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Sample records for aspen cancer conference

  1. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, �New Data From the Energy Frontier.� There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week�s events included a public lecture (�The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson� given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf� geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was �Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.� It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled �What Makes Up Dark Matter.� There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf� to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  2. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John; Olivier, Dore; Fox, Patrick; Furic, Ivan; Halkiadakis, Eva; Schmidt, Fabian; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M; Whiteson, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  3. 2013 Aspen Winter Conference on particle physics: Higgs Quo Vadis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    By winter of 2013, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC will establish their discovery of a new Higgs-like particle with a mass around 125 GeV. The new data will shed light on its properties. Many fundamental questions in Physics will start to get their answer. The 2013 Aspen Winter Conference on particle physics will bring together experimentalists and theorists, creating an ideal environment to present and discuss the implications of the Higgs discovery in the framework of the Standrad Model and beyond. The conference will be formulated to encourage close collaborations and active exchange of information, which is crucial for making progress on this central topic of particle physics.

  4. Transition to an IP Environment. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (15th, Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000) with Thoughts on the Implications of Technological Change for Telecommunications Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Robert M.; Katz, Michael L.

    The Aspen Institute's Communications and Society Program convened leaders and experts in the telecommunications and related fields to address telecommunications regulation in an IP (Internet Protocols) environment at the 15th annual Aspen Institute Telecommunications Policy Conference (Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000). The report from this…

  5. Residential Access to Bandwidth: Exploring New Paradigms. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (13th, August 9-13, 1998, Aspen, Colorado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Robert M.

    The 1998 Aspen Systems Conference on Telecommunications Policy met to consider ways of speeding the deployment of telecommunication systems that allow for robust, reliable, and innovative communications services to the home. By organizing participants into three working groups, the session was able to come up with analytical suggestions and policy…

  6. Aspen Delineation - Aspen Delineation Project [ds362

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands, where aspen assessment data was gathered. Aspen assessment information corresponding to this polygon layer can...

  7. 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Contrasting Superconductivity of Pnictides and Cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Schmalian, J. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Canfield, P. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Chakravarty, S. [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States)

    2011-05-02

    Our quest for materials with better properties is closely integral to the fabric of our society. Currently the development of materials that will allow for improved generation, transport, and storage of energy is at the forefront of our research in condensed matter physics and materials science. Among these materials, compounds that exhibit correlated electron states and emergent phenomena such as superconductivity have great promise, but also difficulties that need to be overcome: problems associated with our need to reliably find, understand, improve and control these promising materials. At the same time, the field of correlated electrons represents the frontier of our understanding of the electronic properties of solids. It contains deep open scientific issues within the broad area of quantum phenomena in matter. The aim of this workshop is to explore and understand the physics of recently discovered Fe-based high-temperature superconductors and contrast and compare them with the cuprates. The superconductivity in iron pnictides, with transition temperatures in excess of 55 K, was discovered in early 2008. The impact of this discovery is comparable to cuprates discovered in 1986. At the same time a number of recent experimental developments in cuprates may lead to a shift in our thinking with regards to these materials. There is therefore much to be learned by devoting a conference in which both classes of superconductors are discussed, especially at this nascent stage of the pnictides.

  8. Aspen Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

  9. Aspen Characteristics - Aspen Delineation Project [ds361

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (Placer and...

  10. Attitudes and Technologies--Striving To Match New Electronic Information Products and Services to the Needs and Interests of Elderly People. Report of an Aspen Institute Conference: New Electronic Technologies To Meet the Needs of Elderly People: More Issues and Cases (Queenstown, Maryland, March 23-25, 1988). Communications and Society Forum Report #7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, Michael

    Participants in the Aspen Institute Conference considered how communications technologies may be applied to serve the needs and interests of this country's expanding community of retired and older citizens. Conference findings fell into two categories, reflecting questions originating in the human aspirations found in a public opinion survey…

  11. Review of American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) Clinical Guidelines for Nutrition Support in Cancer Patients: nutrition screening and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2008-01-01

    It is clear that cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may or may not be indicated in these patients depending on individual patient characteristics. This review article, the first in a series of articles to examine the A.S.P.E.N. Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients Cancer Guidelines, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in cancer patients. This first article will provide background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients as well as discuss the role of nutrition screening and nutrition assessment in the care of cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the Clinical Guidelines, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequent published studies. Future articles will explore the guidelines related to nutrition support in oncology patients receiving anticancer therapies.

