WorldWideScience

Sample records for aspen cancer conference

  1. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  2. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Olivier, Dore [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fox, Patrick [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Furic, Ivan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halkiadakis, Eva [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Schmidt, Fabian [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Smith, Kendrick M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Whiteson, Daniel [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  3. Conference scene: 2nd cancer epigenetics conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra L

    2013-04-01

    The GTC Cancer Summit: Novel Approaches to Drug Discovery was divided into two parallel tracks: the 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference, and the Protein Kinases and Drug Design Conference. The 2nd Cancer Epigenetics Conference focused on exciting changes in drug discovery that include an unprecedented private and public collaboration on drug discovery in epigenetics through the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), which has led to several major breakthroughs including: the development of small-molecule inhibitors that interfere with protein interactions, especially bromodomain-containing protein acetylation readers; the indirect but successful targeting of the elusive MYC oncogene; and the identification of epigenetic drugs that are disease-specific. Also reported were the development of clinically useful DNA methylation assays; cell, peptide and protein arrays for testing antibody- and protein-binding specificity; and tools for chromatin capture and DNA modification analysis. Several groups reported on the lack of specificity of some commercial, but unnamed, antibodies used for epigenetic studies.

  4. Aspen Delineation - Aspen Delineation Project [ds362

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands, where aspen assessment data was gathered. Aspen assessment information corresponding to this polygon layer can...

  5. 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Contrasting Superconductivity of Pnictides and Cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Schmalian, J. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Canfield, P. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Chakravarty, S. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States)

    2011-05-02

    Our quest for materials with better properties is closely integral to the fabric of our society. Currently the development of materials that will allow for improved generation, transport, and storage of energy is at the forefront of our research in condensed matter physics and materials science. Among these materials, compounds that exhibit correlated electron states and emergent phenomena such as superconductivity have great promise, but also difficulties that need to be overcome: problems associated with our need to reliably find, understand, improve and control these promising materials. At the same time, the field of correlated electrons represents the frontier of our understanding of the electronic properties of solids. It contains deep open scientific issues within the broad area of quantum phenomena in matter. The aim of this workshop is to explore and understand the physics of recently discovered Fe-based high-temperature superconductors and contrast and compare them with the cuprates. The superconductivity in iron pnictides, with transition temperatures in excess of 55 K, was discovered in early 2008. The impact of this discovery is comparable to cuprates discovered in 1986. At the same time a number of recent experimental developments in cuprates may lead to a shift in our thinking with regards to these materials. There is therefore much to be learned by devoting a conference in which both classes of superconductors are discussed, especially at this nascent stage of the pnictides.

  6. First Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Anna; Perucho, Manuel; Esteller, Manel; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Challenges, opportunities and perspectives” took place November 21–22, 2013 in Barcelona. The 2013 BCEC is the first edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by five leading research centers in Barcelona. These centers are the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), the Biomedical Campus Bellvitge with its Program of Epigenetics and Cancer Biology (PEBC), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), the Institute for Biomedical Research (IRB), and the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB). Manuel Perucho and Marcus Buschbeck from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer put together the scientific program of the first conference broadly covering all aspects of epigenetic research ranging from fundamental molecular research to drug and biomarker development and clinical application. In one and a half days, 23 talks and 50 posters were presented to a completely booked out audience counting 270 participants. PMID:24413145

  7. First Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Anna; Perucho, Manuel; Esteller, Manel; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled "Challenges, opportunities and perspectives" took place November 21-22, 2013 in Barcelona. The 2013 BCEC is the first edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by five leading research centers in Barcelona. These centers are the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), the Biomedical Campus Bellvitge with its Program of Epigenetics and Cancer Biology (PEBC), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), the Institute for Biomedical Research (IRB), and the Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona (IBMB). Manuel Perucho and Marcus Buschbeck from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer put together the scientific program of the first conference broadly covering all aspects of epigenetic research ranging from fundamental molecular research to drug and biomarker development and clinical application. In one and a half days, 23 talks and 50 posters were presented to a completely booked out audience counting 270 participants.

  8. Aspen Characteristics - Aspen Delineation Project [ds361

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (Placer and...

  9. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer 2016 - beyond cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbovic, Gabrijela; Biayna, Josep; Font, Berta; Buschbeck, Marcus; Forcales, Sonia-V

    2017-03-04

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled "Beyond Cancer Genomes" took place October 13(th) and 14(th) 2016 in Barcelona. The 2016 BCEC was the fourth edition of a series of annual conferences coordinated by Marcus Buschbeck and subsequently organized by leading research centers in Barcelona together with B•DEBATE, a joint initiative of BIOCAT and "La Caixa" Foundation. Salvador Aznar-Benitah, Eduard Batlle, and Raúl Méndez from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Barcelona selected the 2016 BCEC panel of speakers. As the title indicates, this year's conference expanded the epigenetic focus to include additional cancer-relevant topics, such as tumor heterogeneity and RNA regulation. Methods to develop therapeutic approaches on the basis of novel insights have been discussed in great detail. The conference has attracted 217 participants from 11 countries.

  10. Hypoxylon Canker of Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Anderson; Gerald W. Anderson; Arthur L. Jr. Schipper

    1979-01-01

    Hypoxylon canker, caused by the fungus Hypoxylon mammatum (Wahl.) Mill. (formerly H. pruinatum (Klot.) Cke.), is one of the most important killing diseases of aspen in eastern North America. In Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, the total impact of Hypoxylon canker has been estimated to be 30 percent of the annual net growth of aspen; in 1972, trees worth more than $4...

  11. Assessing aspen using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Hamilton; Kevin Megown; Jeff DiBenedetto; Dale Bartos; Anne Mileck

    2009-01-01

    Large areas of aspen (Populus tremuloides) have disappeared and continue to disappear from western forests due to successional decline and sudden aspen decline (SAD). This loss of aspen ecosystems negatively impacts watersheds, wildlife, plants, and recreation. Much can still be done to restore aspen if timely and appropriate action is taken. However, land managers...

  12. Effect of Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference on Treatment Plan for Patients With Primary Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Ryan C; Subendran, Jhananiee; Jhaveri, Kartik; Thipphavong, Seng; Cummings, Bernard; Brierley, James; Kirsch, Richard; Kennedy, Erin D

    2015-07-01

    Although multidisciplinary cancer conferences have been reported to lead to improved patient outcomes, few studies have reported results of these for rectal cancer. The purpose of this work was to assess the quality of multidisciplinary cancer conferences, the effect of the conference on the initial treatment plan, compliance with the conference treatment recommendations, and clinical outcomes for rectal cancer. This was a prospective, longitudinal study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients with primary rectal cancer were included in this study. The intervention was a rectal cancer-specific multidisciplinary cancer conference. The quality of the multidisciplinary cancer conference was assessed using the Cancer Care Ontario Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference standards score. A change in treatment plan was defined as a change from the initial treatment plan selected by the treating physician to an alternate treatment plan recommended at the conference. Twenty-five multidisciplinary cancer conferences were conducted over a 10-month study period. The Cancer Care Ontario Multidisciplinary Cancer Conference standards score was 7 (from a maximum score of 9). Forty-two patients with primary rectal cancer were presented, and there was a 29% (12/42) change in the initial treatment plan. A total of 42% (5/12) of these changes were attributed to reinterpretation of the MRI findings. There was 100% compliance with the conference treatment recommendations. The circumferential resection margin was positive in 5.5% (2/36). Selection bias may have led to an overestimate of effect, and there is no control group for comparison of clinical outcomes. A high-quality rectal cancer-specific multidisciplinary cancer conference led to a 29% change in the treatment plan for patients with primary rectal cancer, with almost half of these changes attributed to reinterpretation of the magnetic resonance images.

  13. Third Preventing Overdiagnosis conference | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdiagnosis Conference Early Bird Registration Open and Abstract Submission This event will be co-hosted by the National institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute in Washington DC, September 01-03, 2015. |

  14. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference on Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic; Bosse, Tjalling; González-Martín, Antonio; Ledermann, Jonathan; Marth, Christian; Nout, Remi; Querleu, Denis; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sessa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first joint European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11–13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared three clinically-relevant questions about endometrial cancer relating to the following four areas: prevention and screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment and advanced and recurrent disease. All relevant scientific literature, as identified by the experts, was reviewed in advance. During the consensus conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question and a consensus was reached. Results of this consensus conference, together with a summary of evidence supporting each recommendation, are detailed in this article. All participants have approved this final article. PMID:26645990

  15. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference: individualized therapy and patient factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGee, J.; Bookman, M.; Harter, P.; Marth, C.; McNeish, I.; Moore, K.N.; Poveda, A.; Hilpert, F.; Hasegawa, K.; Bacon, M.; Gatsonis, C.; Kridelka, F.; Berek, J.; Ottevanger, N.; Levy, T.; Silverberg, S.; Kim, B.G.; Hirte, H.; Okamoto, A.; Stuart, G.; Ochiai, K.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding the design and conduct of clinical trials in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), following deliberation at the Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), held in Tokyo in November 2015. Three

  16. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO consensus conference on endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The first joint European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary...... panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared three clinically-relevant questions about endometrial cancer relating to the following four areas: Prevention and screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment and advanced and recurrent...

  17. ASPEN Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Schaffer, Steven; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) computer program has been updated to version 3.0. ASPEN is a modular, reconfigurable, application software framework for solving batch problems that involve reasoning about time, activities, states, and resources. Applications of ASPEN can include planning spacecraft missions, scheduling of personnel, and managing supply chains, inventories, and production lines. ASPEN 3.0 can be customized for a wide range of applications and for a variety of computing environments that include various central processing units and random access memories.

  18. Aspen Delineation - Inyo National Forest [ds366

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Inyo National Forest, Inyo County, California. The Inyo...

  19. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  20. Cankers on Western Quaking Aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Johnson; Jerome S. Beatty; Thomas E. Hinds

    1995-01-01

    Long appreciated for its esthetic and shade tree value and its importance for wildlife, aspen is also capable of excellent growth and high yields and thus is an important commercial timber species. However, aspen has one major drawback-its soft bark is easily wounded by abiotic factors, animals, and insects. Subsequently, these wounds can be invaded by disease...

  1. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  2. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  3. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer 2016 – beyond cancer genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbovic, Gabrijela; Biayna, Josep; Font, Berta; Buschbeck, Marcus; Forcales, Sonia-V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Beyond Cancer Genomes” took place October 13th and 14th 2016 in Barcelona. The 2016 BCEC was the fourth edition of a series of annual conferences coordinated by Marcus Buschbeck and subsequently organized by leading research centers in Barcelona together with B•DEBATE, a joint initiative of BIOCAT and “La Caixa” Foundation. Salvador Aznar-Benitah, Eduard Batlle, and Raúl Méndez from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Barcelona selected the 2016 BCEC panel of speakers. As the title indicates, this year's conference expanded the epigenetic focus to include additional cancer-relevant topics, such as tumor heterogeneity and RNA regulation. Methods to develop therapeutic approaches on the basis of novel insights have been discussed in great detail. The conference has attracted 217 participants from 11 countries. PMID:28121228

  4. The Typical Metabolic Modifiers Conferring Improvement in Cancer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Wang, Shengpeng; Liu, Hui; Yu, Hua; Tan, Rui; Hu, Xiaodong; Pan, Tingrui; Wang, Yitao

    2017-11-17

    Cancer metabolic reprogramming rekindles enthusiasm for the research of metabolic regulation in cancer drug resistance. A growing number of metabolic modifiers combined with cancer drugs obtain the expected efficacy in in vitro or in vivo studies, also in clinical trial studies, indicating a good potential of enhancing efficacy and reducing resistance. Hence, a comprehensive review on the attenuations of metabolic modifiers in cancer drug resistance is necessary for rational drug design and clinical cancer drug research. Cancer drug resistance and cancer metabolic reprogramming were used as the key words to collect publications with reference value in bibliographic databases. Specifically, the focused question is the advances of metabolic modifiers on cancer resistance improvement. Figures and tables were applied to analyze the interventions in accordance with the inclusion criteria. This review summarized the advances of metabolic modifiers combined with cancer drugs in in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies, especially for cancer resistance improvement. The relationship between metabolic regulation and cancer resistance was elaborated, and the potential metabolic modifiers were embraced. Metabolic targets were also visualized in categorization in 4 figures and expatiated in 4 tables. Three typical metabolic modifiers, namely lonidamine, 2-DG and 3-BrPA, conferring attenuation to cancer resistance were elucidated systematically. Metabolic regulation is an intervention with targeted perturbation in a modest manner and reflects homeostasis balance. When combined with cancer drugs, the metabolic modifiers always show exciting potential with practical significance, enhancing activity or exerting synergism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M K; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Aoki, D

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), which was held in Tokyo, Japan, in November 2015. Three important questions were identified: (i) What are the subgroups for clinical trials i...

  6. 1990 sampling of treated aspen stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In mid-August, 1990, sampling of aspen stand exclosures were conducted at the National Elk Refuge. This sampling is part of a study to monitor aspen regeneration on...

  7. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest [ds374

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest,...

  8. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  9. Aspen Delineation - Lassen National Forest [ds372

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (LASSEN_NF_EAGLELAKE_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle...

  10. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  11. Telemedicine and telesurgery in cancer care: inaugural conference at MD Anderson Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcher, Robert L; Bogler, Oliver; Hyle, Laurel; Lee, Andrew; Simmons, Angela; Williams, Robert; Hawk, Ernest; Matin, Surena; Brewster, Abenaa M

    2014-09-01

    Despite the growing incidence of cancer worldwide, there are an insufficient number of primary care physicians, community oncologists, and surgeons to meet the demand for cancer care, especially in rural and other medically underserved areas. Teleoncology, including diagnostics, treatment, and supportive care, has the potential to enhance access to cancer care and to improve clinician education and training. Major cancer centers such as The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center must determine how teleoncology will be used as part of strategic planning for the future. The Telemedicine and Telesurgery in Cancer Care (TTCC) conference was convened to determine technologically based strategies for addressing global access to essential cancer care services. The TTCC conference brought policy makers together with physicians, legal and regulatory experts to define strategies to optimize available resources, including teleoncology, to advance global cancer care. The TTCC conference discourse provided insight into the present state of access to care, expertise, training, technology and other interventions, including teleoncology, currently available through MD Anderson, as well as a vision of what might be achievable in the future, and proposals for moving forward with a comprehensive strategy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The First Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt International Scientific Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S

    2009-10-01

    A wide gathering of scientists, clinicians, pharmacists and nurses specialized in pediatric oncology practice met to celebrate the second anniversary of Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt (CCHE). The celebration was in the form of high-brow teaching lectures and reports presented by international experts in the fields of pediatric CNS tumors, solid tumors (neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, soft tissue and bone tumors, lymphoma, leukemia and pediatric oncology nursing. The conference extends its activities to hospital management, clinical pharmacy and telemedicine. Furthermore, CCHE experts presented the efforts performed to establish a state-of-the-art pediatric oncology hospital equipped with all needed facilities to raise the standard of care to the highest levels.

  13. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer 2016 – beyond cancer genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Dumbovic, Gabrijela; Biayna, Josep; Font, Berta; Buschbeck, Marcus; Forcales, Sonia-V.

    2017-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled “Beyond Cancer Genomes” took place October 13th and 14th 2016 in Barcelona. The 2016 BCEC was the fourth edition of a series of annual conferences coordinated by Marcus Buschbeck and subsequently organized by leading research centers in Barcelona together with B•DEBATE, a joint initiative of BIOCAT and “La Caixa” Foundation. Salvador Aznar-Benitah, Eduard Batlle, and Raúl Méndez from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine i...

  14. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO consensus conference on endometrial cancer: Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic; Bosse, Tjalling; González-Martín, Antonio; Ledermann, Jonathan; Marth, Christian; Nout, Remi; Querleu, Denis; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sessa, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    ...) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer...

  15. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference on Endometrial Cancer: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colombo, N; Creutzberg, C; Amant, F; Bosse, T; González-Martín, A; Ledermann, J; Marth, C; Nout, R; Querleu, D; Mirza, M R; Sessa, C

    2016-01-01

    ...) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer...

  16. Multidisciplinary team conferences promote treatment according to guidelines in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, Fredrik; Bjerregaard, Jon K; Winbladh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) conferences have been introduced into standard cancer care, though evidence that it benefits the patient is weak. We used the national Swedish Rectal Cancer Register to evaluate predictors for case discussion at a MDT conference and its impact on treatment...

  17. Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Management: 2nd European Rectal Cancer Consensus Conference (EURECA-CC2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, V.; Aristei, C.; Glimelius, B.; Minsky, B.D.; Beets-Tan, R.G.; Borras, J.M.; Haustermans, K.; Maingon, P.; Overgaard, J.; Pahlman, L.; Quirke, P.; Schmoll, H.J.; Sebag-Montefiore, D.; Taylor, I.; Cutsem, E. van; Velde, C. van de; Cellini, N.; Latini, P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: During the first decade of the 21st century a number of important European randomized studies were published. In order to help shape clinical practice based on best scientific evidence from the literature, the International Conference on 'Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer

  18. Management of aspen in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Halford, Anne S.; Howell, Cheri; Krasnow, Kevin D.; Strand, Eva K.; Chambers, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Aspen communities are biologically rich and ecologically valuable, yet they face myriad threats, including changing climate, altered fire regimes, and excessive browsing by domestic and wild ungulates. Recognizing the different types of aspen communities that occur in the Great Basin, and being able to distinguish between seral and stable aspen stands, can help managers better identify restoration needs and objectives. Identifying key threats to aspen regeneration and persistence in a given stand or landscape is important to designing restoration plans, and to selecting appropriate treatment types. Although some aspen stands will need intensive treatment (e.g., use of fire) to persist or remain healthy, other stands may only require the modification of current management practices (e.g., reducing livestock browsing) or may not require any action at all (e.g., self-replacing stable aspen communities).

  19. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest [ds373

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Beckwourth Ranger District...

  20. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  1. Aspen Characteristics - Klamath National Forest [ds369

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected with known aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County,...

  2. Aspen Characteristics - Sequoia National Forest [ds377

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger District, Sequoia National...

  3. Meeting Report of the Fifth International Cancer Epigenetics Conference in Beijing, China, October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dan; Herman, James G; Cui, Hengmi; Jen, Jin; Fuks, Francois; Brock, Malcolm V; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Croce, Carlo; Akiyama, Yoshimitsu; Guo, Mingzhou

    2017-07-01

    Fifth International Cancer Epigenetics Conference, Beijing, China, 21-23 October 2016 This meeting reported many new findings in the field of cancer epigenetics, including basic science, translational and clinical studies. In this report, we summarize some of the main advancements and prospects in cancer epigenetics presented at this meeting.

  4. Aspen Delineation - El Dorado National Forest [ds364

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands, where aspen assessments were gathered in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties,...

  5. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest, EUI [ds368

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The...

  6. Landscape composition in aspen woodlands under various modeled fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva K. Strand; Stephen C. Bunting; Lee A. Vierling

    2012-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is declining across the western United States. Aspen habitats are diverse plant communities in this region and loss of these habitats can cause shifts in biodiversity, productivity, and hydrology across spatial scales. Western aspen occurs on the majority of sites seral to conifer species, and long-term maintenance of these aspen...

  7. Prescribed fire, elk, and aspen in Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Steffens; Diane Abendroth

    2001-01-01

    In Grand Teton National Park, a landscape-scale assessment of regeneration in aspen has assisted park managers in identifying aspen stands that may be at risk due to a number of interrelated factors, including ungulate browsing and suppression of wildland fire. The initial aspen survey sampled an estimated 20 percent of the park's aspen stands. Assessment of these...

  8. BRCA2 Hypomorphic Missense Variants Confer Moderate Risks of Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimelis, Hermela; Mesman, Romy L. S.; Von Nicolai, Catharina; Ehlen, Asa; Guidugli, Lucia; Martin, Charlotte; Calleja, Fabienne M. G. R.; Meeks, Huong; Hallberg, Emily; Hinton, Jamie; Lilyquist, Jenna; Hu, Chunling; Aalfs, Cora M.; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Brouwers, Barbara; Bruning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Collee, J. Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Dork, Thilo; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dunning, Alison M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Guenel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Hartman, Mikael; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hopper, John L.; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Kang, Daehee; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kristensen, Vessela; Lai, Kah-Nyin; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Li, Jingmei; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Machackova, Eva; Mannermaa, Arto; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miao, Hui; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L.; Muir, Kenneth; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Olson, Janet E.; Olswold, Curtis; Oosterwijk, Jan J. C.; Osorio, Ana; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Pauld D. P.; Pylkas, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rhenius, Valerie; Rudolph, Anja; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shrubsole, Martha; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Slager, Susan; Southey, Melissa C.; Stram, Daniel O.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Teo, Soo H.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Therese; van Asperen, Christi J.; van der Kolk, Lizet E.; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Wu, Anna H.; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Leary, Jennifer; Walker, Logan; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Varesco, Liliana; Moghadasi, Setareh; Easton, Douglas F.; Spurdle, Amanda; Devilee, Peter; Vrieling, Harry; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Goldgar, David E.; Carreira, Aura; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer risks conferred by many germline missense variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, often referred to as variants of uncertain significance (VUS), have not been established. In this study, associations between 19 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 missense substitution variants and breast cancer risk

  9. Adapting ASPEN for Orbital Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Grailing; Dang, Van; Knight, Russell

    2010-01-01

    By studying the Orbital Express mission, modeling the spacecraft and scenarios, and testing the system, a technique has been developed that uses recursive decomposition to represent procedural actions declaratively, schema-level uncertainty reasoning to make uncertainty reasoning tractable, and lightweight, natural language processing to automatically parse procedures to produce declarative models. Schema-level uncertainty reasoning has, at its core, the basic assumption that certain variables are uncertain, but not independent. Once any are known, then the others become known. This is important where a variable is uncertain for an action and many actions of the same type exist in the plan. For example, if the number of retries to purge pump lines was unknown (but bounded), and each attempt required a sub-plan, then, once the correct number of attempts required for a purge was known, it would likely be the same for all subsequent purges. This greatly reduces the space of plans that needs to be searched to ensure that all executions are feasible. To accommodate changing scenario procedures, each is ingested into a tabular format in temporal order, and a simple natural-language parser is used to read each step and to derive the impact of that step on memory, power, and communications. Then an ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) model is produced based on this analysis. The model is tested and further changed by hand, if necessary, to reflect the actual procedure. This results in a great savings of time used for modeling procedures. Many processes that need to be modeled in ASPEN (a declarative system) are, in fact, procedural. ASPEN includes the ability to model activities in a hierarchical fashion, but this representation breaks down if there is a practically unbounded number of sub-activities and decomposition topologies. However, if recursive decomposition is allowed, HTN-like encodings are enabled to represent most procedural phenomena. For

  10. Aspen Characteristics - Lassen National Forest [ds371

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle Lake Ranger District, Lassen National...

  11. Biomass of Sacrificed Spruce/Aspen (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dimension analysis (diameter at breast high, tree height, depth of crown), estimated leaf area, and total aboveground biomass for sacrificed spruce and aspens in...

  12. The Rise of Netpolitik: How the Internet Is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (11th, Aspen, Colorado, August 1-4, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollier, David

    This document is an interpretive synthesis of the discussion at a conference sponsored by the Aspen Institute that sought to develop new ways to understand how the Internet is changing the powers of the nation-state, the conduct of international relations, and the definitions of nation security. This report examines how the Internet and other…

  13. Consensus on precision medicine for metastatic cancers: a report from the MAP conference

    OpenAIRE

    Swanton, C.; Soria, J.-C.; Bardelli, A.; Biankin, A.; Caldas, C.; Chandarlapaty, S.; de Koning, L.; Dive, C.; Feunteun, J.; Leung, S.-Y.; Marais, R.; Mardis, E. R.; McGranahan, N.; Middleton, G.; Quezada, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biotechnologies have led to the development of multiplex genomic and proteomic analyses for clinical use. Nevertheless, guidelines are currently lacking to determine which molecular assays should be implemented in metastatic cancers. The first MAP conference was dedicated to exploring the use of genomics to better select therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancers. Sixteen consensus items were covered. There was a consensus that new technologies like next-generation se...

  14. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  15. 3rd St. Gallen EORTC Gastrointestinal Cancer Conference: Consensus recommendations on controversial issues in the primary treatment of pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, M.P. (Manfred P.); J. Zalcberg (John); M. Ducreux (Michel); G. Aust (Gabriela); M.J. Bruno (Marco); M.W. Buchler (M.); Delpero, J.-R. (Jean-Robert); Gloor, B. (Beat); R. Glynne-Jones; Hartwig, W. (Werner); Huguet, F. (Florence); P. Laurent-Puig (Pierre); F. Lordick (Florian); P. Maisonneuve (Patrick); J. Mayerle (Julia); Martignoni, M. (Marc); J.P. Neoptolemos (John); Rhim, A.D. (Andrew D.); Schmied, B.M. (Bruno M.); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); Werner, J. (Jens); van Laethem, J.-L. (Jean-Luc); F. Otto (Florian)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe primary treatment of pancreatic cancer was the topic of the 3rd St. Gallen Conference 2016. A multidisciplinary panel reviewed the current evidence and discussed controversial issues in a moderated consensus session. Here we report on the key expert recommendations. It was generally

  16. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds376

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_FEATHERRIVER_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas...

  17. Fire regimes of quaking aspen in the Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.; Rogers, Paul C.; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most widespread tree species in North America, and it is found throughout much of the Mountain West (MW) across a broad range of bioclimatic regions. Aspen typically regenerates asexually and prolifically after fire, and due to its seral status in many western conifer forests, aspen is often considered dependent upon disturbance for persistence. In many landscapes, historical evidence for post-fire aspen establishment is clear, and following extended fire-free periods senescing or declining aspen overstories sometimes lack adequate regeneration and are succeeding to conifers. However, aspen also forms relatively stable stands that contain little or no evidence of historical fire. In fact, aspen woodlands range from highly fire-dependent, seral communities to relatively stable, self-replacing, non-seral communities that do not require fire for persistence. Given the broad geographic distribution of aspen, fire regimes in these forests likely co-vary spatially with changing community composition, landscape setting, and climate, and temporally with land use and climate – but relatively few studies have explicitly focused on these important spatiotemporal variations. Here we reviewed the literature to summarize aspen fire regimes in the western US and highlight knowledge gaps. We found that only about one-fourth of the 46 research papers assessed for this review could be considered fire history studies (in which mean fire intervals were calculated), and all but one of these were based primarily on data from fire-scarred conifers. Nearly half of the studies reported at least some evidence of persistent aspen in the absence of fire. We also found that large portions of the MW have had little or no aspen fire history research. As a result of this review, we put forth a classification framework for aspen that is defined by key fire regime parameters (fire severity and probability), and that reflects underlying biophysical

  18. High serum estradiol confers no risk for breast cancer: another ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No association was found between level of estradiol and breast cancer (p 0.647). The median oestrogen levels were significantly higher than normal levels in Caucasian women. Conclusion: There was no association between level of estradiol and breast cancer. This is yet another disparity between women of African origin ...

  19. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Swanson; Craig L. Schmitt; Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson; Kenneth J. Schuetz; Michael L. Tatum; David C. Powell

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a...

  20. Planting aspen to rehabilitate riparian areas: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Stephen A. Mata

    2005-01-01

    We planted 742 greenhouse-grown containerized aspen seedlings in the riparian area of Hurd Creek on the Arapaho National Forest east of Tabernash, Colorado. Objectives were to (1) determine whether aspen seedlings can be planted in an operational setting and survive in sufficient numbers to successfully establish a mature aspen stand and (2) determine the effectiveness...

  1. Laser immunotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an extremely malignant disease with high mortality rate. Currently there is no effective therapeutic strategy for highly metastatic pancreatic cancers. Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is a combination therapeutic approach of targeted phototherapy and immunotherapy, which could destroy treated primary tumors with elimination of untreated metastases. LIT affords a remarkable efficacy in suppressing tumor growth in pancreatic tumors in mice, and results in complete tumor regression in many cases. LIT could synergize targeted phototherapy and immunological effects of immunoadjuvant, which represent a promising treatment modality to induce systemic antitumor response through a local intervention, paving the way for the treatment of highly metastatic pancreatic cancers.

  2. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: The Report of the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference APCCC 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M; Beltran, Himisha; Bossi, Alberto; Bristow, Rob; Carver, Brett; Castellano, Daniel; Chung, Byung Ha; Clarke, Noel; Daugaard, Gedske; Davis, Ian D; de Bono, Johann; Dos Reis, Rodolfo Borges; Drake, Charles G; Eeles, Ros; Efstathiou, Eleni; Evans, Christopher P; Fanti, Stefano; Feng, Felix; Fizazi, Karim; Frydenberg, Mark; Gleave, Martin; Halabi, Susan; Heidenreich, Axel; Higano, Celestia S; James, Nicolas; Kantoff, Philip; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Khauli, Raja B; Kramer, Gero; Logothetis, Chris; Maluf, Fernando; Morgans, Alicia K; Morris, Michael J; Mottet, Nicolas; Murthy, Vedang; Oh, William; Ost, Piet; Padhani, Anwar R; Parker, Chris; Pritchard, Colin C; Roach, Mack; Rubin, Mark A; Ryan, Charles; Saad, Fred; Sartor, Oliver; Scher, Howard; Sella, Avishay; Shore, Neal; Smith, Matthew; Soule, Howard; Sternberg, Cora N; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Sweeney, Christopher; Sydes, Matthew R; Tannock, Ian; Tombal, Bertrand; Valdagni, Riccardo; Wiegel, Thomas; Omlin, Aurelius

    2017-06-24

    In advanced prostate cancer (APC), successful drug development as well as advances in imaging and molecular characterisation have resulted in multiple areas where there is lack of evidence or low level of evidence. The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2017 addressed some of these topics. To present the report of APCCC 2017. Ten important areas of controversy in APC management were identified: high-risk localised and locally advanced prostate cancer; "oligometastatic" prostate cancer; castration-naïve and castration-resistant prostate cancer; the role of imaging in APC; osteoclast-targeted therapy; molecular characterisation of blood and tissue; genetic counselling/testing; side effects of systemic treatment(s); global access to prostate cancer drugs. A panel of 60 international prostate cancer experts developed the program and the consensus questions. The panel voted publicly but anonymously on 150 predefined questions, which have been developed following a modified Delphi process. Voting is based on panellist opinion, and thus is not based on a standard literature review or meta-analysis. The outcomes of the voting had varying degrees of support, as reflected in the wording of this article, as well as in the detailed voting results recorded in Supplementary data. The presented expert voting results can be used for support in areas of management of men with APC where there is no high-level evidence, but individualised treatment decisions should as always be based on all of the data available, including disease extent and location, prior therapies regardless of type, host factors including comorbidities, as well as patient preferences, current and emerging evidence, and logistical and economic constraints. Inclusion of men with APC in clinical trials should be strongly encouraged. Importantly, APCCC 2017 again identified important areas in need of trials specifically designed to address them. The second Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus

  3. Introduksjon til bruk av prosessimuleringsprogrammet Aspen Plus

    OpenAIRE

    Sjøvik, Torbjørn Eig

    2013-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven er en introduksjon i bruk av prosessimuleringsprogrammet Aspen Plus, med tanke på framtidig bruk i prosessfagene ved institutt for matematiske realfag og teknologi ved Universitetet for Miljø og Biovitenskap. Målet var å finne ut om programmet er egnet å bruke i undervisning av prosessfag. For å løse problemstillingen ble simuleringer i Aspen Plus satt opp og løst, med økende grad av vanskelighet. Dette resulterte i en brukerveiledning, som kan hjelpe nye brukere i å k...

  4. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  5. Nanomedicines for image-guided cancer therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinzi

    2016-09-01

    Imaging technologies are being increasingly employed to guide the delivery of cancer therapies with the intent to increase their performance and efficacy. To date, many patients have benefited from image-guided treatments through prolonged survival and improvements in quality of life. Advances in nanomedicine have enabled the development of multifunctional imaging agents that can further increase the performance of image-guided cancer therapy. Specifically, this talk will focus on examples that demonstrate the benefits and application of nanomedicine in the context of image-guide surgery, personalized drug delivery, tracking of cell therapies and high precision radiotherapy delivery.

  6. Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging for breast cancer analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, Alex

    2017-02-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its biological composition, both structural and functional. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. However, determination of the Mueller matrix requires tissue analysis under many different states of polarized light; a time consuming and measurement intensive process. Here we address this limitation with a new rapid polarimetry system, and use this polarimetry platform to investigate a variety of tissue changes associated with breast cancer. We have recently developed a rapid polarimetry imaging platform based on four photoelastic modulators (PEMs). The PEMs generate fast polarization modulations that allow the complete sample Mueller matrix to be imaged over a large field of view, with no moving parts. This polarimetry system is then demonstrated to be sensitive to a variety of tissue changes that are relevant to breast cancer. Specifically, we show that changes in depolarization can reveal tumor margins, and can differentiate between viable and necrotic breast cancer metastasized to the lymph nodes. Furthermore, the polarimetric property of linear retardance (related to birefringence) is dependent on collagen organization in the extracellular matrix. These findings indicate that our polarimetry platform may have future applications in fields such as breast cancer diagnosis, improving the speed and efficacy of intraoperative pathology, and providing prognostic information that may be beneficial for guiding treatment.

  7. Prostate cancer diagnosis with fluorescence lifetime imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Shamira; Gandour-Edwards, Regina F.; Dall'Era, Marc; Marcu, Laura

    2017-02-01

    More than 1 million men in the United States undergo a prostate biopsy procedure annually and approximately 200,000 men receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer. 5-10% of these men have to undergo a repeat biopsy due to insufficient tissue sampling. We are studying the utility of a multi-spectral time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (MS-TRFS) technique for real-time prostate cancer diagnosis. The MS-TRFS imaging setup, which includes a fiberoptic set-up with a 355nm excitation light source coupled with a blue (450nm) aiming beam, was used to image ex-vivo prostatectomy specimen. The prostate tissue from 11 patients was sectioned at 2mm thickness and the fluorescence lifetime information was overlaid spatially for histology and thus, diagnostic co-registration. Initial results show that fluorescence lifetime in the 390±40nm channel, which measures collagen and elastin signatures, is longer for glandular regions than in the stromal regions. Additionally, lifetime in the 452±45nm channel, corresponding to NAD redox state, is longer in the cancerous glandular region in comparison with the normal glandular regions. Current work is focused on developing real-time quantitative algorithms to combine the fluorescence signatures from the two channels for performing prostate cancer diagnosis on biopsies.

  8. Sustaining aspen in western landscapes: Symposium proceedings; 13-15 June 2000; Grand Junction, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Dan Binkley; Dale L. Bartos; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Lane G. Eskew

    2001-01-01

    The current status and trend of aspen is a topic of debate; some studies have claimed dramatic reductions in aspen stands while others have found no major changes. The actual picture of aspen forests across the West is variable, and the presence of conifers and ungulates in aspen may or may not indicate a progressive loss of aspen. These proceedings summarize the state...

  9. Breast cancer disparities: Frontline strategies, proceedings of the 7 th annual texas conference on health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyne Kpetemey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are striking disparities in health status, access to health care, and risk factors among racial and ethnic minorities and the general population in Texas. The disparities are multifactorial comprising genetic, sociocultural, and environmental variables. The Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD, a NIMHD Center of Excellence (COE, aims to prevent, reduce, and eliminate health disparities in the communities through research, education, and community-based programs. As part of the center′s outreach activities, an annual conference is organized to build awareness and knowledge on health disparities. The overall theme for the 2012 conference was "Battling Breast Cancer Disparities: Frontline Strategies". The scientific program consisted of three sessions: "Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer", "Triple Negative Breast Cancer," and "Hormone Resistant Breast Cancer" featuring different aspects of bench-research from molecular biology, proteomics, and genetics to the clinical aspects such as detection, diagnosis, and finally to community-based approaches. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting providing salient strategies and best practices presented by the speakers.

  10. Aspen wood characteristics, properties and uses: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred M. Lamb

    1967-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood properties and uses of quaking aspen from recent literature. Includes current data on the growth and production of aspen in the Lake States. Outlines additional research needs concerning aspen wood properties and uses.

  11. Translating MAPGEN to ASPEN for MER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg R.; Knight, Russell L.; Lenda, Matthew; Maldague, Pierre F.

    2013-01-01

    This software translates MAPGEN (Europa and APGEN) domains to ASPEN, and the resulting domain can be used to perform planning for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER). In other words, this is a conversion of two distinct planning languages (both declarative and procedural) to a third (declarative) planning language in order to solve the problem of faithful translation from mixed-domain representations into the ASPEN Modeling Language. The MAPGEN planning system is an example of a hybrid procedural/declarative system where the advantages of each are leveraged to produce an effective planner/scheduler for MER tactical planning. The adaptation of the planning system (ASPEN) was investigated, and, with some translation, much of the procedural knowledge encoding is amenable to declarative knowledge encoding. The approach was to compose translators from the core languages used for adapting MAGPEN, which consists of Europa and APGEN. Europa is a constraint- based planner/scheduler where domains are encoded using a declarative model. APGEN is also constraint-based, in that it tracks constraints on resources and states and other variables. Domains are encoded in both constraints and code snippets that execute according to a forward sweep through the plan. Europa and APGEN communicate to each other using proxy activities in APGEN that represent constraints and/or tokens in Europa. The composition of a translator from Europa to ASPEN was fairly straightforward, as ASPEN is also a declarative planning system, and the specific uses of Europa for the MER domain matched ASPEN s native encoding fairly closely. On the other hand, translating from APGEN to ASPEN was considerably more involved. On the surface, the types of activities and resources one encodes in APGEN appear to match oneto- one to the activities, state variables, and resources in ASPEN. But, when looking into the definitions of how resources are profiled and activities are expanded, one sees code snippets that access

  12. Two variants on chromosome 17 confer prostate cancer risk, and the one in TCF2 protects against type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur

    2007-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association scan to search for sequence variants conferring risk of prostate cancer using 1,501 Icelandic men with prostate cancer and 11,290 controls. Follow-up studies involving three additional case-control groups replicated an association of two variants on chromoso...

  13. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer 2015: Coding and non-coding functions of the genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corujo, David; Mas, Gloria; Malinverni, Roberto; Di Croce, Luciano; Buschbeck, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) entitled "Coding and Non-Coding functions of the Genome" took place October 29-30, 2015 in Barcelona. The 2015 BCEC was the third edition of a series of annual conferences jointly organized by 5 leading research centers in Barcelona together with B-Debate, an initiative of BioCat. Luciano Di Croce from the Center for Genomic Regulation and Marcus Buschbeck from the Josep Carreras Leukemia Research Institute put together the scientific program with a particular focus on the role of non-coding RNAs in enhancer regulation, epigenetic control by Polycomb complexes, histone variants, and nuclear organization. In one and a half days, 22 talks and 56 posters were presented to an audience of 215 participants.

  14. Abaxial Greening Phenotype in Hybrid Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S. Nowak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial and bottom (abaxial surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively. Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial or isobilateral. Isobilateral leaves have palisade mesophyll on the top and bottom of the leaf, making the two sides virtually indistinguishable at the macroscopic level. In poplars this has been termed the “abaxial greening” phenotype. Previous work has implicated ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1 as an essential determinant of palisade mesophyll development. This gene, as well as other genes (84 in all putatively involved in setting the dorsiventral axis of leaves, were investigated in two Populus species: black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa and hybrid aspen (P. tremula x tremuloides, representative of each leaf type (bifacial and isobilateral, respectively. Poplar orthologs of AS1 have significantly higher expression in aspen leaf blade and lower in the petiole, suggestive of a potential role in the isobilateral leaf phenotype consistent with the previously observed phenotypes. Furthermore, an ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS ortholog has significantly lower expression in aspen leaf tissue, also suggesting a possible contribution of this gene to abaxial greening.

  15. Aspen Characteristics - El Dorado National Forest [ds363

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents aspen stand locations and field assessments conducted in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties, California. Data was...

  16. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds375

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Feather River Ranger...

  17. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  18. Aspen in action: an Aspen Institute pilot tests a toolkit for transformation in public libraries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witteveen, April

    2016-01-01

    ... to take out to the community," Millsap tells LJ. As libraries engaged with the report, it became clear that many wanted more hands-on guidance about how to take recommendations from Rising to the Challenge and turn them into practical, achievable goals. In response, Aspen developed a new toolkit featuring 12 chapters of "ACTivities" covering topics su...

  19. The effect of aspen wood characteristics and properties on utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Mackes; Dennis L. Lynch

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics and properties of aspen wood, including anatomical structure and characteristics, moisture and shrinkage properties, weight and specific gravity, mechanical properties, and processing characteristics. Uses of aspen are evaluated: sawn and veneer products, composite panels, pulp, excelsior, post and poles, animal bedding, animal food...

  20. Dynamics of aspen root biomass and sucker production following fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy A. Renkin; Don G. Despain

    2001-01-01

    Changes in preburn aspen root biomass 8 years following prescribed fire were analyzed for five experimental sites distributed across a moisture gradient. Total root biomass decreased across all sites but was proportionately greater in xeric than mesic sites. Response of post-burn aspen suckers to ungulate browsing varied according to site and treatment. Browsing...

  1. Effect of conifer encroachment into aspen stands on understory biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. R. Stam; J. C. Malechek; D. L. Bartos; J. E. Browns; E. B. Godfrey

    2008-01-01

    Conifers (Picea and Abies spp.) have replaced aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) over much of aspen's historic range in the western United States. We measured the impact of this change upon the production of understory vegetation potentially useful as forage for livestock and wildlife on two southern Utah...

  2. Ecology and management of aspen: A Lake States perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Cleland; Larry A. Leefers; Donald I. Dickmann

    2001-01-01

    Aspen has been an ecologically important, though relatively minor, component of the Lake States (Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota) forests for millennia. General Land Office records from the 1800s indicate that aspen comprised a small fraction of the region's eastern forests, but was more extensive on the western edge. Then Euro-American settlement in the 1800s...

