factor for this syndrome. Overweight and osteoarthritis seem to represent additional risk factors; however, their role in the pathophysiology of the disease is not yet understood. Treatment includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, and injections of corticosteroid, with highly variable responses, from 10 days to 36 months to achieve recovery. The lack of knowledge about its epidemiological, etiological, and pathophysiological aspects requires future studies for this common and intriguing disorder.

  8. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  9. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  10. Prune belly syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle-Barrett syndrome; Triad syndrome ... The exact causes of prune belly syndrome are unknown. The condition affects mostly boys. While in the womb, the developing baby's abdomen swells with fluid. Often, the cause is ...

  11. What Causes Cushing's Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What causes Cushing syndrome? Cushing syndrome can develop for two reasons: Medication ... uhs ), thyroid, or thymus How Tumors Can Cause Cushing Syndrome Normally, the pituitary gland in the brain controls ...

  12. Inteligencia fluida y cristalizada en el autismo de alto funcionamiento y el síndrome de Asperger

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Fernanda Pérez Rivero; Lía Margarita Martínez Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence in autistic spectrum disorders, especially high functioning autism and Asperger’s syndrome has been the subject of numerous investigations that seek to establish intellectual ability observed in these subjects. Some of the most outstanding results indicate that fluid intelligence is one of the aspects of superior performance in this population compared to tests that measure crystallized intelligence such as the Wechsler scales, providing a reason for using in...

  13. Inteligencia fluida y cristalizada en el autismo de alto funcionamiento y el síndrome de Asperger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Pérez Rivero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence in autistic spectrum disorders, especially high functioning autism and Asperger’s syndrome has been the subject of numerous investigations that seek to establish intellectual ability observed in these subjects. Some of the most outstanding results indicate that fluid intelligence is one of the aspects of superior performance in this population compared to tests that measure crystallized intelligence such as the Wechsler scales, providing a reason for using in intelligence studies instruments that measure abstract reasoning and the analogical capacity, closely related to fluid intelligence function, one of this like the Raven progressive matrices. In the present research we evaluated 12 children with high functioning Autism and 6 with Asperger’s syndrome through the WISC-IV and the Raven test. The results showed there are no significant differences between both measures of intelligence. However, we found that there are differences in the intellectual profile of both groups and that Asperger’s syndrome appears to have a better intellectual level compared with high functioning Autism.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: antiphospholipid syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Antiphospholipid syndrome Antiphospholipid syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... area? Other Names for This Condition anti-phospholipid syndrome antiphospholipid antibody syndrome Hughes syndrome Related Information How are ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Costello syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other genetic conditions, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome) and Noonan syndrome . In affected infants, it can be difficult to ... These individuals may actually have CFC syndrome or Noonan syndrome , which are caused by mutations in related genes. ...

  16. Acute nephritic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes in children ...

  17. Morvan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, Mark; Chhetri, Suresh K.; Dayanandan, Rejith; Gall, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A 74-year-old gentleman was admitted to the regional neurosciences center with encephalopathy, myokymia, and dysautonomia. Chest imaging had previously identified an incidental mass in the anterior mediastinum, consistent with a primary thymic tumor. Antivoltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies were positive (titer 1273 pmol/L) and he was hypokalemic. Electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were in keeping with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome, and an electroencephalogram was consistent with encephalopathy. A diagnosis of Morvan syndrome was made, for which he was initially treated with high-dose steroids, followed by a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He also underwent thymectomy, followed by a postexcision flare of his symptoms requiring intensive care management. Further steroids, plasmapheresis, and IVIG achieved stabilization of his clinical condition, enabling transfer for inpatient neurorehabilitation. He was commenced on azathioprine and a prolonged oral steroid taper. A subsequent presumed incipient relapse responded well to further IVIG treatment. This case report documents a thymoma-associated presentation of anti-VGKC-positive Morvan syndrome supplemented by patient and carer narrative and video, both of which provide valuable further insights into this rare disorder. There are a limited number of publications surrounding this rare condition available in the English literature. This, combined with the heterogenous presentation, association with underlying malignancy, response to treatment, and prognosis, provides a diagnostic challenge. However, the association with anti-VGKC antibody-associated complexes and 2 recent case series have provided some scope for both accurate diagnosis and management. PMID:26740856

  18. Jacobsen syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossfeld Paul

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jacobsen syndrome is a MCA/MR contiguous gene syndrome caused by partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11. To date, over 200 cases have been reported. The prevalence has been estimated at 1/100,000 births, with a female/male ratio 2:1. The most common clinical features include pre- and postnatal physical growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facial dysmorphism (skull deformities, hypertelorism, ptosis, coloboma, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, short nose, v-shaped mouth, small ears, low set posteriorly rotated ears. Abnormal platelet function, thrombocytopenia or pancytopenia are usually present at birth. Patients commonly have malformations of the heart, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, genitalia, central nervous system and skeleton. Ocular, hearing, immunological and hormonal problems may be also present. The deletion size ranges from ~7 to 20 Mb, with the proximal breakpoint within or telomeric to subband 11q23.3 and the deletion extending usually to the telomere. The deletion is de novo in 85% of reported cases, and in 15% of cases it results from an unbalanced segregation of a familial balanced translocation or from other chromosome rearrangements. In a minority of cases the breakpoint is at the FRA11B fragile site. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings (intellectual deficit, facial dysmorphic features and thrombocytopenia and confirmed by cytogenetics analysis. Differential diagnoses include Turner and Noonan syndromes, and acquired thrombocytopenia due to sepsis. Prenatal diagnosis of 11q deletion is possible by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and cytogenetic analysis. Management is multi-disciplinary and requires evaluation by general pediatrician, pediatric cardiologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist. Auditory tests, blood tests, endocrine and immunological assessment and follow-up should be offered to all patients. Cardiac malformations can be

  19. Robinow syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Robinow syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive mesomelic dwarfism with just more than 100 cases reported in the literature so far. The lower extremity is spared with skeletal deformity usually confined to the forearm, hand, and the dorsal spine. Diagnosis is made easily in the early childhood by the typical "fetal facies" appearance, which disappears to a certain extent as the patient grows. The author reports two cases of this entity with vertebral segmentation defects, rib fusion, and typical severe brachymelia and facial features.

  20. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome

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    Tuzovic, S.; Fiebach, B.J.O.; Magnus, L.; Sauerbrei, H.U.

    1982-11-01

    This article reports on 14 cases of a trichorhinophalangeal syndrome in five successive generations. Besides the well-known characteristics of the TRPS the following symptoms observed in this family are new: Teething was considerably delayed, intelligence was reduced, and there were skin manifestations resembling eczema. Besides, struma colli and colitis ulcerosa were also observed. Subsequent observations have to clarify whether these symptoms are a facultative part of the TRPS pattern. The constant appearance of carriers of these characteristics during five generation points to dominant heredity.