  12. Feedback - Colon Cancer Conference and Workshop 2010 —

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains feedback given by the participants of the Colon Cancer Conference and the Histopathology workshop. The meetings took place in October 2010 at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine.

  13. Third Preventing Overdiagnosis conference | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdiagnosis Conference Early Bird Registration Open and Abstract Submission This event will be co-hosted by the National institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute in Washington DC, September 01-03, 2015. |

  14. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO consensus conference on endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic;

    2015-01-01

    panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared three clinically-relevant questions about endometrial cancer relating to the following four areas: Prevention and screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment and advanced and recurrent......The first joint European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary...

  15. From the Aspen File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute Quarterly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents nine recommendations developed at the 1992 Policy Issue Forum of the Aspen Institute's Program on Policy Issues in Energy and Resources. The underlying theme is that the world is entering a new era of environmental policy formation. Issues a call for a national strategy for environmental management. (SLD)

  16. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  17. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  18. Aspen Delineation - Inyo National Forest [ds366

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Inyo National Forest, Inyo County, California. The Inyo...

  19. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, Joseph N.T., E-mail: darbah@ohio.ed [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Department of Environmental and Plant Biology, Ohio University, 315 Porter Hall, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Sharkey, Thomas D. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Calfapietra, Carlo [Institute of Agro-Environmental and Forest Biology (IBAF), National Research Council (CNR), Via Salaria km 29300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Karnosky, David F. [School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO{sub 2} and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO{sub 2} protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 deg. C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO{sub 2} treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO{sub 2} were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms. - We report that elevated CO{sub 2} confers increased thermotolerance on both aspen and birch trees while isoprene production in aspen confers further thermotolerance in aspen.

  20. 1989 Review Conference on New Electronic Technologies for the Elderly: Issues and Projects. Report of an Aspen Institute Conference (5th, Queenstown, Maryland, March 8-10, 1989). Communications and Society Forum Report #11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollier, David

    This document presents summaries of conference presentations which attempted to assess how computer and communications technologies can be harnessed to meet the special needs of elderly people. Each of the eight sessions of the conference opened with experts discussing their respective research projects and electronic technologies: their origins,…

  1. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M;

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference, the e...

  2. THE ASPEN CONTINUOUS PROGRESS PLAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORNINGSTAR, NED

    THIS REPORT IS A DOCUMENTATION OF THE EFFORTS OF THE STAFF OF THE ASPEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, ASPEN, COLORADO, TO INDIVIDUALIZE THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN GRADES K-6. INVOLVED IN THIS WERE APPROXIMATELY 450 STUDENTS AND A STAFF OF 13 TEACHERS. THE INDIVIDUALIZATION OF INSTRUCTION WAS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE MODIFICATION OF THE TEACHING-LEARNING…

  3. FOREWORD: Conference on Advanced Metrology for Cancer Therapy 2011 Conference on Advanced Metrology for Cancer Therapy 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerhold, Ulrike

    2012-10-01

    Although physical treatments play a central role in cancer therapy, SI-traceable metrology has only been established for some of them. Several forms of treatment currently used (particularly intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hadron therapy, high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) and brachytherapy) suffer from the limited metrological support, which restricts the success of these techniques. Recognizing this deficit, the European Union identified metrology for health as one of the first four Targeted Programmes in the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) running from 2008 to 2011. This programme included two EMRP projects addressing metrology for cancer therapy: project T2.J06 dealing with brachytherapy project T2.J07 dealing with external beam cancer therapy using ionizing radiation and high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound. Primary measurement standards applicable to modern treatment conditions were developed under both projects, together with measurement techniques which are meant as a basis for future protocols for dosimetry, treatment planning and monitoring. In order to provide a platform for the presentation of current developments in clinical measurement techniques for cancer therapy, together with the achievements of both projects, an international Conference on Advanced Metrology for Cancer Therapy (CAMCT) was held from 29 November to 1 December 2011 at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig, Germany. The main sessions of the conference: Primary and secondary standards of absorbed dose to water for IMRT and brachytherapy, 3D dose distributions and treatment planning for IMRT and brachytherapy, Hadron therapy (protons and carbon ions), High-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU), were geared to the main foci of the projects. Metrologists and medical physicists from countries all over the world attended the conference and made it into a forum for the exchange of information and expertise

  4. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M;

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  5. Highlights from the Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference, Glasgow, 19–21 March 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Munzone, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-9), one of the largest breast cancer conferences in the world, was held in Glasgow in March 2014, and brought together the voices of doctors, researchers, nurses, and patients. All the major breast cancer advocacy groups and institutions were united in one forum (Europa Donna, the EORTC Breast Cancer group, and EUSOMA). The Scientific Programme for EBCC-9 highlighted a holistic picture of breast cancer, including research, prevention, treatmen...