  3. Drought causes reduced growth of trembling aspen in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Alam, Syed Ashraful; Zhai, Lihong; Dawson, Andria; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G

    2017-07-01

    Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) sites along a latitudinal gradient (from 52° to 58°N) in western Canada, in an attempt to clarify the impacts of drought on aspen growth by using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). Results indicated that prolonged and large-scale droughts had a strong negative impact on trembling aspen growth. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal variability of drought indices is useful for explaining the spatial heterogeneity in the radial growth of trembling aspen. Due to ongoing global warming and rising temperatures, it is likely that severer droughts with a higher frequency will occur in western Canada. As trembling aspen is sensitive to drought, we suggest that drought indices could be applied to monitor the potential effects of increased drought stress on aspen trees growth, achieve classification of eco-regions and develop effective mitigation strategies to maintain western Canadian boreal forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Molecular tools and aspen management: A primer and prospectus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Mock; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul G. Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) isaniconic species in North American landscapes, highly valued for recreation, fiber, wildlife and livestock forage, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, and as a fuelbreak. However, there are rising concerns about the ability of aspen to persist in portions of its range, based on bioclimatic modeling, physiological thresholds and mortality...

  5. Aspen restoration in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Shirley; Vicky Erickson

    2001-01-01

    In the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon, quaking aspen is on the western fringe of its range. It exists as small, scattered, remnant stands of rapidly declining trees. Although little is known about the historic distribution of aspen in Oregon, it is believed that stands were once larger and more widely distributed. Decline of the species is attributed to fire...

  6. Polyploidy in aspen alters plant physiology and drought sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, B.; Still, C. J.; Brooks, J. R.; Meinzer, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Polyploids of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) may be better suited to dry climatic conditions than diploids. However, the expression of diploid and polyploid functional traits, including water use efficiency, an important component of drought avoidance and tolerance, are not well understood in quaking aspen. In this study diploid and triploid aspen clones' leaf, ramet, and stand functional traits were measured near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado. The physiology of diploid and triploid aspen, including leaf size, chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density and stomatal conductance, as well as growth rates and carbon isotope discrimination in response to climate (measured in tree rings), were found to be significantly different between ploidy levels. These findings demonstrate different sensitivities of diploid and triploid clones to drought related climate stressors which may impact strategies for aspen forest management and conservation.

  7. Whole chromosome gain does not in itself confer cancer-like chromosomal instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valind, Anders; Jin, Yuesheng; Baldetorp, Bo; Gisselsson, David

    2013-12-24

    Constitutional aneuploidy is typically caused by a single-event meiotic or early mitotic error. In contrast, somatic aneuploidy, found mainly in neoplastic tissue, is attributed to continuous chromosomal instability. More debated as a cause of aneuploidy is aneuploidy itself; that is, whether aneuploidy per se causes chromosomal instability, for example, in patients with inborn aneuploidy. We have addressed this issue by quantifying the level of somatic mosaicism, a proxy marker of chromosomal instability, in patients with constitutional aneuploidy by precise background-filtered dual-color FISH. In contrast to previous studies that used less precise methods, we find that constitutional trisomy, even for large chromosomes that are often trisomic in cancer, does not confer a significantly elevated rate of somatic chromosomal mosaicism in individual cases. Constitutional triploidy was associated with an increased level of somatic mosaicism, but this consisted mostly of reversion from trisomy to disomy and did not correspond to a proportionally elevated level of chromosome mis-segregation in triploids, indicating that the observed mosaicism resulted from a specific accumulation of cells with a hypotriploid chromosome number. In no case did the rate of somatic mosaicism in constitutional aneuploidy exceed that of "chromosomally stable" cancer cells. Our findings show that even though constitutional aneuploidy was in some cases associated with low-level somatic mosaicism, it was insufficient to generate the cancer-like levels expected if aneuploidy single-handedly triggered cancer-like chromosomal instability.

  8. Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer: 50 years of histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Salvia, Montserrat; Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Ausió, Juan; Esteller, Manel

    2015-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) was held in Barcelona, Spain, on October 1(st) and 2(nd), 2014. The meeting was co-organized by the Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC-IDIBELL) and B·Debate, an initiative of Biocat, with the support of "la Caixa" Foundation. The scientific committee was comprised of leading scientists in the field of epigenetics: Dr. Manel Esteller, director of PEBC-IDIBELL, Dr. Alejandro Vaquero and Dr. Esteban Ballestar, from PEBC-IDIBELL, Juan Ausió from the University of Victoria (Canada), and Marcus Buschbeck, from the Institute of Predictive and Personalized Medicine of Cancer (IMPPC), as BCEC series coordinator. This meeting was the second edition of the BCEC series, which was launched by 5 leading Barcelonan institutes to bring together leading investigators in the fields of epigenetics and chromatin research. The topics discussed during the meeting included the current challenges, opportunities, and perspectives surrounding the study of histone modifications (focusing in acetylation), chromatin structure and gene expression, and the involvement of histone acetylation in physiology and diseases, such as cancer or neurological diseases.

  9. Update on melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Annual Skin Cancer Conference 2011, Hamilton Island, Australia, 5–6 August 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaudek, Iris; Whiteman, David; Rosendahl, Cliff; Menzies, Scott W; Green, Adèle C; Hersey, Peter; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we will summarize some of the highlights of the third annual conference on skin cancer, with special emphasis on the the recent advances regarding melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Topics were particularly addressed to a newly developing medical branch in Australia, namely that of Primary Care Skin Cancer Practitioners, and focused on strategies to improve primary and secondary prevention and early detection of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer using dermoscopy. Controversies related to skin cancer screening programs and recent progresses for treating advanced melanoma were additionally discussed. Yet, besides its scientific goals, the conference aimed also to encourage research originating in primary care and relevant to primary care.

  10. F-cell: The Aspen fuel cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenhardt, P. A.

    1985-03-01

    This report documents the fuel cell model created at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for systems simulations that use the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. The report includes: (1) an explanation of the thermodynamics involved, (2) an explanation of the efficiencies used to describe and compare a fuel cell, (3) the FORTRAN code and ASPEN system definition file entries required to install the model into the ASPEN system, (4) three sample ASPEN input files demonstrating how the model could be used for phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells, (5) a detailed ASPEN input file that simulates a commercial 40-kW phosphoric acid fuel cell system, and (6) the technical and the user entries for the ASPEN manuals. F-CELL is designed to use the results of either a mechanistic model or experimental data to model a fuel cell in a system study. A double set of efficiencies is produced; the first is calculated from the user's input, and the second is based on ASPEN's results. The second set of efficiencies serves as a check on the input data and is not used in any internal calculations. The model also checks for carbon deposition.

  11. Loss of RASSF2 Enhances Tumorigencity of Lung Cancer Cells and Confers Resistance to Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RASSF2 is a novel pro-apoptotic effector of K-Ras that is frequently inactivated in a variety of primary tumors by promoter methylation. Inactivation of RASSF2 enhances K-Ras-mediated transformation and overexpression of RASSF2 suppresses tumor cell growth. In this study, we confirm that RASSF2 and K-Ras form an endogenous complex, validating that RASSF2 is a bona fide K-Ras effector. We adopted an RNAi approach to determine the effects of inactivation of RASSF2 on the transformed phenotype of lung cancer cells containing an oncogenic K-Ras. Loss of RASSF2 expression resulted in a more aggressive phenotype that was characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, decreased cell adhesion, the ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner and cell morphological changes. This enhanced transformed phenotype of the cells correlated with increased levels of activated AKT, indicating that RASSF2 can modulate Ras signaling pathways. Loss of RASSF2 expression also confers resistance to taxol and cisplatin, two frontline therapeutics for the treatment of lung cancer. Thus we have shown that inactivation of RASSF2, a process that occurs frequently in primary tumors, enhances the transforming potential of activated K-Ras and our data suggests that RASSF2 may be a novel candidate for epigenetic-based therapy in lung cancer.

  12. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  13. 3rd St. Gallen EORTC Gastrointestinal Cancer Conference: Consensus recommendations on controversial issues in the primary treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Manfred P; Zalcberg, John R; Ducreux, Michel; Aust, Daniela; Bruno, Marco J; Büchler, Markus W; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Gloor, Beat; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Hartwig, Werner; Huguet, Florence; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Lordick, Florian; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Mayerle, Julia; Martignoni, Marc; Neoptolemos, John; Rhim, Andrew D; Schmied, Bruno M; Seufferlein, Thomas; Werner, Jens; van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Otto, Florian

    2017-07-01

    The primary treatment of pancreatic cancer was the topic of the 3rd St. Gallen Conference 2016. A multidisciplinary panel reviewed the current evidence and discussed controversial issues in a moderated consensus session. Here we report on the key expert recommendations. It was generally accepted that radical surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy offers the only evidence-based treatment with a chance for cure. Initial staging should classify localised tumours as resectable or unresectable (i.e. locally advanced pancreatic cancer) although there remains a large grey-zone of potentially resectable disease between these two categories which has recently been named as borderline resectable, a concept which was generally accepted by the panel members. However, the definition of these borderline-resectable (BR) tumours varies between classifications due to their focus on either (i) technical hurdles (e.g. the feasibility of vascular resection) or (ii) oncological outcome (e.g. predicting the risk of a R1 resection and/or occult metastases). The resulting expert discussion focussed on imaging standards as well as the value of pretherapeutic laparoscopy. Indications for biliary drainage were seen especially before neoadjuvant therapy. Following standard resection, the panel unanimously voted for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy after R0 resection and considered it as a reasonable standard of care after R1 resection, even though the optimal pathologic evaluation and the definition of R0/R1 was the issue of an ongoing debate. The general concept of BR tumours was considered as a good basis to select patients for preoperative therapy, albeit its current impact on the therapeutic strategy was far less clear. Main focus of the conference was to discuss the limits of surgical resection and to identify ways to standardise procedures and to improve curative outcome, including adjuvant and perioperative treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  14. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  15. A review of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States and a new tool for surveying sudden aspen decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Lyn Morelli; Susan C. Carr

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a literature review of the effects of climate on the distribution and growth of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the Western United States. Based on our review, we summarize models of historical climate determinants of contemporary aspen distribution. Most quantitative climate-based models linked aspen presence and growth...

  16. Aspen Grupp võitis RKASi / Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2008-01-01

    Ehitusfirma Aspen Grupp OÜ võitis Tallinna ringkonnakohtus Riigi Kinnisvara AS-i, kes diskvalifitseeris ehitusfirma riigihankelt seaduses olnud maksevõlgnevuse keelu tõttu. Vt. samas: Lahendust ootavad veel kaks kohtuasja

  17. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavel Lestinsky; Aloy Palit

    2016-01-01

    .... Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components...

  18. Consensus on precision medicine for metastatic cancers: a report from the MAP conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanton, C; Soria, J-C; Bardelli, A; Biankin, A; Caldas, C; Chandarlapaty, S; de Koning, L; Dive, C; Feunteun, J; Leung, S-Y; Marais, R; Mardis, E R; McGranahan, N; Middleton, G; Quezada, S A; Rodón, J; Rosenfeld, N; Sotiriou, C; André, F

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in biotechnologies have led to the development of multiplex genomic and proteomic analyses for clinical use. Nevertheless, guidelines are currently lacking to determine which molecular assays should be implemented in metastatic cancers. The first MAP conference was dedicated to exploring the use of genomics to better select therapies in the treatment of metastatic cancers. Sixteen consensus items were covered. There was a consensus that new technologies like next-generation sequencing of tumors and ddPCR on circulating free DNA have convincing analytical validity. Further work needs to be undertaken to establish the clinical utility of liquid biopsies and the added clinical value of expanding from individual gene tests into large gene panels. Experts agreed that standardized bioinformatics methods for biological interpretation of genomic data are needed and that precision medicine trials should be stratified based on the level of evidence available for the genomic alterations identified. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. BRIP1 loss-of-function mutations confer high risk for familial ovarian cancer, but not familial breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Lassalle, Nana; Hauke, Jan; Ramser, Juliane; Richters, Lisa; Groß, Eva; Blümcke, Britta; Gehrig, Andrea; Kahlert, Anne-Karin; Müller, Clemens R; Hackmann, Karl; Honisch, Ellen; Weber-Lassalle, Konstantin; Niederacher, Dieter; Borde, Julika; Thiele, Holger; Ernst, Corinna; Altmüller, Janine; Neidhardt, Guido; Nürnberg, Peter; Klaschik, Kristina; Schroeder, Christopher; Platzer, Konrad; Volk, Alexander E; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Just, Walter; Auber, Bernd; Kubisch, Christian; Schmidt, Gunnar; Horvath, Judit; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Arnold, Norbert; Dworniczak, Bernd; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hahnen, Eric

    2018-01-24

    Germline mutations in the BRIP1 gene have been described as conferring a moderate risk for ovarian cancer (OC), while the role of BRIP1 in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis remains controversial. To assess the role of deleterious BRIP1 germline mutations in BC/OC predisposition, 6341 well-characterized index patients with BC, 706 index patients with OC, and 2189 geographically matched female controls were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging missense variants. All index patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germline testing and tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. BRIP1 LoF mutations confer a high OC risk in familial index patients (odds ratio (OR) = 20.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.02-36.57, P mutations with familial BC was observed (OR = 1.81 95% CI = 1.00-3.30, P = 0.0623). In the subgroup of familial BC index patients without a family history of OC there was also no apparent association (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.70-2.90, P = 0.3030). In 1027 familial BC index patients with a family history of OC, the BRIP1 mutation prevalence was significantly higher than that observed in controls (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.43-9.01; P = 0.0168). Based on the negative association between BRIP1 LoF mutations and familial BC in the absence of an OC family history, we conclude that the elevated mutation prevalence in the latter cohort was driven by the occurrence of OC in these families. Compared with controls, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in OC (P = 0.0014) but not in BC (P = 0.0693) patients. To avoid ambiguous results, studies aimed at assessing the impact of candidate predisposition gene mutations on BC risk might differentiate between BC index patients with an OC family history and those without. In familial cases, we suggest that BRIP1 is a high-risk gene for late

  20. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship : highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Classen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germa Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J.T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J.W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European

  1. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  2. Management of aspen plant communities on the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are 1,860 acres (753 ha) of aspen (Populus tremuloides) plant communities on the National Elk Refuge (NER). Aspen is an important tree species on the Refuge,...

  3. Growth and dieback of aspen forests in northwestern Alberta, Canada, in relation to climate and insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogg E.H; Brandt J.P; Kochtubajda B

    2002-01-01

    ..., with >1000 Tg of carbon stored in the aboveground biomass of this species. Since the early 1990s, aspen dieback has been noted over parts of the southern boreal forest and aspen parkland in western Canada...

  4. Highlights from the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2013. Access to innovation for patients with breast cancer: how to speed it up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curigliano, Giuseppe; Criscitiello, Carmen; Andrè, Fabrice; Colleoni, Marco; Di Leo, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that early breast cancer is a spectrum of diseases each requiring a specific systemic therapy guided the 13th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference [1]. The meeting assembled 3600 participants from nearly 90 countries worldwide. Educational content has been centred on the primary and multidisciplinary treatment approach of early breast cancer. The meeting culminated on the final day, with the St Gallen Breast Cancer Treatment Consensus, established by 40-50 of the world's most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The major issue that arose during the consensus conference was the increasing gap between what is theoretically feasible in patient risk stratification, in treatment, and in daily practice management. We need to find new paths to access innovations to clinical research and daily practice. To ensure that continued innovation meets the needs of patients, the therapeutic alliance between patients and academic-led research should to be extended to include relevant pharmaceutical companies and drug regulators with a unique effort to bring innovation into clinical practice. We need to bring together major players from the world of breast cancer research to map out a coordinated strategy on an international scale, to address the disease fragmentation, to share financial resources, and to integrate scientific data. The final goal will be to improve access to an affordable, best standard of care for all patients in each country.

  5. Activating transcription factor 4 confers a multidrug resistance phenotype to gastric cancer cells through transactivation of SIRT1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR in gastric cancer remains a major challenge to clinical treatment. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 is a stress response gene involved in homeostasis and cellular protection. However, the expression and function of ATF4 in gastric cancer MDR remains unknown. In this study, we investigate whether ATF4 play a role in gastric cancer MDR and its potential mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that ATF4 overexpression confered the MDR phenotype to gastric cancer cells, while knockdown of ATF4 in the MDR variants induced re-sensitization. In this study we also showed that the NAD(+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 was required for ATF4-induced MDR effect in gastric cancer cells. We demonstrated that ATF4 facilitated MDR in gastric cancer cells through direct binding to the SIRT1 promoter, resulting in SIRT1 up-regulation. Significantly, inhibition of SIRT1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA or a specific inhibitor (EX-527 reintroduced therapeutic sensitivity. Also, an increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and MDR1 expression level were found in ATF4-overexpressing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that ATF4 had a key role in the regulation of MDR in gastric cancer cells in response to chemotherapy and these findings suggest that targeting ATF4 could relieve therapeutic resistance in gastric cancer.

  6. The extent and characteristics of low productivity aspen areas in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    Plot data from 1977 Minnesota forest inventory were used to evaluate the productivity of Minnesota's aspen forest. Computer simulation was used to develop equations for evaluating the current and potential productivity of aspen forest stands. The analysis showed that 49% of the state's aspen forest type was producing less than half of potential volume yields...

  7. Lichen community change in response to succession in aspen forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Ronald J. Ryel

    2008-01-01

    In western North America, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most common hardwood in montane landscapes. Fire suppression, grazing and wildlife management practices, and climate patterns of the past century are all potential threats to aspen coverage in this region. If aspen-dependent species are losing habitat, this raises concerns about...

  8. Simulation of quaking aspen potential fire behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; A. Joshua Leffler

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and...

  9. Aspen overstory recruitment in northern Yellowstone National Park during the last 200 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Larsen; William J. Ripple

    2001-01-01

    Using a monograph provided by Warren (1926) and two sets of aspen increment cores collected in 1997 and 1998, we analyzed aspen overstory recruitment in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) over the past 200 years. We found that successful aspen overstory recruitment occurred on the northern range of YNP from the middle to late 1700s until the 1920s, after which it...

  10. Grindstone Flat and Big Flat enclosures - 41-year record of changes in clearcut aspen communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter F. Mueggler; Dale L. Bartos

    1977-01-01

    The role of deer and cattle in the failure of aspen stands to regenerate on Beaver Mountain in southern Utah was investigated by a series of exclosures constructed in 1934. Three-fourths of each exclosure was clearcut of aspen in 1934. Aspen reproduction, shrubs, and herbaceous understory were measured in 1937, 1942, 1949, and 1975. Implications of wildlife and...

  11. Biodiversity: Aspen stands have the lead, but will nonnative species take over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geneva W. Chong; Sara E. Simonson; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Mohammed A. Kalkhan

    2001-01-01

    We investigated vascular plant and butterfly diversity in Rocky Mountain National Park. We identified 188 vascular plant species unique to the aspen vegetation type. The slope of the mean species-area curve for the aspen vegetation type was the steepest of the 10 types sampled, thus, an increase in aspen area could have much greater positive impacts on plant species...

  12. The need for public education on HPV and cervical cancer prevention in Asia. Opinions of experts at the AOGIN conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, S; Park, S N; Ngan, H Y S; Frazer, I; Tay, E H; Chen, C J; Bhatla, N; Pitts, M; Shin, H R; Konno, R; Smith, J; Pagliusi, S; Park, J S

    2008-10-09

    Asia accounts for more than half of all cases of cervical cancer registered globally and improving prevention is urgently needed. A range of tools and strategies is now available to effectively prevent this disease, including two new prophylactic HPV vaccines approved and recommended for adolescents and young women. However, without communication these tools may have little impact on disease burden. The conferences of the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infection and Neoplasia (AOGIN) bring together clinicians and scientists whose work is related to genital infections, particularly HPV, cervical dysplasia and neoplasia, as well as other anogenital cancers, with the aim of improving communication on prevention through human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening in Asian countries. The scope of this year's AOGIN conference was to extend education to include health workers, family doctors, paediatricians, governmental health agencies, and the general public through patients' testimonials that can reach out to women raising awareness of this silent disease. Community based initiatives and awareness campaigns were also reported, and can empower the people to engage in a dialog with local governments towards prioritization of cancer prevention programs, achieving more for the public than isolated actions. Parents and teachers are encouraged to communicate about these issues within families and schools. Evidence was discussed that males can participate in cervical cancer control as well, and prevention programs involving men should not be neglected as they may reduce genital disease burden in women. Opinion leaders proposed prevention measures to be considered for governmental decisions. While each country develops a locally appropriate policy for cervical cancer control there is a need to revise these programs regularly, as knowledge increases in response to public need, as well as to gather evidence about disease burden and the effectiveness of

  13. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  14. Maintaining a Normal Life: Proceedings of the National Conference for Parents of Children with Cancer (1st, Arlington, Virginia, June 23-25, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Twenty presentations from a 1978 conference for parents of children with cancer focus on the teenager and cancer, long term survival of children, the parents and treatment, and practical problems involved. The following papers and authors are represented: "The Role of the Patient Family" (Clark, Fox-Kolenda); "How the Child Perceives Illness and…

  15. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Kirsch, Richard; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    Tumor budding is a well-established independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer but a standardized method for its assessment has been lacking. The primary aim of the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) was to reach agreement on an international, evidence......-based standardized scoring system for tumor budding in colorectal cancer. The ITBCC included nine sessions with presentations, a pre-meeting survey and an e-book covering the key publications on tumor budding in colorectal cancer. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation' method was used...... to determine the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence. The following 10 statements achieved consensus: Tumor budding is defined as a single tumor cell or a cell cluster consisting of four tumor cells or less (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of lymph node metastases in pT1...

  16. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup: Recommendations on incorporating patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Florence; Hilpert, Felix; Okamoto, Aikou; Stuart, Gavin; Ochiai, Kasunori; Friedlander, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Despite the support for including patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and health-related quality of life in clinical trials, there have been deficiencies in how these have been assessed and reported in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) clinical trials. To redress this, the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference, included a plenary session entitled 'How to include PROs in clinical trials'. The perspective is a summary of the recommendations made by the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup unanimously agreed on the importance of PROs and PRO end-points in EOC clinical trials. They recognised that effort must be made to ensure the integrity of collection of PRO data and to avoid missing data. PRO end-points should be based on the PRO hypotheses, be context specific and reflect the patient population and the objectives of treatment (e.g. first line, maintenance therapy, early or late relapse). The PRO end-points inform the choice of PRO measures used in the trial and how the results are analysed and reported. There was agreement that progression-free survival should be supported by PROs among patients with late relapse (platinum sensitive) and that progression-free survival alone was not sufficient as the primary end-point of clinical trials in patients with platinum resistant/refractory EOC and PROs should be included as either the primary/co-primary end-point in this subset of patients. Novel approaches to measure the benefit of palliative chemotherapy such as time until definitive deterioration of Health-Related Quality of Life were recommended. There was consensus to endorse the ISOQOL and CONSORT-PRO guidelines on the inclusion and reporting of PRO endpoints in protocols and that all future EOC Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup trials should adhere to these. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Multidisciplinary Team Conference's Decision on M-Staging in Patients with Gastric- and Gastroesophageal Cancer is not Accurate without Staging Laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandby, Rune Broni; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Fallentin, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The implementation of the multidisciplinary team conference has been shown to improve treatment outcome for patients with gastric- and gastroesophageal cancer. Likewise, the staging laparoscopy has increased the detection of patients with disseminated disease, that is, patients who do...... not benefit from a surgical resection. The aim of this study was to compare the multidisciplinary team conference's decision in respect of M-staging with the findings of the following staging laparoscopy. METHODS: Patients considered operable and resectable within the multidisciplinary team conference...... carcinomatosis or liver metastases on multidisciplinary team conference before staging laparoscopy. Furthermore, an evaluation with staging laparoscopy was required. RESULTS: In total, 222 patients met the inclusion criteria. Most cancers were located in the gastroesophageal junction, n = 171 (77.0%), and most...

  18. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  19. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  20. Modeling of carbonic acid pretreatment process using ASPEN-Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Kemantha; Van Walsum, G Peter

    2004-01-01

    ASPEN-Plus process modeling software is used to model carbonic acid pretreatment of biomass. ASPEN-Plus was used because of the thorough treatment of thermodynamic interactions and its status as a widely accepted process simulator. Because most of the physical property data for many of the key components used in the simulation of pretreatment processes are not available in the standard ASPEN-Plus property databases, values from an in-house database (INHSPCD) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory were used. The standard non-random-two-liquid (NRTL) or renon route was used as the main property method because of the need to distill ethanol and to handle dissolved gases. The pretreatment reactor was modeled as a "black box" stoichiometric reactor owing to the unavailability of reaction kinetics. The ASPEN-Plus model was used to calculate the process equipment costs, power requirements, and heating and cooling loads. Equipment costs were derived from published modeling studies. Wall thickness calculations were used to predict construction costs for the high-pressure pretreatment reactor. Published laboratory data were used to determine a suitable severity range for the operation of the carbonic acid reactor. The results indicate that combined capital and operating costs of the carbonic acid system are slightly higher than an H2SO4-based system and highly sensitive to reactor pressure and solids concentration.

  1. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of Aspen Ceftriaxone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucose, protein, bacterial antigens, culture and antibiotic susceptibility ... precipitation of proteins to release ceftriaxone into the supernatant. .... drug: 9 deaths were due to concurrent illness, 4 to cerebral lesions complicating meningitis and in 3, cause of death was unknown. Table 2. APACHE II scores. Aspen Ceftriaxone*.

  2. Preliminary study on flakeboard panels made from aspen slash wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Yu; Alan Rudie; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    The disposal of forest-thinning residue is one of the major problems for sustainable forest management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical possibility of utilizing aspen logging slash wood with a diameter ranging from 50 to 76 mm for flakeboard production. Influences of weight ratio between slash wood and commercial flakes on the selected...

  3. Historical patterns in lichen communities of montane quaking aspen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Rogers; Dale L. Bartos; Ronald J. Ryel

    2011-01-01

    Climate shifts and resource exploitation in Rocky Mountain forests have caused profound changes in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) structure and function since Euro-American settlement. It therefore seems likely that commensurate shifts in dependent epiphytes would follow major ecological transitions. In the current study, we merge several lines of inquiry...

  4. Aspen fencing in northern Arizona: A 15-year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Rolf

    2001-01-01

    Aspen clearcuts in the 1960s and 1970s on the Peaks Ranger District of the Coconino National Forest in northern Arizona failed to regenerate successfully because of browsing primarily by elk. Since 1985, over 400 acres have been successfully regenerated using fencing of various designs to exclude elk. The expense and visual impact of establishing and maintaining over...

  5. Effects of genotype, elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on aspen phytochemistry and aspen leaf beetle Chrysomela crotchi performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leanne M. Vigue; Richard L. Lindroth

    2010-01-01

    Trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michaux is an important forest species in the Great Lakes region and displays tremendous genetic variation in foliar chemistry. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) may also influence phytochemistry and thereby alter the performance of insect herbivores such as...

  6. The Multidisciplinary Team Conference's Decision on M-Staging in Patients with Gastric- and Gastroesophageal Cancer is not Accurate without Staging Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandby, R B; Svendsen, L B; Fallentin, E; Egeland, C; Achiam, M P

    2016-06-01

    The implementation of the multidisciplinary team conference has been shown to improve treatment outcome for patients with gastric- and gastroesophageal cancer. Likewise, the staging laparoscopy has increased the detection of patients with disseminated disease, that is, patients who do not benefit from a surgical resection. The aim of this study was to compare the multidisciplinary team conference's decision in respect of M-staging with the findings of the following staging laparoscopy. Patients considered operable and resectable within the multidisciplinary team conference in the period 2010-2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient data were retrieved by searching for specific diagnosis and operation codes in the in-house system. The inclusion criteria were as follows: biopsy-verified cancer of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction or stomach, and no suspicion of peritoneal carcinomatosis or liver metastases on multidisciplinary team conference before staging laparoscopy. Furthermore, an evaluation with staging laparoscopy was required. In total, 222 patients met the inclusion criteria. Most cancers were located in the gastroesophageal junction, n = 171 (77.0%), and most common with adenocarcinoma histology, n = 196 (88.3%). The staging laparoscopy was M1-positive for peritoneal carcinomatosis in eight patients (16.7%) with gastric cancer versus nine patients (5.3%) with gastroesophageal junction cancer. Furthermore, liver metastases were evident in zero patients (0.0%) and four patients (2.3%) with gastric- and gastroesophageal junction cancer, respectively. The staging laparoscopy findings regarding peritoneal carcinomatosis were significantly different between gastric- and gastroesophageal junction cancers, p = 0.01. No significant differences were found regarding T-/N-stage or histological tumor characteristics between the positive- and negative-staging laparoscopy group. The M-staging of the multidisciplinary team conference without staging

  7. PREFACE: 1st Nano-IBCT Conference 2011 - Radiation Damage of Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernd A.; Malot, Christiane; Domaracka, Alicja; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    The 1st Nano-IBCT Conference entitled 'Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy' was held in Caen, France, in October 2011. The Meeting was organised in the framework of the COST Action MP1002 (Nano-IBCT) which was launched in December 2010 (http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/nano-ibct). This action aims to promote the understanding of mechanisms and processes underlying the radiation damage of biomolecular systems at the molecular and nanoscopic level and to use the findings to improve the strategy of Ion Beam Cancer Therapy. In the hope of achieving this, participants from different disciplines were invited to represent the fields of physics, biology, medicine and chemistry, and also included those from industry and the operators of hadron therapy centres. Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal healthy tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. Several ion beam cancer therapy clinical centres are now operating in Europe and elsewhere. However, the full potential of such therapy can only be exploited by better understanding the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that lead to cell death under ion irradiation. Considering a range of spatio-temporal scales, the proposed action therefore aims to combine the unique experimental and theoretical expertise available within Europe to acquire greater insight at the nanoscopic and molecular level into radiation damage induced by ion impact. Success in this endeavour will be both an important scientific breakthrough and give great impetus to the practical improvement of this innovative therapeutic technique. Ion therapy potentially provides an important advance in cancer therapy and the COST action MP1002 will be very significant in ensuring Europe's leadership in this field, providing the scientific background, required data and mechanistic insight which

  8. Plant Community Chemical Composition Influences Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Intake by Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroy, Kristen Y; St Clair, Samuel B; Burritt, Elizabeth A; Villalba, Juan J

    2017-08-01

    Nutrients and plant secondary compounds in aspen (Populus tremuloides) may interact with nutrients in the surrounding vegetation to influence aspen use by herbivores. Thus, this study aimed to determine aspen intake and preference by sheep in response to supplementary nutrients or plant secondary compounds (PSC) present in aspen trees. Thirty-two lambs were randomly assigned to one of four molasses-based supplementary feeds to a basal diet of tall fescue hay (N = 8) during three experiments. The supplements were as follows: (1) high-protein (60% canola meal), (2) a PSC (6% quebracho tannins), (3) 25% aspen bark, and (4) control (100% molasses). Supplements were fed from 0700 to 0900, then lambs were fed fresh aspen leaves collected from stands containing high (Experiment 1, 2) or low (Experiment 3) concentrations of phenolic glycosides (PG). In Experiment 2, lambs were simultaneously offered aspen, a forb (Lathyrus pauciflorus), and a grass (Bromus inermis) collected from the aspen understory. Animals supplemented with high protein or tannins showed greater intake of aspen leaves than animals supplemented with bark or the control diet (P plant community influence aspen use by herbivores.

  9. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  10. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felip, E; Gridelli, C; Baas, P

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before the confer......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before...... the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer to be addressed through discussion...... at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement on three of these areas: NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, the treatment of first...

  11. Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Kubiske, Mark E; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2008-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure and hence forest water use, which has implications for climate feedbacks. We investigated how a 40% increase above ambient values in [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, affect tree water use of pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests in the free air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). Measurements of sap flux and canopy leaf area index (L) were made during two growing seasons, when steady-state L had been reached after more than 6 years of exposure to elevated [CO2] and [O3]. Maximum stand-level sap flux was not significantly affected by elevated [O3], but was increased by 18% by elevated [CO2] averaged across years, communities and O(3) regimes. Treatment effects were similar in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. Increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] was related to positive CO2 treatment effects on tree size and L (+40%). Tree water use was not reduced by elevated [O3] despite strong negative O3 treatment effects on tree size and L (-22%). Elevated [O3] predisposed pure aspen stands to drought-induced sap flux reductions, whereas increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] did not result in lower soil water content in the upper soil or decreasing sap flux relative to control values during dry periods. Maintenance of soil water content in the upper soil in the elevated [CO2] treatment was at least partly a function of enhanced soil water-holding capacity, probably a result of increased organic matter content from increased litter inputs. Our findings that larger trees growing in elevated [CO2] used more water and that tree size, but not maximal water use, was negatively affected by elevated [O3] suggest that the long-term cumulative effects on stand structure may be more important than the expected primary stomatal closure responses to

  12. Quaking aspen reproduce from seed after wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2001-01-01

    Quaking aspen regenerated from seed after a stand replacement wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. The wildfire had created gaps in the canopy so that aspen were able to establish from seed. Seedlings were found at a mean density of 0.17 m-2, 30 m or more from the nearest potential seed trees. Six clumps of aspen seedlings contained 18-186...

  13. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Kirsch, Richard; Ajioka, Yoichi; Bosman, Fred; Cathomas, Gieri; Dawson, Heather; El Zimaity, Hala; Fléjou, Jean-François; Hansen, Tine Plato; Hartmann, Arndt; Kakar, Sanjay; Langner, Cord; Nagtegaal, Iris; Puppa, Giacomo; Riddell, Robert; Ristimäki, Ari; Sheahan, Kieran; Smyrk, Thomas; Sugihara, Kenichi; Terris, Benoît; Ueno, Hideki; Vieth, Michael; Zlobec, Inti; Quirke, Phil

    2017-09-01

    Tumor budding is a well-established independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer but a standardized method for its assessment has been lacking. The primary aim of the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) was to reach agreement on an international, evidence-based standardized scoring system for tumor budding in colorectal cancer. The ITBCC included nine sessions with presentations, a pre-meeting survey and an e-book covering the key publications on tumor budding in colorectal cancer. The 'Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation' method was used to determine the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence. The following 10 statements achieved consensus: tumor budding is defined as a single tumor cell or a cell cluster consisting of four tumor cells or less (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of lymph node metastases in pT1 colorectal cancer (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of survival in stage II colorectal cancer (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding should be taken into account along with other clinicopathological features in a multidisciplinary setting (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding is counted on H&E (19/22, 86%). Intratumoral budding exists in colorectal cancer and has been shown to be related to lymph node metastasis (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is assessed in one hotspot (in a field measuring 0.785 mm(2)) at the invasive front (22/22, 100%). A three-tier system should be used along with the budding count in order to facilitate risk stratification in colorectal cancer (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding and tumor grade are not the same (23/23, 100%). Tumor budding should be included in guidelines/protocols for colorectal cancer reporting (23/23, 100%). Members of the ITBCC were able to reach strong consensus on a single international, evidence-based method for tumor budding assessment and reporting. It is proposed that this method be incorporated into colorectal cancer

  14. Contrasting patterns of cytokinins between years in senescing aspen leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, Erik; Novak, Ondrej; Karady, Michal; Ljung, Karin; Jansson, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that typically block or delay leaf senescence. We profiled 34 different cytokinins/cytokinin metabolites (including precursors, conjugates and degradation products) in leaves of a free-growing mature aspen (Populus tremula) before and after the initiation of autumnal senescence over three consecutive years. The levels and profiles of individual cytokinin species, or classes/groups, varied greatly between years, despite the fact that the onset of autumn senescence was at the same time each year, and senescence was not associated with depletion of either active or total cytokinin levels. Levels of aromatic cytokinins (topolins) were low and changed little over the autumn period. Diurnal variations and weather-dependent variations in cytokinin content were relatively limited. We also followed the expression patterns of all aspen genes implicated as having roles in cytokinin metabolism or signalling, but neither the pattern of regulation of any group of genes nor the expression of any particular gene supported the notion that decreased cytokinin signalling could explain the onset of senescence. Based on the results from this tree, we therefore suggest that cytokinin depletion is unlikely to explain the onset of autumn leaf senescence in aspen. © 2017 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  16. Aberrant Expression of proPTPRN2 in Cancer Cells Confers Resistance to Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Alexey V; Nair, Binoj C; Wei, Yongkun; Aziz, Kathryn E; Evdokimova, Valentina; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chen, Junjie

    2015-05-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTPRN2 is expressed predominantly in endocrine and neuronal cells, where it functions in exocytosis. We found that its immature isoform proPTPRN2 is overexpressed in various cancers, including breast cancer. High proPTPRN2 expression was associated strongly with lymph node-positive breast cancer and poor clinical outcome. Loss of proPTPRN2 in breast cancer cells promoted apoptosis and blocked tumor formation in mice, whereas enforced expression of proPTPRN2 in nontransformed human mammary epithelial cells exerted a converse effect. Mechanistic investigations suggested that ProPTPRN2 elicited these effects through direct interaction with TRAF2, a hub scaffold protein for multiple kinase cascades, including ones that activate NF-κB. Overall, our results suggest PTPRN2 as a novel candidate biomarker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Hexokinase 2 confers resistance to cisplatin in ovarian cancer cells by enhancing cisplatin-induced autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Meng; Cong, Qing; Zhang, Ming-Xing; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Lu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Cong-Jian

    2018-02-01

    The high mortality rate of ovarian cancer is connected with the development of acquired resistance to multiple cancer drugs, especially cisplatin. Activation of cytoprotective autophagy has been implicated as a contributing mechanism for acquired cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) phosphorylates glucose to generate glucose-6-phosphate, the rate-limiting step in glycolysis. Higher HK2 expression has been associated with chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. However, whether HK2 functionally contributes to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of HK2 in regulating ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance. Increased HK2 levels were detected in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. Cisplatin downregulated HK2 in cisplatin-sensitive but not in resistant ovarian cancer cells. HK2 knockdown sensitized resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis. Conversely, HK2 overexpression in cisplatin-sensitive cells induced cisplatin resistance. Mechanistically, cisplatin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation as well as autophagic activity. Blocking autophagy with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA sensitized resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. HK2 overexpression enhanced cisplatin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and autophagy while HK2 knockdown showed the opposite effects. Blocking the MEK/ERK pathway using the MEK inhibitor U0126 prevented cisplatin-induced autophagy enhanced by HK2 overexpression. Furthermore, HK2 knockdown sensitized resistance ovarian tumor xenografts to cisplatin in vivo. In conclusion, our data supported that HK2 promotes cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer by enhancing drug-induced, ERK-mediated autophagy. Therefore, targeting HK2 may be a new therapeutic strategy to combat chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Promoting Cancer Control in Africa With "Ubuntu": A Report of the African Organization for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC) 10th Conference, 2015 in Marrakech, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbiri, Kenneth O; Williams, Christopher K; Macaluso, Marcella; Giordano, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), includes bringing products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through local and international collaboration. The consistent and huge growth in participation in the conferences and the diversity of the nations is a witness to the success of the organization thus far. The theme for the Tenth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Morocco in 2015 was "Road map to Cancer Control in Africa" and topics of discussion of paramount importance for low- and middle-income African countries included childhood cancers such as BL, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate; cancers associated with HIV-infection such as cervical, vulvar, and anal; as well as cancer care challenges associated with palliative care. The role of environmental factors that underlie some epigenetic changes in some of the cancers was emphasized. Oral and poster presentations from various parts of the continent indicate the growth of basic and translational science of cancer in the region, with studies revealing regional diversity in the frequencies of the triple-negative breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, HCC, and Burkitt's lymphoma. There was a sign that Africa is trying to keep pace with the paradigm shift and focusing on translational medicine. This was shown by suggestions for application of genome-wide association studies, new generation sequencing, as well as the evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be responsible for variable susceptibility in some of the prevalent cancers in people of African descent. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2287-2295, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multidisciplinary cancer conferences for gastrointestinal malignancies result in measureable treatment changes: a prospective study of 149 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenberg, Jacqueline; Papenfuss, Wesley; Esemuede, Iyare; Attwood, Kristopher; Simunovic, Marko; Kuvshinoff, Boris; Francescutti, Valerie

    2015-05-01

    In most jurisdictions, a minority of patients are discussed at multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC) despite recommendations for such reviews. We assessed the impact of MCC review of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers at a stand-alone cancer center. Patient data were prospectively collected on consecutive cases presented at a GI MCC during a 6-month period. Original treatment plans were collected confidentially before presentation and compared to post-MCC treatment plans. We defined changes in management plans as major (change in treatment modality) or minor (testing prior to original plan). A total of 149 cases were evaluated: 115 upper GI (gastric/small bowel-10 %, liver-32 %, pancreaticobiliary-36 %), and 34 lower GI (23 %). Reasons for presentation were: questions regarding progression/metastases (44 %), management (26 %), diagnosis (21 %), pathology (15 %), and resectability (7 %). Physicians were certain of their original plans being the final recommendations in 84 % (n = 125). Change in management was recommended in 36 %; 72 % were major and 28 % were minor. Patients underwent all recommended treatments at our institution in 77 % of cases, a portion in 5 %, and no recommended treatments in 18 %. On multivariate analysis, physician degree of certainty for original management plan was not predictive of a change in management plan (p = 0.61). Although certainty of prediscussion treatment plan is high, changes in treatment recommendations occurred in more than one-third of patients after GI MCC. This prospective study demonstrates the value of MCC in GI cancer sites, even at a stand-alone cancer center.

  20. Pancreatic cancer study based on full field OCT and dynamic full field OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelian, Clement; Camus, Marine; Prat, Frederic; Boccara, A. Claude

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most feared cancer types due to high death rates and the difficulty to perform surgery. This cancer outcome could benefit from recent technological developments for diagnosis. We used a combination of standard Full Field OCT and Dynamic Full Field OCT to capture both morphological features and metabolic functions of rodents pancreas in normal and cancerous conditions with and without chemotherapy. Results were compared to histology to evaluate the performances and the specificities of the method. The comparison highlighted the importance of a number of endogenous markers like immune cells, fibrous development, architecture and more.