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  7. The First Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt International Scientific Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed S

    2009-10-01

    A wide gathering of scientists, clinicians, pharmacists and nurses specialized in pediatric oncology practice met to celebrate the second anniversary of Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt (CCHE). The celebration was in the form of high-brow teaching lectures and reports presented by international experts in the fields of pediatric CNS tumors, solid tumors (neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, soft tissue and bone tumors, lymphoma, leukemia and pediatric oncology nursing. The conference extends its activities to hospital management, clinical pharmacy and telemedicine. Furthermore, CCHE experts presented the efforts performed to establish a state-of-the-art pediatric oncology hospital equipped with all needed facilities to raise the standard of care to the highest levels.

  8. Translating Science into Survival: Report on the Inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference, cohosted by the Cancer Research Institute (CRI), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy (CIMT), and the European Academy of Tumor Immunology (EATI), was held in New York City on September 16–19, 2015. The conference brought together nearly 1,400 scientists, clinicians, regulators, patient advocates, and other stakeholders to discuss the latest scientific developments in cancer immunology and immunotherapy, as well as the regulatory hurdles facing new drug development. This conference report summarizes the main themes that emerged during the 4-day meeting.

  9. CNIO cancer conference: targeted search for anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter M

    2003-06-01

    The topics discussed at the conference covered many aspects of cancer research, from the genetic search for new targets, target validation and drug discovery, all the way to preclinical and clinical development of oncology drugs. Here the presentations on new metabolic, angiogenic, cell cycle and other molecular targets, as well as recent developments with experimental drugs with action on some of these targets, are summarised. Particular emphasis is placed on the emerging realisation that changes in the metabolic phenotype lie at the heart of cellular transformation. New insights into the biological links between cancer cell metabolism and the balance between survival and death signalling are likely to lead to the identification of a new category of anticancer targets.

  10. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  11. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest [ds374

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest,...

  12. Aspen Delineation - Lassen National Forest [ds372

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (LASSEN_NF_EAGLELAKE_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle...

  13. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  14. Multidisciplinary team conferences promote treatment according to guidelines in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, Fredrik; Kroll Bjerregaard, Jon; Winbladh, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) conferences have been introduced into standard cancer care, though evidence that it benefits the patient is weak. We used the national Swedish Rectal Cancer Register to evaluate predictors for case discussion at a MDT conference and its impact on treatment...

  15. Conferences point to growing concern about possible links between breast cancer, environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, B

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is growing that there may be a connection between certain chemicals in the environment and the rising incidence of breast cancer in North America. Two recent Canadian conferences have been held to disseminate information and another is planned for 1996. "We have a situation that is similar to global warming, " Devra Lee Davis, founder of the US Breast Cancer Prevention Collaborative Research Group, warned people attending a conference in Niagara Falls, Ont. "Breast cancer continues t...

  16. Aspen Characteristics - Sequoia National Forest [ds377

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger District, Sequoia National...

  17. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest [ds373

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Beckwourth Ranger District...

  18. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  19. Aspen Characteristics - Klamath National Forest [ds369

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected with known aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County,...

  20. Aspen Delineation - El Dorado National Forest [ds364

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands, where aspen assessments were gathered in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties,...

  1. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest, EUI [ds368

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The...

  2. The 2008 European School of Oncology inside track conference, "predictive modeling in prostate cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Scardino, Peter T; Denis, Louis

    2009-07-01

    The European School of Oncology (ESO) Inside Track Conference, "Predictive Modeling in Prostate Cancer," the first event ever dedicated to prediction in prostate cancer, was organized in collaboration with the Prostate Program of Milan National Cancer Institute and the American Italian Cancer Foundation in the wonderful scenario of the Excelsior Lido Hotel in Venice on April 17 through 19, 2008. More than 240 participants from 23 countries attended this 3-day conference, which convened an exceptional group of experts from all over the world whose presentations provided a framework for understanding the state of the art in predictive modeling of prostate cancer and displayed future research trends in the uro-oncologic community. Cancer 2009;115(13 suppl):3035-8. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  3. Aspen Notebook: Cable and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard; Baer, Walter S.