  1. Design and simulation of heat exchangers using Aspen HYSYS, and Aspen exchanger design and rating for paddy drying application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Kamin, N. H.; Wong, K. H.; Tham, H. J.; Kong, V. V.; Farajpourlar, M.

    2016-06-01

    Air heating unit is one of the most important parts in paddy drying to ensure the efficiency of a drying process. In addition, an optimized air heating unit does not only promise a good paddy quality, but also save more for the operating cost. This study determined the suitable and best specifications heating unit to heat air for paddy drying in the LAMB dryer. In this study, Aspen HYSYS v7.3 was used to obtain the minimum flow rate of hot water needed. The resulting data obtained from Aspen HYSYS v7.3 were used in Aspen Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) to generate heat exchanger design and costs. The designs include shell and tubes and plate heat exchanger. The heat exchanger was designed in order to produce various drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C of air with different flow rate, 300, 2500 and 5000 LPM. The optimum condition for the heat exchanger were found to be plate heat exchanger with 0.6 mm plate thickness, 198.75 mm plate width, 554.8 mm plate length and 11 numbers of plates operating at 5000 LPM air flow rate.

  2. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: Symptom management in cancer: pain, depression, and fatigue, July 15-17, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Daniel L; Ferketich, Sandra L; Frame, Paul S; Harris, Jesse J; Hendricks, Carolyn B; Levin, Bernard; Link, Michael P; Lustig, Craig; McLaughlin, Joseph; Reid, L Douglas; Turrisi, Andrew T; Unützer, Jürgen; Vernon, Sally W

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and effective treatment, cancer remains one of the most feared diseases. Among the most common side effects of cancer and treatments for cancer are pain, depression, and fatigue. Although research is producing increasingly hopeful insights into the causes and cures for cancer, efforts to manage the side effects of the disease and its treatments have not kept pace. The challenge that faces us is how to increase awareness of the importance of recognizing and actively addressing cancer-related distress. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a State-of-the-Science Conference on Symptom Management in Cancer: Pain, Depression, and Fatigue to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the management of pain, depression, and fatigue in individuals with cancer and to identify directions for future research. Specifically, the conference examined how to identify individuals who are at risk for cancer-related pain, depression, and/or fatigue; what treatments work best to address these symptoms when they occur; and what is the best way to deliver interventions across the continuum of care. STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE PROCESS: A non-advocate, non-Federal, 14-member panel of experts representing the fields of oncology, radiology, psychology, nursing, public health, social work, and epidemiology prepared the statement. In addition, 24 experts in medical oncology, geriatrics, pharmacology, psychology, and neurology presented data to the panel and to the conference audience during the first 1.5 days of the conference. The panel then prepared its statement, addressing the five predetermined questions and drawing on submitted literature, the speakers' presentations, and discussions held at the conference. The statement was presented to the conference audience, followed by a press conference to allow the panel to respond to questions from the media. After its release at the conference, the draft statement was made available on the Internet

  3. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shihua; Sprenger, Cynthia C.T.; Vessella, Robert L.; Haugk, Kathleen; Soriano, Kathryn; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Page, Stephanie T.; Coleman, Ilsa M.; Nguyen, Holly M.; Sun, Huiying; Nelson, Peter S.; Plymate, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade. Recent studies suggest that these activities are due to the generation of constitutively active AR splice variants, but the mechanisms by which these splice variants could mediate such effects are not fully understood. Here we have identified what we believe to be a novel human AR splice variant in which exons 5, 6, and 7 are deleted (ARv567es) and demonstrated that this variant can contribute to cancer progression in human prostate cancer xenograft models in mice following castration. We determined that, in human prostate cancer cell lines, ARv567es functioned as a constitutively active receptor, increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl), and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. In human xenografts, human prostate cancer cells transfected with ARv567es cDNA formed tumors that were resistant to castration. Furthermore, the ratio of ARv567es to ARfl expression within the xenografts positively correlated with resistance to castration. Importantly, we also detected ARv567es frequently in human prostate cancer metastases. In summary, these data indicate that constitutively active AR splice variants can contribute to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancers and may serve as biomarkers for patients who are likely to suffer from early recurrence and are candidates for therapies directly targeting the AR rather than ligand. PMID:20644256

  4. Skin cancer margin analysis within minutes with full-field OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Ogrich, Lauren; Morales, Diego; Cusack, Carrie Ann; Abdelmalek, Mark; Boccara, Claude; Durkin, John

    2017-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the skin cancer. Traditional excision involves the removal of the visible skin cancer with a significant margin of normal skin. On cosmetically sensitive areas, Mohs micrographic tissue is the standard of care. Mohs uses intraoperative microscopic margin assessment which minimizes the surgical defect and can help reduce the recurrence rate by a factor of 3. The current Mohs technique relies on frozen section tissue slide preparation which significantly lengthens operative time and requires on-site trained histotechnicians. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FFOCT) is a novel optical imaging technique which provides a quick and efficient method to visualize cancerous areas in minutes, without any preparation or destruction of the tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of FFOCT for the analysis of skin cancer margins during Mohs surgery. Over 150 images of Mohs specimens were acquired intraoperatively with FFOCT before frozen section analysis. The imaging procedure took less than 5 minutes for each specimen. No artifacts on histological preparation were found arising from FFOCT manipulation; however frozen section artifact was readily seen on FFOCT. An atlas was established with FFOCT images and corresponding histological slides to reveal FFOCT reading criteria of normal and cancerous structures. Blind analysis showed high concordance between FFOCT and histology. FFOCT can potentially reduce recurrence rates while maintaining short surgery times, optimize clinical workflow, and decrease healthcare costs. For the patient, this translates into smaller infection risk, decreased stress, and better comfort.

  5. Functional genetic polymorphisms in PP2A subunit genes confer increased risks of lung cancer in southern and eastern Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Yang

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases and functions as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the activity of some oncogenic kinases. Recent studies have reported that PP2A expression was suppressed during lung carcinogenesis, we there hypothesized that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in PP2A subunit genes may affect PP2A function and thus contribute to lung cancer susceptibility. In a two-stage case-control study with a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 controls, we genotyped eight putative functional SNPs and one identified functional SNP (i.e., rs11453459 in seven major PP2A subunits (i.e., PPP2R1A, PPP2R1B, PPP2CA, PPP2R2A, PPP2R2B, PPP2R5C, PPP2R5E in southern and eastern Chinese. We found that rs11453459G (-G/GG variant genotypes of PPP2R1A and the rs1255722AA variant genotype of PPP2R5E conferred increased risks of lung cancer (rs11453459, -G/GG vs. -: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.13-1.51; rs1255722, AA vs.OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07-1.51. After combined the two variants, the number of the adverse genotypes was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response manner (P trend = 5.63 × 10(-6. Further functional assay showed that lung cancer tissues carrying rs1255722AA variant genotype had a significantly lower mRNA level of PPP2R5E compared with tissues carrying GG/GA genotypes. However, such effect was not observed for the other SNPs and other combinations. Our findings suggested that the two functional variants in PPP2R1A and PPP2R5E and their combination are associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese, which may be valuable biomarkers to predict risk of lung cancer.

  6. BRCA2 Hypomorphic Missense Variants Confer Moderate Risks of Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimelis, Hermela; Mesman, Romy L S; Von Nicolai, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    were investigated through a breast cancer case-control study using genotyping data from 38 studies of predominantly European ancestry (41,890 cases and 41,607 controls) and nine studies of Asian ancestry (6,269 cases and 6,624 controls). The BRCA2 c.9104A>C, p.Tyr3035Ser (OR = 2.52; P = 0.04), and BRCA......, moderately increased risks of breast cancer, with potential implications for risk management guidelines in women with these specific variants. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2789-99. ©2017 AACR....

  7. Harnessing Raman spectroimmunoassay for detection of serological breast cancer markers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Li, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Two critical, unmet needs in breast cancer are the early detection of cancer metastasis and recurrence, and the sensitive assessment of temporal changes in tumor burden in response to therapy. The present research is directed towards developing a non-invasive, ultrasensitive and specific tool that provides a comprehensive real-time picture of the metastatic tumor burden and provides a radically new route to address these overarching challenges. As the continuing search for better diagnostic and prognostic clues has shifted away from a singular focus on primary tumor lesions, circulating and disseminated biomarkers have surfaced as attractive candidates due to the intrinsic advantages of a non-invasive, repeatable "liquid biopsy" procedure. However, a reproducible, facile blood-based test for diagnosis and follow-up of breast cancer has yet to be incorporated into a clinical laboratory assay due to the limitations of existing assays in terms of sensitivity, extensive sample processing requirements and, importantly, multiplexing capability. Here, by architecting nano-structured probes for detection of specific molecular species, we engineer a novel plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopic platform that offers a paradigmatic shift from the capabilities of today's diagnostic test platforms. Specifically, quantitative single-droplet serum tests reveal ultrasensitive and multiplexed detection of three key breast cancer biomarkers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), CA27-29 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), over several order of magnitude range of biomarker concentration and clear segmentation of the sera between normal and metastatic cancer levels.

  8. Disulfide-crosslinked nanomicelles confer cancer-specific drug delivery and improve efficacy of paclitaxel in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Amy; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Yuanpei; Lin, Tzu-yin; Wang, Fuli; Lee, Joyce; Cheng, Mingshan; Dall'Era, Marc; Li, Tianhong; deVere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-Xian; Lam, Kit S.

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy commonly used in the treatment of advanced bladder cancer is only moderately effective and associated with significant toxicity. There has been no appreciable improvement in overall survival over the last three decades. The goal of this project is to develop and characterize bladder cancer-specific nanometer-scale micelles loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX) and determine the anti-tumor activity and toxicity. Micelle-building-material telodendrimers were synthesized through the stepwise conjugation of eight cholic acid units at one terminus of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a bladder cancer-specific targeting peptide named PLZ4 at the other terminus. To synthesize disulfide-crosslinked PLZ4 nanomicelles (DC-PNM), cysteine was introduced between the cholic acid and PEG. DC-PNM-PTX was synthesized through the evaporation method by loading PTX in the core. The loading capacity of PTX in DC-PNM was 25% (W/W). The loading efficiency was over 99%. DC-PNM-PTX was spherical with the median size of 25 nm. The stability of DC-PNM-PTX was determined in a solution containing sodium docecyl sulfate (SDS). It was stable in a SDS solution, but dissolved within 5 min after the addition of glutathione at the physiological intracellular concentration of 10 mM. In vivo targeting and anti-tumor activity were determined in immunodeficient mice carrying patient-derived bladder cancer xenografts (PDXs). After intravenous administration, DC-PNM specifically targeted the bladder cancer PDXs, but very little to the lung cancer xenografts in the same mice (p < 0.001). DC-PNM loaded with PTX overcame cisplatin resistance, and improved the median survival from 55 d with free PTX to 69.5 d (p = 0.03) of mice carrying PDXs. In conclusion, DC-PNM remained stable in the SDS solution, specifically targeted the bladder cancer xenografts in vivo, and improved the anti-cancer efficacy of PTX.

  9. Transcriptome characterization and detection of gene expression differences in aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeep S. Rai; Karen E. Mock; Bryce A. Richardson; Richard C. Cronn; Katherine J. Hayden; Jessica W. Wright; Brian J. Knaus; Paul G. Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) is a temperate North American tree species with a geographical distribution more extensive than any other tree species on the continent. Because it is economically important for pulp and paper industries and ecologically important for its role as a foundation species in forest ecosystems, the decline of aspen in large...

  10. Hybrid Aspen Response to Shearing in Minnesota: Implications for Biomass Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Andrew J. David; Anthony W. D' Amato; Alan R. Ek; Gary W. Wycoff

    2011-01-01

    There is great potential for the production of woody biomass feedstocks from hybrid aspen stands; however, little is known about the response of these systems to silvicultural treatments, such as shearing. We sought to address this need by integrating results from more than 20 years of individual tree and yield measurements in hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Mich. ×...

  11. Simulation of Quaking Aspen Potential Fire Behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Justin DeRose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and Fuels Extension. The wind speeds necessary for crowning (crown-to-crown fire spread and torching (surface to crown fire spread were evaluated to test the hypothesis that predicted fire behavior is influenced by the proportion of aspen in the stand. Results showed a strong effect of species composition on crowning, but only under moderate fire weather, where aspen-dominated stands were unlikely to crown or torch. Although rarely observed in actual fires, conifer-dominated stands were likely to crown but not to torch, an example of “hysteresis” in crown fire behavior. Results support the hypothesis that potential crown fire behavior varies across a gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather, where it was likely under extreme and severe fire weather, and unlikely under moderate and high fire weather. Furthermore, the “fire-proof” nature of aspen stands broke down across the gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather.

  12. The aspen mortality summit; December 18 and 19, 2006; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale L. Bartos; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2010-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station sponsored an aspen summit meeting in Salt Lake City, Utah, on December 18 and19, 2006, to discuss the rapidly increasing mortality of aspen (Populus tremuloides) throughout the western United States. Selected scientists, university faculty, and managers from Federal, State, and non-profit agencies with experience...

  13. A synthetic sex pheromone for the large aspen tortrix in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; J. Weatherston

    1980-01-01

    Cis-11-tetradecenal was found to be the specific attractant for adult male large aspen tortrix, Choristoneura conflictana (Walker), populations in quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., forests of interior Alaska. The attractant was dispersed from polyethylene caps in Pherocon® -2 traps placed 1.5 m above ground.

  14. Harvesting Impacts on Soil Properties and Tree Regeneration in Pure and Mixed Aspen Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Arikian; Kiaus J. Peuttmann; Alaina L. Davis; George E. Host; John Zasada

    1999-01-01

    Impacts of clearcutting and selective harvesting on pure aspen/mixed aspen hardwood stands were examined in northern Minnesota. We studied these impacts on 18 stands, which were harvested 4 to 11 years ago and received no further treatment. In each stand, residual composition, soil compaction, and tree regeneration were determined along a gradient of disturbance in the...

  15. The effect of aspen harvest and growth on water yield in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry

    1987-01-01

    Annual water yield increased following the clearcutting of a mature aspen forest in years 1-9 and year 14 of subsequent aspen regrowth. Maximum increases of 85, 117, and 88 mm year-l occurred during the first 3 years of regrowth. Increases in streamflow volumes from snowmelt and early spring rains were minimal and more variable after harvest and...

  16. Adaptations of quaking aspen for defense against damage by herbivores and related environmental agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Lindroth

    2001-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) employs two major systems of defense against damage by environmental agents: chemical defense and tolerance. Aspen accumulates appreciable quantities of phenolic glycosides (salicylates) and condensed tannins in most tissues and accumulates coniferyl benzoate in flower buds. Phenolic glycosides are toxic and/or deterrent to pathogens...

  17. Scaling Aspen-FACE experimental results to century and landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Mark E. Kubiske; Brian R. Sturtevant; Brian R. Miranda

    2013-01-01

    The Aspen-FACE experiment generated 11 years of empirical data on the effect of CO2 enrichment and elevated ozone on the growth of field-grown trees (maple, birch and six aspen clones) in northern Wisconsin, but it is not known how these short-term plot-level responses might play out at the landscape scale over multiple decades where competition...

  18. Ecology, biodiversity, management, and restoration of aspen in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Paul C. Rogers; David Burton; Dale L. Bartos

    2006-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the USDA Forest Service Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit to synthesize existing information on the ecology and management of aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Sierra Nevada of California and surrounding environs. It summarizes available information on aspen throughout North America from published literature, internal...

  19. Beclin 1 and UVRAG confer protection from radiation-induced DNA damage and maintain centrosome stability in colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Myung Park

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 interacts with UV-irradiation-resistance-associated gene (UVRAG to form core complexes that induce autophagy. While cells with defective autophagy are prone to genomic instability that contributes to tumorigenesis, it is unknown whether Beclin1 or UVRAG can regulate the DNA damage/repair response to cancer treatment in established tumor cells. We found that siRNA knockdown of Beclin 1 or UVRAG can increase radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, shown by pATM and γH2Ax, and promote colorectal cancer cell death. Furthermore, knockdown of Beclin 1, UVRAG or ATG5 increased the percentage of irradiated cells with nuclear foci expressing 53BP1, a marker of nonhomologous end joining but not RAD51 (homologous recombination, compared to control siRNA. Beclin 1 siRNA was shown to attenuate UVRAG expression. Cells with a UVRAG deletion mutant defective in Beclin 1 binding showed increased radiation-induced DSBs and cell death compared to cells with ectopic wild-type UVRAG. Knockdown of Beclin 1 or UVRAG, but not ATG5, resulted in a significant increase in centrosome number (γ-tubulin staining in irradiated cells compared to control siRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that Beclin 1 and UVRAG confer protection against radiation-induced DNA DSBs and may maintain centrosome stability in established tumor cells.

  20. Improved cancer risk stratification and diagnosis via quantitative phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; Hartman, Douglas J.

    2017-02-01

    Pathology remains the gold standard for cancer diagnosis and in some cases prognosis, in which trained pathologists examine abnormality in tissue architecture and cell morphology characteristic of cancer cells with a bright-field microscope. The limited resolution of conventional microscope can result in intra-observer variation, missed early-stage cancers, and indeterminate cases that often result in unnecessary invasive procedures in the absence of cancer. Assessment of nanoscale structural characteristics via quantitative phase represents a promising strategy for identifying pre-cancerous or cancerous cells, due to its nanoscale sensitivity to optical path length, simple sample preparation (i.e., label-free) and low cost. I will present the development of quantitative phase microscopy system in transmission and reflection configuration to detect the structural changes in nuclear architecture, not be easily identifiable by conventional pathology. Specifically, we will present the use of transmission-mode quantitative phase imaging to improve diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology and the nuclear dry mass is progressively correlate with negative, atypical, suspicious and positive cytological diagnosis. In a second application, we will present the use of reflection-mode quantitative phase microscopy for depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of clinically prepared formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. We demonstrated that the quantitative phase microscopy system detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to predict "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  1. Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis for prostate cancer diagnosis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Cheng, Qian; Huang, Shengsong; Qin, Ming; Hopkins, Thomas; Lee, Chang H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Chao, Wan-yu; Keller, Evan T.; Wu, Denglong; Wang, Xueding

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic physio-chemical analysis (PAPCA) is a recently developed technology capable of simultaneously quantifying the content of molecular components and the corresponding microarchitectures in biological tissue. We have successfully quantified the diagnostic information in livers with PAPCA. In this study, we implemented PAPCA to the diagnosis of prostate cancers. 4 human prostates were scanned ex vivo. The PA signals from normal and cancerous regions in the prostates were acquired by an interstitial needle PA probe. A total of 14 interstitial measurements, including 6 within the normal regions and 8 in the cancerous regions, were acquired. The observed changes in molecular components, including lipid, collagen and hemoglobin were consistent with the findings by other research groups. The changes were quantified by PA spectral analysis (PASA) at wavelengths where strong optical absorption of the relevant molecular components was found. Statistically significant differences among the PASA parameters were observed (p=0.025 at significance of 0.05). A support vector machine model for differentiating the normal and cancerous tissue was established. With the limited number of samples, an 85% diagnostic accuracy was found. The diagnostic information in the PCPCA can be further enriched by targeted optical contrast agents visualizing the microarchitecture in PCa tissues. F3 PAA-PEG nanoparticles was employed to stain the PCa cells in a transgenic mouse model, in which the microarchitectures of normal and cancerous prostate tissues are comparable to that in human. Statistically significant differences were observed between the contrast-enhanced normal and cancerous regions (p=0.038 at a significance of 0.05).

  2. Near infrared photoimmunotherapy rapidly elicits specific host immunity against cancer cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highly-selective necrotic/immunogenic cell death (ICD) only in target-positive, mAb-IR700-bound cancer cells. This cell death occurs as early as 1 minute after exposure to NIR light. Meanwhile, immediately adjacent target-negative cells are unharmed. Dynamic 3D-microscopy of live tumor cells undergoing NIR-PIT showed rapid swelling in treated cells immediately after light exposure, followed by irreversible morphologic changes such as bleb formation, and rupture of vesicles within several minutes. Furthermore, biological markers of ICD including relocation of HSP70/90 and calreticulin, and release of ATP and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), were clearly detected immediately after NIR-PIT. When NIR-PIT was performed in a mixture of cancer cells and immature dendritic cells, maturation of immature dendritic cells was strongly induced rapidly after NIR-PIT. Alternatively, NIR-PIT can also target negative regulatory immune cells such as Treg only in the tumor bed. Treg targeting NIR-PIT against CD25 can deplete >80% of Treg in tumor bed within 20 min that induces activation of tumor cell-specific CD8+-T and NK cells within 1.5 hour, and then these activated cells killed cancer cells in local tumor within 1 day and also in distant tumors of the same cell origin within 2 days. In summary, cancer cell-targeting and immuno-suppressor cell-targeting NIR-PITs effectively induce innate and acquired immunity specifically against cancer cells growing in patients, respectively.

  3. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ekwonu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engine simulation gave an efficiency 40.7% and power output of 3592kW.

  4. A truncating mutation of HDAC2 in human cancers confers resistance to histone deacetylase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropero, S; Fraga, MF; Ballestar, E

    2006-01-01

    Disruption of histone acetylation patterns is a common feature of cancer cells, but very little is known about its genetic basis. We have identified truncating mutations in one of the primary human histone deacetylases, HDAC2, in sporadic carcinomas with microsatellite instability and in tumors...... arising in individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. The presence of the HDAC2 frameshift mutation causes a loss of HDAC2 protein expression and enzymatic activity and renders these cells more resistant to the usual antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of histone...

  5. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  6. A coding variant in RARG confers susceptibility to anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminkeng, Folefac; Bhavsar, Amit P.; Visscher, Henk; Rassekh, Shahrad R.; Li, Yuling; Lee, Jong W.; Brunham, Liam R.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C.; van der Pal, Helena J.; Amstutz, Ursula; Rieder, Michael J.; Bernstein, Daniel; Carleton, Bruce C.; Hayden, Michael R.; Ross, Colin J. D.; MacLeod, Stuart; Smith, Anne; Hildebrand, Claudette; Ghannadan, Reza; Miao, Fudan; Higginson, Michelle; Massah, Nasim; Borrie, Adrienne; Hughes, Shevaun; Shaw, Kaitlyn; Dhoot, Satvir; Kowalec, Kaarina; Stortz, Jessica; Bendyshe-Walton, Tessa; Waltrip, Duncan; Bader, Rachel; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Johnson, David; Verbeek, Linda; Kaczowka, Rick; Stevenson, Patti; Zhuwaki, Carnation; Grundy, Paul; Stobart, Kent; Wilson, Bev; Desai, Sunil; Spavor, Maria; Churcher, Linda; Chow, Terence; Hall, Kevin; Honcharik, Nick; Israels, Sara; Chan, Shanna; Garnham, Byron; Staub, Michelle; 't Jong, Geert; Malkin, Becky; Portwine, Carol; Cranston, Amy; Koren, Gideon; Ito, Shinya; Nathan, Paul; Greenberg, Mark; Bournissen, Facundo Garcia; Inoue, Miho; Sakaguchi, Sachi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Fujii, Hisaki; Ogawa, Mina; Ingram, Ryoko; Kamiya, Taro; Karande, Smita; Ghayoori, Sholeh; Silva, Mariana; Willing, Stephanie; Vaillancourt, Régis; Johnston, Donna; Mankoo, Herpreet; Wong, Elaine; Wilson, Brenda; O'Connor, Lauren; Hui, Caleb; Yuen, Cindy; Bussières, Jean-Francois; Lebel, Denis; Barret, Pierre; Clauson, Aurélie; Courbon, Eve; Cerruti, Léna; Jabado, Nada; Santo, Anelise Espirito; Nagy, Martine; Murray, Margaret; Boliver, Darlene; Tiller, Marilyn; Osborne, Carol-Anne; Goodyear, Lisa; Bowes, Lynette; Kean, Norma; Hand, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Anthracyclines are used in over 50% of childhood cancer treatment protocols, but their clinical usefulness is limited by anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) manifesting as asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction and congestive heart failure in up to 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Candidate

  7. Quantum dot nanoprobe-based quantitative analysis for prostate cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Benedict J.; Jang, Gun Hyuk; Park, Sungwook; Lee, Kwan Hyi

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer causes one of the leading cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the United State of America. However, it has a high recovery rate indicating when a proper treatment is delivered to a patient. There are cases of over- or under-treatments which exacerbate the disease states indicating the importance of proper therapeutic approach depending on stage of the disease. Recognition of the unmet needs has raised a need for stratification of the disease. There have been attempts to stratify based on biomarker expression patterns in the course of disease progression. To closely observe the biomarker expression patterns, we propose the use of quantitative imaging method by using fabricated quantum dot-based nanoprobe to quantify biomarker expression on the surface of prostate cancer cells. To characterize the cell line and analyze the biomarker levels, cluster of differentiation 44 (CD 44), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) are used. Each selected biomarker per cell line has been quantified from which we established a signature of biomarkers of a prostate cancer cell line.

  8. InCVAX, a novel in situ autologous cancer vaccine (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Samuel Siu Kit; Chen, Wei R.

    2017-02-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is the concept of harnessing our own immune system to fight against cancer cells. The most attractive features of immunotherapy include relatively low toxicities compared to traditional therapies (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation), the possibility of eliminating distant metastases and the potential of preventing relapses. After decades of research, its therapeutic efficacy has finally been recognized and a number of approaches has been approved by the FDA over the past 10 years. Dendritic cell vaccine and checkpoint blockade strategies were among the first to enter the clinic, with many other strategies such as peptide vaccine, whole cell tumor vaccine, and adoptive T cell transfer (with Chimeric Antigen Receptors) etc. closely following in clinical trials. Immunophotonics is developing a novel in situ autologous cancer vaccine (InCVAX) by combining thermal laser phototherapy with immunotherapy. InCVAX is a two-step procedure: (1) Delivery of low-power thermal laser to any accessible tumor to cause partial cell death, increase tumor immunogenicity by releasing tumor antigens and Damage Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs). This is followed immediately by (2) injection of our proprietary immunostimulant, N-dihydro-acetylglucosamine (GC), into the laser-treated region to stimulate antigen presenting cells. These two steps work synergistically to enhance the systemic anti-tumor T cell response which is capable of eliminating both primary and metastatic cancers in some patients with advanced, stage III/IV, breast cancer with minimal toxicity. Our approach has the unique benefits of stimulating an immune response against a wide array of tumor antigens, and thus the potential to induce a strong, comprehensive and long-term anti-tumor protection in patients with minimal costs. Following early data showing efficacy in breast cancer patients, a multi-center, randomized clinical trial is currently underway in South America to consolidate the findings

  9. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felip, E; Gridelli, C; Baas, P

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before the confer......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before......-line, and second-line/third-line therapy in metastatic NSCLC are reported in this article. The recommendations detailed here are based on an expert consensus after careful review of published data. All participants have approved this final update....

  10. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ho Young [Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Manbok [Department of Medical Science, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells.

  11. Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for photodynamic therapy and cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenbin

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective anticancer procedure that relies on tumor localization of a photosensitizer followed by light activation to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. We recently reported the rational design of a Hf-porphyrin nanoscale metal-organic framework, DBP-UiO, as an exceptionally effective photosensitizer for PDT of resistant head and neck cancer. DBP-UiO efficiently generates singlet oxygen owing to site isolation of porphyrin ligands, enhanced intersystem crossing by heavy Hf centers, and facile singlet oxygen diffusion through porous DBP-UiO nanoplates. Consequently, DBP-UiO displayed greatly enhanced PDT efficacy both in vitro and in vivo, leading to complete tumor eradication in half of the mice receiving a single DBP-UiO dose and a single light exposure. The photophysical properties of DBP-UiO are however not optimum with the lowest energy absorption at 634 nm and a relatively small extinction coefficient of 2200 M-1·cm-1. We recently designed a chlorin-based NMOF, DBC-UiO, with much improved photophysical properties and PDT efficacy in two colon cancer mouse models. Reduction of the DBP ligands in DBP-UiO to the DBC ligands in DBC-UiO led to a 13 nm red-shift and an 11-fold extinction coefficient increase of the lowest energy Q-band. While inheriting the crystallinity, stability, porosity, and nanoplate morphology of DBP-UiO, DBC-UiO sensitizes more efficient singlet oxygen generation and exhibits much enhanced photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy on two colon cancer mouse models as a result of its improved photophysical properties. Both apoptosis and immunogenic cell death contributed to cancer cell-killing in DBC-UiO induced PDT. Our work has thus demonstrated that NMOFs represent a new class of highly potent PDT agents and hold great promise in treating resistant cancers in the clinic.

  12. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  13. Label free aggressive prostate cancer identification with ultraviolet photoacoustic spectral analysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Davis, Mandy A.; Siddiqui, Javed; Chao, Wan-yu; Tomlins, Scott A.; Wei, John T.; Wang, Xueding

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American men for the past decades. PCa has a relatively low progression rate but the 5 year survival rate decreases dramatically once the cancer has metastasized. Differentiating aggressive from indolent PCa is critical for improving PCa patient outcomes and preventing metastasis and death. Prostate biopsy is the standard procedure for evaluating the presence and aggressiveness of PCa. The microarchitecture of the biopsied tissues visualized by histology process is evaluated by pathologists and assigned a Gleason score as a quantification of the aggressiveness. In our previous study, we have shown that photoacoustic spectral analysis (PASA) is capable of quantifying the Gleason scores of the H&E stained human prostate tissues. In this study, we attempt to assess the Gleason scores without any staining by taking advantage of the strong optical absorption of nucleic acid at ultraviolet wavelengths. PA signals were generated by wide field illumination at 266 nm and received by a hydrophone with a bandwidth of 0-20 MHz. DU145 prostate cancer cells at the concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.05, 0.025 and 0.0125 million per cm3 simulating those in cancerous and normal tissues were first attempted. The measurements were repeated for 10 times at each concentration. A correlation of 0.86 was observed between the PA signal intensities and the cell concentrations. Human PCa tissues with Gleason score 6, 7 and 8 and normal tissues were assessed. With 11 samples, a correlation of 0.89 was found between the Gleason scores and PASA slopes.

  14. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Binkley, Dan; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Romme, William H.; Yin, Tongming; DiFazio, Stephen; Singer, Francis J.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado have been a cause of concern for more than 70 years. We used a combination of traditional dendrochronology and genetic techniques as well as measuring the characteristics of regenerating and nonregenerating stands on the elk winter range to determine when and under what conditions and estimated elk densities these stands established and through what mechanisms they may regenerate. The period from 1975 to 1995 at low elevation on the east side had 80-95 percent fewer aspen stems than would be expected based on the trend from 1855 through 1965. The age structure of aspen in the park indicates that the interacting effects of fires, elk population changes, and livestock grazing had more-or-less consistent effects on aspen from 1855 to 1965. The lack of a significant change in aspen numbers in recent decades in the higher elevation and west side parts of the park supports the idea that the extensive effects of elk browsing have been more important in reducing aspen numbers than other factors. The genetic variation of aspen populations in RMNP is high at the molecular level. We expected to find that most patches of aspen in the park were composed of a single clone of genetically identical trees, but in fact just 7 percent of measured aspen patches consisted of a single clone. A large frequency of polyploid (triploid and tetraploid) genotypes were found on the low elevation, east-side elk winter range. Nonregenerating aspen stands on the winter range had greater annual offtake, shorter saplings, and lower density of mid-height (1.5-2.5 m) saplings than regenerating stands. Overwinter elk browsing, however, did not appear to inhibit the leader length of aspen saplings. The winter range aspen stands of RMNP appear to be highly resilient in the face of

  15. Great Plains ASPEN model development: Phosam section. Final topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, S S; Kirman, J J

    1985-02-01

    An ASPEN model has been developed of the PHOSAM Section, Section 4600, of the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The bases for this model are the process description given in Section 6.18 of the Great Plains Project Management Plan and the Lummus Phosam Schematic Process Flow Diagram, Dwg. No. SKD-7102-IM-O. The ASPEN model that has been developed contains the complete set of components that are assumed to be in the gasifier effluent. The model is primarily a flowsheet simulation that will give the material and energy balance and equipment duties for a given set of process conditions. The model is unable to predict fully changes in process conditions that would result from load changes on equipment of fixed sizes, such as a rating model would predict. The model can be used to simulate the steady-state operation of the plant at or near design conditions or to design other PHOSAM units. Because of the limited amount of process information that was available, several major process assumptions had to be made in the development of the flowsheet model. Patent literature was consulted to establish the ammonia concentration in the circulating fluid. Case studies were made with the ammonia content of the feed 25% higher and 25% lower than the base feed. Results of these runs show slightly lower recoveries of ammonia with less ammonia in the feed. As expected, the duties of the Stripper and Fractionator reboilers were higher with more ammonia in the feed. 63 references.

  16. Adapting biomodulatory strategies for treatment in new contexts: pancreatic and oral cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbil, Sriram R.; Rizvi, Imran; Khan, Amjad P.; Celli, Jonathan P.; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Biomodulation of cancer cell metabolism represents a promising approach to overcome tumor heterogeneity and poor selectivity, which contribute significantly to treatment resistance. To date, several studies have demonstrated that modulation of cell metabolism including the heme synthesis pathway serves as an elegant approach to improve the efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the ability of biomodulation-enhanced PDT to improve outcomes in low resource settings and to address challenges in treating lethal tumors with exogenous photosensitizers remains underexplored. The ability of vitamin D or methotrexate to enhance PDT efficacy in a carcinogen-induced hamster cheek pouch model of oral squamous cell carcinoma and in 3D cell-based models for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is evaluated. Challenges associated with adapting PDT regimens to low resource settings, understanding the effects of biomodulatory agents on the metabolism of cancer cells, and the differential effects of biomodulatory agents on tumor and stromal cells will be discussed.

  17. Partial wave spectroscopic microscopy can predict prostate cancer progression and mitigate over-treatment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Graff, Taylor; Crawford, Susan; Subramanian, Hariharan; Thompson, Sebastian; Derbas, Justin R.; Lyengar, Radha; Roy, Hemant K.; Brendler, Charles B.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. While prostate specific antigen (PSA) test has been widely used for screening PC, >60% of the PSA detected cancers are indolent, leading to unnecessary clinical interventions. An alternative approach, active surveillance (AS), also suffer from high expense, discomfort and complications associated with repeat biopsies (every 1-3 years), limiting its acceptance. Hence, a technique that can differentiate indolent from aggressive PC would attenuate the harms from over-treatment. Combining microscopy with spectroscopy, our group has developed partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, which can quantify intracellular nanoscale organizations (e.g. chromatin structures) that are not accessible by conventional microscopy. PWS microscopy has previously been shown to predict the risk of cancer in seven different organs (N ~ 800 patients). Herein we use PWS measurement of label-free histologically-normal prostatic epithelium to distinguish indolent from aggressive PC and predict PC risk. Our results from 38 men with low-grade PC indicated that there is a significant increase in progressors compared to non-progressors (p=0.002, effect size=110%, AUC=0.80, sensitivity=88% and specificity=72%), while the baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different. We further improved the diagnostic power by performing nuclei-specific measurements using an automated system that separates in real-time the cell nuclei from the remaining prostate epithelium. In the long term, we envision that the PWS based prognostication can be coupled with AS without any change to the current procedure to mitigate the harms caused by over-treatment.

  18. Pixel based SHG probes of extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kirby R.; Chaudhary, Rajeev; Handel, Julia; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2017-02-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix in human ovarian cancer, can be reflected in increased collagen concentration, changes in alignment and/or up-regulation of different collagen isoforms, including Col III. Using fibrillar gel models, we demonstrate that Col I and Col III can be quantitatively distinguished by 3 distinct SHG polarization specific metrics: i) determination of helical pitch angle via the single axis molecular model, ii) dipole alignment via anisotropy, and iii) chirality via SHG circular dichroism (SHG-CD). These sub-resolution differentiations are possible due to differences in the α helix angles of the two isoforms, which co-mingle in the same fibrils. We also investigated the mechanism of the SHG-CD response and show that unlike conventional CD, it is dominated by electric dipole interactions and is consistent with the two state SHG model. We further applied these 3 polarization resolved analyses to human normal, high risk, benign tumors, and malignant human ovarian tissues. We found that these tissues could all be differentiated by these metrics, where high grade tissues had analogous α-helical pitch angles to the in the Col I/Col III gel model. This confirms literature suggestions based on immunofluorescence and gene expression that Col III is up-regulated in high grade ovarian cancers. The different tissues also displayed differing anisotropies, indicating the fibril assemblies are distinct and likely do not result from remodeling of existing collagen but synthesis of new collagen. Importantly, these SHG polarization methods provide structural information not otherwise possible and can serve as label-free biomarkers for ovarian and other cancers.

  19. COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Heinemann, Katharina; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Salamon, Achim; Linnebacher, Michael; Hinz, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The antitumorigenic mechanism of cannabidiol is still controversial. This study investigates the role of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in cannabidiol's proapoptotic and tumor-regressive action. In lung cancer cell lines (A549, H460) and primary cells from a patient with lung cancer, cannabidiol elicited decreased viability associated with apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death by cannabidiol was suppressed by NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor), GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist), and siRNA targeting COX-2 and PPAR-γ. Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis was paralleled by upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ mRNA and protein expression with a maximum induction of COX-2 mRNA after 8 hours and continuous increases of PPAR-γ mRNA when compared with vehicle. In response to cannabidiol, tumor cell lines exhibited increased levels of COX-2-dependent prostaglandins (PG) among which PGD(2) and 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) caused a translocation of PPAR-γ to the nucleus and induced a PPAR-γ-dependent apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in A549-xenografted nude mice, cannabidiol caused upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in tumor tissue and tumor regression that was reversible by GW9662. Together, our data show a novel proapoptotic mechanism of cannabidiol involving initial upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ and a subsequent nuclear translocation of PPAR-γ by COX-2-dependent PGs.

  20. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of endogenous molecules in live mouse cancer models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svindrych, Zdenek; Wang, Tianxiong; Hu, Song; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2017-02-01

    NADH and FAD are important endogenous fluorescent coenzymes participating in key enzymatic reactions of cellular metabolism. While fluorescence intensities of NADH and FAD have been used to determine the redox state of cells and tissues, this simple approach breaks down in the case of deep-tissue intravital imaging due to depth- and wavelength-dependent light absorption and scattering. To circumvent this limitation, our research focuses on fluorescence lifetimes of two-photon excited NADH and FAD emission to study the metabolic state of live tissues. In our custom-built scanning microscope we combine tunable femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (operating at 740 nm for NADH excitation and 890 nm for FAD excitation), two GaAsP hybrid detectors for registering individual fluorescence photons and two Becker and Hickl time correlator boards for high precision lifetime measurements. Together with our rigorous FLIM analysis approach (including image segmentation, multi-exponential decay fitting and detailed statistical analysis) we are able to detect metabolic changes in cancer xenografts (human pancreatic cancer MPanc96 cells injected subcutaneously into the ear of an immunodeficient nude mouse), relative to surrounding healthy tissue. Advantageously, with the same instrumentation we can also take high-resolution and high-contrast images of second harmonic signal (SHG) originating from collagen fibers of both the healthy skin and the growing tumor. The combination of metabolic measurements (NADH and FAD lifetime) and morphological information (collagen SHG) allows us to follow the tumor growth in live mouse model and the changes in tumor microenvironment.

  1. Optical metabolic imaging measures early drug response in an allograft murine breast cancer model (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharick, Joe T.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    Previous work has shown that cellular-level Optical Metabolic Imaging (OMI) of organoids derived from human breast cancer cell-line xenografts accurately and rapidly predicts in vivo response to therapy. To validate OMI as a predictive measure of treatment response in an immune-competent model, we used the polyomavirus middle-T (PyVmT) transgenic mouse breast cancer model. The PyVmT model includes intra-tumoral heterogeneity and a complex tumor microenvironment that can influence treatment responses. Three-dimensional organoids generated from primary PyVmT tumor tissue were treated with a chemotherapy (paclitaxel) and a PI3K inhibitor (XL147), each alone or in combination. Cellular subpopulations of response were measured using the OMI Index, a composite endpoint of metabolic response comprised of the optical redox ratio (ratio of the fluorescence intensities of metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H to FAD) as well as the fluorescence lifetimes of NAD(P)H and FAD. Combination treatment significantly decreased the OMI Index of PyVmT tumor organoids (padaptive immunity. Thus, this method is promising for use in humans to predict long-term treatment responses accurately and rapidly, and could aid in clinical treatment planning.

  2. Pluripotent Stem Cell Protein Sox2 Confers Sensitivity to LSD1 Inhibition in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification of Sox2 at 3q26.33 is a common event in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs of the lung and esophagus, as well as several other cancers. Here, we show that the expression of LSD1/KDM1 histone demethylase is significantly elevated in Sox2-expressing lung SCCs. LSD1-specific inhibitors selectively impair the growth of Sox2-expressing lung SCCs, but not that of Sox2-negative cells. Sox2 expression is associated with sensitivity to LSD1 inhibition in lung, breast, ovarian, and other carcinoma cells. Inactivation of LSD1 reduces Sox2 expression, promotes G1 cell-cycle arrest, and induces genes for differentiation by selectively modulating the methylation states of histone H3 at lysines 4 (H3K4 and 9 (H3K9. Reduction of Sox2 further suppresses Sox2-dependent lineage-survival oncogenic potential, elevates trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27 and enhances growth arrest and cellular differentiation. Our studies suggest that LSD1 serves as a selective epigenetic target for therapy in Sox2-expressing cancers.