    This is the first of a planned series of Aspen Notebooks on cable television (CATV). Part I reports on research conducted by the Aspen Workshop on Uses of the Cable. It describes the status of continuing education and the history of educational television and explores the prospects created by cable's development for extending access to continuing…

  4. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the kyoto consensus conference.

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P.; INAMOTO, TAKASHI; BENSON, JOHN R.; Forbes, John F.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F. R.; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; KLIMBERG, V. SUZANNE

    2011-01-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent ...

  5. Adapting ASPEN for Orbital Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Tran, Daniel; Jones, Grailing; Dang, Van; Knight, Russell

    2010-01-01

    By studying the Orbital Express mission, modeling the spacecraft and scenarios, and testing the system, a technique has been developed that uses recursive decomposition to represent procedural actions declaratively, schema-level uncertainty reasoning to make uncertainty reasoning tractable, and lightweight, natural language processing to automatically parse procedures to produce declarative models. Schema-level uncertainty reasoning has, at its core, the basic assumption that certain variables are uncertain, but not independent. Once any are known, then the others become known. This is important where a variable is uncertain for an action and many actions of the same type exist in the plan. For example, if the number of retries to purge pump lines was unknown (but bounded), and each attempt required a sub-plan, then, once the correct number of attempts required for a purge was known, it would likely be the same for all subsequent purges. This greatly reduces the space of plans that needs to be searched to ensure that all executions are feasible. To accommodate changing scenario procedures, each is ingested into a tabular format in temporal order, and a simple natural-language parser is used to read each step and to derive the impact of that step on memory, power, and communications. Then an ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) model is produced based on this analysis. The model is tested and further changed by hand, if necessary, to reflect the actual procedure. This results in a great savings of time used for modeling procedures. Many processes that need to be modeled in ASPEN (a declarative system) are, in fact, procedural. ASPEN includes the ability to model activities in a hierarchical fashion, but this representation breaks down if there is a practically unbounded number of sub-activities and decomposition topologies. However, if recursive decomposition is allowed, HTN-like encodings are enabled to represent most procedural phenomena. For

  6. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colorectal cancer clinical management: the pathologists expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; West, N P; Nagtegaal, I D

    2014-02-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20 years; however, a considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of Cancer Care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012, the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about cancer of the colon and rectum was held. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organizations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries.

  7. Aspen Characteristics - Lassen National Forest [ds371

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle Lake Ranger District, Lassen National...

  8. Conference Report: Eighth Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Abenaa M; Patterson, Sherri L; Forman, Michele R; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Limburg, Paul J; Ondrey, Frank G; Paskett, Electra D; Wetter, David W; Hawk, Ernest T

    2010-08-01

    The Eighth Annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting was held in Houston, Texas, in November 2009. This report highlights significant presentations that advance the fields of chemoprevention, clinical trial recruitment and retention, cancer screening including optical imaging, energy balance, and nutritional epidemiology, and health communications and decision making. In findings from the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, dutasteride reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in high-risk men by 23% compared with placebo. Important clues about the dosing and window of susceptibility for supplementation with choline, vitamin D, and folate were revealed from epigenetic research that has implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. Noninvasive optical imaging techniques using endoscopic ultrasound and autofluorescence for the early detection of cancers in the lung, pancreas, and oral cavity are being studied. The report also addresses the challenges of promoting cancer prevention. Understanding how individuals process risk information and make sustained behavior changes and the effect of socioeconomic status on health disparities were identified as critical areas of research. This multidisciplinary research meeting of basic, clinical, and behavioral scientists and epidemiologists continues to play a major role in identifying the research priority areas of cancer prevention, elucidating new mechanisms of carcinogenesis for targeted chemoprevention therapies and delivering a comprehensive strategy for engaging individuals in the unifying goal to reduce cancer incidence.

  9. The Rise of Netpolitik: How the Internet Is Changing International Politics and Diplomacy. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (11th, Aspen, Colorado, August 1-4, 2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollier, David

    This document is an interpretive synthesis of the discussion at a conference sponsored by the Aspen Institute that sought to develop new ways to understand how the Internet is changing the powers of the nation-state, the conduct of international relations, and the definitions of nation security. This report examines how the Internet and other…

  10. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  11. Survivorship care for older adults with cancer: U13 conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, Emily J; Nightingale, Ginah; Bellizzi, Keith; Burhenn, Peggy; Rosko, Ashley; Artz, Andrew S; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz; Canin, Beverly; Dale, William; Ferrell, Betty

    2016-07-01

    Older adult cancer survivors currently account for almost 60% of all cancer survivors. The number of older cancer survivors will continue to increase as the population ages and as patients' live longer after a cancer diagnosis. As part of cancer center accreditation, the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer® (CoC) has placed great importance on survivorship care planning. While the CoC has set standards for general survivorship care, there is sparse evidence on how to best care for older adult cancer survivors. Concern exists among the medical community that survivorship care plans could increase paperwork without improving outcomes. Given the diverse and unique needs of older adult cancer survivors, the inter-professional team provides a structure and process for survivorship care built around the particular needs of older adults. The Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG), in partnership with the NIA/NCI, held a U13 conference in May 2015 in part to discuss survivorship care for older adults with cancer. This report discusses four themes that emerged from one section of the conference: (1) survivorship care is a process that continually evolves to meet the needs of older adults; (2) older adult cancer survivors have unique needs and care plans should be tailored to meet these needs; (3) the inter-professional team is ideally suited to structure survivorship care of older adults; (4) patient advocacy must be encouraged throughout the cancer care continuum. As evidence based survivorship practices develop, the unique needs of older adults need to be given substantial attention.

  12. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds376

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_FEATHERRIVER_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas...

  13. Fire regimes of quaking aspen in the Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.; Rogers, Paul C.; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most widespread tree species in North America, and it is found throughout much of the Mountain West (MW) across a broad range of bioclimatic regions. Aspen typically regenerates asexually and prolifically after fire, and due to its seral status in many western conifer forests, aspen is often considered dependent upon disturbance for persistence. In many landscapes, historical evidence for post-fire aspen establishment is clear, and following extended fire-free periods senescing or declining aspen overstories sometimes lack adequate regeneration and are succeeding to conifers. However, aspen also forms relatively stable stands that contain little or no evidence of historical fire. In fact, aspen woodlands range from highly fire-dependent, seral communities to relatively stable, self-replacing, non-seral communities that do not require fire for persistence. Given the broad geographic distribution of aspen, fire regimes in these forests likely co-vary spatially with changing community composition, landscape setting, and climate, and temporally with land use and climate – but relatively few studies have explicitly focused on these important spatiotemporal variations. Here we reviewed the literature to summarize aspen fire regimes in the western US and highlight knowledge gaps. We found that only about one-fourth of the 46 research papers assessed for this review could be considered fire history studies (in which mean fire intervals were calculated), and all but one of these were based primarily on data from fire-scarred conifers. Nearly half of the studies reported at least some evidence of persistent aspen in the absence of fire. We also found that large portions of the MW have had little or no aspen fire history research. As a result of this review, we put forth a classification framework for aspen that is defined by key fire regime parameters (fire severity and probability), and that reflects underlying biophysical

  14. Report from the 13th annual Western canadian gastrointestinal cancer consensus conference; calgary, alberta; september 8-10, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M M; Pasieka, J; Dixon, E; McEwan, S; McKay, A; Renouf, D; Schellenberg, D; Ruether, D

    2012-12-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8-10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

  15. Nanomedicines for image-guided cancer therapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinzi

    2016-09-01

    Imaging technologies are being increasingly employed to guide the delivery of cancer therapies with the intent to increase their performance and efficacy. To date, many patients have benefited from image-guided treatments through prolonged survival and improvements in quality of life. Advances in nanomedicine have enabled the development of multifunctional imaging agents that can further increase the performance of image-guided cancer therapy. Specifically, this talk will focus on examples that demonstrate the benefits and application of nanomedicine in the context of image-guide surgery, personalized drug delivery, tracking of cell therapies and high precision radiotherapy delivery.