  3. Exosomal transfer of stroma-derived miR21 confers paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells through targeting APAF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yeung, Chi Lam; Co, Ngai-Na; Tsuruga, Tetsushi; Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Kwan, Suet-Ying; Leung, Cecilia S; Li, Yong; Lu, Edward S; Kwan, Kenny; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Lu, Karen H; Mok, Samuel C

    2016-03-29

    Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the visceral adipose tissue of the omentum. However, the omental stromal cell-derived molecular determinants that modulate ovarian cancer growth have not been characterized. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we identify significantly higher levels of microRNA-21 (miR21) isomiRNAs in exosomes and tissue lysates isolated from cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs) and fibroblasts (CAFs) than in those from ovarian cancer cells. Functional studies reveal that miR21 is transferred from CAAs or CAFs to the cancer cells, where it suppresses ovarian cancer apoptosis and confers chemoresistance by binding to its direct novel target, APAF1. These data suggest that the malignant phenotype of metastatic ovarian cancer cells can be altered by miR21 delivered by exosomes derived from neighbouring stromal cells in the omental tumour microenvironment, and that inhibiting the transfer of stromal-derived miR21 is an alternative modality in the treatment of metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer.

  4. A lipid-based nano-regulator for cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuan; Qiao, Sha; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-02-01

    In the application of nanotechnology in cancer immunotherapy, antigen presenting cells (APCs, dendritic cells and macrophages) are preferable target due to their endocytic capacity and suppressed phenotype. Recently, we developed a lipid-based core-shell nanocarrier, which is stabilized by changeable fusion peptides and possesses a sub-30 diameter. With the different peptides, the nanoparticles (NPs) could either target to dendritic cells (DCs) in lymph nodes (LNs) or tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor environment. After subcutaneous injection, the NPs could targeted deliver the encapsulated antigen peptides (APs) and adjuvants (CpG-ODN) to dendritic cells in LNs, and lead to the antigen presenting and activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against tumor. In other case, after systemic administration, the immune regulatory molecules were carried by NPs and targeting delivered to specific immunocytes in tumor microenvironment resulting in the immunosuppressive state broken and tumor growth inhibition.

  5. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  6. Dual-modality smartphone endoscope for cervical pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiangqian; Yu, Bing

    2017-02-01

    Early detection is the key to the prevention of cervical cancer. There is an urgent need for a portable, affordable, and easy-to-use device for cervical pre-cancer detection, especially in low-resource settings. We have developed a dual-modality fiber-optic endoscope system (SmartME) that integrates high-resolution fluorescence imaging (FLI) and quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) onto a smartphone platform. The SmartME consists of a smartphone, a miniature fiber-optic endoscope, a phone attachment containing imaging optics, and a smartphone application (app). FLI is obtained by painting the tissue with a contrast agent (e.g., proflavine), illuminating the tissue and collecting its fluorescence images through an imaging bundle that is coupled to the phone camera. DRS is achieved by using a white LED, attaching additional source and detection fibers to the imaging bundle, and converting the phone camera into a spectrometer. The app collects images/spectra and transmits them to a remote server for analysis to extract the tissue parameters, including nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio (calculated from FLI), concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) as well as scattering (measured by DRS). These parameters can be used to detect cervical dysplasia. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated that the SmartME can clearly visualize the nuclei in living cells and in vivo biological samples, with a high spatial resolution of 3.1μm. The device can also measure tissue absorption and scattering properties with comparable accuracy to those of a benchtop DRS system. The SmartME has great potential to provide a compact, affordable, and `smart' solution for early detection of neoplastic changes in cervix.

  7. ISOCT study of collagen crosslinking of collagen in cancer models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Graham; Young, Scott T.; Yi, Ji; Shea, Lonnie D.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    The role of extracellular matrix modification and signaling in cancer progression is an increasingly recognized avenue for the progression of the disease. Previous study of field effect carcinogenesis with Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (ISOCT) has revealed pronounced changes in the nanoscale-sensitive mass fractal dimension D measured from field effect tissue when compared to healthy tissue. However, the origin of this difference in tissue ultrastructure in field effect carcinogenesis has remained poorly understood. Here, we present findings supporting the idea that enzymatic crosslinking of the extracellular matrix is an effect that presents at the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. We use a model of collagen gel with crosslinking induced by lysyl oxidase (LOXL4) to recapitulate the difference in D previously reported from healthy and cancerous tissue biopsies. Furthermore, STORM imaging of this collagen gel model verifies the morphologic effects of enzymatic crosslinking at length scales as small as 40 nm, close to the previously reported lower length scale sensitivity threshold of 35 nm for ISOCT. Analysis of the autocorrelation function from STORM images of collagen gels and subsequent fitting to the Whittle-Matérn correlation function shows a similar effect of LOXL4 on D from collagen measured with ISOCT and STORM. We extend this to mass spectrometric study of tissue to directly measure concentrations of collagen crosslink residues. The validation of ISOCT as a viable tool for non-invasive rapid quantification of collagen ultrastructure lends it to study other physiological phenomena involving ECM restructuring such as atherosclerotic plaque screening or cervical ripening during pregnancy.

  8. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  9. Impact of ozone on understory plants of the aspen zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harward, M.R.; Treshow, M.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn how ozone might affect the growth and reproduction of understory species of the aspen community, and thereby influence its stability and composition. Plants of 15 representative species of the aspen community were grown in chambers and fumigated 4 hours each day, 5 days per week throughout their growing seasons. These included: Achillea millifolium, Chenopodium album, Chenopodium fremontii, Cruciferae sp., Descurainia pinnata, Descurainia sp., Geranium fremontii, Isatis tinctoria, Ligusticum porteri, Lepidium virginicum, Madia glomerata, Polygonum aviculare, Polygonum douglasii, Phacelia heterophylla, Viola italica. Plants were exposed to 30 pphm, 15 pphm, ambient air reaching 5-7 pphm for 2 hours per day, and filtered air. The study was repeated for 3 seasons. Ambient air caused a significant reduction of total plant weight only of Lepidium virginicum. Six species produced fruit and seeds. At 15 pphm, seed production by Madia glomerata and Polygonum douglasii was significantly reduced. At 30 pphm, seed production was also reduced in Polygonum aviculare and Lepidium virginicum. The two most significant conclusions to emerge from the study were first that several species were more sensitive to ozone than might have been suspected. Second, this sensitivity varied sufficiently that major shifts in community composition would be probable following only a year or two of exposure. More tolerant species have no doubt already become dominant over more sensitive species in natural plant communities exposed to elevated ozone concentrations. It must be stressed that the species studied did not necessarily represent the most ozone sensitive members of the community, or the most tolerant.

  10. A sequence variant at 4p16.3 confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Stacey, Simon N; Gudmundsson, Julius; Zanon, Carlo; Kostic, Jelena; Masson, Gisli; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Palsson, Stefan T; Skarphedinsson, Oskar B; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Bishop, D Timothy; Sak, Sei Chung; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H; Hurst, Carolyn D; de Verdier, Petra J; Ryk, Charlotta; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Campagna, Marcello; Placidi, Donatella; Arici, Cecilia; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kellen, Eliane; Gutierrez, Berta Saez; Sanz-Velez, José I; Sanchez-Zalabardo, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Hengstler, Jan G; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Dietrich, Holger; Ophoff, Roel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Alexiusdottir, Kristin; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Kong, Augustine; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Mungan, N Aydin; Lindblom, Annika; van Es, Michael A; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Matullo, Giuseppe; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E; Aben, Katja K H; Jonsson, Eirikur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Knowles, Margaret A; Rafnar, Thorunn; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-05-01

    Previously, we reported germline DNA variants associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in Dutch and Icelandic subjects. Here we expanded the Icelandic sample set and tested the top 20 markers from the combined analysis in several European case-control sample sets, with a total of 4,739 cases and 45,549 controls. The T allele of rs798766 on 4p16.3 was found to associate with UBC (odds ratio = 1.24, P = 9.9 x 10(-12)). rs798766 is located in an intron of TACC3, 70 kb from FGFR3, which often harbors activating somatic mutations in low-grade, noninvasive UBC. Notably, rs798766[T] shows stronger association with low-grade and low-stage UBC than with more aggressive forms of the disease and is associated with higher risk of recurrence in low-grade stage Ta tumors. The frequency of rs798766[T] is higher in Ta tumors that carry an activating mutation in FGFR3 than in Ta tumors with wild-type FGFR3. Our results show a link between germline variants, somatic mutations of FGFR3 and risk of UBC.

  11. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrera, Rolando; Salazar, Carlos; Pérez, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    .... The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated...

  12. Best Practices Case Study: Shaw Construction Burlingame Ranch Ph.1, Aspen, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Shaw Construction built 84 energy efficient, affordable condominiums forthe City of Aspen that achieved HERS scores of less than 62 with help from Building America’s research team lead Building Science Corporation.

  13. Thinning Pole-Sized Aspen Has no Effect on Number of Veneer Trees or Total Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Stanley B. Ringlod

    1971-01-01

    Thinning 37-year-old aspen in north central Minnesota did not increase either total volume production or the number of veneer-sized trees after 10 years. Thinning is not recommended for stands nearing rotation age.

  14. Effects of elevated CO2 and ozone on phenolic glycosides of trembling aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Nitao; Muraleedharan G. Nair; William J. Mattson; Daniel A. Herms; Bruce A. Birr; Mark D. Coleman; Terry M. Trier; J. G. Isebrands

    1996-01-01

    We tested the effects of elevated CO2 and ozone on concentrations of the phenolic glycosides salicortin and tremulacin in immature and mature foliage of the trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) clones 216, 259, and 271.

  15. Elevated CO2 response of photosynthesis depends on ozone concentration in aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asko Noormets; Olevi Kull; Anu Sober; Mark E. Kubiske; David F. Karnosky

    2010-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 and O3 on apparent quantum yield (ø), maximum photosynthesis (Pmax), carboxylation efficiency (Vcmax) and electron transport capacity (Jmax) at different canopy locations was studied in two aspen (Populus...

  16. Heartrot fungi's role in creating picid nesting sites in living aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Hart; D. L. Hart

    2001-01-01

    To determine the number of cavity-containing aspens in old-growth (>80 years), we counted the number of stems containing cavities in 132 0.02-ha plots in Wyoming. There were 8.7 cavities/ha of aspen type. At least 84% of the cavity stems were alive when the initial cavity was constructed; 60% were alive when examined. Fruiting bodies and Phellinus tremulae (a...

  17. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    KOEDUKA, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; UMEZAWA, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eug...

  18. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided smart laser knife for cancer surgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katta, Nitesh; Mcelroy, Austin; Estrada, Arnold; Milner, Thomas E.

    2017-02-01

    Neurological cancer surgeries require specialized tools that enhance imaging for precise cutting and removal of tissue without damaging adjacent neurological structures. The novel combination of high-resolution fast optical coherence tomography (OCT) alongside short pulsed nanosecond thulium (Tm) lasers offers stark advantages utilizing the superior beam quality, high volumetric tissue removal rates of thulium lasers with minimal residual thermal footprint in the tissue and avoiding damage to delicate sub-surface structures (e.g., nerves and microvessels); which has not been showcased before. A bench-top system is constructed, using a 15W 1940nm nanosecond pulsed Tm fiber laser (500uJ pulse energy, 100ns pulse duration, 30kHz repetition rate) for removing tissue and a swept source laser (1310±70nm, 100kHz sweep rate) is utilized for OCT imaging, forming a combined Tm/OCT system - a smart laser knife. The OCT image-guidance informs the Tm laser for cutting/removal of targeted tissue structures. Tissue phantoms were constructed to demonstrate surgical incision with blood vessel avoidance on the surface where 2mm wide 600um deep cuts are executed around the vessel using OCT to guide the procedure. Cutting up to delicate subsurface blood vessels (2mm deep) is demonstrated while avoiding damage to their walls. A tissue removal rate of 5mm^3/sec is obtained from the bench-top system. We constructed a blow-off model to characterize Tm cut depths taking into account the absorption coefficients and beam delivery systems to compute Arrhenius damage integrals. The model is used to compare predicted tissue removal rate and residual thermal injury with experimental values in response to Tm laser-tissue modification.

  19. Techniques for thyroid FNA: a synopsis of the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration State of the Science Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Martha Bishop; Abele, John; Ali, Syed Z; Duick, Dan; Elsheikh, Tarik M; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Powers, Celeste N; Randolph, Gregory; Renshaw, Andrew; Scoutt, Leslie

    2008-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored the NCI Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) State of the Science Conference on October 22-23, 2007 in Bethesda, MD. The 2-day meeting was accompanied by a permanent informational website and several on-line discussion periods between May 1 and December 15, 2007 (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov). This document summarizes matters addressing manual and ultrasound guided FNA technique and related issues. Specific topics covered include details regarding aspiration needles, devices, and methods, including the use of core needle biopsy; the pros and cons of anesthesia; the influence of thyroid lesion location, size, and characteristics on technique; the role of ultrasound in the FNA of a palpable thyroid nodule; the advantages and disadvantages of various specialists performing a biopsy; the optimal number of passes and tissue preparation methods; sample adequacy criteria for solid and cystic nodules, and management of adverse reactions from the procedure. (http://thyroidfna.cancer.gov/pages/info/agenda/)

  20. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  2. Predation risk, elk, and aspen: tests of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnie, John A

    2012-12-01

    Aspen in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are hypothesized to be recovering from decades of heavy browsing by elk due to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade (BMTC). Several authors have suggested that wolves interact with certain terrain features, creating places of high predation risk at fine spatial scales, and that elk avoid these places, which creates refugia for plants. This hypothesized BMTC could release aspen from elk browsing pressure, leading to a patchy recovery in places of high risk. I tested whether four specific, hypothesized fine-scale risk factors are correlated with changes in current elk browsing pressure on aspen, or with aspen recruitment since wolf reintroduction, in the Daly Creek drainage in Yellowstone National Park, and near two aspen enclosures outside of the park boundary. Aspen were not responding to hypothesized fine-scale risk factors in ways consistent with the current BMTC hypothesis.

  3. Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E-selectin-induced activation of the PI3K-NFκB survival axis downstream of Death receptor-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquet Éric R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells. It requires interactions between adhesion receptors on endothelial cells and their counter-receptors on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin, a major endothelial adhesion receptor, interacts with Death receptor-3 present on metastatic colon carcinoma cells. This interaction confers metastatic properties to colon cancer cells by promoting the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells and triggering the activation of the pro-migratory p38 and pro-survival ERK pathways in the cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated further the mechanisms by which the E-selectin-activated pathways downstream of DR3 confer a survival advantage to colon cancer cells. Methods Cell survival has been ascertained by using the WST-1 assay and by evaluating the activation of the PI3 kinase/NFκB survival axis. Apoptosis has been assayed by determining DNA fragmentation by Hoechst staining and by measuring cleavage of caspases-8 and -3. DR3 isoforms have been identified by PCR. For more precise quantification, targeted PCR reactions were carried out, and the amplified products were analyzed by automated chip-based microcapillary electrophoresis on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer instrument. Results Interaction between DR3-expressing HT29 colon carcinoma cells and E-selectin induces the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, p65/RelA, the anti-apoptotic subunit of NFκB, is rapidly translocated to the nucleus in response to E-selectin. This translocation is impaired by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway increases the cleavage of caspase 8 in colon cancer cells treated with E-selectin and this effect is still further increased when both ERK and PI3K pathways are concomitantly inhibited. Intriguingly, metastatic colon cancer cell lines such as HT

  4. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  5. CONFERENCE CALENDAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2014-01-01

    .... 2nd Annual Integrated Health Conference March 20-22, 2015-Town and Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California The Integrated Health Conference provides the latest in integrative...

  6. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir United States Cancer Statistics The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS): Incidence and ...

  7. Conference Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, W. Warner, Ed.; Beckhard, Richard, Ed.

    This book, written to instruct in the use of a conference as a medium of social intercourse, is divided into four sections. Section I, which contains five articles, deals with factors to be considered in planning a conference. Specific techniques one can employ to improve a conference and several different techniques for evaluating the…

  8. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J.; Brodie, Jedediah F.; Jules, Erik S.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  9. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane Wagner; Linda DeFoliart; Patricia Doak; Jenny Schneiderheinze

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of Phyllocnistis populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual apsen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was...

  10. 75 FR 2552 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference: Enhancing Use and Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Quality of Colorectal Cancer Screening Notice is hereby given by the National Institutes of Health (NIH... one type of polyp, known as an adenoma, can develop into colorectal cancer. Screening tests for... early cancer in people who have no symptoms. A range of colorectal cancer screening tests is available...

  11. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicochemical properties of the compounds and the operating conditions of equipment were developed using the simulator Aspen® and supplementary information. The main aspects of the engine working conditions were considered such as diesel-biodiesel ratio, air/fuel mixture, temperature of the combustion gases and heat load. Diesel physicochemical specifications were taken from reports of PEMEX and SENER. Methyl esters corresponding to the transesterification of fatty acids that comprise castor oil were regarded as representative molecules of biodiesel obtained from chromatographic analysis. The results include CO2, water vapor, combustion efficiency, power and lower calorific value of fuels.

  12. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 allocates carbon into wood fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Niittylä, Totte

    2013-12-01

    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H(+) symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after (13)CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more (13)C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers.

  13. Stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddling, Johan, E-mail: johan.uddling@dpes.gu.s [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 461, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Hogg, Alan J. [Sweetland Writing Center, University of Michigan, 434 S. State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, 2455 Hayward, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Teclaw, Ronald M. [USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Institute for Applied Ecosystem Studies, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Carroll, Mary Anne [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, 2455 Hayward, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ellsworth, David S. [Centre for Plant and Food Science, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC NSW 1797 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may alleviate the toxicological impacts of concurrently rising tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) during the present century if higher CO{sub 2} is accompanied by lower stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), as assumed by many models. We investigated how elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, alone and in combination, affected the accumulated stomatal flux of O{sub 3} (AFst) by canopies and sun leaves in closed aspen and aspen-birch forests in the free-air CO{sub 2}-O{sub 3} enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Stomatal conductance for O{sub 3} was derived from sap flux data and AFst was estimated either neglecting or accounting for the potential influence of non-stomatal leaf surface O{sub 3} deposition. Leaf-level AFst (AFst{sub l}) was not reduced by elevated CO{sub 2}. Instead, there was a significant CO{sub 2} x O{sub 3} interaction on AFst{sub l}, as a consequence of lower values of g{sub s} in control plots and the combination treatment than in the two single-gas treatments. In addition, aspen leaves had higher AFst{sub l} than birch leaves, and estimates of AFst{sub l} were not very sensitive to non-stomatal leaf surface O{sub 3} deposition. Our results suggest that model projections of large CO{sub 2}-induced reductions in g{sub s} alleviating the adverse effect of rising tropospheric O{sub 3} may not be reasonable for northern hardwood forests. - Stomatal ozone flux in aspen and aspen-birch forests was not reduced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration.

  14. Effects of long-term (10 years) exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 on trembling Aspen carbon and nitrogen metabolism at the aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) study site [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S. Long; S. Minocha; P Marquardt; M. Kubiske

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (10 years) effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the carbon and nitrogen metabolism of aspen trees. The study was conducted at the Aspen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental site, Rhinelander, WI, (USA).

  15. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co......-processing aspen wood and neat glycerol led to a significant reduction in the char yield, and glycerol is hypothesized to act as a radical scavenger, alleviating re-polymerization of especially lignin-derived fragments. In the temperature range of 380–420 °C, it was found that biocrude and char yield, and biocrude...... quality were all invariant to the reaction temperature. By increasing the crude glycerol to aspen wood mass ratio from 0:1 to 3:1, char yield was decreased from 18.3% (only aspen wood) to 3.4%. Furthermore, the biocrude quality in terms of the effective hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/Ceff) was significantly...

  16. Phenology and climate relationships in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forest and woodland communities of southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gretchen A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Evelsizer, Ross J.; Vogelmann, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) occurs over wide geographical, latitudinal, elevational, and environmental gradients, making it a favorable candidate for a study of phenology and climate relationships. Aspen forests and woodlands provide numerous ecosystem services, such as high primary productivity and biodiversity, retention and storage of environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, snow–water equivalent) that affect the spring and fall phenology of the aspen woodland communities of southwestern Colorado. We assessed the land surface phenology of aspen woodlands using two phenology indices, start of season time (SOST) and end of season time (EOST), from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database of conterminous U.S. phenological indicators over an 11-year time period (2001–2011). These indicators were developed with 250 m resolution remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer processed to highlight vegetation response. We compiled data on SOST, EOST, elevation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow water equivalent (SWE) for selected sites having more than 80% cover by aspen woodland communities. In the 11-year time frame of our study, EOST had significant positive correlation with minimum fall temperature and significant negative correlation with fall precipitation. SOST had a significant positive correlation with spring SWE and spring maximum temperature.

  17. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  18. Bioenergy harvest impacts to biodiversity and resilience vary across aspen-dominated forest ecosystems in the Lake States region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda T. Curzon; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kris Verheyen

    2016-01-01

    Questions: Does the increase in disturbance associated with removing harvest residues negatively impact biodiversity and resilience in aspen-dominated forest ecosystems? How do responses of functional diversity measures relate to community recovery and standing biomass? Location: Aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.) mixedwood forests in Minnesota...

  19. Moderate-scale mapping methods of aspen stand types: a case study for Cedar Mountain in southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Oukrop; David M. Evans; Dale L. Bartos; R. Douglas Ramsey; Ronald J. Ryel

    2011-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are the most widely distributed tree species across North America, but its dominance is declining in many areas of the western United States, with certain areas experiencing rapid mortality events over the past decade. The loss of aspen from western landscapes will continue to profoundly impact biological, commercial, and...

  20. Earthworms, arthropods and plant litter decomposition in aspen (Populus tremuloides) and lodgepole pine(Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Timothy R. Seastedt; Zugeily Donato

    2003-01-01

    We compared the abundance and community composition of earthworms, soil macroarthropods, and litter microarthropods to test faunal effects on plant litter decomposition rates in two forests in the subalpine in Colorado, USA. Litterbags containing recently senesced litter of Populus tremuloides (aspen) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) were placed in aspen and pine...

  1. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  2. Nostradamus conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; Nostradamus: Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

  3. Scale dependence of disease impacts on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on how disease impacts tree exposure to risk, both the prevalence of disease and disease effects on survival may contribute to patterns of mortality risk across a species' range. Disease may accelerate tree species' declines in response to global change factors, such as drought, biotic interactions, such as competition, or functional traits, such as allometry. To assess the role of disease in mediating mortality risk in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), we developed hierarchical Bayesian models for both disease prevalence in live aspen stems and the resulting survival rates of healthy and diseased aspen near the species' southern range limit using 5088 individual trees on 281 United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in the southwestern United States.

  4. Harvesting overmature aspen stands in central Alberta. FERIC special report No. SR-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B.; Evans, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    Describes a project undertaken to examine the performance of feller-bunchers, grapple skidders, roadside delimbers, and slashers operating in overmature aspen stands in central Alberta. The project aimed at providing the forest industry with information for projecting productivities and costs of harvesting overmature aspen stands. The investigators measured machine productivity in aspen stands of different characteristics, as well as fibre losses from excessive butt rot, upper stem defects, and conversion of tree-length stems into 2.6-metre logs. The field data provided input for determining operating cost and projected machine productivity as functions of tree size or skidding distance. The report also discusses the impact on cost of harvesting decaying stands.

  5. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  6. Modeling Carbon Dioxide Capture by Monoethanolamine Solvent with ASPEN Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tianyi

    Fossil fuels provide approximately 80% of the world's energy demands. Methods for reducing CO2 emissions resulting from fossil fuels include increasing the efficiency of power plants and production processes, decreasing energy demands, in combination with CO2 capture and long term storage (CCS). CO2 capture technologies include post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. The amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant was studied in this thesis. In case of post-combustion capture, CO2 can be captured by Monoethanolamine solvent (MEA), a primary ethanolamine. MEA can associate with H3O+ to form an ion MEAH+, and can react with CO2 to form a carbonate ion MEACOO-. Commercial code ASPEN Plus was used to simulate the process of CO2 capture and optimize the process parameters and required energy duty. The major part of thermal energy requirement is from the Absorber and Stripper columns. This suggests that process optimization should focus on the Absorption/Desorption process. Optimization results show that the gas-liquid reaction equilibrium is affected by several operating parameters including solvent flow rate, stream temperature, column operating pressure, flue gas composition, solvent concentration and absorber design. With optimized CO2 capture, the energy consumption for solvent regeneration (reboiler thermal duty) was decreased from 5.76 GJ/ton captured CO2 to 4.56 GJ/t CO2. On the other hand, the cost of CO2 capture (and sequestration) could be reduced by limiting size of the Absorber column and operating pressure.

  7. Wood Quality and Growth Characterization across Intra- and Inter-Specific Hybrid Aspen Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D. Mansfield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. is one of the most abundant poplar species in North America; it is native, displays substantial breadth in distribution inhabiting several geographical and climatic ecoregions, is notable for its rapid growth, and is ecologically and economically important. As the demand for raw material continues to increase rapidly, there is a pressing need to improve both tree quality and growth rates via breeding efforts. Hybridization is considered one of the most promising options to simultaneously accelerate these tree characteristics, as it takes advantage of heterosis. Two aspen species showing particular promise for hybridization with trembling aspen are European aspen (P. tremula and Chinese aspen (P. davidiana because their native climates are similar to that of P. tremuloides and are also very easy to hybridize. In 2003, aspen clones were planted in Athabasca, Alberta from the following species crosses: open pollinated (OP P. tremuloides (NN, OP P. davidiana (CC, P. tremula × P. tremula (EE, P. tremula × P. tremuloides (EN, and P. tremuloides × P. davidiana (CN. In November 2010, growth measurements and core samples were taken from seven-year field grown clones. Comparisons of the mean growth and cell wall traits were made between crosses using generalized linear model least squares means tests for stem volume, fiber length, fiber width, coarseness, wood density, microfibril angle, total cell wall carbohydrate and lignin content, and lignin composition. The results clearly indicated that the inter-specific crosses offer a means to breed for more desirable wood characteristics than the intra-specific Populus spp. crosses.

  8. Linc-ROR confers gemcitabine resistance to pancreatic cancer cells via inducing autophagy and modulating the miR-124/PTBP1/PKM2 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenggang; Zhao, Zhiming; Zhou, Zhipeng; Liu, Rong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the regulation of linc-ROR on autophagy and gemcitabine resistance of pancreatic cancer cells and further studied the underlying involvement of the miR-124/PTBP1/PKM2 axis in this regulation. Pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells were used as in vitro model. Autophagy was assessed by western blot of LC3 I/II and observation GFP-LC3 puncta. Cell viability was examined using CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V/PI staining. QRT-PCR, RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and dual luciferase assay were used to study the expression and the binding between linc-ROR and miR-124. Linc-ROR siRNA significantly sensitized PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 cells to gemcitabine, while linc-ROR overexpression significantly reduced the sensitivity. Linc-ROR knockdown reduced basal autophagy, while linc-ROR overexpression markedly increased basal autophagy in the cells. Linc-ROR siRNA showed similar effect as 3-MA on enhancing gemcitabine-induced cell apoptosis and also reduced PKM2 expression. MiR-124 overexpression restored PKM1 and reduced PKM2 levels in the cells. In addition, miR-124 mimics also alleviated autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells. Both miR-124 mimics and PKM2 siRNA enhanced gemcitabine-induced cell apoptosis. In both pancreatic cell lines and PADC tissues, linc-ROR is negatively correlated with miR-124 expression. In addition, dual luciferase assay verified two 8mer binding sites between miR-124 and linc-ROR. Linc-ROR confers gemcitabine resistance to pancreatic cancer cells at least partly via inducing autophagy. There is a linc-ROR/miR-124/PTBP1/PKM2 axis involved in regulation of gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells.

  9. miR-338-3p confers 5-fluorouracil resistance in p53 mutant colon cancer cells by targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia; Li, Jie; Tang, Kaijie; Zhang, Huahua; Guo, Bo; Hou, Ni; Huang, Chen

    2017-11-15

    Evidence demonstrate that p53 mutations and microRNAs (miRs) are important components of 5-FU resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). miR-338-3p has been reported associated with cancer prognosis. However whether or not it influences chemotherapy sensitivity and the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, three types of human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 (mutant p53), HCT116 (wild-type p53), and HCT116 p53-/- (deficient p53), were treated with 5-FU. We showed that expression of miR-338-3p was correlated with apoptosis and 5-FU resistance in colon cancer cells. Ectopic expression of miR-338-3p conferred resistance to 5-FU in HCT116 cells. Further experiments indicated that miR-338-3p mediated 5-FU resistance through down-regulation of mTOR expression. Moreover, inhibition of miR-338-3p in HT29 and HCT116 p53-/- cells increased their sensitivity to 5-FU treatment. Furthermore, we detected autophagy changes in our experiment because mTOR was known prominently regulating autophagy and the competition between autophagy and apoptosis in response to 5-FU was a mechanism influencing 5-FU sensitivity. Our results reveal a critical and novel role of miR-338-3p in the correlation of 5-FU resistance with p53 status. Moreover, the miR-338-3p inhibitor has the potential to overcome 5-FU resistance in p53 mutant colon cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conifer expansion reduces the competitive ability and herbivore defense of aspen by modifying light environment and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, W John; Horn, Kevin J; St Clair, Samuel B

    2011-06-01

    Disturbance patterns strongly influence plant community structure. What remains less clear, particularly at a mechanistic level, is how changes in disturbance cycles alter successional outcomes in plant communities. There is evidence that fire suppression is resulting in longer fire return intervals in subalpine forests and that these lengthened intervals increase competitive interactions between aspen and conifer species. We conducted a field and greenhouse study to compare photosynthesis, growth and defense responses of quaking aspen and subalpine fir regeneration under light reductions and shifts in soil chemistry that occur as conifers increase in dominance. The studies demonstrated that aspen regeneration was substantially more sensitive to light and soil resource limitations than that of subalpine fir. For aspen, light reductions and/or shifts in soil chemistry limited height growth, biomass gain, photosynthesis and the production of defense compounds (phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins). Biomass gain and phenolic glycoside concentrations were co-limited by light reduction and changes in soil chemistry. In contrast, subalpine fir seedlings tended to be more tolerant of low light conditions and showed no sensitivity to changes in soil chemistry. Unlike aspen, subalpine fir increased its root to shoot ratio on conifer soils, which may partially explain its maintenance of growth and defense. The results suggest that increasing dominance of conifers in subalpine forests alters light conditions and soil chemistry in a way that places greater physiological and growth constraints on aspen than subalpine fir, with a likely outcome being more successful recruitment of conifers and losses in aspen cover.

  11. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed description of how to implement this integration. The interface between Matlab and Aspen Plus is accomplished by sending the relevant information from Aspen Plus to Excel, which feeds the information to a Matlab routine. Once the Matlab routine processes the information, it is returned to Excel and to Aspen Plus. This paper includes the Excel and Matlab template files so the reader can implement their own simulations. By applying the protocol described here, a hybrid distillation-vapor permeation system has been simulated as an example of the applications that can be implemented. For the hybrid system, the effect of membrane selectivity on membrane area and reboiler duty for the partial dehydration of ethanol is studied. Very high selectivities are not necessarily required for an optimum hybrid distillation and vapor permeation system.

  12. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed description of how to implement this integration. The interface between Matlab and Aspen Plus is accomplished by sending the relevant information from Aspen Plus to Excel, which feeds the information to a Matlab routine. Once the Matlab routine processes the information, it is returned to Excel and to Aspen Plus. This paper includes the Excel and Matlab template files so the reader can implement their own simulations. By applying the protocol described here, a hybrid distillation-vapor permeation system has been simulated as an example of the applications that can be implemented. For the hybrid system, the effect of membrane selectivity on membrane area and reboiler duty for the partial dehydration of ethanol is studied. Very high selectivities are not necessarily required for an optimum hybrid distillation and vapor permeation system.

  13. Aberrant expression of STYK1 and E-cadherin confer a poor prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Ma, Chao; Bian, Yun; Shao, Chengwei; Wang, Tiegong; Li, Jing; Chong, Xiaodan; Su, Li; Lu, Jianping

    2017-12-19

    Previous studies showed that aberrant Serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1 (STYK1, also known as NOK) or/and E-cadherin were involved in the progression of some types of human cancers. However, whether they contributed to the development of pancreatic cancer was unknown. Here, we investigated the prognostic significance of aberrant STYK1 and E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer. Our results showed that STYK1 expression increased while E-cadherin decreased in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with normal pancreas tissues. STYK1 level was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage in pancreatic cancer patients. E-cadherin expression was inversely correlated with STYK1 expression in pancreatic cancer tissue samples. Patients with high STYK1 and low E-cadherin expression had the worst prognosis. In addition, STYK1 knockdown in pancreatic cancer cell lines inhibited cell proliferation, enhanced cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest, and prohibited cell migration, while STYK1 over-expression showed the opposite effects. Silencing STYK1 also increased E-cadherin expression and inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and p-p38 expression in vitro. Over-expression had showed the opposite trends, and treatment with p38 inhibitor, SB203580, could reverse the trends. Thus, STYK1 repressed E-cadherin expression and promoted EMT, mediated by p38 MAPK signaling pathway, which was the possible mechanism for STYK1-mediated pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration. In summary, our results showed that STYK1 might be a prognostic marker for pancreatic cancer patients and might be a novel strategy for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  14. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections.

  15. ASPEN Plus in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum: Suitable Course Content and Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstraw, David A.

    2005-01-01

    An established methodology involving the sequential presentation of five skills on ASPEN Plus to undergraduate seniors majoring in ChE is presented in this document: (1) specifying unit operations; (2) manipulating physical properties; (3) accessing variables; (4) specifying nonstandard components; and (5) applying advanced features. This…

  16. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  17. Influence of climate on the growth of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Colorado and southern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Dudley; Jose Negron; N. A. Tisserat; W. D. Shepperd; W. R. Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a series of increment cores collected from 260 adult dominant or co-dominant quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) trees from national forests across Colorado and southern Wyoming in 2009 and 2010. Half of the cores were collected from trees in stands with a high amount of crown dieback, and half were from lightly damaged stands. We define the level of...

  18. The extent and characteristics of low-productivity aspen areas in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen L. Lundgren; Jerold T. Hahn

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of inventory plots from Wisconsin's forest survey showed that 18% of the state's 3.7 million acres of aspen type was producing less than a quarter of potential volume yields and 47% was producing less than half of potential volume yields.

  19. 78 FR 46312 - Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Colorado Plateau. It covers 3,161,900 acres across diverse vegetation ranging from sagebrush, pi on... may be used in high value areas. Aspen stands where less than 50% of the root system has been affected... Roadless Areas (CRAs), Research Natural Areas or Special Management Areas managed for Wilderness values...

  20. Sudden aspen decline in southwest Colorado: Site and stand factors and a hypothesis on etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Worrall; Leanne Egeland; Tom Eager; Roy Mask; Erik Johnson; Phil Kemp; Wayne Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    An initial assessment of rapid dieback and mortality of aspen in southwest Colorado suggests that it represents a decline disease incited by acute, warm drought. Predisposing factors include low elevation, south and southwest aspects, droughty soils, open stands, and physiological maturity. Contributing factors include Cytospora canker, two bark beetles, poplar borer,...

  1. Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Soo-Hong Min; James S. Han

    2006-01-01

    Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater...

  2. Restoring High Priority Habitats for Birds: Aspen and Pine in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex Sallabanks; Nils D. Christoffersen; Whitney W. Weatherford; Ralph Anderson

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a long-term habitat restoration project in the Blue Mountains ecoregion, northeast Oregon, that we initiated in May 2000. We focused our restoration activities on two habitats previously identified as being high priority for birds: quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). In...

  3. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-06-21

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eugenol levels and up to 22-fold eugenol glycoside levels in leaves of transgenic aspen plants. The overexpression of PhEGS alone resulted in a subtle increase in either eugenol or eugenol glycosides, and the overexpression of both PhCFAT and PhEGS resulted in significant increases in the levels of both eugenol and eugenol glycosides which were nonetheless lower than the increases seen with overexpression of PhCFAT alone. On the other hand, overexpression of PhCFAT in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco did not cause any synthesis of eugenol. These results indicate that aspen leaves, but not Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, have a partially active pathway to eugenol that is limited by the level of CFAT activity and thus the flux of this pathway can be increased by the introduction of a single heterologous gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T.; Huang, Xinqun; Cramer, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was employed to study and optimize an important new industrial separation process, weak partitioning chromatography. This case study on antibody purification was implemented in a chromatographic separations course. Parametric simulations were performed to investigate the effect of operating parameters…

  5. Is the wide distribution of aspen a result of its stress tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. J. Lieffers; S. M. Landhausser; E. H. Hogg

    2001-01-01

    Populus tremuloides is distributed from drought-prone fringes of the Great Plains to extremely cold sites at arctic treeline. To occupy these conditions aspen appears to be more tolerant of stress than the other North American species of the genus Populus. Cold winters, cold soil conditions during the growing season, periodic drought, insect defoliation, and...

  6. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  7. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc... accurate information concerning the securities of Commercial Concepts, Inc. because it has not filed any...

  8. Aspen development on similar soils in Minnesota and British Columbia after compaction and forest floor removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas M. Stone; Richard Kabzems

    2002-01-01

    Forest management practices that decrease soil porosity and remove organic matter can reduce site productivity. We evaluated effects of four treatments-merchantable bole harvest (MBH) with three levels of soil compaction (none, light, or heavy), and total woody vegetation harvest plus forest floor removal (FFR)-on fifth-year regeneration and growth of aspen (...

  9. Lake States Aspen Productivity Following Soil Compaction and Organic Matter Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas M. Stone

    2002-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and P. grandidentata Michx.) provides wood products, watershed protection, and wildlife habitat for numerous game and non-game species across the northern Great Lakes region. Sustaining the productivity of these ecosystems requires maintaining soil productivity. Management activities that decrease...

  10. Relationships between Soil compaction and harvest season, soil texture, and landscape position for aspen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Kolka; Aaron Steber; Ken Brooks; Charles H. Perry; Matt. Powers

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of harvesting studies have assessed compaction, no study has considered the interacting relationships of harvest season, soil texture, and landscape position on soil bulk density and surface soil strength for harvests in the western Lake States. In 2005, we measured bulk density and surface soil strength in recent clearcuts of predominantly aspen...

  11. Surface compaction estimates and soil sensitivity in Aspen stands of the Great Lakes States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron Steber; Ken Brooks; Charles H. Perry; Randy Kolka

    2007-01-01

    Aspen forests in the Great Lakes States support much of the regional timber industry. Management-induced soil compaction is a concern because it affects forest health and productivity and soil erosion. Soil compaction increases bulk density and soil strength and can also decrease air and water movement into and through the soil profile. Currently, most inventories, and...

  12. Soil properties and aspen development five years after compaction and forest floor removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas M. Stone; John D. Elioff

    1998-01-01

    Forest management activities that decrease soil porosity and remove organic matter have been associated with declines in site productivity. In the northern Lake States region, research is in progress in the aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and P. grandidentata Michx.) forest type to determine effects of soil compaction and organic...

  13. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... Open House will be held at the Sevier County Administrative Building in Richfield, Utah October 10, 6...

  14. Prehydrolysis of aspen wood with water and with dilute aqueous sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward L. Springer; John F. Harris

    1982-01-01

    Water prehydrolysis of aspen wood was compared with 0.40% sulfuric acid prehydrolysis at a reaction temperature of 170°C. Acid prehydrolysis gave much higher yields of total anhydroxylose units in the prehydrolyzate and removed significantly less anhydroglucose from the wood than did the water treatment. At maximum yields of total anhydroxylose units in the...

  15. Snow ablation modelling in a mature aspen stand of the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J. P.; Davis, R. E.; Jordan, R.; Ni, W.; Woodcock, C. E.

    1998-07-01

    Snow ablation modelling at the stand scale must account for the variability in snow cover and the large variations of components of energy transfer at the forest floor. Our previous work successfully predicted snow ablation in a mature jack pine stand by using a one-dimensional snow process model and models predicting radiation below forest canopies. This work represents a second test of our basic modelling scenario by predicting snow ablation in a leafless, deciduous aspen stand and verifying the results with field data. New modifications to the snow model accounted for decreased albedo owing to radiation penetration through optically thin snowpacks. A provisional equation estimates litter fall on the snowpack, thereby reducing the areal averaged albedo. We showed that subcanopy radiation measurements can be used with a canopy model to estimate a branch area index for defoliated aspen as an analogue to the foliage area index used for conifers. Modelled incoming solar and long-wave radiation showed a strong correlation with measurements, with r2=0·96 and 0·91 for solar and long-wave radiation, respectively. Model results demonstrate that net radiation overwhelms turbulent exchanges as the most significant driving force for snowmelt in aspen forests. Predicted snow ablation in the aspen stand compared very favourably with available data on snow depth.

  16. CONFERENCE REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    imagining. Psychology in Africa. She asserted that psychology is very important in society because it brings out human perceptions and attitudes. In a unique keynote presentation, Sean Hagen, a lecturer at UNISA who organised the conference ...

  17. The BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation confers sensitivity of thyroid cancer cells to the BRAF{sup V600E} inhibitor PLX4032 (RG7204)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Joanna [Division of Head and Neck Cancer Research, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Liu, Ruixin; Xing, Mingzhao [Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Trink, Barry, E-mail: btrink@jhmi.edu [Division of Head and Neck Cancer Research, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Exciting therapeutic potential has been recently reported for the BRAF{sup V600E} inhibitor PLX4032 in melanoma. {yields} We tested the effects of PLX4032 on the growth of thyroid cancer cells which often harbor the BRAF{sup V600E} mutation. {yields} We observed a potent BRAF{sup V600E}-dependent inhibition of thyroid cancer cells by PLX4032. {yields} We thus demonstrated an important therapeutic potential of PLX4032 for thyroid cancer. -- Abstract: Aberrant signaling of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK (MAP kinase) pathway driven by the mutant kinase BRAF{sup V600E}, as a result of the BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation, plays a fundamental role in thyroid tumorigenesis. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of a BRAF{sup V600E}-selective inhibitor, PLX4032 (RG7204), for thyroid cancer by examining its effects on the MAP kinase signaling and proliferation of 10 thyroid cancer cell lines with wild-type BRAF or BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation. We found that PLX4032 could effectively inhibit the MAP kinase signaling, as reflected by the suppression of ERK phosphorylation, in cells harboring the BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation. PLX4032 also showed a potent and BRAF mutation-selective inhibition of cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. PLX4032 displayed low IC{sub 50} values (0.115-1.156 {mu}M) in BRAF{sup V600E} mutant cells, in contrast with wild-type BRAF cells that showed resistance to the inhibitor with high IC{sub 50} values (56.674-1349.788 {mu}M). Interestingly, cells with Ras mutations were also sensitive to PLX4032, albeit moderately. Thus, this study has confirmed that the BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation confers cancer cells sensitivity to PLX4032 and demonstrated its specific potential as an effective and BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation-selective therapeutic agent for thyroid cancer.