  16. Barcelona conference on epigenetics and cancer: 50 years of histone acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Salvia, Montserrat; Simó-Riudalbas, Laia; Ausió, Juan; Esteller, Manel

    2015-01-01

    The Barcelona Conference on Epigenetics and Cancer (BCEC) was held in Barcelona, Spain, on October 1st and 2nd, 2014. The meeting was co-organized by the Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC-IDIBELL) and B·Debate, an initiative of Biocat, with the support of "la Caixa" Foundation. The scientific committee was comprised of leading scientists in the field of epigenetics: Dr. Manel Esteller, director of PEBC-IDIBELL, Dr. Alejandro Vaquero and Dr. Esteban Ballestar, from PEBC-IDIBELL, Jua...

  17. Caspase 9 promoter polymorphisms confer increased susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, George E; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Pantou, Malena P; Kontogianni, Panagiota; Gazouli, Maria; Karantanos, Theodoros; Lymperi, Maria; Zografos, George C

    2012-10-01

    Caspases (CASPs), play a crucial role in the development and progression of cancer. We evaluated the association between two polymorphisms (rs4645978 and rs4645981) of the CASP9 gene and the risk of breast cancer (BC). Genotypes and allelic frequencies for the two polymorphisms were determined in 261 patients with breast cancer and 480 healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms were used, and statistical significance was determined by the χ(2) test. Carriers of the rs4645978G allele (AG and GG genotypes) were at higher risk for BC than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.37, P = 0.022). The rs4645978GG genotype, in particular, was associated with the highest risk for BC development (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.45-3.49, P = 0.0003). Similarly, individuals with at least one rs4645981T allele were at a significantly increased risk of developing BC compared with those harboring the CC genotype (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.99-3.78, P < 0.0001), and the risk of BC increased with increasing numbers of rs4645981T alleles (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.91-3.69, P < 0.0001 for the CT genotype; OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.58-9.88, P = 0.004 for the TT genotype). The CASP9 promoter polymorphisms rs4645978 and rs4645981 are associated with BC susceptibility and suggest that CASP9 transcriptional regulation is an important factor during BC development.

  18. Multimodal imaging of lung cancer and its microenvironment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Lida P.; Niederst, Matthew J.; Mulvey, Hillary; Adams, David C.; Hu, Haichuan; Chico Calero, Isabel; Szabari, Margit V.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Bouma, Brett E.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Suter, Melissa J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite significant advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer, nearly all patients develop drug resistance within 6-12 months and prognosis remains poor. Developing drug resistance is a progressive process that involves tumor cells and their microenvironment. We hypothesize that microenvironment factors alter tumor growth and response to targeted therapy. We conducted in vitro studies in human EGFR-mutant lung carcinoma cells, and demonstrated that factors secreted from lung fibroblasts results in increased tumor cell survival during targeted therapy with EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib. We also demonstrated that increased environment stiffness results in increased tumor survival during gefitinib therapy. In order to test our hypothesis in vivo, we developed a multimodal optical imaging protocol for preclinical intravital imaging in mouse models to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time. We have successfully conducted multimodal imaging of dorsal skinfold chamber (DSC) window mice implanted with GFP-labeled human EGFR mutant lung carcinoma cells and visualized changes in tumor development and microenvironment facets over time. Multimodal imaging included structural OCT to assess tumor viability and necrosis, polarization-sensitive OCT to measure tissue birefringence for collagen/fibroblast detection, and Doppler OCT to assess tumor vasculature. Confocal imaging was also performed for high-resolution visualization of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells labeled with GFP, and was coregistered with OCT. Our results demonstrated that stromal support and vascular growth are essential to tumor progression. Multimodal imaging is a useful tool to assess tumor and its microenvironment over time.

  19. Photo-nano immunotherapy for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    We constructed a multifunction nano system SWNT-GC and investigated the synergize photothermal and immunological effects. Here, we improve the SWNT-GC nano system and design a new synergistic nano-particle, both have the photothermal effects and immunological effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and detect the immune response with metastatic mouse tumor models. We also study the therapeutic mechanism after treatment in vitro and in vivo. With the enhancement of nano-materials on photothermal effects, laser treatment could destroy primary tumor and protect normal tissue with low dose laser irradiation. With the immunological effects of nano-materials, the treatment could trigger specific antitumor immune response, to eliminate the metastasis tumor. It is providing a promising treatment modality for the metastatic cancers.

  20. Two variants on chromosome 17 confer prostate cancer risk, and the one in TCF2 protects against type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur

    2007-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association scan to search for sequence variants conferring risk of prostate cancer using 1,501 Icelandic men with prostate cancer and 11,290 controls. Follow-up studies involving three additional case-control groups replicated an association of two variants on chromoso...

  1. Targeted search for anticancer drugs--CNIO cancer conference. 16-18 March, Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacal, Juan-Carlos; Carnero, Amancio

    2003-05-01

    The Spanish National Cancer Center has launched a new series of cancer conferences devoted to timely themes in oncology. These meetings aim to bring together a maximum of 50 participants, including 20 to 25 speakers along with 25 to 30 participants for in-depth discussion of new results and ideas in frontline cancer research. There is no registration fee to attend, but participants must organize their own travel and accommodation expenses; free communications are presented as posters, but a few may be selected for short (15 min) oral presentations. This particular meeting was organized by Amancio Carnero and David H Beach, and was mostly devoted to state of the art methodologies for the identification of new targets for anticancer drug design, although the development of novel drugs was also discussed.

  2. The 5th Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Moore, Malcolm A; Chang, Shu-Jen; Cheng, Christopher; Choi, Han Yong; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Hinotsu, Shiro; Hong, Sung-Joon; Kim, Choung-Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Murai, Masaru; Naito, Seiji; Soebadi, Doddy; Song, Jae-Mann; Umbas, Rainy; Usami, Michiyuki; Xia, Shujie; Yang, Chi-Rei

    2007-01-01

    The Conference on Asian Trends in Prostate Cancer Hormone Therapy is an annual forum for Asian urologists now in its 5th year. The 2006 conference, held in Bali, Indonesia, was attended by 27 leading urologic oncologists from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan and featured a packed program of presentations and discussions on a wide range of topics such as relationships among clinicians and the newly opened Asia Regional Office for Cancer Control of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC), detection rates of prostate cancer by biopsy in each of the 6 Asian countries, and favored treatment modalities for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) in each country. The first session of the conference kicked off with a keynote lecture entitled "Activities of the UICC ARO". UICC's new office will be the nerve center for its activities in the Asia region. Along with the Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention (APOCP), UICC aims to shift the focus of attention to cancer control. As such APOCP's long-running publication the APJCP is to be re-launched as the Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Control. Although UICC is primarily concerned with cancer, several risk factors for cancer are common also to other non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, and an important strategy is to implement measures to control these various pathologic conditions as a whole. Apart from contributing to an Asian prostate cancer registry the UICC-ARO will provide training courses, working groups, and assistance in collecting and processing data. The keynote lecture was followed by a roundtable discussion on possible ways in which clinicians from each Asian country can work with UICC. A number of suggestions were put forth including better registration, epidemiology research, possible implementation of UICC prostate cancer guidelines, early detection and screening, and roles of diet and phytotherapy. The underlying reasons for the large but

  3. Report from the 13th Annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference; Calgary, Alberta; September 8–10, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M.M.; Pasieka, J.; Dixon, E.; McEwan, S.; McKay, A.; Renouf, D.; Schellenberg, D.; Ruether, D.

    2012-01-01

    The 13th annual Western Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Calgary, Alberta, September 8–10, 2011. Health care professionals involved in the care of patients with gastrointestinal cancers participated in presentation and discussion sessions for the purposes of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses current issues in the management neuroendocrine tumours and locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23300370

  4. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  5. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle L. Spafford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection of costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.

  6. Abaxial Greening Phenotype in Hybrid Aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Julia S; Douglas, Carl J; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2013-04-24

    The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively). Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial or isobilateral. Isobilateral leaves have palisade mesophyll on the top and bottom of the leaf, making the two sides virtually indistinguishable at the macroscopic level. In poplars this has been termed the "abaxial greening" phenotype. Previous work has implicated ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) as an essential determinant of palisade mesophyll development. This gene, as well as other genes (84 in all) putatively involved in setting the dorsiventral axis of leaves, were investigated in two Populus species: black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and hybrid aspen (P. tremula x tremuloides), representative of each leaf type (bifacial and isobilateral, respectively). Poplar orthologs of AS1 have significantly higher expression in aspen leaf blade and lower in the petiole, suggestive of a potential role in the isobilateral leaf phenotype consistent with the previously observed phenotypes. Furthermore, an ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) ortholog has significantly lower expression in aspen leaf tissue, also suggesting a possible contribution of this gene to abaxial greening.