  18. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2018 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview ...

  2. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  3. Association of 12 polymorphic variants conferring genetic risk to lung cancer in Indian population: An extensive meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debmalya; Guha, Udayan; Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Sengupta, Mainak

    2017-12-01

    Candidate gene as well as genome-wide association studies identified several polymorphic variants to be associated with lung cancer worldwide including in India. However, contradictory results have failed to estimate the overall effect of the polymorphic variants on the disease. Textmining was conducted on PubMed following specific search strings to gather all the publications related to genetic association with lung cancer in India. Out of 211 PubMed hits only 30 studies were selected for meta-analysis following specific inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated by Cochran's Q-test (P associated with lung cancer. However, after multiple testing correction, only rs1048943 was found to be significantly associated (P value = 0.0321) with lung cancer. None of the polymorphic variants showed any evidence of heterogeneity between studies or of publication bias. Our meta-analysis revealed strong association of rs1048943 in CYP1A1, but a suggestive association of deletion polymorphisms in GSTT1 and GSTM1 with lung cancer, which provides a comprehensive insight on the overall effect of the polymorphic variants, reported in various case-control studies on Indian population, on the risk of lung cancer development. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:688-700, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In vivo detection of oral epithelial cancer using endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging: a pilot human study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Javier A.; Hwang, Dae Yon; Palma, Jorge; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Malik, Bilal; Jabbour, Joey; Cheng, Lisa; Wright, John; Maitland, Kristen

    2016-03-01

    Endogenous fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) provides direct access to the concomitant functional and biochemical changes accompanying tissue transition from benign to precancerous and cancerous. Since FLIM can noninvasively measure different and complementary biomarkers of precancer and cancer, we hypothesize that it will aid in clinically detecting early oral epithelial cancer. Our group has recently demonstrated the detection of benign from premalignant and malignant lesions based on endogenous multispectral FLIM in the hamster cheek-pouch model. Encouraged by these positive preliminary results, we have developed a handheld endoscope capable of acquiring multispectral FLIM images in real time from the oral mucosa. This novel FLIM endoscope is being used for imaging clinically suspicious pre-malignant and malignant lesions from patients before undergoing tissue biopsy for histopathological diagnosis of oral epithelial cancer. Our preliminary results thus far are already suggesting the potential of endogenous FLIM for distinguishing a variety of benign lesions from advanced dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of out knowledge, this is the first in vivo human study aiming to demonstrate the ability to predict the true malignancy of clinically suspicious lesions using endogenous FLIM. If successful, the resulting clinical tool will allow noninvasive real-time detection of epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa and could potentially be used to assist at every step involved on the clinical management of oral cancer patients, from early screening and diagnosis, to treatment and monitoring of recurrence.

  5. Label-free biomolecular characterization of human breast cancer tissue with stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectral imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fa-Ke F.; Calligaris, David; Suo, Yuanzhen; Santagata, Sandro; Golby, Alexandra J.; Xie, X. Sunney; Mallory, Melissa A.; Golshan, Mehra; Dillon, Deborah A.; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.

    2017-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has been used for rapid label-free imaging of various biomolecules and drugs in living cells and tissues (Science, doi:10.1126/science.aaa8870). Our recent work has demonstrated that lipid and protein mapping of cancer tissue renders pathology-like images, providing essential histopathological information with subcellular resolution of the entire specimen (Cancer Research, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-027). We have also established the first SRS imaging Atlas of human brain tumors (Harvard Dataverse, doi: (doi:10.7910/DVN/EZW4EK). SRS imaging of tissue could provide invaluable information for cancer diagnosis and surgical guidance in two aspects: rapid surgical pathology and quantitative biomolecular characterization. In this work, we present the use of SRS microscopy for characterization of a few essential biomolecules in breast cancer. Human breast cancer tissue specimens at the tumor core, tumor margin and normal area (5 cm away from the tumor) from surgical cases will be imaged with SRS at multiple Raman shifts, including the peaks for lipid, protein, blood (absorption), collagen, microcalcification (calcium phosphates and calcium oxalate) and carotenoids. Most of these Raman shifts have relatively strong Raman cross sections, which ensures high-quality and fast imaging. This proof-of-principle study is sought to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of SRS imaging for ambient diagnosis and surgical guidance of breast cancer.

  6. Folate-Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with Ursolic Acid Confer Anti-Breast Cancer Activities in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Pi, Jiang; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Jinhuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Bai, Haihua; Shao, Mingtao; Huang, Lei; Zhu, Haiyan; Yang, Peihui; Li, Lihua; Li, Ting; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W.

    2016-07-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) has proved to have broad-spectrum anti-tumor effects, but its poor water solubility and incompetent targeting property largely limit its clinical application and efficiency. Here, we synthesized a nanoparticle-based drug carrier composed of chitosan, UA and folate (FA-CS-UA-NPs) and demonstrated that FA-CS-UA-NPs could effectively diminish off-target effects and increase local drug concentrations of UA. Using MCF-7 cells as in vitro model for anti-cancer mechanistic studies, we found that FA-CS-UA-NPs could be easily internalized by cancer cells through a folate receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. FA-CS-UA-NPs entered into lysosome, destructed the permeability of lysosomal membrane, and then got released from lysosomes. Subsequently, FA-CS-UA-NPs localized into mitochondria but not nuclei. The prolonged retention of FA-CS-UA-NPs in mitochondria induced overproduction of ROS and destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and resulted in the irreversible apoptosis in cancer cells. In vivo experiments showed that FA-CS-UA-NPs could significantly reduce breast cancer burden in MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. These results suggested that FA-CS-UA-NPs could further be explored as an anti-cancer drug candidate and that our approach might provide a platform to develop novel anti-cancer drug delivery system.

  7. Targeting the Androgen Receptor Confers In Vivo Cross-resistance Between Enzalutamide and Docetaxel, But Not Cabazitaxel, in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, Robert J; de Morrée, Ellen S; Kweldam, Charlotte F; de Ridder, Corrina M A; Wiemer, Erik A C; Mathijssen, Ron H J; de Wit, Ronald; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2015-06-01

    Treatment options for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have evolved with the established benefit of the novel androgen receptor (AR)-targeted agents abiraterone and enzalutamide in the prechemotherapy setting. However, concerns regarding cross-resistance between the taxanes docetaxel and cabazitaxel and these AR-targeted agents have arisen, and the optimal drug treatment sequence is unknown. We investigated the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and cabazitaxel in enzalutamide-resistant CRPC, and mechanisms of cross-resistance between these agents. Castrated mice harboring enzalutamide-resistant tumors and enzalutamide-naïve tumors were treated with docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Tumor growth kinetics, AR nuclear localization, AR-regulated gene expression, Ki67 expression, and serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, docetaxel, and cabazitaxel were analyzed. Docetaxel inhibited tumor growth, AR nuclear localization, and AR-regulated gene expression in enzalutamide-naïve tumors, but did not in enzalutamide-resistant tumors, demonstrating in vivo cross-resistance. By contrast, cabazitaxel remained highly effective in enzalutamide-resistant tumors and demonstrated superior antitumor activity compared to docetaxel, independent of the AR pathway. These findings demonstrate that the AR pathway is able to confer in vivo cross-resistance between enzalutamide and docetaxel, but not cabazitaxel, in CRPC. We found reduced efficacy of docetaxel, but not cabazitaxel, in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Photothermal therapy to damage PC3 cancer cells: in vitro studies of a pulsed laser (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Romero, Noe; Aguilar, Guillermo; Devia-Cruz, Luis F.; Banks, Darren; Zhang, Bin; Halaney, David L.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-nanoparticles interactions have been widely used for several years. In biomedicine, several in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown promising results for the detection and treatment of cancer. One of the techniques of interest to us, is the nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (PTT), which consists of irradiating cancer cells incubated with nanoparticles with either a pulsed or continuous (cw) laser in order to damage the cells. However, there is still a debate over which type of laser is most effective for PTT for cancer treatment. On the one hand, cw lasers are minimally invasive and can be used for both detection and treatment of tumors. On the other hand, pulsed lasers offer great spatial precision and can deposit higher energy fluences than cw lasers, making them very efficient for inducing cavitation to damage cancer cells and tumors mechanically. The aim of this study is to investigate whether simultaneous application of cw and pulsed laser could offer a synergetic enhancement of PTT efficacy to damage cancer cells in vitro, compared to either laser applied individually. PTT efficacy is evaluated through cell viability tests following the irradiation of prostate cancer (PC3) cells incubated with gold nanorods (5.7 X10 10 p/ml). By irradiating the PC3-nanorod solution with the cw laser at 808 nm for 60 seconds, the temperature increases from 37.5 to 45°C, which damages some cancer cells via the heat shock response within the cells, and also could increase their sensitivity to the mechanical stress caused by the shock wave generated from inducing cavitation in the solution by the pulsed laser irradiation.

  9. miR-199a-5p confers tumor-suppressive role in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawei; Shin, Vivian Y; Siu, Man T; Ho, John C W; Cheuk, Isabella; Kwong, Ava

    2016-11-14

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer since no effective targeted therapy is readily available. Our previous studies confirmed miR-199a-5p is a TNBC-specific circulating biomarker, however, its functional roles in breast cancer is largely unknown. Thus, we investigated the functional implication of miR-199a-5p in TNBC and its potential underlying mechanisms. MTT assay was performed to investigate the cell proliferation after transient transfection of miR-199a-5p in MDA-MB-231 cell line, followed by cell cycle analysis. Transwell invasion assay and wound healing assay were used to study the invasion and migration ability respectively. To further investigate the stemness-related characteristics of miR-199a-5p in breast cancer cells, single-cell clonogenic assay and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) assay were performed. 32 normal and 100 breast cancer patients' plasma were recruited to identify the potential circulating markers by qPCR. Cell proliferation assay revealed significant inhibition after miR-199a-5p ectopic expression (p breast cancer plasma especially in TNBC (p = 0.0248). PIK3CD was identified as a potential downstream target of miR-199a-5p. Taken together, we unraveled, for the first time, the tumor-suppressive role of miR-199a-5p in TNBC, which attributed to EMT and cancer stemness properties, providing a novel therapeutic options towards this aggressive disease.

  10. International Conference on Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Teresa; Rigas, Alexandros; Gulati, Sneh

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest results in the field of risk analysis. Presented topics include probabilistic models in cancer research, models and methods in longevity, epidemiology of cancer risk, engineering reliability and economical risk problems. The contributions of this volume originate from the 5th International Conference on Risk Analysis (ICRA 5). The conference brought together researchers and practitioners working in the field of risk analysis in order to present new theoretical and computational methods with applications in biology, environmental sciences, public health, economics and finance.

  11. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 2:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  12. Development of InCVAX as a novel in situ autologous vaccine for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, Tomas; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Raker, Joseph; Lam, Samuel Siu Kit; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method, an in situ autologous whole-cell cancer vaccine (inCVAX), is being developed by Immunophotonics, Inc., for the treatment of metastatic cancers. inCVAX combines phototherapy and immunotherapy to potentially induce a systemic anti-tumor immune response in the hosts. Immunophotonics and its academic partners have spent years conducting nonclinical research, developing CMC techniques and conducting clinical research. In 2015 the company initiated a late-stage (II/III) clinical trial in South America for advanced breast cancer patients. The process of developing the inCVAX approach from a laboratory setting into clinical trials requires significant efforts from a group of dedicated engineers, scientists, and physicians. The growth of the company and its business advances demonstrated the determination of a group of visionary investors, entrepreneurs, and business leaders. This talk will chronicle the milestones of the scientific achievement, medical progress, and business development of Immunophotonics.

  13. Bcl-2 confers survival in cisplatin treated cervical cancer cells: circumventing cisplatin dose-dependent toxicity and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisching, Gina; Loos, Benjamin; Botha, Matthys; Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart

    2015-10-16

    Cisplatin is the main chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of cervical cancers, however resistance to cisplatin is increasingly common and therefore has limited the efficacy and use of this drug in the clinic. Dose-dependent toxicity poses an additional challenge since patients suffer long-term and often permanent side-effects after treatment. Bcl-2 up-regulation has been implicated in the resistance to cisplatin in a variety of cancer cell lines, however its role in cervical cancer is confounding. A low, non-cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin was used in the treatment of HeLa and CaSki cells. Bcl-2 expression was determined through Western blotting and immunocytochemistry before and after treatment with cisplatin. To assess the reliance of the cervical cancer cells on Bcl-2 in the presence of cisplatin, Bcl-2 knock-down was achieved through RNA interference, where after apoptosis was assessed through PARP cleavage (Western blotting), Caspase activity (Caspase-Glo(©)) and PI inclusion analysis (Flow cytometry). Finally, pre-malignant and malignant cervical tissue was analysed for the presence of Bcl-2 through Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Cervical cancer cells upregulate Bcl-2 when treated with a non-cytotoxic concentration of cisplatin, which when silenced, effectively enhanced cisplatin sensitivity, and therefore significantly induced apoptosis. Analysis of the expression profile of Bcl-2 in cervical tissue revealed its up-regulation in cervical carcinoma, which agrees with results obtained from the in vitro data. Our data strongly suggest that utilising a lower dose of cisplatin is feasible when combined with Bcl-2 silencing as an adjuvant treatment, thereby improving both the dose-dependent toxicity, as well as cervical cancer resistance.

  14. Genetic Alterations in the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Confer Sensitivity of Thyroid Cancer Cells to Therapeutic Targeting of Akt and mTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dingxie; Hou, Peng; Liu, Zhi; Wu, Guojun; Xing, Mingzhao

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the genotype-dependent therapeutic potential of targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway for thyroid cancer. Proliferation of TPC1, Hth7, FTC133, OCUT1, K1, and BCPAP cells that harbored PI3K/Akt-activating genetic alterations was potently inhibited by the Akt inhibitor perifosine whereas SW1736, Hth74, WRO, KAT18, and TAD2 cells that harbored no genetic alterations had no or only modest responses. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by perifosine was seen in these cells. Genetic-dependent apoptosis was induced by perifosine in cells selectively tested. Similarly, potent inhibition of cell proliferation by the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus occurred in virtually all the cells harboring genetic alterations whereas modest inhibition was seen in some of the cells not harboring genetic alterations. Temsirolimus inhibited the phosphorylation of p70S6K, a substrate of mTOR. Knockdown of Akt1/2 or mTOR by shRNA approach inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of FTC133 and OCUT1 cells that harbored genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway but had no effect on SW1736 and KAT18 cells that did not. Transfection with PIK3CA mutants greatly sensitized SW1736 cells to perifosine and temsirolimus. Growth of xenograft tumors derived from FTC133 cells but not SW1736 cells in nude mice was dramatically inhibited by perifosine. Thus, this work for the first time demonstrates that genetic alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway confer thyroid cancer cells addiction to this pathway and their sensitivity to inhibition by targeting Akt and mTOR. This genotype-based targeting of the PI3K/Akt pathway using Akt and mTOR inhibitors may offer an effective therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer and warrants further studies. PMID:19706758

  15. Mendel conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected accepted papers of Mendel conference that has been held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2015. The book contents three chapters which represent recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing and bio-inspired robotics.: Chapter 1: Evolutionary Computing, and Swarm intelligence, Chapter 2: Neural Networks, Self-organization, and Machine Learning, and Chapter3: Intelligent Image Processing, and Bio-inspired Robotics. The Mendel conference was established in 1995, and it carries the name of the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. In 2015 we are commemorating 150 years since Mendel's lectures, which he presented in Brno on February and March 1865. The main aim of the conference was to create a periodical possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange their ideas and novel research methods.  .

  16. Transcriptome responses to aluminum stress in roots of aspen (Populus tremula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ionic aluminum (mainly Al3+ is rhizotoxic and can be present in acid soils at concentrations high enough to inhibit root growth. Many forest tree species grow naturally in acid soils and often tolerate high concentrations of Al. Previously, we have shown that aspen (Populus tremula releases citrate and oxalate from roots in response to Al exposure. To obtain further insights into the root responses of aspen to Al, we investigated root gene expression at Al conditions that inhibit root growth. Results Treatment of the aspen roots with 500 μM Al induced a strong inhibition of root growth within 6 h of exposure time. The root growth subsequently recovered, reaching growth rates comparable to that of control plants. Changes in gene expression were determined after 6 h, 2 d, and 10 d of Al exposure. Replicated transcriptome analyses using the Affymetrix poplar genome array revealed a total of 175 significantly up-regulated and 69 down-regulated genes, of which 70% could be annotated based on Arabidopsis genome resources. Between 6 h and 2 d, the number of responsive genes strongly decreased from 202 to 26, and then the number of changes remained low. The responses after 6 h were characterized by genes involved in cell wall modification, ion transport, and oxidative stress. Two genes with prolonged induction were closely related to the Arabidopsis Al tolerance genes ALS3 (for Al sensitive 3 and MATE (for multidrug and toxin efflux protein, mediating citrate efflux. Patterns of expression in different plant organs and in response to Al indicated that the two aspen genes are homologs of the Arabidopsis ALS3 and MATE. Conclusion Exposure of aspen roots to Al results in a rapid inhibition of root growth and a large change in root gene expression. The subsequent root growth recovery and the concomitant reduction in the number of responsive genes presumably reflect the success of the roots in activating Al tolerance mechanisms. The

  17. MicroRNA-519a is a novel oncomir conferring tamoxifen resistance by targeting a network of tumour-suppressor genes in ER+ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Aoife; Shukla, Kirti; Balwierz, Aleksandra; Soons, Zita; König, Rainer; Sahin, Ozgür; Wiemann, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    Tamoxifen is an endocrine therapy which is administered to up to 70% of all breast cancer patients with oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression. Despite the initial response, most patients eventually acquire resistance to the drug. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs which have the ability to post-transcriptionally regulate genes. Although the role of a few miRNAs has been described in tamoxifen resistance at the single gene/target level, little is known about how concerted actions of miRNAs targeting biological networks contribute to resistance. Here we identified the miRNA cluster, C19MC, which harbours around 50 mature miRNAs, to be up-regulated in resistant cells, with miRNA-519a being the most highly up-regulated. We could demonstrate that miRNA-519a regulates tamoxifen resistance using gain- and loss-of-function testing. By combining functional enrichment analysis and prediction algorithms, we identified three central tumour-suppressor genes (TSGs) in PI3K signalling and the cell cycle network as direct target genes of miR-519a. Combined expression of these target genes correlated with disease-specific survival in a cohort of tamoxifen-treated patients. We identified miRNA-519a as a novel oncomir in ER+ breast cancer cells as it increased cell viability and cell cycle progression as well as resistance to tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. Finally, we could show that elevated miRNA-519a levels were inversely correlated with the target genes' expression and that higher expression of this miRNA correlated with poorer survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. Hence we have identified miRNA-519a as a novel oncomir, co-regulating a network of TSGs in breast cancer and conferring resistance to tamoxifen. Using inhibitors of such miRNAs may serve as a novel therapeutic approach to combat resistance to therapy as well as proliferation and evasion of apoptosis in breast cancer. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons

  18. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology...... trials. Despite technical improvements, expert clinical skills will continue to be one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with germ cell cancer. In addition, the particular needs of testicular cancer survivors have been acknowledged Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  19. BRCA1 R1699Q variant displaying ambiguous functional abrogation confers intermediate breast and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Whiley, Phillip J; Thompson, Bryony

    2012-01-01

    Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional...

  20. Linc-RoR promotes MAPK/ERK signaling and confers estrogen-independent growth of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wan-Xin; Huang, Jian-Guo; Yang, Liu; Gong, Ai-Hua; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2017-10-17

    The conversion from estrogen-dependent to estrogen-independent state of ER+ breast cancer cells is the key step to promote resistance to endocrine therapies. Although the crucial role of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in estrogen-independent breast cancer cell growth is well established, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we profiled lncRNA expression against a focused group of lncRNAs selected from lncRNA database. CRISPR/Cas9 was employed to knockout (KO) linc-RoR in MCF-7 cells, while rescue experiments were carried out to re-express linc-RoR in KO cells. Colony formation and MTT assays were used to examine the role of linc-RoR in estrogen-independent growth and tamoxifen resistance. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to determine the change of protein and lncRNA levels, respectively. The expression of DUSP7 in clinical specimens was downloaded from Oncomine ( www.oncomine.org ) and the dataset from Kaplan-Meier Plotter ( http://kmplot.com ) was used to analyze the clinical outcomes in relation to DUSP7. We identified that linc-RoR functions as an onco-lncRNA to promote estrogen-independent growth of ER+ breast cancer. Under estrogen deprivation, linc-RoR causes the upregulation of phosphorylated MAPK/ERK pathway which in turn activates ER signaling. Knockout of linc-RoR abrogates estrogen deprivation-induced ERK activation as well as ER phosphorylation, whereas re-expression of linc-RoR restores all above phenotypes. Moreover, we show that the ERK-specific phosphatase Dual Specificity Phosphatase 7 (DUSP7), also known as MKP-X, is involved in linc-RoR KO-induced repression of MAPK/ERK signaling. Interestingly, linc-RoR KO increases the protein stability of DUSP7, resulting in repression of ERK phosphorylation. Clinical data analysis reveal that DUSP7 expression is lower in ER+ breast cancer samples than that in ER- breast cancer. Moreover, downregulation of DUSP7 expression is associated with poor patient survival. Taken together

  1. Metabolic autofluorescence imaging of head and neck cancer organoids quantifies cellular heterogeneity and treatment response (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy T.; Heaster, Tiffany M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-02-01

    Treatment options for head and neck cancer are limited, and can cause an impaired ability to eat, talk, and breathe. Therefore, optimized and personalized therapies could reduce unnecessary toxicities from ineffective treatments. Organoids are generated from primary tumor tissue and provide a physiologically-relevant in vitro model to measure drug response. Additionally, multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the metabolic cofactors NAD(P)H and FAD can resolve dynamic cellular response to anti-cancer treatment. This study applies FLIM of NAD(P)H and FAD to head and neck cancer organoids. Head and neck cancer tissue was digested and grown in culture as three-dimensional organoids. Gold standard measures of therapeutic response in vivo indicate stable disease after treatment with cetuximab (antibody therapy) or cisplatin (chemotherapy), and treatment response after combination treatment. In parallel, organoids were treated with cetuximab, cisplatin, or combination therapy for 24 hours. Treated organoids exhibit decreased NAD(P)H lifetime (p<0.05) and increased FAD lifetime (p<0.05) compared with control organoids. Additionally, analysis of cellular heterogeneity identifies distinct subpopulations of cells in response to treatment. A quantitative heterogeneity index predicts in vivo treatment response and demonstrates increased cellular heterogeneity in organoids treated with cetuximab or cisplatin compared with combination treatment. Mapping of cell subpopulations enables characterization of spatial relationships between cell subpopulations. Ultimately, an organoid model combined with metabolic fluorescence imaging could provide a high-throughput platform for drug discovery. Organoids grown from patient tissue could enable individualized treatment planning. These achievements could optimize quality of life and treatment outcomes for head and neck cancer patients.

  2. Modeling extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer by multiphoton excited fabrication of stromal models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Ajeti, Visar; Lara, Jorge; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Mansh

    2016-04-01

    A profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in human ovarian cancer but it unknown how this affects tumor growth, where this understanding could lead to better diagnostics and therapeutic approaches. We investigate the role of these ECM alterations by using multiphoton excited (MPE) polymerization to fabricate biomimetic models to investigate operative cell-matrix interactions in invasion/metastasis. First, we create nano/microstructured gradients mimicking the basal lamina to study adhesion/migration dynamics of ovarian cancer cells of differing metastatic potential. We find a strong haptotactic response that depends on both contact guidance and ECM binding cues. While we found enhanced migration for more invasive cells, the specifics of alignment and directed migration also depend on cell polarity. We further use MPE fabrication to create collagen scaffolds with complex, 3D submicron morphology. The stromal scaffold designs are derived directly from "blueprints" based on SHG images of normal, high risk, and malignant ovarian tissues. The models are seeded with different cancer cell lines and this allows decoupling of the roles of cell characteristics (metastatic potential) and ECM structure and composition (normal vs cancer) on adhesion/migration dynamics. We found the malignant stroma structure promotes enhanced migration and proliferation and also cytoskeletal alignment. Creating synthetic models based on fibers patterns further allows decoupling the topographic roles of the fibers themselves vs their alignment within the tissue. These models cannot be synthesized by other conventional fabrication methods and we suggest the MPE image-based fabrication method will enable a variety of studies in cancer biology.

  3. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A......OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology...... in 2004 remain valid 3 yr later, refinements in the treatment of early- and advanced-stage testicular cancer have emerged from clinical trials. Despite technical improvements, expert clinical skills will continue to be one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with germ cell cancer...

  4. Conference Report: CAQD Conference 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Silver

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nestled on the banks of the river Lahn in central Germany, the 15th CAQD conference was held at Marburg. A beautiful provincial town, it is one of very few that was spared the bombings of WWII; now providing the perfect backdrop for meeting to discuss developments in qualitative technology. This was the second international conference in the series with more than 140 delegates from 14 countries, including: Canada, Brazil, Portugal, the UK, as well as Germany. Hosted by MAGMA, the Marburg Research Group for Methodology and Evaluation, in partnership with Philipps-University Marburg, CAQD prioritizes a user-focus which balances practical and methodological workshops with conference presentations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302249

  5. Consensus conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper

    , the differing perceptions are each in their own way rooted in an argument for democratic legitimacy. We therefore argue that national interpretations of consensus conferences, and of their ability to functions as a tool for public participation, depend to a great extent on the dominant ideals of democratic...

  6. Conference Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James L., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Celebrations and special events were in order this year as the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program and NASA's Minority University Research and Education Division (MURED) both reached their 10th anniversaries. In honor of this occasion, the 2000 Annual Users' Conference held at Morris Brown College (MBC) in Atlanta, Georgia, September 11-15, 2000, was the first to be jointly hosted by MU-SPIN and MURED. It was particularly fitting that this anniversary should fall in the year 2000. The start of the new millennium propelled us to push bold new ideas and renew our commitment to minority university participation in all areas of NASA. With the theme 'Celebrating Our Tenth Year With Our Eyes on the Prize,' the conference provided a national forum for showcasing successful MU-SPIN and MURED Program (MUREP) experiences to enhance faculty/student development in areas of scientific and technical research and education. Our NASA-relevant conference agenda resulted in a record-breaking 220 registered attendees. Using feedback from past participants, we designed a track of student activities closely tailored to their interests. The resulting showcase of technical assistance and best practices set a new standard for our conferences in the years to come. This year's poster session was our largest ever, with over 50 presentations from students, faculty, and teachers. Posters covered a broad range of NASA activities from 'A Study of the Spiral Galaxy M101' to 'Network Cabling Characteristics.'

  7. Conference report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    poster presentations on numerous disciplines, including: epidemiology, preventive medicine, public health, social ... The conference theme “from research to implementation” emphasised the importance of ... sustainable implementation were addressed in an honest and nuanced manner, leaving me with a sense of trouble ...

  8. CONFERENCE REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Marfo

    dinner and, at this dinner, socialization was at its best, with some music and dancing and presentation of gifts from the host university. Some members of the .... Jean Monnet, a student hostel with conference facilities where most of the participants also stayed. The third and fourth days' sessions were held at the INALCO ...

  9. The Forest-Atmospheric Carbon Transfer and Storage-II (FACTS-II): Aspen FACE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, D.F.; Pregitzer, K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products; Hendrey, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Isebrands, J.G. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (Aspen FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  10. THE FOREST-ATMOSPHERIC CARBON TRANSFER AND STORAGE-II (FACTS-II): ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KARNOSKY,D.F.; HENDREY,G.; PREGITZER,K.; ISEBRANDS,J.G.

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (ASPEN FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE [Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment] rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  11. ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Charles W. [EG& G Technical Services, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-09-30

    ASPEN Plus simulations have been created for a CO2 capture process based on adsorption by monoethanolamine (MEA). Three separate simulations were developed, one each for the flue gas scrubbing, recovery, and purification sections of the process. Although intended to work together, each simulation can be used and executed independently. The simulations were designed as template simulations to be added as a component to other more complex simulations. Applications involving simple cycle or hybrid power production processes were targeted. The default block parameters were developed based on a feed stream of raw flue gas of approximately 14 volume percent CO2 with a 90% recovery of the CO2 as liquid. This report presents detailed descriptions of the process sections as well as technical documentation for the ASPEN simulations including the design basis, models employed, key assumptions, design parameters, convergence algorithms, and calculated outputs.

  12. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  13. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldén, Anna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Kotiaho, Janne S; Laaka-Lindberg, Sanna; Halme, Panu

    2014-01-01

    Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L.) retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered) and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old-growth forests.

  14. Effect of Cyclic Loading on Modulus of Elasticity of Aspen Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Gaff; Miroslav Gašparík

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the modulus of elasticity of solid and laminated aspen wood of various thicknesses after cyclic loading. A three-point static bending test was carried out to determine the modulus of elasticity. Cyclically loaded samples were compared with samples without cyclic loading. For the laminated wood, the results demonstrated a statistically significant impact of cyclic loading on the elasticity modulus. In contrast, no significant impact of cyclic loading was shown for the...

  15. Can Carbon Fluxes Explain Differences in Soil Organic Carbon Storage under Aspen and Conifer Forest Overstories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antra Boča

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate- and management-induced changes in tree species distributions are raising questions regarding tree species-specific effects on soil organic carbon (SOC storage and stability. Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. is the most widespread tree species in North America, but fire exclusion often promotes the succession to conifer dominated forests. Aspen in the Western US have been found to store more SOC in the mineral soil than nearby conifers, but we do not yet fully understand the source of this differential SOC accumulation. We measured total SOC storage (0–50 cm, characterized stable and labile SOC pools, and quantified above- and belowground litter inputs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC fluxes during snowmelt in plots located in N and S Utah, to elucidate the role of foliage vs. root detritus in SOC storage and stabilization in both ecosystems. While leaf litterfall was twice as high under aspen as under conifers, input of litter-derived DOC with snowmelt water was consistently higher under conifers. Fine root (<2 mm biomass, estimated root detritus input, and root-derived DOC fluxes were also higher under conifers. A strong positive relationship between root and light fraction C content suggests that root detritus mostly fueled the labile fraction of SOC. Overall, neither differences in above- and belowground detritus C inputs nor in detritus-derived DOC fluxes could explain the higher and more stable SOC pools under aspen. We hypothesize that root–microbe–soil interactions in the rhizosphere are more likely to drive these SOC pool differences.

  16. The Impact of Nitrogen Limitation and Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Aspen Tree Growth and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Bich Thi Ngoc [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Nitrogen deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional deficiency affecting plants worldwide. Ectromycorrhizal symbiosis involves the beneficial interaction of plants with soil fungi and plays a critical role in nutrient cycling, including the uptake of nitrogen from the environment. The main goal of this study is to understand how limiting nitrogen in the presence or absence of an ectomycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor, affects the health of aspen trees, Populus temuloides.

  17. A system for predicting the amount of Phellinus (Fomes) igniarius rot in trembling aspen stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Anderson; Arthur L. Jr. Schipper

    1978-01-01

    The occurrence of Phellinus (Fomes) igniarius white trunk rot in 45- to 50-year-old trembling aspen stands can be predicted by applying a constant to the stand basal area with P. igniarius conks to estimate the total basal area with P. igniarius rot. Future decay projections can be made by reapplying the basal area of hidden decay for each 6 years projected. This paper...

  18. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  19. Breast conservation in early breast cancer - indication and consequences. Results of a multidisciplinary consensus development conference. Brusterhaltende Therapie beim Mammakarzinom - Indikation und Konsequenzen. Ergebnisse einer multidisziplinaeren Konsensus-Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellriegel, K.P. (Krankenhaus Moabit, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Innere Abt.)

    1991-02-01

    A multidisciplinary consensus development conference on the management of breast preserving treatment in early breast cancer was organized in November 1989 in Berlin. Following a two-day discussion of data presented, conclusions and recommendations were achieved on the indication and limitation of breast conservation, the optimal technique as well as the diagnostic requirements and therapeutic strategies in context with breast conservation including follow-up. (orig.).

  20. Modeling the Removal of Xenon from Lithium Hydrate with Aspen HYSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Phillip; Gentile, Charles

    2011-10-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) project mission is to provide a long-term, carbon-free source of sustainable energy, in the form of electricity. A conceptual xenon removal system has been modeled with the aid of Aspen HYSYS, a chemical process simulator. Aspen HYSYS provides excellent capability to model chemical flow processes, which generates outputs which includes specific variables such as temperature, pressure, and molar flow. The system is designed to strip out hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium. The base design bubbles plasma exhaust laden with x filled with liquid helium. The system separates the xenon from the hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with a lithium hydrate and a lithium bubbler. After the removal of the hydrogen and its isotopes, the xenon is then purified by way of the process of cryogenic distillation. The pure hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are then sent to the isotope separation system (ISS). The removal of xenon is an integral part of the laser inertial fusion engine and Aspen HYSYS is an excellent tool to calculate how to create pure xenon.

  1. Usando modelos de usuario en matlab® en la interfaz de aspen plus® con excel® como puente

    OpenAIRE

    Fontalvo Alzate, Javier

    2014-01-01

    El diseño de procesos intensificados y de nuevas tecnologías requiere de herramientas de simulación como Aspen Plus®. Sin embargo, las operaciones unitarias que no se incluyen en Aspen Plus pueden ser simuladas usando Matlab e integradas con la interfaz de Aspen Plus. De esta forma se pueden aprovechar todas la capacidades de Aspen plus como la optimización, el análisis de sensibilidad y la estimación de costos. Este artículo describe en detalle cómo implementar esta integración. La interfaz ...

  2. Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey

    2017-02-01

    Background: Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical technique which can measure molecular vibrational modes within tissue. A large-scale clinical study (n = 518) has demonstrated that real-time Raman spectroscopy could distinguish malignant from benign skin lesions with good diagnostic accuracy; this was validated by a follow-up independent study (n = 127). Objective: Most of the previous diagnostic algorithms have typically been based on analyzing the full band of the Raman spectra, either in the fingerprint or high wavenumber regions. Our objective in this presentation is to explore wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Methods: A wavenumber selection algorithm was implemented using variably-sized wavenumber windows, which were determined by the correlation coefficient between wavenumbers. Wavenumber windows were chosen based on accumulated frequency from leave-one-out cross-validated stepwise regression or least and shrinkage selection operator (LASSO). The diagnostic algorithms were then generated from the selected wavenumber windows using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component and general discriminant analysis (PC-GDA) and partial least squares (PLS). A total cohort of 645 confirmed lesions from 573 patients encompassing skin cancers, precancers and benign skin lesions were included. Lesion measurements were divided into training cohort (n = 518) and testing cohort (n = 127) according to the measurement time. Result: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) improved from 0.861-0.891 to 0.891-0.911 and the diagnostic specificity for sensitivity levels of 0.99-0.90 increased respectively from 0.17-0.65 to 0.20-0.75 by selecting specific wavenumber windows for analysis. Conclusion: Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels.

  3. SIGEF Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terceño-Gómez, Antonio; Ferrer-Comalat, Joan; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Linares-Mustarós, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the SIGEF conference, held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Girona (Spain), 06-08 July, 2015. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Scientific methods for the treatment of uncertainty in social sciences”. There are different ways for dealing with uncertainty in management. The book focuses on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. It gives a comprehensive overview of quantitative management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management in soft computing including Decision Making, Expert Systems and Forgotten Effects Theory, Forecasting Models, Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets, Modelling and Simulation Techniques, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms and Optimization and Control. The book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be es...

  4. Clinical assessment of human breast cancer margins with wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Wijesinghe, Philip; Kirk, Rodney W.; Latham, Bruce; Sampson, David D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer has the second highest mortality rate of all cancers in females. Surgical excision of malignant tissue forms a central component of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) procedures. Incomplete excision of malignant tissue is a major issue in BCS with typically 20 - 30% cases requiring a second surgical procedure due to postoperative detection of tumor in the margin. A major challenge for surgeons during BCS is the lack of effective tools to assess the surgical margin intraoperatively. Such tools would enable the surgeon to more effectively remove all tumor during the initial surgery, hence reducing re-excision rates. We report advances in the development of a new tool, optical coherence micro-elastography, which forms images, known as elastograms, based on mechanical contrast within the tissue. We demonstrate the potential of this technique to increase contrast between malignant tumor and healthy stroma in elastograms over OCT images. We demonstrate a key advance toward clinical translation by conducting wide-field imaging in intraoperative time frames with a wide-field scanning system, acquiring mosaicked elastograms with overall dimensions of 50 × 50 mm, large enough to image an entire face of most lumpectomy specimens. We describe this wide-field imaging system, and demonstrate its operation by presenting wide-field optical coherence tomography images and elastograms of a tissue mimicking silicone phantom and a number of representative freshly excised human breast specimens. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of scanning large areas of lumpectomies, which is an important step towards practical intraoperative margin assessment.

  5. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. de; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Ares, L.P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  6. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. De; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  7. Nucleotide selectivity defect and mutator phenotype conferred by a colon cancer-associated DNA polymerase δ mutation in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, T M; Baranovskiy, A G; Wang, J; Tahirov, T H; Shcherbakova, P V

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in the POLD1 and POLE genes encoding DNA polymerases δ (Polδ) and ɛ (Polɛ) cause hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) and have been found in many sporadic colorectal and endometrial tumors. Much attention has been focused on POLE exonuclease domain mutations, which occur frequently in hypermutated DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient tumors and appear to be responsible for the bulk of genomic instability in these tumors. In contrast, somatic POLD1 mutations are seen less frequently and typically occur in MMR-deficient tumors. Their functional significance is often unclear. Here we demonstrate that expression of the cancer-associated POLD1-R689W allele is strongly mutagenic in human cells. The mutation rate increased synergistically when the POLD1-R689W expression was combined with a MMR defect, indicating that the mutator effect of POLD1-R689W results from a high rate of replication errors. Purified human Polδ-R689W has normal exonuclease activity, but the nucleotide selectivity of the enzyme is severely impaired, providing a mechanistic explanation for the increased mutation rate in the POLD1-R689W-expressing cells. The vast majority of mutations induced by the POLD1-R689W are GC→︀TA transversions and GC→︀AT transitions, with transversions showing a strong strand bias and a remarkable preference for polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences. The mutational specificity of the Polδ variant matches that of the hypermutated CRC cell line, HCT15, in which this variant was first identified. The results provide compelling evidence for the pathogenic role of the POLD1-R689W mutation in the development of the human tumor and emphasize the need to experimentally determine the significance of Polδ variants present in sporadic tumors.

  8. Wavelength dependent SHG imaging and scattering probes of extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Tilbury, Karissa B.; Campbell, Kirby R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Manish

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the most deadly gynecological cancer with a poor aggregate survival rate. To improve upon this situation, we utilized collagen-specific Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy and optical scattering measurements to probe structural differences in the extracellular matrix of normal stroma, benign tumors, endometrioid tumors, and low and high-grade serous (LGS and HGS) tumors. The SHG signatures of the emission directionality and conversion efficiency as well as the optical scattering are related to the organization of collagen on the sub-micron size. The wavelength dependence of these readouts adds additional characterization of the size and distribution of collagen fibrils/fibers relative to the interrogating wavelengths. We found strong wavelength dependent dependencies of these metrics that were different between the different tumors that are related to respective structural attributes in the collagen organization. These sub-resolution determinations are consistent with the dualistic classification of type I and II serous tumors. However, type I endometrioid tumors have strongly differing ECM architecture than the serous malignancies. Moreover, our analyses are further consistent with LGS and benign tumors having similar etiology. We identified optimal wavelengths for the SHG metrics as well as optical scattering measurements. The SHG metrics and optical scattering measurements were then used to form a linear discriminant model to classify the tissues, and we obtained high accuracy ( 90%) between the tissue types. This delineation is superior to current clinical performance and has potential applicability in supplementing histological analysis, understanding the etiology, as well as development of an in vivo screening tool.

  9. Impacts of Climate and Insect Defoliators on Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Mortality and Productivity in Alaskan Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, M. A.; Goetz, S. J.; Rogers, B. M.; Walker, X. J.; Mack, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate change have increased tree mortality and growth decline in forested ecosystems worldwide. The boreal forest has experienced a temperature increase of approximately 1.5 º C since 1970, a trend which is expected to continue. In response to the warming and drying of the boreal forest trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) has experienced recent large-scale die-back. Although die-back is thought to be primarily a result of direct climate changes, insect infestation is another possible driver of aspen mortality and may interact strongly with recent climate. Throughout interior Alaska widespread and consistent foliar damage by the aspen epidermal leaf miner Phyllocnistis populiella has been observed concurrent with some of the warmest and driest growing seasons on record. Here we use tree ring width measurements, tree ring stable carbon isotope signatures, and forest inventory data to study the influence of leaf miner and climate on aspen mortality and productivity decline in the Alaskan boreal forest. In the summer of 2016 we sampled eight Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) sites established by the US Forest Service in 1994. Since establishment tree status and infestation were recorded every 5 years. Each sampled site was aspen dominated and mortality ranged from 3.5% to 8% within a 5-year sampling period. We collected a total of 24 aspen tree cores and disks from each site: 12 from dead trees and 12 from live trees. In order to assess the influence of leaf miner on radial growth and tree ring stable carbon isotope ratios, cores were also collected from aspen stands surrounding Fairbanks where the size and severity of leaf miner infestation has been recorded since 2003. We expect that prior to mortality trees will show a decline in growth that is correlated to moisture stress and leaf miner infestation. We also expect to see an enriched carbon isotope signal as a result of infestation that will be decoupled from moisture, the

  10. Shp2 confers cisplatin resistance in small cell lung cancer via an AKT-mediated increase in CA916798.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuemei; Tang, Chunlan; Luo, Hu; Wang, Haijing; Zhou, Xiangdong

    2017-04-04

    The tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 is associated with tumorigenesis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, the relationship between Shp2 and resistance to chemotherapy remains unclear. Here, we show that Shp2 plays an important role in inducing resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy via the SHP2-AKT-CA916798 pathway. In an SCLC cell line, overexpression of Shp2 induced cisplatin resistance and the increased expression of AKT, pAKT, pmTOR, and CA916798. Conversely, depletion of Shp2 in a cisplatin-resistant cell line via RNA interference increased cisplatin sensitivity and decreased AKT, pAKT, pmTOR, and CA916798 expression levels. Activation of AKT stimulated CA916798 expression and altered the level of Shp2. A mouse xenograft model verified the results obtained from the in vitro experiments. In addition, we collected and analyzed clinical SCLC specimens and found that Shp2 levels correlated with CA916798 expression in tumor tissues. Importantly, higher levels of Shp2 or CA916798 were associated with a poorer prognosis in SCLC patients who received chemotherapy. Together, our findings indicate that Shp2 induces cisplatin resistance in SCLC patients via the SHP2-AKT-CA916798 pathway. Therefore, Shp2 and CA916798 may be promising biomarkers for predicting resistance to chemotherapy and may function as targets for enhancing treatments.

  11. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  12. Ozone-induced H2O2 accumulation in field-grown aspen and birch is linked to foliar ultrastructure and peroxisomal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Oksanen; E. Häikiö; J. Sober; D.F. Karnosky

    2003-01-01

    Saplings of three aspen (Populus tremuloides) genotypes and seedlings of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were exposed to elevated ozone (1.5x ambient) and 560 p.p.m. CO2, singly and in combination, from 1998 at the Aspen-FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) site (Rhinelander, USA).

  13. Intra-operative label-free multimodal multiphoton imaging of breast cancer margins and microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; You, Sixian; Tu, Haohua; Spillman, Darold R.; Marjanovic, Marina; Chaney, Eric J.; Liu, George Z.; Ray, Partha S.; Higham, Anna; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2017-02-01

    Label-free multi-photon imaging has been a powerful tool for studying tissue microstructures and biochemical distributions, particularly for investigating tumors and their microenvironments. However, it remains challenging for traditional bench-top multi-photon microscope systems to conduct ex vivo tumor tissue imaging in the operating room due to their bulky setups and laser sources. In this study, we designed, built, and clinically demonstrated a portable multi-modal nonlinear label-free microscope system that combined four modalities, including two- and three- photon fluorescence for studying the distributions of FAD and NADH, and second and third harmonic generation, respectively, for collagen fiber structures and the distribution of micro-vesicles found in tumors and the microenvironment. Optical realignments and switching between modalities were motorized for more rapid and efficient imaging and for a light-tight enclosure, reducing ambient light noise to only 5% within the brightly lit operating room. Using up to 20 mW of laser power after a 20x objective, this system can acquire multi-modal sets of images over 600 μm × 600 μm at an acquisition rate of 60 seconds using galvo-mirror scanning. This portable microscope system was demonstrated in the operating room for imaging fresh, resected, unstained breast tissue specimens, and for assessing tumor margins and the tumor microenvironment. This real-time label-free nonlinear imaging system has the potential to uniquely characterize breast cancer margins and the microenvironment of tumors to intraoperatively identify structural, functional, and molecular changes that could indicate the aggressiveness of the tumor.

  14. EGC Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschard, Gilbert; Pinaud, Bruno; Venturini, Gilles; Zighed, Djamel; Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management

    This book is a collection of representative and novel works done in Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Clustering and Classification that were originally presented in French at the EGC'2012 Conference held in Bordeaux, France, on January 2012. This conference was the 12th edition of this event, which takes place each year and which is now successful and well-known in the French-speaking community. This community was structured in 2003 by the foundation of the French-speaking EGC society (EGC in French stands for ``Extraction et Gestion des Connaissances'' and means ``Knowledge Discovery and Management'', or KDM). This book is intended to be read by all researchers interested in these fields, including PhD or MSc students, and researchers from public or private laboratories. It concerns both theoretical and practical aspects of KDM. The book is structured in two parts called ``Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining'' and ``Classification and Feature Extraction or Selection''. The first part (6 chapters) deals with...

  15. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  16. Interactions between Bacteria And Aspen Defense Chemicals at the Phyllosphere - Herbivore Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-03-01

    Plant- and insect-associated microorganisms encounter a diversity of allelochemicals, and require mechanisms for contending with these often deleterious and broadly-acting compounds. Trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, contains two principal groups of defenses, phenolic glycosides (salicinoids) and condensed tannins, which differentially affect the folivorous gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its gut symbionts. The bacteria genus Acinetobacter is frequently associated with both aspen foliage and gypsy moth consuming that tissue, and one isolate, Acinetobacter sp. R7-1, previously has been shown to metabolize phenolic glycosides. In this study, we aimed to characterize further interactions between this Acinetobacter isolate and aspen secondary metabolites. We assessed bacterial carbon utilization and growth in response to different concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. We also tested if enzyme inhibitors reduce bacterial growth and catabolism of phenolic glycosides. Acinetobacter sp. R7-1 utilized condensed tannins but not phenolic glycosides or glucose as carbon sources. Growth in nutrient-rich medium was increased by condensed tannins, but reduced by phenolic glycosides. Addition of the P450 enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide increased the effects of phenolic glycosides on Acinetobacter sp. R7-1. In contrast, the esterase inhibitor S,S,S,-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate did not affect phenolic glycoside inhibition of bacterial growth. Degradation of phenolic glycosides by Acinetobacter sp. R7-1 appears to alleviate the cytotoxicity of these compounds, rather than provide an energy source. Our results further suggest this bacterium utilizes additional, complementary mechanisms to degrade antimicrobial phytochemicals. Collectively, these results provide insight into mechanisms by which microorganisms contend with their environment within the context of plant-herbivore interactions.

  17. Developmental contributions to phenotypic variation in functional leaf traits within quaking aspen clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A; Collette, Sean B; Boynton, Thomas A; Lillrose, Tiffany; Stevens, Mikel R; Bekker, Matthew F; Eggett, Dennis; St Clair, Samuel B

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in plant traits is strongly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Over the life span of trees, developmental factors may also strongly influence leaf phenotypes. The objective of this study was to fill gaps in our understanding of developmental influences on patterns of phenotypic trait variation among different-aged ramets within quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones. We hypothesized that phenotypic variation in leaf functional traits is strongly influenced by developmental cues as trees age. We surveyed eight aspen clones, each with eight distinct age classes ranging from 1 to 160 years in age, and selected three ramets per age class for sample collection. Leaf traits measured included photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, specific leaf area, and concentrations of N, phosphorus, sucrose, starch, condensed tannins and phenolic glycosides. Using regression analysis, we examined the relationships between ramet age and expression of leaf functional traits. The data showed significant correlations between ramet age and 10 of the 12 phenotypic traits measured. Eight of the phenotypic traits demonstrated a non-linear relationship in which large changes in phenotype occurred in the early stages of ramet development and stabilized thereafter. Water relations, nutrient concentration, leaf gas exchange and phenolic glycosides tended to decrease from early to late development, whereas sucrose, condensed tannin concentrations and water use efficiency increased with ramet age. We hypothesize that ontogenetically derived phenotypic variation leads to fitness differentials among different-aged ramets, which may have important implications for clone fitness. Age-related increases in phenotypic diversity may partially underlie aspen's ability to tolerate the large environmental gradients that span its broad geographical range.

  18. Massive mortality of aspen following severe drought along the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, Michael; Hogg, Edward H; Hall, Ronald J; Arsenault, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Drought-induced, regional-scale dieback of forests has emerged as a global concern that is expected to escalate under model projections of climate change. Since 2000, drought of unusual severity, extent, and duration has affected large areas of western North America, leading to regional-scale dieback of forests in the southwestern US. We report on drought impacts on forests in a region farther north, encompassing the transition between boreal forest and prairie in western Canada. A central question is the significance of drought as an agent of large-scale tree mortality and its potential future impact on carbon cycling in this cold region. We used a combination of plot-based, meteorological, and remote sensing measures to map and quantify aboveground, dead biomass of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) across an 11.5 Mha survey area where drought was exceptionally severe during 2001–2002. Within this area, a satellite-based land cover map showed that aspen-dominated broadleaf forests occupied 2.3 Mha. Aerial surveys revealed extensive patches of severe mortality (>55%) resembling the impacts of fire. Dead aboveground biomass was estimated at 45 Mt, representing 20% of the total aboveground biomass, based on a spatial interpolation of plot-based measurements. Spatial variation in percentage dead biomass showed a moderately strong correlation with drought severity. In the prairie-like, southern half of the study area where the drought was most severe, 35% of aspen biomass was dead, compared with an estimated 7% dead biomass in the absence of drought. Drought led to an estimated 29 Mt increase in dead biomass across the survey area, corresponding to 14 Mt of potential future carbon emissions following decomposition. Many recent, comparable episodes of drought-induced forest dieback have been reported from around the world, which points to an emerging need for multiscale monitoring approaches to quantify drought effects on woody biomass and carbon cycling

  19. PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans

    1982-01-01

    like to thank the active members of the IOC for an efficient and friendly co-operation in deciding about the program of invited speakers and for discussions on the general structure of the conference. Our most cordial thanks are extended to the invited speakers for coming to the conference to deliver such excellent talks and to provide us in good time for printing with so beautifully prepared manuscripts. Symposium on Plasma Theory: Preface Several satellite meetings were arranged following the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics in Göteborg. Among them a Symposium on Plasma Theory was held at Aspenäsgården outside Göteborg during three days, June 16-18, 1982. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss problems of current interest in plasma theory with applications to space and astrophysical plasmas as well as to fusion plasmas. A total of fifteen talks were given during the three days, and some very lively discussions arose, notably in the area of plasma turbulence. There were around 30 invited scientists present, about one third from the United States, one third from the Soviet Union, and the rest from England, Japan, and various other countries. This volume of Physica Scripta (2B, 506-595) includes some of the talks which were given at Aspenäsgården. Several of the authors of contributed papers to the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics were encouraged to write extended versions of their contributions, and these are also included in this number, as are furthermore some papers, which were prepared during prolonged stays of visiting scientists at our institute in connection with the 1982 ICPP. It is expected that the collection of papers thus assembled will give a general picture of the activities accompanying the main conference and that it will elucidate some trends in the development of plasma theory.

  20. Continuous hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood and glycerol with water phase recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas H.; Grigoras, Ionela F.; Hoffmann, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technology for the conversion of a wide range of bio-feedstock into a biocrude; a mixture of chemical compounds that holds the potential for a renewable production of chemicals and fuels. Most research in hydrothermal liquefaction is performed in batch type...... reactors, although a continuous and energy-efficient operation is paramount for such process to be feasible. In this work an experimental campaign in a continuous bench scale unit is presented. The campaign is based on glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of aspen wood carried out with the presence...

  1. Infection and esophageal cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al‐Haddad, Sahar; El‐Zimaity, Hala; Hafezi‐Bakhtiari, Sara; Rajendra, Shanmugarajah; Streutker, Catherine J; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Wang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The following, from the 12th OESO World Conference: Cancers of the Esophagus, includes commentaries on infection and cancer, and includes commentaries on the influence of bacterial infections on mucin expression and cancer risk...

  2. MUSME Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of MUSME 2014, held at Huatulco in Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2014. Topics include analysis and synthesis of mechanisms; dynamics of multibody systems; design algorithms for mechatronic systems; simulation procedures and results; prototypes and their performance; robots and micromachines; experimental validations; theory of mechatronic simulation; mechatronic systems; and control of mechatronic systems. The MUSME symposium on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics was held under the auspices of IFToMM, the International Federation for Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, and FeIbIM, the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering. Since the first symposium in 2002, MUSME events have been characterised by the way they stimulate the integration between the various mechatronics and multibody systems dynamics disciplines, present a forum for facilitating contacts among researchers and students mainly in South American countries, and serve as a joint conference for the ...

  3. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer In US women, other than skin cancer the three most common cancers are: Breast cancer Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer . But ...

  4. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): Leaf traits and litter decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, Suvi, E-mail: suvi.nikula@helsinki.f [Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 56, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Vapaavuori, Elina, E-mail: elina.vapaavuori@metla.f [Suonenjoki Research Unit, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Juntintie 154, 77600 Suonenjoki (Finland); Manninen, Sirkku, E-mail: sirkku.manninen@helsinki.f [Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 56, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. - Urbanization can modify leaf traits of aspen and accelerate litter decomposition through changes in litter traits as well as in environmental conditions at the decomposition site.

  5. Simulated control in Aspen Dynamics for the production of limonene epoxide at pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Agudelo Arenas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution is reported the study and analysis of the control system (simulated for the process of obtaining limonene epoxide. The modelling of the process at pilot scale was implemented in the software Aspen Plus from literature reports. Aspen Dynamics was used for the study of the process control. The model allows observing the behavior of the variables of interest in the process such as outflows from the distillation tower, heat duty, operating temperaturas and purity of the final product (limonene epoxide. The performance of the controllers (level, flow and temperature was evaluated by simulating disturbances (+30% in the feedstream to the process. Sensitivity analysis and preliminary design specifications allow to conclude that according to the simulations it is possible to obtain limonene epoxide (97,5% w/w with this system. The results of this work can be used for more detailed studies of the system, including experimental study designs that help to determine the operating point for the process variables which increase limonene epoxide production.

  6. Vegetation of birch and aspen forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega State Nature Reserve (Russia is located in the Arkhangelsk region in the northern taiga subzone. Together with spruce forests and mires, birch forests represent one of the most wide-spread plant communities of its territory. Birch forests cover 24.6% of the Reserve's area. Aspen forests are rare plant communities in the Pinega Reserve. These forests cover only 0.9% of the whole Reserve's area. The birch and aspen forests vegetation has been classified based on 82 relevès. Eleven associations could be distinguished, which represent six groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa are provided including their biodiversity analysis. The analysis allowed establishing that the revealed syntaxa differ in relation to habitat environmental conditions: e.g., soil moisture, trophicity, nitrogen saturation and soil acidity. Sphagnum and blueberry birch forests proved to be the poorest in nitrogen, in contrast to the richest humidoherbaceous and broad-grassed groups of birch forest associations. Broad-grassed birch forests in the Pinega Reserve inhabit the most drained locations, while humidoherbaceous and Sphagnum forests occur in lesser drained locations.

  7. Assisted migration to address climate change: recommendations for aspen reforestation in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura K; Gylander, Tim; Mbogga, Michael S; Chen, Pei-Yu; Hamann, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Human-aided movement of species populations in large-scale reforestation programs could be a potent and cost-effective climate change adaptation strategy. Such large-scale management interventions, however, tend to entail the risks of unintended consequences, and we propose that three conditions should be met before implementing assisted migration in reforestation programs: (1) evidence of a climate-related adaptational lag, (2) observed biological impacts, and (3) robust model projections to target assisted migration efforts. In a case study of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux.) we use reciprocal transplant experiments to study adaptation of tree populations to local environments. Second, we monitor natural aspen populations using the MODIS enhanced vegetation index as a proxy for forest health and productivity. Last, we report results from bioclimate envelope models that predict suitable habitat for locally adapted genotypes under observed and predicted climate change. The combined results support assisted migration prescriptions and indicate that the risk of inaction likely exceeds the risk associated with changing established management practices. However, uncertainty in model projections also implies that we are restricted to a relatively short 20-year planning horizon for prescribing seed movement in reforestation programs. We believe that this study exemplifies a safe and realistic climate change adaptation strategy based on multiple sources of information and some understanding of the uncertainty associated with recommendations for assisted migration. Ad hoc migration prescriptions without a similar level of supporting information should be avoided in reforestation programs.

  8. Severe obesity: a growing health concern A.S.P.E.N. should not ignore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    The definition of malnutrition in the published standards of the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) is any derangement in the normal nutrition status and includes overnutrition, commonly referred to as obesity. The incidence of obesity is increasing and reaching epidemic proportions in the United States and even worldwide. This has significant financial impact as our society spends billions of dollars on fad diets, commercial weight-loss programs, nutrition and dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter medications, and health clubs. Another approximately dollars 100 billion are spent to treat the medical consequences of obesity. Currently, for those patients with intractable morbid obesity, defined as having a body mass index >40 kg/m2, surgery offers the only option for achieving meaningful and sustainable weight loss. The resultant weight loss dramatically improves health and decreases the cost of health care for these patients. Years of refinement in technology and the introduction of safer and less invasive procedures have dramatically reduced the short-term morbidities and long-term metabolic consequences of these procedures. This address will review the field of weight loss (bariatric) surgery and will offer a compelling request for A.S.P.E.N. to include obesity in its fabric.

  9. Development of an ASPEN PLUS physical property database for biofuels components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.J.; Putsche, V.

    1996-04-01

    Physical property data for many of the key components used in the simulation for the ethanol from lignocellulose process are not available in the standard ASPEN PLUS property databases. Indeed, many of the properties necessary to successfully simulate this process are not available anywhere. In addition, inputting the available properties into each simulation is awkward and tedious, and mistakes can be easily introduced when a long list of physical property equation parameters is entered. Therefore, one must evaluate the literature, estimate properties where necessary, and determine a set of consistent physical properties for all components of interest. The components must then be entered into an in-house NREL ASPEN PLUS database so they can be called on without being retyped into each specific simulation. The first phase of this work is complete. A complete set of properties for the currently identifiable important compounds in the ethanol process is attached. With this as the starting base the authors can continue to search for and evaluate new properties or have properties measured in the laboratory and update the central database.

  10. Effects of long-term (10 years) exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 on trembling Aspen carbon and nitrogen metabolism at the aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) study site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Subhash Minocha; Paula Marquardt; Neil Nelson; Mark. Kubiske

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Aspen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental site, Rhinelander, WI, (USA). Since 1998, 12 experimental rings planted in 1997 underwent four different treatments: control; elevated CO2 (560 ppm); elevated O3 (1.5X ambient) and elevated CO2 (560 ppm) + O...

  11. Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seestrom, S.J.

    1993-10-06

    The conference began with an introductory lecture by Bunakov. It is very appropriate that this workshop be held in Dubna as Bunakov reminded us that the experiments that motivated the current interest in the study of symmetry violation with neutrons were started here at Dubna by Alfimenkov, Pikelner, and collaborators. Bunakov discussed the fact that is the complexity of the compound nucleus that leads to large enhancement of parity violation near P-resonances and to the possibility of using statistical models to relate the measured parity violation to more-fundamental quantities. He also pointed out that it is a rare case in which complexity aids us. Bunakov did not point out that this is an example of another rare phenomena -- where theory has predicted correctly in advance the parity violating effects seen near p-resonances. As long ago as 1969, Karmanov and Lobov first predicted an enhancement of {gamma}-ray circular polarization near p-resonances. Sushkov and Flambaum later predicted asymmetries P {approximately} 10{sup {minus}2} for p-resonances and suggested {sup 117}Sn, {sup 139}La, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U for study. Bunakov and Gudkov developed a theory describing the energy dependence of parity-violating effects over a large energy range. This theory predicted random signs for the parity-violating asymmetries.

  12. Moderation of [CO2]-induced gas exchange responses by elevated tropospheric O3 in trembling aspen and sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooja Sharma; Anu Sober; Jaak Sober; Gopi P. Podila; Mark E. Kubiske; William J. Mattson; Judson G. Isebrands; David F. Karnosky

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gases CO2 and 03 are increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Little is known about long-term impacts of these two co-occurring gases on forest trees. We have been examining the impacts of these two gases on the physiology and growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar...

  13. Semi-Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on aspen hemicellulose and chitosan: Effect of crosslinking sequence on hydrogel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffer Ahmet Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Gisela. Buschle-Diller

    2012-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel films were prepared using hemicellulose and chemically crosslinked chitosan. Hemicellulose was extracted from aspen by using a novel alkaline treatment and characterized by HPSEC, and consisted of a mixture of high and low molecular weight polymeric fractions. HPLC analysis of the acid hydrolysate of the hemicellulose showed that...

  14. Decay of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) wood in moist and dry boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; William Gould; Andrew T. Hudak; Teresa Nettleton Hollingsworth

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we set up a wood decomposition experiment to i) quantify the percent of mass remaining, decay constant and performance strength of aspen stakes (Populus tremuloides) in dry and moist boreal (Alaska and Minnesota, USA), temperate (Washington and Idaho, USA), and tropical (Puerto Rico) forest types, and ii) determine the effects of...

  15. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph N.T. Darbah; Wendy S. Jones; Andrew J. Burton; John Nagy; Mark E. Kubiske

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O3) concentration (110-490 nmol mol-1) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O3 pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine...

  16. Quantitative predictions of bioconversion of aspen by dilute acid and SPORL pretreatments using a unified combined hydrolysis factor (CHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Zhu; Carl J. Houtman; J.Y. Zhu; Roland Gleisner; K.F. Chen

    2012-01-01

    A combined hydrolysis factor (CHF) was developed to predict xylan hydrolysis during pretreatments of native aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips. A natural extension of previously developed kinetic models allowed us to account for the effect of catalysts by dilute acid and two sulfite pretreatments at different pH values....

  17. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  18. Assessment of aspen ecosystem vulnerability to climate change for the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache and Ashley National Forests, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine Rice; Tim Bardsley; Pete Gomben; Dustin Bambrough; Stacey Weems; Allen Huber; Linda A. Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Aspen ecosystems are valued because they add biodiversity and ecological value to the landscape. They provide rich and productive habitats and increase aesthetic value. Climate change poses the risk of altering and disrupting these ecosystems, and it may worsen the effects of non-climate stressors. To provide scientific information for land managers facing the...

  19. Species richness has not increased after long-term protection from grazing on sagebrush, aspen and tall forb rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Laycock; Dale Bartos; Keith Klement

    2001-01-01

    Recent conservation biology and environmental literature contains claims that livestock grazing has caused and continues to cause reduction in species diversity on Western rangelands, especially public rangelands. This paper present quantitative data on species richness (number of species) inside and outside 24 long-term exclosures; 8 exclosures in aspen vegetation in...

  20. Summer-fall home-range fidelity of female elk in northwestern Colorado: Implications for aspen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    April M. Brough; R. Justin DeRose; Mary M. Conner; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the degree of spatial fidelity exhibited by individuals within a species increases our ability to manage for desired future outcomes. Elk (Cervus elaphus) is a closely managed species in the Western US, but there is little research evaluating their summer home-range fidelity. Elk summer-fall homeranges overlap considerably with aspen (Populus tremuloides...

  1. Using aspen for artist stretcher frames: adding value through quality service, direct marketing, and careful material selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris. Polson

    2001-01-01

    Aspen wood, when carefully selected and kiln dried, makes excellent stock for artist stretcher frames. Direct marketing techniques including the Internet and word of mouth give access to national markets, providing a more diverse and stable customer base for operations from a rural area. High-quality service, as shown by product performance and rapid order fulfillment...

  2. The Potential of Aspen Clonal Forestry in Alberta: Breeding Regions and Estimates of Genetic Gain from Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylander, Tim; Hamann, Andreas; Brouard, Jean S.; Thomas, Barb R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. Methodology/Principal Findings Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5–8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH) ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5–15% genetic gains in height and 9–34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. Conclusion/Significance Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ∼40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta. PMID:22957006

  3. Response Surface Methodology and Aspen Plus Integration for the Simulation of the Catalytic Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol (SRE on a bimetallic RhPt/CeO2 catalyst was evaluated by the integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Aspen Plus (version 9.0, Aspen Tech, Burlington, MA, USA, 2016. First, the effect of the Rh–Pt weight ratio (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 on the performance of SRE on RhPt/CeO2 was assessed between 400 to 700 °C with a stoichiometric steam/ethanol molar ratio of 3. RSM enabled modeling of the system and identification of a maximum of 4.2 mol H2/mol EtOH (700 °C with the Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 catalyst. The mathematical models were integrated into Aspen Plus through Excel in order to simulate a process involving SRE, H2 purification, and electricity production in a fuel cell (FC. An energy sensitivity analysis of the process was performed in Aspen Plus, and the information obtained was used to generate new response surfaces. The response surfaces demonstrated that an increase in H2 production requires more energy consumption in the steam reforming of ethanol. However, increasing H2 production rebounds in more energy production in the fuel cell, which increases the overall efficiency of the system. The minimum H2 yield needed to make the system energetically sustainable was identified as 1.2 mol H2/mol EtOH. According to the results of the integration of RSM models into Aspen Plus, the system using Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 can produce a maximum net energy of 742 kJ/mol H2, of which 40% could be converted into electricity in the FC (297 kJ/mol H2 produced. The remaining energy can be recovered as heat.

  4. The potential of aspen clonal forestry in Alberta: breeding regions and estimates of genetic gain from selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Gylander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspen naturally grows in large, single-species, even-aged stands that regenerate clonally after fire disturbance. This offers an opportunity for an intensive clonal forestry system that closely emulates the natural life history of the species. In this paper, we assess the potential of genetic tree improvement and clonal deployment to enhance the productivity of aspen forests in Alberta. We further investigate geographic patterns of genetic variation in aspen and infer forest management strategies under uncertain future climates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic variation among 242 clones from Alberta was evaluated in 13 common garden trials after 5-8 growing seasons in the field. Broad-sense heritabilities for height and diameter at breast height (DBH ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, allowing 5-15% genetic gains in height and 9-34% genetic gains in DBH. Geographic partitioning of genetic variance revealed predominant latitudinal genetic differentiation. We further observed that northward movement of clones almost always resulted in increased growth relative to local planting material, while southward movement had a strong opposite effect. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Aspen forests are an important natural resource in western Canada that is used for pulp and oriented strandboard production, accounting for ~40% of the total forest harvest. Moderate to high broad-sense heritabilities in growth traits suggest good potential for a genetic tree improvement program with aspen. Significant productivity gains appear possible through clonal selection from existing trials. We propose two breeding regions for Alberta, and suggest that well-tested southern clones may be used in the northern breeding region, accounting for a general warming trend observed over the last several decades in Alberta.

  5. Conference this! Lead Pipers compare conference experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As library travel budgets are increasingly slashed around the country, it’s a tough time for conference-going. In this group post, we compare notes about the conferences we’ve attended, which have been our favorites, and why. We hope this will generate creative ideas on good conferences (online or in-person to look forward to, and maybe offer [...

  6. Obesity, Inflammation, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Tuo; Lyon, Christopher J.; Bergin, Stephen; Michael A. Caligiuri; Hsueh, Willa A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including cancer, and is increasingly recognized as a growing cause of preventable cancer risk. Chronic inflammation, a well-known mediator of cancer, is a central characteristic of obesity, leading to many of its complications, and obesity-induced inflammation confers additional cancer risk beyond obesity itself. Multiple mechanisms facilitate this strong association between cancer and ob...

  7. Modeling of the Sulfuric Acid and Sulfur Trioxide Decomposer using Aspen Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong Un; Park, G. C. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. S.; Yoo, T. H.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    A hydrogen production system using VHTR, which was combined with a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, is a good candidate for massive hydrogen production. It is being investigated for Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The SI thermo-chemical cycle is a good promise for the economical and eco-friendly hydrogen production. In SI cycle, the decomposition of a sulfuric acid is main concern for the material corrosion and mechanical stress on high temperature and pressure operation condition. KAERI has designed and constructed a small-scale gas loop that included sulfuric acid experimental facilities as a secondary loop. The main objectives of the loop are to monitor and validate the performances of NHDD component such as the Process Heat Exchanger (PHE) and sulfuric acid decomposer. In this paper, we discussed the results of the modeling of the sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposer using Aspen plus process simulator

  8. A simulation study of Solid Oxide fuel cell for IGCC power generation using Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    operating conditions and using diverse fuels. The SOFC stack model developed using the chemical process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type and is based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The SOFC model performs heat and mass balances and considers the ohmic, activation......The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy...... and therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The high operating temperature of the SOFC also provides excellent possibilities for cogeneration application. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which helps to drive steam generator. Recent developments in modeling techniques has resulted...

  9. Aspen Global Change Institute: 25 Years of Interdisciplinary Global Change Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Global environmental changes such as climate change result from the interaction of human and natural systems. Research to understand these changes and options for addressing them requires the physical, environmental, and social sciences, as well as engineering and other applied fields. In this essay, we describe how the Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) has provided leadership in global change science over the past 25 years—in particular how it has contributed to the integration of the natural and social sciences needed to research the drivers of change, Earth system response, natural and human system impacts, and options for risk management. We illustrate the ways the history of AGCI has been intertwined with the evolution of global change science as it has become an increasingly interdisciplinary endeavor.

  10. ASPEN plus modelling of air–steam gasification of biomass with sorbent enabled CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rupesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with the modelling and simulation of carbon dioxide capture in air–steam gasification of saw dust using ASPEN Plus process simulator. The proposed quasi-steady state model incorporates pyrolysis, tar cracking and char conversion using existing experimental data. Prediction accuracy of the developed model is validated by comparing with available experimental results. Effects of CaO addition in air–steam gasification are analysed through key operating parameters such as gasification temperature, equivalence ratio, steam to biomass ratio and gasification efficiency. Maximum H2 mole fraction of 31.17% is obtained at a temperature of 900 K, equivalence ratio of 0.25, and steam to biomass ratio and sorbent to biomass ratio of unity. The H2 and CO2 mole fractions are found to be increased and decreased by 28.10% and 42.6%, respectively, when compared with the corresponding non- sorbent case.

  11. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ling [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  12. Urbanization-related changes in European aspen (Populus tremula L.): leaf traits and litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikula, Suvi; Vapaavuori, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku

    2010-06-01

    We investigated foliar and litter responses of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) to urbanization, including factors such as increased temperature, moisture stress and nitrogen (N) deposition. Leaf samples were collected in 2006-2008 from three urban and three rural forest stands in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, southern Finland, and reciprocal litter transplantations were established between urban and rural sites. Urban leaves exhibited a higher amount of epicuticular waxes and N concentration, and a lower C:N ratio than rural ones, but there was no difference in specific leaf area. Urban litter had a slightly higher N concentration, lower concentrations of lignin and total phenolics, and was more palatable to a macrofaunal decomposer. Moreover, litter decay was faster at the urban site and for urban litter. Urbanization thus resulted in foliar acclimatization in terms of increased amount of epicuticular waxes, as well as in accelerated decomposition of the N-richer leaf litter. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences. The...

  14. Climate Science Conference

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the Second Annual Pacific Northwest Climate Science Conference. This two day, regional conference included a panel...

  15. Fake/Bogus Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major sci...... scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails....

  16. COAL Conference Poster

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor Alexander; McGibbney, Lewis John

    2017-01-01

    COAL Conference Poster This archive contains the COAL conference poster for the AGU Fall Meeting 2017 by Taylor Alexander Brown. The Inkscape SVG source is available at https://github.com/capstone-coal/coal-conference-poster/ under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.

  17. 217 YAP Is Ready to Rac and Rho: Elucidation of a Novel YAP-Driven Network That Potentiates Brain Cancer Cell Dispersal and Confers Poor Survival in Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sagar R; Tippens, Nathaniel; Park, JinSeok; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Vela, Guillermo; Martinez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Margolis, Seth S; Schmidt, Susanne; Levchenko, Andre; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Molecular pathways linking cell polarization and migration to extracellular cues regulate many pathological processes, including progression of aggressive and infiltrative cancers. Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and lethal form of primary brain cancer, is characterized by its pronounced ability to disseminate into the intricate microenvironment of the human brain, confounding surgical excision and radiotherapy, leading to a median patient survival of 14 months. Progression results from defects in molecular pathways linking cell migration and invasion into surrounding tissue. However, the molecular engines are not known. Using patient-derived GBM tissues and cells, we profiled the expression of network moieties via Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and performed live cell time-lapse microscopy, bioinformatics analyses, in vivo intracranial GBM experiments using genetic and pharmacological inhibitors to delineate a prodispersal mechanism for management and treatment of GBMs. Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator, is overexpressed and hyperactive in 78% of GBMs and 50% of metastatic tumors to the brain (P < .05). Our studies demonstrate that YAP activates a Rho-GTPase switch to potentiate migratory speed by interacting with canonical pathways through direct transcriptional control. In addition, YAP mediates a proinvasive genetic network by direct posttranslational regulation. By coupling the regulation of migration and invasion, YAP drives tumor cell dispersal in vitro and in vivo (P < .05). Hyperactivation of this YAP-driven network in GBM confers poor patient outcome in clinical biopsies and The Cancer Genome Atlas (P < .05), suggesting a new signature in clinical prognosis of this aggressive and infiltrative cancer. Targeting this network using a proprietary pharmacological inhibitor attenuates tumor dispersal and growth (P < .05). YAP can critically control cellular locomotion through direct interaction

  18. Factors affecting fall down rates of dead aspen (Populus tremuloides) biomass following severe drought in west-central Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations. Over a 12-year period (2000-2012), we monitored the annual status of 1010 aspen trees that died during and following a severe regional drought within 25 study areas across west-central Canada. Observations of stem fall down and breakage (snapping) were used to estimate woody biomass transfer from standing to downed dead wood as a function of years since tree death. For the region as a whole, we estimated that >80% of standing dead aspen biomass had fallen after 10 years. Overall, the rate of fall down was minimal during the year following stem death, but thereafter fall rates followed a negative exponential equation with k = 0.20 per year. However, there was high between-site variation in the rate of fall down (k = 0.08-0.37 per year). The analysis showed that fall down rates were positively correlated with stand age, site windiness, and the incidence of decay fungi (Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Boris.) and wood-boring insects. These factors are thus likely to influence the rate of carbon emissions from dead trees following periods of climate-related forest die-off episodes. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Global Change Biology © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Natural Resources Canada.

  19. Organo-mineral interactions promote greater soil organic carbon stability under aspen in semi-arid montane forests in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Miegroet, H.; Roman Dobarco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest species influence soil organic carbon (SOC) storage through litter input, which in interaction with soil microclimate, texture and mineralogy, lead to different SOC stabilization and storage patterns. We sampled mineral soil (0-15 cm) across the ecotone between aspen (Populus tremuloides) and mixed conifers stands (Abies lasiocarpa and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in semi-arid montane forests from Utah, to investigate the influence of vegetation vs. site characteristics on SOC stabilization, storage and chemistry. SOC was divided into light fraction (LF), mineral-associated SOC in the silt and clay fraction (MoM), and a dense subfraction > 53 μm (SMoM) using wet sieving and electrostatic attraction. SOC decomposability and solubility was derived from long term laboratory incubations and hot water extractions (HWE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study differences in chemical functional groups in LF and MoM. Vegetation cover did not affect SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha-1), SOC decomposability (cumulative CO2-C release of 93.2 ± 65.4 g C g-1 C), or SOC solubility (9.8 ± 7.2 mg C g-1 C), but MoM content increased with presence of aspen [pure aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha-1) > mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha-1) > conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha-1)]. Organo-mineral complexes reduced biological availability of SOC, indicated by the negative correlation between silt+clay (%) and decomposable SOC per gram of C (r = -0.48, p = 0.001) or soluble SOC (r = -0.59, p molecules (e.g., polysaccharides) of plant or microbial origin. FTIR spectra clustered by sites with similar parent material rather than by vegetation cover. This suggests that initial differences in litter chemistry between aspen and conifers converged into similar MoM chemistry within sites.

  20. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...

  1. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI Directors ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Contacts News & Events Press Releases Resources for News Media Media Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases ...

  4. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI ...

  6. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI ...

  7. Stages of Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI ...

  8. Application of vitrification-derived cryotechniques for long-term storage of poplar and aspen (Populus spp. germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TSVETKOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of three different vitrification-based freezing strategies for the cryostorage of white poplar (Populus alba L. and hybrid aspen (P. tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx. have been assessed. The PVS2 vitrification protocol was successfully applied to two white poplar in vitro clones stored for more than 6 months in slow-growth conditions (4 °C, in darkness and showing clear signs of explant etiolation and decay. After 60 min of PVS2 treatment, P. alba L. (cv. Villafranca explants isolated from axillary buds demonstrated significantly better potential for post-freeze regrowth (64% compared to those obtained from apical buds (17%. Similarly, a high level of survival (78% of the frozen hybrid aspen shoot tips was recorded following the application of the same technique. Using the ‘encapsulation-vitrification’ procedure, no toxic effects of the PVS2 treatment were noticed after 120 min exposure, however none of the cryopreserved (poplar and aspen explants survived after 3 weeks. In contrast, the ‘droplet-vitrification’ technique appeared to be very efficient in the cryopreservation of white poplar shoot tips, which increases the opportunities for wider application of this method in other woody species.;

  9. Effects of dilute acid pretreatment conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis monomer and oligomer sugar yields for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jill R; Morinelly, Juan E; Gossen, Kelsey R; Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J; Shonnard, David R

    2010-04-01

    The effects of dilute acid hydrolysis conditions were investigated on total sugar (glucose and xylose) yields after enzymatic hydrolysis with additional analyses on glucose and xylose monomer and oligomer yields from the individual hydrolysis steps for aspen (a hardwood), balsam (a softwood), and switchgrass (a herbaceous energy crop). The results of this study, in the form of measured versus theoretical yields and a severity analysis, show that for aspen and balsam, high dilute acid hydrolysis xylose yields were obtainable at all acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 wt.%) and temperatures (150-175 degrees C) studied as long as reaction time was optimized. Switchgrass shows a relatively stronger dependence on dilute acid hydrolysis acid concentration due to its higher neutralizing mineral content. Maximum total sugar (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) yields post-enzymatic hydrolysis for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass, were 88.3%, 21.2%, and 97.6%, respectively. In general, highest yields of total sugars (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) were achieved at combined severity parameter values (log CS) between 2.20 and 2.40 for the biomass species studied. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species.

  11. Contributions of insects and droughts to growth decline of trembling aspen mixed boreal forest of western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Jian-Guo; Dawson, Andria; Zhai, Lihong; Stadt, Kenneth J; Comeau, Philip G; Whitehouse, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Insects, diseases, fire and drought and other disturbances associated with global climate change contribute to forest decline and mortality in many parts of the world. Forest decline and mortality related to drought or insect outbreaks have been observed in North American aspen forests. However, little research has been done to partition and estimate their relative contributions to growth declines. In this study, we combined tree-ring width and basal area increment series from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) sites along a latitudinal gradient (from 52° to 58°N) in western Canada and attempted to investigate the effect of drought and insect outbreaks on growth decline, and simultaneously partition and quantify their relative contributions. Results indicated that the influence of drought on forest decline was stronger than insect outbreaks, although both had significant effects. Furthermore, the influence of drought and insect outbreaks showed spatiotemporal variability. In addition, our data suggest that insect outbreaks could be triggered by warmer early spring temperature instead of drought, implicating that potentially increased insect outbreaks are expected with continued warming springs, which may further exacerbate growth decline and death in North America aspen mixed forests. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on root colonization, growth, and nutrient uptake of aspen and balsam poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quoreshi, A.M.; Khasa, D.P. [Symbiotech Research Inc. 201, 509-11 Avenue, Nisku, AB (Canada); Forest Biology Research Centre, University of Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Aspen and balsam poplar seedlings were inoculated with six species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma longicaudum, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon vinicolor, and Suillus tomentosus), one species of endomycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices), two species of bacteria (Agrobacterium sp. and Burkholderia cepacia), treated with a growth hormone (SR3), and co-inoculated with a combination of Paxillus and Burkholderia. The seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under three different fertility regimes. Bacterial inoculation alone did not affect seedling growth and nutrition as observed when co-inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungus. The biomass and root collar diameter of aspen and balsam poplar were significantly increased when adequate mycorrhizas are formed and more prominent when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia and grown at the 67% fertilizer level. Except for R. vinicolor and S. tomentosus, the other four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and G. intraradices formed symbiotic associations with both plant species. Both ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal colonization were observed at all fertilizer levels and fertilizer applications did not affect the colonization rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly improved in both aspen and balsam poplar compared with control only when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia. However, plant net nitrogen uptake (content) increased significantly in all successful inoculation treatments and co-inoculated treatment when compared with control. These results hold promise for incorporation of inoculation of Populus sp. with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi and selected bacteria into commercial nursery system to improve the establishment of Populus in various sites. (author)

  13. Comparative simulation study of gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized bed reactors using aspen polymers and two phase models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiria Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study describing gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized-bed reactors using Ziegler-Natta catalyst is presented. The reactor behavior was explained using a two-phase model (which is based on principles of fluidization as well as simulation using the Aspen Polymers process simulator. The two-phase reactor model accounts for the emulsion and bubble phases which contain different portions of catalysts with the polymerization occurring in both phases. Both models predict production rate, molecular weight, polydispersity index (PDI and melt flow index (MFI of the polymer. We used both models to investigate the effect of important polymerization parameters, namely catalyst feed rate and hydrogen concentration, on the product polypropylene properties, such as production rate, molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Both the two-phase model and Aspen Polymers simulator showed good agreement in terms of production rate. However, the models differed in their predictions for weight-average molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Based on these results, we propose incorporating the missing hydrodynamic effects into Aspen Polymers to provide a more realistic understanding of the phenomena encountered in fluidized bed reactors for polyolefin production.

  14. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...... are active professionals in search of inspiration, and they also want to share knowledge with their peers at the conference. A theory of the conference as a forum for mutual inspiration and human co-flourishing is proposed, as are four design principles for a learning conference: 1. Presentations must...

  15. Geology of the Aspen 15-minute quadrangle, Pitkin and Gunnison counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Bruce

    1979-01-01

    The Aspen area, located 170 km southwest of Denver, Colo., lies at the intersection of the northeast-trending Colorado mineral belt and the west margin of the north-trending Sawatch uplift of Laramide age; it is within the southwest part of the northwest-trending late Paleozoic Eagle basin. Precambrian shales and graywackes, perhaps as old as 2 billion years (b.y.), were converted to sillimanite-bearing gneiss and muscovite-biotite schist 1.65-1.70 b.y. ago. They were deformed into northeast-plunging folds and were migmatized, and they were intruded by quartz diorite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, and granite. Muscovite-biotite quartz monzonite intruded this older Precambrian terrane about 1.45 b.y. ago and is the predominant Precambrian rock near Aspen. Uplift, some faulting, and much erosion occurred during the 900-million year (m.y.) interval between emplacement of the plutonic rocks and deposition of Upper Cambrian sediments. From Late Cambrian through Mississippian the region was part of a broad area alternately covered by shallow seas or occupied by low-lying land. Quartzite, dolomite, and limestone 200-320 m thick, comprising the Sawatch Quartzite and Peerless Formation (Cambrian), Manitou Dolomite (Ordovician), Chaffee Group (Mississippian(?) and Devonian), and Leadville Limestone (Mississippian) were deposited during this interval. After an hiatus during which soil formation and solution of the Leadville Limestone took place in the Late Mississippian, a thick sequence of marine and nonmarine clastic rocks was deposited in the newly developing Eagle basin during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Deposition of about 300 m of carbonaceous shale, limestone, dolomite, and minor siltstone and evaporite of the Belden Formation began in a shallow sea in Early and Middle Pennsylvanian time. Facies relations indicate that the northwest-trending Uncompahgre uplift southwest of Aspen, if present at that time, had very low relief. The overlying Middle

  16. Evidence that the 5p12 Variant rs10941679 Confers Susceptibility to Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer through FGF10 and MRPS30 Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoussaini, Maya; French, Juliet D; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers......, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis....

  17. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  18. Threshold Responses of Aspen and Spruce Growth to Temperature May Presage a Regime Shift in the Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Duffy, P.; Mann, D. H.; Leonawicz, M.; Blumstein, M.; Pendall, E.

    2011-12-01

    Warming in boreal regions may eventually lead to the demise of evergreen coniferous forest and its replacement by either an open parkland of more drought-tolerant deciduous species like aspen, or by treeless steppe vegetation. We examined the possibility of warming-induced regime shifts in the boreal forest by quantifying the response of tree growth to climate on steep, south-facing bluffs in interior Alaska. These sites are the ecotone between forest and subarctic steppe vegetation, and represent the warmest, driest sites occupied by trees in the boreal forests of interior Alaska. We collected tree cores from aspen (Populus tremula) and white spruce (Picea glauca) at south-facing bluffs in interior Alaska (n=9 for white spruce, n=5 for aspen). Crossdated chronologies of detrended, standardized ring-widths were produced for each species at each site, and growth response to climate was quantified using generalized boosting models (spruce) and random forest regression (aspen). These analyses yielded three important insights into the potential for regime shifts in the warmer areas of the boreal forest. First, our results highlighted the surprising similarity in growth response of aspen and spruce. We expected to find that aspen would be more tolerant of warm, dry conditions than white spruce. In contrast, we found that the two species had broadly similar responses to climate, preferring cooler and wetter conditions. This finding suggests that a continued trend towards warmer and drier conditions is more likely to lead rapidly to the replacement of forest vegetation by steppe grassland, rather than the replacement of white spruce by aspen. Second, we identified strongly nonlinear responses to climate in both species; the use of analytical methods capable of detecting and describing nonlinear relationships between growth and climate thus proved to be critical. For both species, steep thresholds in growth response to temperature occurred, particularly in spring. Small

  19. Hemicelluloses prior to aspen chemithermomechanical pulping: pre-extraction, separation, and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Hou, Qingxi; Mao, Changbin; Yuan, Zhirun; Li, Kecheng

    2012-05-16

    A portion of hemicelluloses and acetic acid can be pre-extracted with dilute sulfuric acid prior to the aspen chemithermomechanical pulp process. The streams collected from the second press-impregnation stage after acid pre-extraction contain a significant amount of acid pre-extracted hemicelluloses. Most of the total sugars obtained from the pressate were xylan, in which xylan was further hydrolyzed to sugar monomers under the acid pre-extraction condition. To fully understand the characteristics of hemicelluloses yielded prior to pulping, the pre-extracted hemicelluloses were separated and characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis in this study. Most of the FT-IR bonds from the hemicelluloses agreed well with the other two spectra of birch xylan and CA0050 xylan, except a new absorption at 1734 cm(-1) contributed to acetyl groups. The hemicelluloses obtained from acid pre-extraction began to decompose significantly at about 225 °C, slightly lower in comparison with organosolv and alkaline hemicelluloses reported in the literature.

  20. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  1. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  2. Hebeloma crustuliniforme facilitates ammonium and nitrate assimilation in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, J Aurea; Calvo-Polanco, Mónica; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the role of ectomycorrhizal associations in nitrogen assimilation of Populus tremuloides seedlings. Seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and compared with non-inoculated plants. Nitrogen-metabolizing enzymatic properties were also determined in H. crustuliniforme grown in sterile culture. The seedlings and fungal cultures were subjected to nitrogen treatments (including NO₃⁻, NH₄⁺ and a combination of NO₃⁻ + NH₄⁺) for 2 months to examine the effects on growth, nitrogen-assimilating enzyme activities and xylem sap concentrations of NH₄⁺ and NO₃⁻. Seedlings were also provided for 3 days with ¹⁵N-labeled NH₄⁺ and NO₃⁻, and leaf and root ¹⁵N content relative to total nitrogen was measured. Both NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ were effective in supporting seedling growth when either form was provided separately. When NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ were provided together, seedling growth decreased while enzymatic assimilation of NH₄⁺ increased. Additionally, nitrogen assimilation in inoculated seedlings was less affected by the form of nitrogen compared with non-inoculated plants. Fungal ability to enzymatically respond to and assimilate NH₄⁺ combined with aspen's enzymatic responsiveness to NO₃⁻ was likely the reason for efficient assimilation of both nitrogen forms by mycorrhizal plants.

  3. A novel process simulation model (PSM) for anaerobic digestion using Aspen Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Kankanala, Harshavardhan R; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-09-01

    A novel process simulation model (PSM) was developed for biogas production in anaerobic digesters using Aspen Plus®. The PSM is a library model of anaerobic digestion, which predicts the biogas production from any substrate at any given process condition. A total of 46 reactions were used in the model, which include inhibitions, rate-kinetics, pH, ammonia, volume, loading rate, and retention time. The hydrolysis reactions were based on the extent of the reaction, while the acidogenic, acetogenic, and methanogenic reactions were based on the kinetics. The PSM was validated against a variety of lab and industrial data on anaerobic digestion. The P-value after statistical analysis was found to be 0.701, which showed that there was no significant difference between discrete validations and processing conditions. The sensitivity analysis for a ±10% change in composition of substrate and extent of reaction results in 5.285% higher value than the experimental value. The model is available at http://hdl.handle.net/2320/12358 (Rajendran et al., 2013b). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  5. Fluorescence lifetime FRET non-invasive imaging of breast cancer xenografts provides a measure of target engagement in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkouskaya, Alena; Sinsuebphon, Nattawut; Intes, Xavier; Barroso, Margarida

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence Lifetime Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FLIM-FRET) is a unique non-invasive imaging platform to monitor and quantify in vivo target engagement in pre-clinical studies. FLIM FRET is a valuable tool in targeted drug delivery due to its nanoscale-range molecular resolution that detects near-infrared labeled ligand binding to dimerized receptors followed by their uptake into cancer cells in vivo. Various imaging platforms, including PET, lack the ability to directly discriminate between unbound and internalized ligands. Since transferrin receptor (TfR) level is significantly elevated in cancer cells compared to non-cancerous cells, transferrin (Tf) has been successfully used in molecular imaging and targeted anti-cancer drug delivery. The dimeric nature of TfR allows for the quantification of Tf internalization into cancer cells by measuring FLIM FRET between receptor-bound Tf donor and acceptor NIR fluorophore pairs, based on the reduction of donor fluorophore lifetime in live mice. We analyzed tumor morphology, the level of expression of TfR, estrogen receptor (ER) and Tf accumulation in human breast cancer tumor xenografts. We found a remarkable heterogeneity of breast cancer tumors regarding their size, cell density, TfR and ER expression and Tf uptake. The results of this study confirm a strong correlation between in vivo NIR FLIM FRET and ex vivo evaluation of Tf uptake into tumor tissues, thus validating FD% as a robust measure of the target engagement of TfR-Tf in tumor cells in vivo.

  6. Conference proceedings ISES 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Malmkvist, Jens

    The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers.......The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers....

  7. Variation in Trembling Aspen and White Spruce Wood Quality Grown in Mixed and Single Species Stands in the Boreal Mixedwood Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis De Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian boreal forest is largely represented by mixed wood forests of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. In this study, a total of 300 trees originating from three sites composed of trembling aspen and white spruce with varying compositions were investigated for wood quality traits: one site was composed mainly of aspen, one mainly of spruce and a third was a mixed site. Four wood quality traits were examined: wood density, microfibril angle (MFA, fibre characteristics, and cell wall chemistry. Social classes were also determined for each site in an attempt to provide a more in-depth comparison. Wood density showed little variation among sites for both species, with only significant differences occurring between social classes. The aspen site showed statistically lower MFAs than the aspen from the mixed site, however, no differences were observed when comparing spruce. Fibre characteristics were higher in the pure species sites for both species. There were no differences in carbohydrate contents across sites, while lignin content varied. Overall, the use of social classes did not refine the characterization of sites.

  8. A Tree Species Effect on Soil That Is Consistent Across the Species’ Range: The Case of Aspen and Soil Carbon in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Laganière

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Trembling aspen covers a large geographic range in North America, and previous studies reported that a better understanding of its singular influence on soil properties and processes is of high relevance for global change questions. Here we investigate the potential impact of a shift in aspen abundance on soil carbon sequestration and soil carbon stability at the continental scale by conducting a systematic literature review using 23 published studies. Our review shows that aspen’s effect on soil carbon is relatively consistent throughout the species range. Aspen stores less C in the forest floor but similar amounts in the mineral soil relative to conifers. However, a robust set of indicators of soil C stability, for example, degree of organo-mineral associations, proportion of readily-available or labile C estimated during long-term soil incubations or using hot-water extraction, pattern of soil C distribution, and temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration, reveals that the soil organic carbon (SOC stock under aspen is more stable, rendering it more protected against environmental changes and soil disturbances. Therefore, our continental-scale analysis highlights that an increase in the abundance of trembling aspen in North American forests may increase the resistance and resilience of soil C stocks against global changes.

  9. Scheduling EURO-k Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Pisinger, David; Vigo, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    EURO-k conferences are among the largest Operations Research conferences in the world, typically including more than 2000 presentations. As opposed to many other conferences, EURO-k conferences are hierarchically organized, and the conference schedule should reflect this structure to make...

  10. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  11. Defining biochemical failure following radiotherapy with or without hormonal therapy in men with clinically localized prostate cancer: recommendations of the RTOG-ASTRO Phoenix Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Mack; Hanks, Gerald; Thames, Howard; Schellhammer, Paul; Shipley, William U; Sokol, Gerald H; Sandler, Howard

    2006-07-15

    In 1996 the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) sponsored a Consensus Conference to establish a definition of biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The ASTRO definition defined prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure as occurring after three consecutive PSA rises after a nadir with the date of failure as the point halfway between the nadir date and the first rise or any rise great enough to provoke initiation of therapy. This definition was not linked to clinical progression or survival; it performed poorly in patients undergoing hormonal therapy (HT), and backdating biased the Kaplan-Meier estimates of event-free survival. A second Consensus Conference was sponsored by ASTRO and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group in Phoenix, Arizona, on January 21, 2005, to revise the ASTRO definition. The panel recommended: (1) a rise by 2 ng/mL or more above the nadir PSA be considered the standard definition for biochemical failure after EBRT with or without HT; (2) the date of failure be determined "at call" (not backdated). They recommended that investigators be allowed to use the ASTRO Consensus Definition after EBRT alone (no hormonal therapy) with strict adherence to guidelines as to "adequate follow-up." To avoid the artifacts resulting from short follow-up, the reported date of control should be listed as 2 years short of the median follow-up. For example, if the median follow-up is 5 years, control rates at 3 years should be cited. Retaining a strict version of the ASTRO definition would allow comparisons with a large existing body of literature.

  12. Cysteine-linked dimerization of BST-2 confers anoikis resistance to breast cancer cells by negating proapoptotic activities to promote tumor cell survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahauad-Fernandez, Wadie D; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2017-03-16

    Almost all breast tumors express the antiviral protein BST-2 with 67%, 25% and 8.2% containing high, medium or low levels of BST-2, respectively. Breast tumor cells and tissues that contain elevated levels of BST-2 are highly aggressive. Suppression of BST-2 expression reprograms tumorigenic properties of cancer cells and diminishes cancer cell aggressiveness. Using structure/function studies, we report that dimerization of BST-2 through cysteine residues located in the BST-2 extracellular domain (ECD), leads to anoikis resistance and cell survival through proteasome-mediated degradation of BIM-a key proapoptotic factor. Importantly, BST-2 dimerization promotes tumor growth in preclinical breast cancer models in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that restoration of the ECD cysteine residues is sufficient to rescue cell survival and tumor growth via a previously unreported pathway-BST-2/GRB2/ERK/BIM/Cas3. These findings suggest that disruption of BST-2 dimerization offers a potential therapeutic approach for breast cancer.

  13. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  14. The Vision Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2002-01-01

    The concept of the design, planning and mangement of a creative conference is presented. A case study illustrates the theoretical concepts.......The concept of the design, planning and mangement of a creative conference is presented. A case study illustrates the theoretical concepts....

  15. Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, O.; Chen, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Dressler, F.; Ekici, E.; Kargl, Frank; Shigeno, H.; Dietzel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would like to welcome you to the third edition of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (IEEE VNC 2011) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. IEEE VNC is a unique conference sponsored by both the IEEE Communications Society and the IEEE Intelligent

  16. Evidence that the 5p12 Variant rs10941679 Confers Susceptibility to Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer through FGF10 and MRPS30 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussaini, Maya; French, Juliet D; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Nord, Silje; Beesley, Jonathan; Canisus, Sander; Hillman, Kristine M; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; Moradi Marjaneh, Mahdi; Lee, Jason S; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Alonso, M Rosario; Pita, Guillermo; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Wu, Anna H; Van Den Berg, David; Lambrechts, Diether; Floris, Giuseppe; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Goldberg, Mark S; Teo, Soo H; Yip, Cheng Har; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Andrulis, Irene L; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J; Koppert, Linetta B; Li, Jingmei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Ying; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Shah, Mitul; Rhenius, Valerie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don M; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Edwards, Stacey L

    2016-10-06

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed increased breast cancer risk associated with multiple genetic variants at 5p12. Here, we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 104,660 subjects from 50 case-control studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). With data for 3,365 genotyped and imputed SNPs across a 1 Mb region (positions 44,394,495-45,364,167; NCBI build 37), we found evidence for at least three independent signals: the strongest signal, consisting of a single SNP rs10941679, was associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (per-g allele OR ER+ = 1.15; 95% CI 1.13-1.18; p = 8.35 × 10-30). After adjustment for rs10941679, we detected signal 2, consisting of 38 SNPs more strongly associated with ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer (lead SNP rs6864776: per-a allele OR ER- = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.14; p conditional = 1.44 × 10-12), and a single signal 3 SNP (rs200229088: per-t allele OR ER+ = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09-1.15; p conditional = 1.12 × 10-05). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in normal breast tissues and breast tumors showed that the g (risk) allele of rs10941679 was associated with increased expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early colonoscopy confers survival benefits on colon cancer patients with pre-existing iron deficiency anemia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lin Jerry Teng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic significance of pre-existing iron deficiency anemia (IDA and the benefits of early colonoscopy in patients with colon cancer, since these have not been clearly established to date. Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrieved and retrospectively reviewed the records of patients aged ≥ 55 years who were diagnosed with colon cancer between 2000 and 2005. The patient cohort was divided into two groups: patients with (n = 1,260 or without (n = 15,912 an IDA diagnosis during ≤ 18 months preceding the date of colon cancer diagnosis. We found that diabetes (27.9% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0001, cardiovascular disease (61.6% vs. 54.7%, p<0.001, and chronic kidney disease (4.6% vs. 2.2%, p<0.0001 were more common among patients with IDA than among those without IDA. The median overall survival times for patients with IDA and those without IDA were 4.6 and 5.7 years, respectively (p = 0.002. Patients who underwent colonoscopy ≤ 30 days, 31-90, and ≥ 91 days after IDA diagnosis showed median overall survival times of 5.79, 4.43, and 4.04 years, respectively (p = 0.003. Delayed colonoscopy was an independent factor associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.53; p = 0.01. In conclusion, colon cancer patients with IDA were more likely to experience comorbidities than were those without IDA. Pre-existing IDA was a poor prognostic factor in adult men and postmenopausal women who had colon cancer. Early colonoscopy could improve overall survival possibly by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment.

  18. MicroRNA-21 links epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inflammatory signals to confer resistance to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Bottai, Giulia; Nuciforo, Paolo G; Di Tommaso, Luca; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peg, Vicente; Losurdo, Agnese; Pérez-Garcia, José; Masci, Giovanna; Corsi, Fabio; Cortés, Javier; Seoane, Joan; Calin, George A; Santarpia, Libero

    2015-11-10

    Patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer benefit from HER2-targeted therapies. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients die of disease progression due to mechanisms of drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as critical core regulators of drug resistance that act by modulating the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer-related immune responses. In this study, we investigated the association between the expression of a specific subset of 14 miRNAs involved in EMT processes and immune functions and the response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in 52 patients with HER2-overexpressing breast tumors. The expression of only a single miRNA, miR-21, was significantly associated with residual disease (p = 0.030) and increased after trastuzumab-chemotherapy (p = 0.012). A target prediction analysis coupled with in vitro and in vivo validations revealed that miR-21 levels inversely correlated with the expression of PTEN (rs = -0.502; p = 0.005) and PDCD4 (rs = -0.426; p = 0.019), which differentially influenced the drug sensitivity of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. However, PTEN expression was only marginally associated with residual disease. We further demonstrated that miR-21 was able to affect the response to both trastuzumab and chemotherapy, triggering an IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB-mediated signaling loop and activating the PI3K pathway. Our findings support the ability of miR-21 signaling to sustain EMT and shape the tumor immune microenvironment in HER2-positive breast cancer. Collectively, these data provide a rationale for using miR-21 expression as a biomarker to select trastuzumab-chemotherapy-resistant HER2-positive breast cancer patients who may benefit from treatments containing PI3K inhibitors or immunomodulatory drugs.

  19. ICCK Conference Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, William H. [MIT

    2013-05-28

    The 7th International Conference on Chemical Kinetics (ICCK) was held July 10-14, 2011, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in Cambridge, MA, hosted by Prof. William H. Green of MIT's Chemical Engineering department. This cross-disciplinary meeting highlighted the importance of fundamental understanding of elementary reactions to the full range of chemical investigations. The specific conference focus was on elementary-step kinetics in both the gas phase and in condensed phase. The meeting provided a unique opportunity to discuss how the same reactive species and reaction motifs manifest under very different reaction conditions (e.g. atmospheric, aqueous, combustion, plasma, in nonaqueous solvents, on surfaces.). The conference featured special sessions on new/improved experimental techniques, improved models and data analysis for interpreting complicated kinetics, computational kinetics (especially rate estimates for large kinetic models), and a panel discussion on how the community should document/archive kinetic data. In the past, this conference had been limited to homogeneous gas-phase and liquid-phase systems. This conference included studies of heterogeneous kinetics which provide rate constants for, or insight into, elementary reaction steps. This Grant from DOE BES covered about half of the subsidies we provided to students and postdocs who attended the conference, by charging them reduced-rate registration fees. The complete list of subsidies provided are listed in Table 1 below. This DOE funding was essential to making the conference affordable to graduate students, and indeed the attendance at this conference was higher than at previous conferences in this series. Donations made by companies provided additional subsidies, leveraging the DOE funding. The conference was very effective in educating graduate students and important in fostering scientific interactions, particularly between scientists studying gas phase and liquid phase

  20. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  1. Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Stability in the Aspen-Conifer Ecotone in Montane Forests in Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Román Dobarco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the potential impact of conifer encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics and storage in montane aspen-conifer forests from the interior western US, we sampled mineral soils (0–15 cm across the aspen-conifer ecotones in southern and northern Utah and quantified total SOC stocks, stable SOC (i.e., mineral-associated SOC (MoM, labile SOC (i.e., light fraction (LF, decomposable (CO2 release during long-term aerobic incubations and soluble SOC (hot water extractable organic carbon (HWEOC. Total SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha−1 and labile SOC as LF (14.0 ± 7.10 Mg C ha−1, SOC decomposability (cumulative released CO2-C of 5.6 ± 3.8 g C g−1 soil or HWEOC (0.6 ± 0.6 mg C g−1 soil did not differ substantially with vegetation type, although a slight increase in HWEOC was observed with increasing conifer in the overstory. There were statistically significant differences (p = 0.035 in stable MoM storage, which was higher under aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha−1 than under conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha−1, with intermediate values under mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha−1. Texture had the greatest impact on SOC distribution among labile and stable fractions, with increasing stabilization in MoM and decreasing bio-availability of SOC with increasing silt + clay content. Only at lower silt + clay contents (40%–70% could we discern the influence of vegetation on MoM content. This highlights the importance of chemical protection mechanisms for long-term C sequestration.

  2. Nonstructural carbohydrate remobilization and suckering of aspen roots following severe disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, E.; King, C.; Richardson, A. D.; Landhäusser, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) storage and remobilization are important processes that allow trees to temporarily maintain a negative carbon balance and recover from disturbances that kill aboveground tissue and/or limit carbon uptake. However, our knowledge of carbohydrate remobilization in trees remains very limited. Recent isotopic work suggests that trees can store carbohydrates that are relatively old, but it is not known how much of this carbon can be remobilized and used for growth. To determine the extent and the spatial/temporal pattern in which carbohydrates are remobilized following a severe disturbance, we collected root segments (1-3 cm diameter; 10-30 years old) from mature trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in northern Alberta. These roots were incubated in a dark growth chamber to ensure that root reserves were the sole supply of carbon for root suckering. Roots were harvested periodically to measure sucker growth and NSC concentrations of the phloem and inner and outer xylem. In addition, at two stages of suckering, the carbon in the newest sucker tissues was aged using the radiocarbon `bomb spike'. Initially, roots contained 5-6 times more NSC mass in the phloem than in the xylem, and the decrease in NSC mass during suckering was 3-4 times greater in the phloem. Root sucker mass was more strongly correlated with initial phloem NSC than xylem NSC concentration. Early sucker growth was composed of relatively young carbon, averaging 1-3 years old. Later sucker growth was significantly, but only slightly older ( 1 yr). At sucker death, xylem still contained 2-3% NSC and phloem contained 11-13.5% NSC; NSC pools were reduced to a greater degree in xylem than in phloem. These results suggest that the phloem—an often overlooked carbohydrate pool—contains a large and important carbon reserve pool for regrowth following disturbance. The high levels of carbohydrates remaining in the root suggest that a large portion of NSC may be unavailable

  3. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), electrical conductivity (σsap), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (Kwb), leaf blade (Klb) and petiole hydraulic conductances (KP) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (TA) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on KwbKlb, KP, [K(+)] and σsap. Osm varied only with light intensity, while KB varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as TA, VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (ΨS) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, ΨS influenced also [K(+)] and σsap. The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  5. Pyrolysis of waste tires: A modeling and parameter estimation study using Aspen Plus®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamza Y; Abbas, Ali; Azizi, Fouad; Zeaiter, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simulation flowsheet model of a waste tire pyrolysis process with feed capacity of 150kg/h. A kinetic rate-based reaction model is formulated in a form implementable in the simulation package Aspen Plus, giving the flowsheet model the capability to predict more than 110 tire pyrolysis products as reported in experiments by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) and Williams (2013) for the oil and gas products respectively. The simulation model is successfully validated in two stages: firstly against experimental data from Olazar et al. (2008) by comparing the mass fractions for the oil products (gas, liquids (non-aromatics), aromatics, and tar) at temperatures of 425, 500, 550 and 610°C, and secondly against experimental results of main hydrocarbon products (C7 to C15) obtained by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) at temperatures of 400, 500, 600, and 700°C. The model was then used to analyze the effect of pyrolysis process temperature and showed that increased temperatures led to chain fractions from C10 and higher to decrease while smaller chains increased; this is attributed to the extensive cracking of the larger hydrocarbon chains at higher temperatures. The utility of the flowsheet model was highlighted through an energy analysis that targeted power efficiency of the process determined through production profiles of gasoline and diesel at various temperatures. This shows, through the summation of the net power gain from the plant for gasoline plus diesel that the maximum net power lies at the lower temperatures corresponding to minimum production of gasoline and maximum production of diesel. This simulation model can thus serve as a robust tool to respond to market conditions that dictate fuel demand and prices while at the same time identifying optimum process conditions (e.g. temperature) driven by process economics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental Investigation and Aspen Plus Simulation of the MSW Pyrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansah, Emmanuel

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a potential feedstock for producing transportation fuels because it is readily available using an existing collection/transportation infrastructure and fees are provided by the suppliers or government agencies to treat MSW. North Carolina with a population of 9.4 millions generates 3.629 million metric tons of MSW each year, which contains about 113,396,356 TJs of energy. The average moisture content of MSW samples is 44.3% on a wet basis. About 77% of the dry MSW mass is combustible components including paper, organics, textile and plastics. The average heating values of MSW were 9.7, 17.5, and 22.7 MJ/kg on a wet basis, dry basis and dry combustible basis, respectively. The MSW generated in North Carolina can produce 7.619 million barrels of crude bio-oil or around 4% of total petroleum consumption in North Carolina. MSW can be thermally pyrolyzed into bio-oil in the absence of oxygen or air at a temperature of 500°C or above. As bio-oil can be easily stored and transported, compared to bulky MSW, landfill gas and electricity, pyrolysis offers significant logistical and economic advantages over landfilling and other thermal conversion processes such as combustion and gasification. Crude bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of MSW can be further refined to transportation fuels in existing petroleum refinery facilities. The objective of this research is to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of pyrolyzing MSW into liquid transportation fuels. A combined thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) instrument, which can serve as a micro-scale pyrolysis reactor, was used to simultaneously determine the degradation characteristics of MSW during pyrolysis. An ASPEN Plus-based mathematical model was further developed to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of pyrolysing of MSW into liquid transportation fuels in fixed bed reactors at varying operating conditions

  7. Simulation of a waste incineration process with flue-gas cleaning and heat recovery sections using Aspen Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Silvano; Prisciandaro, Marina; Barba, Diego

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the modeling of a dual-purpose plant for the production of electrical and thermal energy from the heat treatment of solid wastes is presented. Particularly, the process has been modeled by using the Aspen Plus Shell, with the aim of performing a study about the applicability of this software in the simulation of a solid waste incineration process, which involves complex gas-solid reactions where the solids are referred to as "non-conventional". The model is developed to analyze and quantify the expected benefits associated with refuse derived fuel (RDF) thermal utilization; thus attention is focused on the performance of the energy recovery section.

  8. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  9. To conference or not to conference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP), the International Urogynaecology ... subject, of treatments or techniques they would never use, and why, or of treatments, interventions or tests which they ... colleagues recounted advice given over conference coffee – the one of obligatory consent for laparoscopy ...

  10. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Conference Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  11. The differential localization of a methyl group confers a different anti-breast cancer activity to two triterpenes present in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Gaforio, José J

    2015-01-01

    Uvaol (UV) and erythrodiol (ER) are two triterpenic dialcohols present in the minor fraction of virgin olive oil, in leaves and in the drupe of olives. These triterpenes possess the same chemical structure and differ only in the location of a methyl group. It has been reported that they have antitumoral effects in leukemic cells, in skin mice tumours and, finally, in astrocytoma cells, but there are no evidences about their effects in highly invasive human breast cancer cells and human epithelial breast cells. For this purpose, we have evaluated their cytotoxic activities as well as their effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle profile, apoptotic induction, oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage in both highly invasive human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and human epithelial breast cells (MCF10A). UV and ER showed different effects in normal and breast cancer cells, whereas both compounds possess the same structure, except for the location of a methyl group. UV protects from damage to DNA in both cell lines, whereas ER enhances damage to DNA in these cell lines. Thus, ER promotes apoptosis and arrests cell cycle in human epithelial breast cells. Hence, both compounds differ in their action in human breast cells apparently by the different location of only a methyl group.

  12. Wip-ing out cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.

    The Whip1 phosphatase is encoded by an oncogene that is amplified in several forms of human cancer, including breast cancer. Ablation of this gene confers resistance to breast tumors induced by certain oncogenes.

  13. The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Landa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify genetic factors related to thyroid cancer susceptibility, we adopted a candidate gene approach. We studied tag- and putative functional SNPs in genes involved in thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation, and in genes found to be differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma. A total of 768 SNPs in 97 genes were genotyped in a Spanish series of 615 cases and 525 controls, the former comprising the largest collection of patients with this pathology from a single population studied to date. SNPs in an LD block spanning the entire FOXE1 gene showed the strongest evidence of association with papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. This association was validated in a second stage of the study that included an independent Italian series of 482 patients and 532 controls. The strongest association results were observed for rs1867277 (OR[per-allele] = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.30-1.70; P = 5.9x10(-9. Functional assays of rs1867277 (NM_004473.3:c.-283G>A within the FOXE1 5' UTR suggested that this variant affects FOXE1 transcription. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that, exclusively, the sequence containing the A allele recruited the USF1/USF2 transcription factors, while both alleles formed a complex in which DREAM/CREB/alphaCREM participated. Transfection studies showed an allele-dependent transcriptional regulation of FOXE1. We propose a FOXE1 regulation model dependent on the rs1867277 genotype, indicating that this SNP is a causal variant in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Our results constitute the first functional explanation for an association identified by a GWAS and thereby elucidate a mechanism of thyroid cancer susceptibility. They also attest to the efficacy of candidate gene approaches in the GWAS era.

  14. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales.

  15. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  16. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  17. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  18. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    little support amongst serious students of learning. The professional conference as a forum for knowledge sharing is in dire need of a new learning theory and a more enlightened practice. The notion of human flourishing is offered as basis for theory, and four simple design principles for the so-called......The typical one-day conference attended by managers or professionals in search of inspiration is packed with PowerPoint presentations and offers little opportunity for involvement or knowledge sharing. Behind the conventional conference format lurks the transfer model of learning, which finds...... “learning conference” are proposed: People go to conferences to 1. get concise input, 2. interpret it in the light of their ongoing concerns, 3. talk about their current projects and 4. meet the other attendees and be inspired by them. Six practical techniques that induce attendees to do these things...

  19. Photos of the conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Åhman

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta  Åhman is the photographer of the series of pictures from the conference, also for the cover photo of the full paper edition showing Kongsvold Mountain Hut and Biological Station.

  20. Ranking Operations Management conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  1. 1300 nm and 890 nm OCT images of oral cancer tissue engineered models and biopsy samples offer complimentary performance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Joseph; Byers, Robert A.; Fernandes, Jon; Mittar, Shweta; Hearnden, Vanessa; Lu, Zenghai; MacNeil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Hunter, Keith D.; McKechnie, Alasdair; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820 nm offering reduced depth penetration but higher contrast. Here we apply a similar comparison to tissue engineered models of oral cancer and also to human biopsy samples, generally finding a similar trend. 1300 nm multi-beam OCT (Michelson Diagnostics EX1301) visualises stromal structures and surface keratin more clearly, providing useful image contrast down to around 1 mm. This system was compared with an ultra-high resolution home-built system operating at 890 nm (2.5 micron resolution vs 7.5 micron axial resolution for the EX1301). The UHR system reveals epithelial features more clearly, especially in the DOK pre-invasive cell line model and the biopsy samples. The relative effects of center wavelength vs axial resolution in generating the differential, wavelength-dependent contrast are assessed and the OCT biopsy images are compared with contemporary histology.

  2. Spatially selective depleting tumor-associated negative regulatory T-(Treg) cells with near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT): A new cancer immunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-01

    Near infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting target-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate rapidly induces a highly-selective cell death only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cells. Current immunotherapies for cancer seek to modulate the balance among different immune cell populations, thereby promoting anti-tumor immune responses. However, because these are systemic therapies, they often cause treatment-limiting autoimmune adverse effects. It would be ideal to manipulate the balance between suppressor and effector cells within the tumor without disturbing homeostasis elsewhere in the body. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are well-known immune-suppressor cells that play a key role in tumor immuno-evasion and have been the target of systemic immunotherapies. We used CD25-targeted NIR-PIT to selectively deplete Tregs, thus activating CD8+ T and NK cells and restoring local anti-tumor immunity. This not only resulted in regression of the treated tumor but also induced responses in separate untreated tumors of the same cell-line derivation. We conclude that CD25-targeted NIR-PIT causes spatially selective depletion of Tregs, thereby providing an alternative approach to cancer immunotherapy that can treat not only local tumors but also distant metastatic tumors.

  3. 2nd SUMO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.  

  4. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  5. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  6. Energy from poultry waste: An Aspen Plus-based approach to the thermo-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalaglio, Gianluca; Coccia, Valentina; Cotana, Franco; Gelosia, Mattia; Nicolini, Andrea; Petrozzi, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    A particular approach to the task of energy conversion of a residual waste material was properly experienced during the implementation of the national funded Enerpoll project. This project is a case study developed in the estate of a poultry farm that is located in a rural area of central Italy (Umbria Region); such a farm was chosen for the research project since it is almost representative of many similar small-sized breeding realties of the Italian regional context. The purpose of the case study was the disposal of a waste material (i.e. poultry manure) and its energy recovery; this task is in agreement with the main objectives of the new Energy Union policy. Considering this background, an innovative gasification plant (300KW thermal power) was chosen and installed for the experimentation. The novelty of the investigated technology is the possibility to achieve the production of thermal energy burning just the produced syngas and not directly the solid residues. This aspect allows to reduce the quantity of nitrogen released in the atmosphere by the exhaust flue gases and conveying it into the solid residues (ashes). A critical aspect of the research program was the optimization of the pretreatment (reduction of the water content) and the dimensional homogenization of the poultry waste before its energy recovery. This physical pretreatment allowed the reduction of the complexity of the matrix to be energy enhanced. Further to the real scale plant monitoring, a complete Aspen Plus v.8.0 model was also elaborated for the prediction of the quality of the produced synthesis gas as a function of both the gasification temperature and the equivalence ratio (ER). The model is an ideal flowchart using as input material just the homogenized and dried material. On the basis of the real monitored thermal power (equal to about 200kW average value in an hour) the model was used for the estimation of the syngas energy content (i.e. LHV) that resulted in the range of 3-5MJ/m 3

  7. GLI1 confers profound phenotypic changes upon LNCaP prostate cancer cells that include the acquisition of a hormone independent state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Nadendla

    Full Text Available The GLI (GLI1/GLI2 transcription factors have been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer although our understanding of how they actually contribute to the biology of these common tumours is limited. We observed that GLI reporter activity was higher in normal (PNT-2 and tumourigenic (DU145 and PC-3 androgen-independent cells compared to androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells and, accordingly, GLI mRNA levels were also elevated. Ectopic expression of GLI1 or the constitutively active ΔNGLI2 mutant induced a distinct cobblestone-like morphology in LNCaP cells that, regarding the former, correlated with increased GLI2 as well as expression of the basal/stem-like markers CD44, β1-integrin, ΔNp63 and BMI1, and decreased expression of the luminal marker AR (androgen receptor. LNCaP-GLI1 cells were viable in the presence of the AR inhibitor bicalutamide and gene expression profiling revealed that the transcriptome of LNCaP-GLI1 cells was significantly closer to DU145 and PC-3 cells than to control LNCaP-pBP (empty vector cells, as well as identifying LCN2/NGAL as a highly induced transcript which is associated with hormone independence in breast and prostate cancer. Functionally, LNCaP-GLI1 cells displayed greater clonal growth and were more invasive than control cells but they did not form colonies in soft agar or prostaspheres in suspension suggesting that they do not possess inherent stem cell properties. Moreover, targeted suppression of GLI1 or GLI2 with siRNA did not reverse the transformed phenotype of LNCaP-GLI1 cells nor did double GLI1/GLI2 knockdowns activate AR expression in DU145 or PC-3 cells. As such, early targeting of the GLI oncoproteins may hinder progression to a hormone independent state but a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that maintain this phenotype is required to determine if their inhibition will enhance the efficacy of anti-hormonal therapy through the induction of a luminal

  8. High titer ethanol production from simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of aspen at high solids : a comparison between SPORL and dilute acid pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; R. Gleisner; C.T. Scott; X.L. Luo; S. Tian

    2011-01-01

    Native aspen (Populus tremuloides) was pretreated using sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfite (SPORL) and dilute sulfuric acid alone (DA). Simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was conducted at 18% solids using commercial enzymes with cellulase loadings ranging from 6 to 15 FPU/g glucan and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5. Compared with DA...

  9. Lignin isolated from primary walls of hybrid aspen cell cultures indicates significant differences in lignin structure between primary and secondary cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiernin, Maria; Ohlsson, Anna B; Berglund, Torkel; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2005-08-01

    Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) cell cultures were grown for 7, 14 and 21 days. The cell cultures formed primary cell walls but no secondary cell wall according to carbohydrate analysis and microscopic characterization. The primary walls were lignified, increasingly with age, according to Klason lignin analysis. Presence of lignin in the primary walls, with a higher content in 21-day old cells than in 7-day old cells, was further supported by phloroglucinol/HCl reagent test and confocal microscopy after both immunolocalization and staining with acriflavin. Both laccase and peroxidase activity were found in the cultures and the activity increased during lignin formation. The lignin from the cell culture material was compared to lignin from mature aspen wood, where most of the lignin originates in the secondary cell wall, and which served as our secondary cell wall control. Lignin from the cell walls was isolated and characterized by thioacidolysis followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The lignin in the cell cultures differed from lignin of mature aspen wood in that it consisted exclusively of guaiacyl units, and had a more condensed structure. Five lignin structures were identified by mass spectrometry in the cell suspension cultures. The results indicate that the hybrid aspen cell culture used in this investigation may be a convenient experimental system for studies of primary cell wall lignin.

  10. Effects of Tropospheric O3 on Trembling Aspen and Interaction with CO2: Results From An O3-Gradient and a Face Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.F. Karnosky; B. Mankovska; K. Percy; R.E. Dickson; G.K. Podila; J. Sober; A. Noormets; G. Hendrey; Mark D. Coleman; M. Kubiske; K.S. Pregitzer; J.G. Isebrands

    1999-01-01

    Abstract. Over the years, a series of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones differing in O3 sensitivity have been identified from OTC studies. Three clones (216 and 271[(O3 tolerant] and 259 [O3 sensitive]) have been characterized for O3...

  11. Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katri Kostiainen; Seija Kaakinen; Elina Warsta; Mark E. Kubiske; Neil D. Nelson; Jaak Sober; David F. Karnosky; Pekka Saranpaa; Elina Vapaavuori

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]) on radial growth, wood chemistry and structure of five 5-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and the wood chemistry of paper birch (Betula papyrifera...

  12. Mountain pine beetle infestations and Sudden Aspen Decline in Colorado: Can the Forest Inventory and Analysis annual inventory system address the issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    2009-01-01

    There are two events occurring in Colorado that are concerning forest managers in Colorado. There is severe and widespread mortality of lodgepole pine due to the mountain pine beetle and aspen forests in some areas of the state have experienced widespread, severe, and rapid crown deterioration leading to mortality. Implementation of the Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  13. Ten-year results from the long-term soil productivity study in aspen ecosystems of the northern Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Voldseth; Brian J. Palik; John Elioff

    2011-01-01

    Impacts of organic matter removal and compaction on soil properties and productivity are reported from the first 10 years of the Long-Term Soil Productivity Study in Great Lakes aspen ecosystems. Organic matter removal treatments included main bole, total tree harvest, and total tree harvest with forest floor removal. Compaction treatments included minimal compaction,...

  14. Establishment of alleycropped hybrid aspen "Crandon" in central Iowa, USA: effects of topographic position and fertilizer rate on above ground biomass production and allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. Headlee; Richard B. Hall; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC) in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen "Crandon" (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx.) has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic...

  15. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Tropospheric Ozone on Phytochemical Composition of Trembling Aspen ( Populus tremuloides ) and Paper Birch ( Betula papyrifera ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, John J; Meehan, Timothy D; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities are altering levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3). These changes can alter phytochemistry, and in turn, influence ecosystem processes. We assessed the individual and combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on the phytochemical composition of two tree species common to early successional, northern temperate forests. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) were grown at the Aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon dioxide and ozone Enrichment) facility under four combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and O3. We measured, over three years (2006-08), the effects of CO2 and O3 on a suite of foliar traits known to influence forest functioning. Elevated CO2 had minimal effect on foliar nitrogen and carbohydrate levels in either tree species, and increased synthesis of condensed tannins and fiber in aspen, but not birch. Elevated O3 decreased nitrogen levels in both tree species and increased production of sugar, condensed tannins, fiber, and lignin in aspen, but not birch. The magnitude of responses to elevated CO2 and O3 varied seasonally for both tree species. When co-occurring, CO2 offset most of the changes in foliar chemistry expressed under elevated O3 alone. Our results suggest that levels of CO2 and O3 predicted for the mid-twenty-first century will alter the foliar chemistry of northern temperate forests with likely consequences for forest community and ecosystem dynamics.

  16. Tropospheric 03 moderates responses of temperate hardwood forests to elevated CO2: a synthesis of molecular to ecosystem results from the Aspen FACE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. F. Karnosky; D. R. Zak; K. S. Pregitzer; C. S. Awmack; J. G. Bockheim; R. E. Dickson; G. R. Hendrey; G. E. Host; J. S. King; B. J. Kopper; E. L. Kruger; M. E. Kubiske; R. L. Lindroth; W. J. Mattson; E. P. McDonald; A. Noormets; E. Oksanen; W. F. J. Parsons; K. E. Percy; G. K. Podila; D. E. Riemenschneider; P. Sharma; R. Thakur; A. S& #244ber; J. S& #244ber; W. S. Jones; S. Anttonen; E. Vapaavuori; B. Mankovska; W. Heilman; J. G. Isebrands

    2003-01-01

    1. The impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or O3 have been examined over 4 years using an open-air exposure system in an aggrading northern temperate forest containing two different functional groups (the indeterminate, pioneer, 03-sensitive species Trembling Aspen, Populus tremuloides...

  17. E2F site in the essential promoter region does not confer S phase-specific transcription of the ABCC10 gene in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Magdalena; Sirotnak, Francis M

    2017-01-01

    ABCC10 (MRP7) plays a role in cellular detoxification and resistance to anticancer drugs. Since ABCC10 gene transcription in human prostate cancer CWR22Rv1 cells was found dependent on E2F binding sequence motif, ABCC10 expression in G1 and S phases of the cell cycle of CWR22Rv1 cells, was analyzed. The cells were synchronized in G1 phase by double thymidine block and in S phase by thymidine/mimosine double block. ABCC10 mRNA level was found to be similar in S phase-synchronized and asynchronous cell populations. In G1 phase it decreased by 2.4- to 3-fold. It is thus inferred, that ABCC10 expression in CWR22Rv1 cells is not S phase-specific but is primarily associated with cell proliferation.

  18. Induction chemotherapy for T3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer increases the rate of complete resection but does not confer improved survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin L; Mulvihill, Michael S; Yerokun, Babatunde A; Speicher, Paul J; D'Amico, Thomas A; Tong, Betty C; Berry, Mark F; Hartwig, Matthew G

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of induction therapy prior to an operation in patients with cT3 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients diagnosed with cT3N0M0 NSCLC from 2006 to 2011 in the National Cancer Database who were treated with lobectomy or pneumonectomy were stratified by treatment strategy: an operation first versus induction chemotherapy. Propensity scores were developed and matched cohorts were generated. Short-term outcomes included margin status, 30- and 90-day mortality rates, readmission and length of stay. Survival analyses using Kaplan-Meier methods were performed on both the unadjusted and propensity matched cohorts. A total of 3791 cT3N0M0 patients were identified for inclusion, of which 580 (15%) were treated with induction chemotherapy. Prior to adjustment, patients treated with induction chemotherapy were younger, had a higher comorbidity burden and were more likely to have private insurance (all P  induction chemotherapy were more likely to subsequently undergo an open procedure (87.3 vs 77.8%, P  = 0.005). These patients were more likely to obtain R0 resection (93.1% vs 90.0%, P  = 0.04) and were thereby less likely to have positive margins at the time of resection (6.9% vs 10.0%, P  = 0.03). Patients who received induction therapy had higher rates of 90-day mortality (6.6% vs 3.4%) but there was no difference in long-term survival between the groups. Despite yielding increased rates of R0 resection, induction chemotherapy for cT3N0M0 NSCLC is not associated with improved survival and should not be considered routinely. Further studies are warranted to elucidate cohorts that may benefit from induction therapy.

  19. A handheld MEMS-based line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope for early cancer detection and surgical guidance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Yin, Chengbo; Wei, Linpeng; Glaser, Adam K.; Abeytunge, Sanjee; Peterson, Gary; Mandella, Michael J.; Sanai, Nader; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Liu, Jonathan T.

    2017-02-01

    Considerable efforts have been recently undertaken to develop miniature optical-sectioning microscopes for in vivo microendoscopy and point-of-care pathology. These devices enable in vivo interrogation of disease as a real-time and noninvasive alternative to gold-standard histopathology, and therefore could have a transformative impact for the early detection of cancer as well as for guiding tumor-resection procedures. Regardless of the specific modality, various trade-offs in size, speed, field of view, resolution, contrast, and sensitivity are necessary to optimize a device for a particular application. Here, a miniature MEMS-based line-scanned dual-axis confocal (LS-DAC) microscope, with a 12-mm diameter distal tip, has been developed for point-of-care pathology. The dual-axis architecture has demonstrated superior rejection of out-of-focus and multiply scattered photons compared to a conventional single-axis confocal configuration. The use of line scanning enables fast frame rates (≥15 frames/sec), which mitigates motion artifacts of a handheld device during clinical use. We have developed a method to actively align the illumination and collection beams in this miniature LS-DAC microscope through the use of a pair of rotatable alignment mirrors. Incorporation of a custom objective lens, with a small form factor for in vivo application, enables the device to achieve an axial and lateral resolution of 2.0 and 1.1 microns, respectively. Validation measurements with reflective targets, as well as in vivo and ex vivo images of tissues, demonstrate that this high-speed LS-DAC microscope can achieve high-contrast imaging of fluorescently labeled tissues with sufficient sensitivity for applications such as oral cancer detection and guiding brain-tumor resections.

  20. Genetic Variants in CD44 and MAT1A Confer Susceptibility to Acute Skin Reaction in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram; Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao [Department of Radiation Biology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Kabekkodu, Shama Prasada [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Saibaba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Department of Radiation Oncology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka (India); Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Fumiaki; Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu, E-mail: ksatyamoorthy@yahoo.com [Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Heterogeneity in radiation therapy (RT)-induced normal tissue toxicity is observed in 10% of cancer patients, limiting the therapeutic outcomes. In addition to treatment-related factors, normal tissue adverse reactions also manifest from genetic alterations in distinct pathways majorly involving DNA damage–repair genes, inflammatory cytokine genes, cell cycle regulation, and antioxidant response. Therefore, the common sequence variants in these radioresponsive genes might modify the severity of normal tissue toxicity, and the identification of the same could have clinical relevance as a predictive biomarker. Methods and Materials: The present study was conducted in a cohort of patients with breast cancer to evaluate the possible associations between genetic variants in radioresponsive genes described previously and the risk of developing RT-induced acute skin adverse reactions. We tested 22 genetic variants reported in 18 genes (ie, NFE2L2, OGG1, NEIL3, RAD17, PTTG1, REV3L, ALAD, CD44, RAD9A, TGFβR3, MAD2L2, MAP3K7, MAT1A, RPS6KB2, ZNF830, SH3GL1, BAX, and XRCC1) using TaqMan assay-based real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of RT, the severity of skin damage was scored, and the subjects were dichotomized as nonoverresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade <2) and overresponders (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade ≥2) for analysis. Results: Of the 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms studied, the rs8193 polymorphism lying in the micro-RNA binding site of 3′-UTR of CD44 was significantly (P=.0270) associated with RT-induced adverse skin reactions. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed significant (P=.0107) gene–gene interactions between MAT1A and CD44. Furthermore, an increase in the total number of risk alleles was associated with increasing occurrence of overresponses (P=.0302). Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms in radioresponsive genes act as genetic modifiers of acute normal tissue toxicity

  1. Effects of cancer cell permeability control on the efficiency of cell damage through surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticle (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jen-Hung; Yu, Jian-He; He, Yulu; Tu, Yi-Chou; Hua, Wei-Hsiang; Low, Meng Chun; Hsieh, Cheng-Che; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung

    2017-02-01

    Cancer cell killing efficiencies based on the photothermal effect caused by the surface plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and the photodynamic effect caused by the singlet oxygen generation of a photosensitizer rely on the cell uptake efficiency of metal NP and photosensitizer. Perforation and heating can increase cell membrane permeability and hence can increase the cell uptake efficiency of NPs and drugs. In this paper, we demonstrate the variations of the cell damage efficiency under the illuminations of different lasers, which can produce mainly photothermal effect, mainly photodynamic effect, and mixed effect, when a pre-perforation and a pre-heating processes are applied. Au nanorings (NRIs) with their localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength around 1064 nm are used. The perforation process is undertaken by illuminating the cell samples by a femtosecond laser at 1064 nm with the power density lower than the cell damage threshold intensity. The heating process is implemented by illuminating cells with a low power continuous laser at 1064 nm. It is found that with the pre-perforation and pre-heating processes, the photodynamic effect is enhanced because the internalized Au NRI number and hence the internalized photosensitizer (AlPcS) molecule number are increased. However, the photothermal effect can be reduced because the adsorbed Au NRIs on cell membrane are effectively internalized during the pre-perforation and pre-heating processes. The photothermal effect is more effective when Au NRIs are adsorbed on cell membrane.

  2. Australian coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Almost 600 people attended this year's Australian Coal Conference on Queensland's Gold Coast. The article reports on issues raised at the conference which included the effects of globalisation and the difficulties of raising funds faced by the coal industry and environmental issues. A life cycle analysis of coal's emissions compared to other fuels, released at the conference had demonstrated that coal was a legitimate part of the world's future energy mix. Conference speakers included Michael Pinnock, Queensland Mining Council Chief Executive Officer, Dr Louis Wibberley and Rich Gazzard of BHP, Robin Batterham, the Australian Governments Chief Scientist, Mark Vale, Federal Minister for Trade, Tony Armor of EPRI, Daren Fooks, Clayton Utz Lawyers, Ron Knapp, Chief Executive of the World Coal Institute and Andrew Tucker, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Highlights of their addresses are given. Winners of the five research awards presented by the Australian Coal Association at the conference are reported. 11 photos.

  3. 2nd Bozeman Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, John

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of papers delivered by the partici­ pants at the second Conference on Computation and Control held at Mon­ tana State University in Bozeman, Montana from August 1-7, 1990. The conference, as well as this proceedings, attests to the vitality and cohesion between the control theorist and the numerical analyst that was adver­ tised by the first Conference on Computation and Control in 1988. The proceedings of that initial conference was published by Birkhiiuser Boston as the first volume of this same series entitled Computation and Control, Proceedings of the Bozeman Conference, Bozeman, Montana, 1988. Control theory and numerical analysis are both, by their very nature, interdisciplinary subjects as evidenced by their interaction with other fields of mathematics and engineering. While it is clear that new control or es­ timation algorithms and new feedback design methodologies will need to be implemented computationally, it is likewise clear that new problems in computation...

  4. Pathways, Networks and Systems Medicine Conferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest Research Institute

    2013-11-25

    The 6th Pathways, Networks and Systems Medicine Conference was held at the Minoa Palace Conference Center, Chania, Crete, Greece (16-21 June 2008). The Organizing Committee was composed of Joe Nadeau (CWRU, Cleveland), Rudi Balling (German Research Centre, Brauschweig), David Galas (Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle), Lee Hood (Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle), Diane Isonaka (Seattle), Fotis Kafatos (Imperial College, London), John Lambris (Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia),Harris Lewin (Univ. of Indiana, Urbana-Champaign), Edison Liu (Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore), and Shankar Subramaniam (Univ. California, San Diego). A total of 101 individuals from 21 countries participated in the conference: USA (48), Canada (5), France (5), Austria (4), Germany (3), Italy (3), UK (3), Greece (2), New Zealand (2), Singapore (2), Argentina (1), Australia (1), Cuba (1), Denmark (1), Japan (1), Mexico (1), Netherlands (1), Spain (1), Sweden (1), Switzerland (1). With respect to speakers, 29 were established faculty members and 13 were graduate students or postdoctoral fellows. With respect to gender representation, among speakers, 13 were female and 28 were male, and among all participants 43 were female and 58 were male. Program these included the following topics: Cancer Pathways and Networks (Day 1), Metabolic Disease Networks (Day 2), Day 3 ? Organs, Pathways and Stem Cells (Day 3), and Day 4 ? Inflammation, Immunity, Microbes and the Environment (Day 4). Proceedings of the Conference were not published.

  5. Conferences and Family Reunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutherland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional associations and conferences have similarities with and differences from families and family reunions. This comparison can illustrate some ways professional associations can approach the integration of new members and the planning of conferences in order to facilitate membership development and leadership renewal. Unlike family reunions, professional conferences are not closed events that require a shared culture in order to fully participate; they are events that should show the constant change and development of practice that is representative of the profession – for both members and non-members. Some of the topics explored in the article are: making it easy for outsiders to contribute, considering the tastes of new members, making it easy to volunteer in a meaningful way, and remembering who the future of the organization is. These simple considerations will assist in opening professional associations to new participants and help them to maintain their relevance and vitality over time.

  6. Conference scene: Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Enal S

    2011-02-01

    The field of epigenetics is now on a geometric rise, driven in a large part by the realization that modifiers of chromatin are key regulators of biological processes in vivo. The three major classes of epigenetic effectors are DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (such as acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation) and small noncoding RNAs (most notably microRNAs). In this article, I report from Select Biosciences Epigenetics Europe 2010 industry conference held on 14-15 September 2010 at The Burlington Hotel, Dublin, Ireland. This industry conference was extremely well attended with a global pool of delegates representing the academic research community, biotechnology companies and pharmaceutical companies, as well as the technology/tool developers. This conference represented the current state of the epigenetics community with cancer/oncology as a key driver. In fact, it has been estimated that approximately 45% of epigenetic researchers today identify cancer/oncology as their main area of focus vis-à-vis their epigenetic research efforts.

  7. International conference, ICPRAM 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, J; Fred, Ana; Pattern recognition : applications and methods : revised selected papers

    2013-01-01

    This edited book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the First International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPRAM 2012), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 6 to 8 February, 2012, sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in cooperation with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and Pattern Analysis, Statistical Modelling and Computational Learning (PASCAL2). The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested on the areas of Pattern Recognition, both from theoretical and application perspectives.

  8. Integrated model of G189A and Aspen-plus for the transient modeling of extravehicular activity atmospheric control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodney, Matthew; Conger, Bruce C.

    1990-01-01

    A computerized modeling tool, under development for the transient modeling of an extravehicular activity atmospheric control subsystem is described. This subsystem includes the astronaut, temperature control, moisture control, CO2 removal, and oxygen make-up components. Trade studies evaluating competing components and subsystems to guide the selection and development of hardware for lunar and Martian missions will use this modeling tool. The integrated modeling tool uses the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) to accomplish pseudosteady-state simulations, and the general environmental thermal control and life support program (G189A) to manage overall control of the run and transient input output, as well as transient modeling computations and database functions. Flow charts and flow diagrams are included.

  9. Successful hybridisation of normally incompatible hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) and eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesebach, Heike; Naujoks, Gisela; Ewald, Dietrich

    2011-09-01

    Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × P. tremuloides) belong to the section Populus. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides) is a member of the section Aigeiros within the genus Populus. These poplar sections are generally considered to be incompatible. Here, we describe successful hybridisation between these parents, producing an offspring family with 27 individuals. The hybrid character of individuals was proven by genotypes at 16 nuclear microsatellite loci. One individual was suspected to have more than the diploid chromosome number of 2n = 38 due to the observation of more than two alleles at several loci. This individual is a triploid, ascertained by flow cytometry. Two distinct growth classes of tall and dwarf plants were observed in the progeny, reflecting different degrees of postzygotic incompatibility. Two loci linked to the tested microsatellites have an effect on height growth. Some fast-growing individuals were micropropagated to test them for biomass performance together with other clones in field trials.

  10. Advances in nutrition and gastroenterology: summary of the 1997 A.S.P.E.N. Research Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Alpers, D H; Grand, R J; Levin, M S; Lin, H C; Mansbach, C M; Burant, C; Reeds, P; Rombeau, J L

    1998-01-01

    The 1997 A.S.P.E.N. Research Workshop was held at the annual meeting in San Francisco, on January 26, 1997. The workshop focused on advances in clinical and basic research involving the interface between nutrient and luminal gastroenterology. Presentations on the genetic regulation of gastrointestinal development, the molecular biology of small intestinal adaptation, the effect of nutrition support on intestinal mucosal mass, the relationship between nutrition and gastrointestinal motility, nutrient absorption, and gastrointestinal tract substrate metabolism were made by the preeminent leaders in the field. The investigators presented an insightful analysis of each topic by reviewing data from their own laboratories and the published literature. This workshop underscored the important interactions between nutrition and luminal gastroenterology at the basic science, metabolic/physiologic, and clinical levels. The integration of presentations from the different disciplines provided a unique interaction of information and ideas to advance our understanding of nutrition and gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workforce Other Fellowships & Internships Training Program Contacts News & Events Press Releases Resources for News Media Media Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  13. National Cancer Institute News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and events from NCI-funded research and programs News & Events Featured News High-Fat Diet Linked to Prostate Cancer Metastasis ... Scientific Meetings and Lectures Conferences Social Media Events News Archive 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 National ...

  14. The BRCA1 variant p.Ser36Tyr abrogates BRCA1 protein function and potentially confers a moderate risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charita M Christou

    Full Text Available The identification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS in the BRCA1 gene complicates genetic counselling and causes additional anxiety to carriers. In silico approaches currently used for VUS pathogenicity assessment are predictive and often produce conflicting data. Furthermore, functional assays are either domain or function specific, thus they do not examine the entire spectrum of BRCA1 functions and interpretation of individual assay results can be misleading. PolyPhen algorithm predicted that the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr VUS identified in the Cypriot population was damaging, whereas Align-GVGD predicted that it was possibly of no significance. In addition the BRCA1 p.Ser36Tyr variant was found to be associated with increased risk (OR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.67, P = 0.02 in a single case-control series of 1174 cases and 1109 controls. We describe a cellular system for examining the function of exogenous full-length BRCA1 and for classifying VUS. We achieved strong protein expression of full-length BRCA1 in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. The p.Ser36Tyr VUS exhibited low protein expression similar to the known pathogenic variant p.Cys61Gly. Co-precipitation analysis further demonstrated that it has a reduced ability to interact with BARD1. Further, co-precipitation analysis of nuclear and cytosolic extracts as well as immunofluorescence studies showed that a high proportion of the p.Ser36Tyr variant is withheld in the cytoplasm contrary to wild type protein. In addition the ability of p.Ser36Tyr to co-localize with conjugated ubiquitin foci in the nuclei of S-phase synchronized cells following genotoxic stress with hydroxyurea is impaired at more pronounced levels than that of the p.Cys61Gly pathogenic variant. The p.Ser36Tyr variant demonstrates abrogated function, and based on epidemiological, genetic, and clinical data we conclude that the p.Ser36Tyr variant is probably associated with a moderate breast cancer risk.

  15. Loss of the SxxSS motif in a human T-cell factor-4 isoform confers hypoxia resistance to liver cancer: an oncogenic switch in Wnt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Koga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Aberrantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling is important in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development. Downstream gene expressions involving the Wnt/β-catenin cascade occur through T-cell factor (TCF proteins. Here, we show the oncogenic potential of human TCF-4 isoforms based on the expression of a single conserved SxxSS motif. METHODS: We investigated the TCF-4J and K isoform pair characterized by the presence (K or absence (J of the SxxSS motif. The mRNA expression profiles were examined in 47 pairs of human HCCs and adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues by RT-PCR. Proliferation, sphere assays and immunoblot analysis were performed under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. The ability of HCC cells overexpressing TCF-4J (J cells and K (K cells to grow as solid tumors in nude mice was explored. RESULTS: TCF-4J expression was significantly upregulated in HCC tumors compared to corresponding peritumor and normal liver and was preferentially expressed in poorly differentiated HCCs. In contrast, TCF-4K was downregulated in those same HCC tumors. TCF-4J-overexpressing HCC cells (J cells revealed a survival advantage under hypoxic conditions, high proliferation rate and formation of aggregates/spheres compared to overexpression of TCF-4K (K cells. The hypoxic J cells had high expression levels of HIF-2α and EGFR as possible mechanisms to promote tumorigenesis. Increased stability of HIF-2α under hypoxia in J cells was associated with a decreased level of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL protein, a known E3 ligase for HIF-αs. In a xenograft model, the J cells rapidly developed tumors compared to K cells. Tumor tissues derived from J cells exhibited high expression levels of HIF-2α and EGFR compared to the slow developing and small K cell derived tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the specific TCF-4J isoform, which lacks a regulatory SxxSS motif, has robust tumor-initiating potential under hypoxic conditions.

  16. Innate and introduced resistance traits in genetically modified aspen trees and their effect on leaf beetle feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Hjältén

    Full Text Available Genetic modifications of trees may provide many benefits, e.g. increase production, and mitigate climate change and herbivore impacts on forests. However, genetic modifications sometimes result in unintended effects on innate traits involved in plant-herbivore interactions. The importance of intentional changes in plant defence relative to unintentional changes and the natural variation among clones used in forestry has not been evaluated. By a combination of biochemical measurements and bioassays we investigated if insect feeding on GM aspens is more affected by intentional (induction Bt toxins than of unintentional, non-target changes or clonal differences in innate plant defence. We used two hybrid wildtype clones (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides and Populus tremula x P. alba of aspen that have been genetically modified for 1 insect resistance (two Bt lines or 2 reduced lignin properties (two lines COMT and CAD, respectively. Our measurements of biochemical properties suggest that unintended changes by GM modifications (occurring due to events in the transformation process in innate plant defence (phenolic compounds were generally smaller but fundamentally different than differences seen among different wildtype clones (e.g. quantitative and qualitative, respectively. However, neither clonal differences between the two wildtype clones nor unintended changes in phytochemistry influenced consumption by the leaf beetle (Phratora vitellinae. By contrast, Bt induction had a strong direct intended effect as well as a post experiment effect on leaf beetle consumption. The latter suggested lasting reduction of beetle fitness following Bt exposure that is likely due to intestinal damage suffered by the initial Bt exposure. We conclude that Bt induction clearly have intended effects on a target species. Furthermore, the effect of unintended changes in innate plant defence traits, when they occur, are context dependent and have in comparison to Bt

  17. Short day-mediated cessation of growth requires the downregulation of AINTEGUMENTALIKE1 transcription factor in hybrid aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karlberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Day length is a key environmental cue regulating the timing of major developmental transitions in plants. For example, in perennial plants such as the long-lived trees of the boreal forest, exposure to short days (SD leads to the termination of meristem activity and bud set (referred to as growth cessation. The mechanism underlying SD-mediated induction of growth cessation is poorly understood. Here we show that the AIL1-AIL4 (AINTEGUMENTALIKE transcription factors of the AP2 family are the downstream targets of the SD signal in the regulation of growth cessation response in hybrid aspen trees. AIL1 is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, and exposure to SD signal downregulates AIL1 expression. Downregulation of AIL gene expression by SDs is altered in transgenic hybrid aspen plants that are defective in SD perception and/or response, e.g. PHYA or FT overexpressors. Importantly, SD-mediated regulation of growth cessation response is also affected by overexpression or downregulation of AIL gene expression. AIL1 protein can interact with the promoter of the key cell cycle genes, e.g. CYCD3.2, and downregulation of the expression of D-type cyclins after SD treatment is prevented by AIL1 overexpression. These data reveal that execution of SD-mediated growth cessation response requires the downregulation of AIL gene expression. Thus, while early acting components like PHYA and the CO/FT regulon are conserved in day-length regulation of flowering time and growth cessation between annual and perennial plants, signaling pathways downstream of SD perception diverge, with AIL transcription factors being novel targets of the CO/FT regulon connecting the perception of SD signal to the regulation of meristem activity.

  18. Aspen Plus® and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Nicole L; Boateng, Akwasi A; Mullen, Charles A; Wheeler, M Clayton

    2013-10-15

    Aspen Plus(®) based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all the available waste from the site's 41 horses requires a 6 oven dry metric ton per day (ODMTPD) pyrolysis system but it will require a 15 ODMTPD system for waste generated by an additional 150 horses at the expanded area including the College and its vicinity. For this a dual fluidized bed combustion reduction integrated pyrolysis system (CRIPS) developed at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) was identified as the technology of choice for pyrolysis oil production. The Aspen Plus(®) model was further used to consider the combustion of the produced pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in the existing boilers that generate hot water for space heating at the Equine Center. The model results show the potential for both the equine facility and the College to displace diesel fuel (fossil) with renewable pyrolysis oil and alleviate a costly waste disposal problem. We predict that all the heat required to operate the pyrolyzer could be supplied by non-condensable gas and about 40% of the biochar co-produced with bio-oil. Techno-economic Analysis shows neither design is economical at current market conditions; however the 15 ODMTPD CRIPS design would break even when diesel prices reach $11.40/gal. This can be further improved to $7.50/gal if the design capacity is maintained at 6 ODMTPD but operated at 4950 h per annum. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013... to the webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for webcasts and offers the option...

  20. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  1. 2008 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-22

    General Michael M. Brogan Combat Vehicles Conference Marine Corps Systems Command 21 October 2008 2 MCSC •LAV •AAV •Tank •HMMWV/ ECV •MRAP PEO LS...34,226 Total 56,649 1985 IOC 1996 M1114 armored HMMWV Limited Production 2006 M1100 series begins fielding scalable armor 2009-10 ECV II

  2. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  3. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  4. Leader Training Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan-Ohio Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Detroit.

    The purpose of this conference was to prepare key people in the field of education to function as inservice education leaders in their respective settings. It called for participants to learn what the MOREL inservice education program is and what it hopes to accomplish, to identify the role and functions of the inservice education leader, and to…

  5. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... Evening meal events for Governors, held in connection with Board meetings, must not cost more per person than 2.625 times the applicable meal allowance. The Chair of the Board must authorize any exception to the provision of this paragraph. Overnight stays related to events (other than conferences and ...

  6. Microbicides 2006 conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGowan Ian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current HIV/AIDS statistics show that women account for almost 60% of HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV prevention tools such as male and female condoms, abstinence and monogamy are not always feasible options for women due to various socio-economic and cultural factors. Microbicides are products designed to be inserted in the vagina or rectum prior to sex to prevent HIV acquisition. The biannual Microbicides conference took place in Cape Town, South Africa from 23–26 April 2006. The conference was held for the first time on the African continent, the region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The conference brought together a record number of 1,300 scientists, researchers, policy makers, healthcare workers, communities and advocates. The conference provided an opportunity for an update on microbicide research and development as well as discussions around key issues such as ethics, acceptability, access and community involvement. This report discusses the current status of microbicide research and development, encompassing basic and clinical science, social and behavioural science, and community mobilisation and advocacy activities.

  7. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Strings conference is an annual event that brings the entire string theory community together. Since the 1980s, it has grown to be the largest and most important conference in the field. The aim is to review recent developments in string theory and to stimulate scientific exchanges among the participants. This is the second Strings conference organised in Beijing, after Strings 2006. Following the tradition, besides scientific talks, the conference will also include some public lectures open to a general audience.

  8. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  9. Consensus Report of the 2015 Weinman International Conference on Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 9 and 10, 2015, the International Conference on Mesothelioma in Populations Exposed to Naturally Occurring Asbestiform Fibers was held at the University of Hawaii Cancer Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The meeting was cosponsored by the International Association for the S...

  10. Comparative analysis of the effect of pretreating aspen wood with aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid on its reactivity during enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Osipov, D. O.; Zorov, I. N.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aspen wood pretreatment methods with the use of both aqueous solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and aqueous-organic solutions (ethanol, butanol) of sulfuric acid (organosolv) on the limiting degree of conversion of this type of raw material into simple sugars during enzymatic...... hydrolysis are compared. The effects of temperature, acid concentration, composition of organic phase (for sulfuric acid), and pressure (for nitric acid) on the effectiveness of pretreatment were analyzed. It is shown that the use of organosolv with 0.5% sulfuric acid allows us to increase the reactivity...... of ground wood by 300–400%, compared to the initial raw material. Pretreatment with a 4.8% aqueous solution of nitric acid (125°C, 1.8 MPa, 10 min) is shown to be most effective, as it increases the reactivity of the ground aspen wood by more than 500%....

  11. Application of the A.S.P.E.N. clinical guideline for nutrition support of hospitalized adult patients with obesity: a case study of home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Phyllis Ann; Piccolo, Korinne; Compher, Charlene

    2014-02-01

    An A.S.P.E.N. clinical guideline addressing the nutrition support of hospitalized adult patients with obesity was recently published in the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Among the patient presentations for which this guideline might be used is those who have a gastrointestinal complication after bariatric surgery. A case study is discussed of a 43-year-old woman with a long history of severe obesity who had a bowel obstruction approximately 2 weeks after her laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgery. The patient's treatment plan for bowel rest and home parenteral nutrition was based on the A.S.P.E.N. clinical guideline for patients with obesity. She tolerated the course well and resumed the expected diet advancement and weight loss patterns expected of her weight-loss surgery.

  12. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Dourado, António; Madani, Kurosh; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the sixth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2014), held in Rome, Italy, from 22 to 24 October 2014. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 210 submissions, from 51 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 15% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience in...

  13. Energy Conferences and Symposia; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, J.H.; Simpson, W.F. Jr. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Energy Conferences and Symposia, a monthly publication, was instituted to keep scientists, engineers, managers, and related energy professionals abreast of meetings sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by other technical associations. Announcements cover conference, symposia, workshops, congresses, and other formal meetings pertaining to DOE programmatic interests. Complete meeting information, including title, sponsor, and contact, is presented in the main section, which is arranged alphabetically by subject area. Within a subject, citations are sorted by beginning data of the meeting. New listings are indicated by a bullet after the conference number and DOE-sponsored conferences are indicated by a star. Two indexes are provided for cross referencing conference information. The Chronological Index lists conference titles by dates and gives the subject area where complete information they may be found. The Location Index is alphabetically sorted by the city where the conference will be held.

  14. Development of F1 hybrid population and the high-density linkage map for European aspen (Populus tremula L.) using RADseq technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigunov, Anatoly V; Ulianich, Pavel S; Lebedeva, Marina V; Chang, Peter L; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Potokina, Elena K

    2017-11-14

    Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) technology was recently employed to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for linkage mapping of a North American and Eastern Asian Populus species. However, there is also the need for high-density genetic linkage maps for the European aspen (P. tremula) as a tool for further mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and marker-assisted selection of the Populus species native to Europe. We established a hybrid F1 population from the cross of two aspen parental genotypes diverged in their phenological and morphological traits. We performed RADseq of 122 F1 progenies and two parents yielding 15,732 high-quality SNPs that were successfully identified using the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. 2055 SNPs were employed for the construction of maternal and paternal linkage maps. The maternal linkage map was assembled with 1000 SNPs, containing 19 linkage groups and spanning 3054.9 cM of the genome, with an average distance of 3.05 cM between adjacent markers. The paternal map consisted of 1055 SNPs and the same number of linkage groups with a total length of 3090.56 cM and average interval distance of 2.93 cM. The linkage maps were employed for QTL mapping of one-year-old seedlings height variation. The most significant QTL (LOD = 5.73) was localized to LG5 (96.94 cM) of the male linkage map, explaining 18% of the phenotypic variation. The set of 15,732 SNPs polymorphic in aspen and high-density genetic linkage maps constructed for the P. tremula intra-specific cross will provide a valuable source for QTL mapping and identification of candidate genes facilitating marker-assisted selection in European aspen.

  15. Influence of stocking, site quality, stand age, low-severity canopy disturbance, and forest composition on sub-boreal aspen mixedwood carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Michael; D’Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Fraver, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Low-severity canopy disturbance presumably influences forest carbon dynamics during the course of stand development, yet the topic has received relatively little attention. This is surprising because of the frequent occurrence of such events and the potential for both the severity and frequency of disturbances to increase as a result of climate change. We investigated the impacts of low-severity canopy disturbance and average insect defoliation on forest carbon stocks and rates of carbon sequestration in mature aspen mixedwood forests of varying stand age (ranging from 61 to 85 years), overstory composition, stocking level, and site quality. Stocking level and site quality positively affected the average annual aboveground tree carbon increment (CAAI), while stocking level, site quality, and stand age positively affected tree carbon stocks (CTREE) and total ecosystem carbon stocks (CTOTAL). Cumulative canopy disturbance (DIST) was reconstructed using dendroecological methods over a 29-year period. DIST was negatively and significantly related to soil carbon (CSOIL), and it was negatively, albeit marginally, related to CTOTAL. Minima in the annual aboveground carbon increment of trees (CAI) occurred at sites during defoliation of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner), and minima were more extreme at sites dominated by trembling aspen than sites mixed with conifers. At sites defoliated by forest tent caterpillar in the early 2000s, increased sequestration by the softwood component (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) compensated for overall decreases in CAI by 17% on average. These results underscore the importance of accounting for low-severity canopy disturbance events when developing regional forest carbon models and argue for the restoration and maintenance of historically important conifer species within aspen mixedwoods to enhance stand-level resilience to disturbance agents and maintain

  16. Endogenous PttHb1 and PttTrHb, and heterologous Vitreoscilla vhb haemoglobin gene expression in hybrid aspen roots with ectomycorrhizal interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, Soile; Häggman, Hely; Brader, Günter; Kallio, Pauli T; Niemi, Karoliina

    2008-01-01

    Present knowledge on plant non-symbiotic class-1 (Hb1) and truncated (TrHb) haemoglobin genes is almost entirely based on herbaceous species while the corresponding tree haemoglobin genes are not well known. The function of these genes has recently been linked with endosymbioses between plants and microbes. In this work, the coding sequences of hybrid aspen (Populus tremulaxtremuloides) PttHb1 and PttTrHb were characterized, indicating that the key residues of haem and ligand binding of both genes were conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences. The expression of PttHb1 and PttTrHb was examined in parallel with that of the heterologous Vitreoscilla haemoglobin gene (vhb) during ectomycorrhiza/ectomycorrhizal (ECM) interaction. Both ECM fungi studied, Leccinum populinum and Xerocomus subtomentosus, enhanced root formation and subsequent growth of roots of all hybrid aspen lines, but only L. populinum was able to form mycorrhizas. Real-time PCR results show that the dual culture with the ECM fungus, with or without emergence of symbiotic structures, increased the expression of both PttHb1 and PttTrHb in the roots of non-transgenic hybrid aspens. PttHb1 and PttTrHb had expression peaks 5 h and 2 d after inoculation, respectively, pointing to different functions for these genes during interaction with root growth-improving fungi. In contrast, ECM fungi were not able to enhance the expression of hybrid aspen endogenous haemoglobin genes in the VHb lines, which may be a consequence of the compensating action of heterologous haemoglobin.

  17. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  18. Indico CONFERENCE tutorial

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Manzoni, Alex Marc

    2017-01-01

    This short tutorial explains how to create a CONFERENCE in indico and how to handle abstracts and registration forms, in detail: Timestamps: 1:01 - Programme  2:28 - Call for abstracts  11:50 - Abstract submission  13:41 - Abstract Review 15:41 - The Judge's Role 17:23 - Registration forms' creation 23:34 - Candidate participant's registration/application 25:54 - Customisation of Indico pages - Layout 28:08 - Customisation of Indico pages - Menus 29:47 - Configuring Event reminders and import into calendaring tools   See HERE a recent presentation by Pedro about the above steps in the life of an indico CONFERENCE event.

  19. Mississippi Climate & Hydrology Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawford, R.; Huang, J.

    2002-05-01

    The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.

  20. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  1. XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Abousahl, Said; Plastino, Wolfango

    2016-01-01

    This book, comprising contributions presented at the XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference, examines important aspects of international cooperation aimed at enhancing nuclear safety, security, safeguards (the “3S”), and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in the development and maintenance of the verification regime and progress toward a nuclear weapon-free world. The Conference served as a forum where eminent scientists, diplomats, and policymakers could compare national perspectives and update international collaborations. The book opens by addressing the political, institutional, and legal dimensions of the 3S and non-proliferation; current challenges are discussed and attempts made to identify possible solutions and future improvements. Subsequent sections consider scientific developments that can contribute to increased effectiveness in the implementation of international regimes, particularly in critical areas, technology foresight, and the ongoing evaluation of current capabilities. The closing sections d...

  2. UKSG Annual Conference 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Dutta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available UKSG offered four free places for students to attend the 2012 Conference, made possible with generous support from Elsevier, whose contribution is very much appreciated. Those eligible to apply were students enrolled on Library & Information and Publishing degree courses, and the successful applicants were (Ieft to right as photographed against the River Clyde: Stuart Lawson (University of Brighton, Jennifer Lovatt (Oxford Brookes University, Gopal Dutta (University of Sheffield and Lydia Lantzsch (Oxford Brookes University. The four have allowed us to take a peek at the diaries they kept during the conference. The extracts below give us a flavour of the event including the plenary and breakout sessions, the debates and the stamina of those who kept the dancing going!

  3. 2013 APPLEPIES Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2013 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  4. 7th IAASS Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rongier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The 7th IAASS Conference, “Space Safety is No Accident” is an invitation to reflect and exchange information on a number of topics in space safety and sustainability of national and international interest. The conference is also a forum to promote mutual understanding, trust and the widest possible international cooperation in such matters. The once exclusive “club” of nations with autonomous sub-orbital and orbital space access capabilities is becoming crowded with fresh and ambitious new entrants. New commercial spaceports are starting operations and others are being built. In the manned spaceflight arena a commercial market is becoming a tangible reality with suborbital spaceflights and government use of commercial services for cargo and crew transportation to orbit. Besides the national ambitions in space, the international cooperation both civil and commercial is also gaining momentum. In the meantime robotic space exploration will accelerate and with it the need to internationally better regulat...

  5. Evaluation and modification of ASPEN fixed-bed gasifier models for inclusion in an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    Several Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) fixed-bed gasifier models have been evaluated to determine which is the most suitable model for use in an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant simulation. Four existing ASPEN models were considered: RGAS, a dry ash gasifier model developed by Halcon/Scientific Design Company; USRWEN, the WEN II dry ash gasifier model originally developed by C.Y. Wen at West Virginia University; the slagging gasifier model developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and based on Continental Oil Company's (CONOCO) design study for the proposed Pipeline Demonstration Plant; and the ORNL dry ash gasifier model developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the simulation of the Tri-States Indirect Liquefaction Process. Because none of the models studied were suitable in their present form for inclusion in an IGCC power plant simulation, the SLAGGER model was developed by making significant modifications to the MIT model. The major problems with the existing ASPEN models were most often inaccurate material and energy balances, limitations of coal type, or long run times. The SLAGGER model includes simplifications and improvements over the MIT model, runs quickly (less than 30 seconds of computer time on a VAX-11/780), and gives more accurate mass and energy balances.

  6. Transgenic hybrid aspen trees with increased gibberellin (GA) concentrations suggest that GA acts in parallel with FLOWERING LOCUS T2 to control shoot elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Maria E; Hoffman, Daniel; Kaduk, Mateusz; Mauriat, Mélanie; Moritz, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) have been implicated in short day (SD)-induced growth cessation in Populus, because exogenous applications of bioactive GAs to hybrid aspens (Populus tremula × tremuloides) under SD conditions delay growth cessation. However, this effect diminishes with time, suggesting that plants may cease growth following exposure to SDs due to a reduction in sensitivity to GAs. In order to validate and further explore the role of GAs in growth cessation, we perturbed GA biosynthesis or signalling in hybrid aspen plants by overexpressing AtGA20ox1, AtGA2ox2 and PttGID1.3 (encoding GA biosynthesis enzymes and a GA receptor). We found trees with elevated concentrations of bioactive GA, due to overexpression of AtGA20ox1, continued to grow in SD conditions and were insensitive to the level of FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2) expression. As transgenic plants overexpressing the PttGID1.3 GA receptor responded in a wild-type (WT) manner to SD conditions, this insensitivity did not result from limited receptor availability. As high concentrations of bioactive GA during SD conditions were sufficient to sustain shoot elongation growth in hybrid aspen trees, independent of FT2 expression levels, we conclude elongation growth in trees is regulated by both GA- and long day-responsive pathways, similar to the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  8. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  9. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  10. Conference Report: The First ATLAS.ti User Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine C. Evers

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report on the First ATLAS.ti User Conference shares our impressions and experiences as longstanding ATLAS.ti users and trainers about the First ATLAS.ti User Conference in Berlin 2013. The origins, conceptual principles and development of the program are outlined, the conference themes discussed and experiences shared. Finally, the future of the program is discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401197

  11. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Ziegler; Mark Lewis Richardson

    2009-01-01

    The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the c...

  12. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the fifth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2013), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 20 to 22 September 2013. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 111 submissions, from 30 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 24 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 22%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after ...

  13. Joint US/German Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gulledge, Thomas; Jones, Albert

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains selected and refereed contributions that were presented at the conference on "Recent Developments and New Perspectives of Operations Research in the Area of Production Planning and Control" in Hagen/Germany, 25. - 26. June 1992. This conference was organized with the cooperation of the FernuniversiHit Hagen and was jointly hosted by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Operations Research (DGOR)" and the "Manufacturing Special Interest Group of the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA-SIGMA)". For the organization of the conference we received generous financial support from the sponsors listed at the end of this volume. We wish to express our appreciation to all supporters for their contributions. This conference was the successor of the JOInt ORSA/DGOR-conference in Gaithersburg/Maryland, USA, on the 30. and 31. July 1991. Both OR-societies committed themselves in 1989 to host joint conferences on special topics of interest from the field of operations research. This goal ...

  14. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco uselifestyle choices (such as diet and exercise)family historyfactors in your workplace and environment.How do I know if I am at ... you…Diet Choices to Prevent CancerRead Article >>Healthy Food ChoicesDiet Choices to ... is powered by © 2018 American Academy of Family Physicians

  15. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.

  16. 14th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    This is the 14th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  17. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  18. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Cancer Conference Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies. ... a pilot study in U.S. Federally Qualified Health Centers. Vaccine 2014; ...

  19. 2nd UNet conference

    CERN Document Server

    Menasche, Daniel; Sabir, Essaïd; Pellegrini, Francesco; Benjillali, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers the proceedings of the 2nd UNet conference, held in Casablanca May 30 - June 1, 2016. It presents new trends and findings in hot topics related to ubiquitous computing/networking, covered in three tracks and three special sessions: Main Track 1: Context-Awareness and Autonomy Paradigms Track Main Track 2: Mobile Edge Networking and Virtualization Track Main Track 3: Enablers, Challenges and Applications Special Session 1: Smart Cities and Urban Informatics for Sustainable Development Special Session 2: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles From Theory to Applications Special Session 3: From Data to Knowledge: Big Data applications and solutions.

  20. Networks Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Keiji K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.