  7. Abaxial Greening Phenotype in Hybrid Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S. Nowak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial and bottom (abaxial surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively. Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial or isobilateral. Isobilateral leaves have palisade mesophyll on the top and bottom of the leaf, making the two sides virtually indistinguishable at the macroscopic level. In poplars this has been termed the “abaxial greening” phenotype. Previous work has implicated ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1 as an essential determinant of palisade mesophyll development. This gene, as well as other genes (84 in all putatively involved in setting the dorsiventral axis of leaves, were investigated in two Populus species: black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa and hybrid aspen (P. tremula x tremuloides, representative of each leaf type (bifacial and isobilateral, respectively. Poplar orthologs of AS1 have significantly higher expression in aspen leaf blade and lower in the petiole, suggestive of a potential role in the isobilateral leaf phenotype consistent with the previously observed phenotypes. Furthermore, an ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS ortholog has significantly lower expression in aspen leaf tissue, also suggesting a possible contribution of this gene to abaxial greening.

  8. Aspen Characteristics - El Dorado National Forest [ds363

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents aspen stand locations and field assessments conducted in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties, California. Data was...

  9. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds375

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Feather River Ranger...

  10. Aspen Open Solver接口技术研究%Study on Aspen Open Solver Interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智强; 陈曦; 邵之江; 张正江

    2007-01-01

    Aspen Open Solver接口集中的非线性代数方程组(NLA)部分作为研究对象,在对接口集进行系统地分析之后,利用AspenTech提供的接口代码将分别基于梯度和非基于梯度的四种求解算法嵌入生成solver组件,并实现用Aspen Plus调用该solver组件观察各种算法嵌入的结果.

  11. A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bot Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While there has been significant progress in advancing novel immune therapies to the bedside, much more needs to be done to fully tap into the potential of the immune system. It has become increasingly clear that besides practical and operational challenges, the heterogeneity of cancer and the limited efficacy profile of current immunotherapy platforms are the two main hurdles. Nevertheless, the promising clinical data of several approaches point to a roadmap that carries the promise to significantly advance cancer immunotherapy. A new annual series sponsored by Arrowhead Publishers and Conferences aims at bringing together scientific and business leadership from academia and industry, to identify, share and discuss most current priorities in research and translation of novel immune interventions. This Editorial provides highlights of the first event held earlier this year and outlines the focus of the second meeting to be held in 2013 that will be dedicated to stem cells and immunotherapy.

  12. Toll-like receptors gene polymorphisms may confer increased susceptibility to breast cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, George E; Saridakis, Vasilios; Karantanos, Theodoros; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Zagouri, Flora; Kontogianni, Panagiota; Lymperi, Maria; Gazouli, Maria; Zografos, George C

    2012-08-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation may be an important event in tumor cell immune evasion. TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms have been related to increased susceptibility to cancer development in various organs. 261 patients and 480 health individuals were investigated for genotype and allelic frequencies of a 22-bp nucleotide deletion (-196 to -174del) in the promoter of TLR2 gene as well as two polymorphisms causing amino acid substitutions (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) in TLR4 gene. As far as (-196 to -174del) in TLR2 gene is concerned ins/del and del/del genotypes and del allele were significantly more frequent in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. Considering Asp299Gly replacement of TLR4 gene, Gly carriers (Asp/Gly & Gly/Gly genotype) and Gly allele were overrepresented among the breast cancer cases. The -174 to -196del of TLR2 gene and Asp299Gly of TLR4 gene polymorphisms may confer an increased susceptibility to breast cancer development.

  13. Highlights from the Tenth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC10), Amsterdam, 9–11 March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Cardoso, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    The Tenth European Breast Cancer Conference, EBCC 10, was held in Amsterdam in March 2016 with a total of 3061 participants from 95 different countries spread over five continents. The EBCC council is a joint venture of ESO, EORTC Breast Cancer Group, EUSOMA, and Europa Donna. The Scientific Programme for EBCC-10 tried to bring to the stage all the active participants in the diagnostic and treatment of breast cancer along with patients themselves. The need to achieve ‘patient’s access to high quality treatment’ through breast units that have been accredited through a European certification process was the basis of the EBCC 10 manifesto. The congress scientific programme allowed participants to review the most up-to-date knowledge in the breast cancer field presented by experts having in mind its application to every day practice. The purpose of this summary is to describe to the readers the results of the late-breaking and best abstracts presented at EBCC10. PMID:27350789

  14. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  15. The First AACR special conference on stem cells, development, and cancer: some of these cells are not like the others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David G; Lin, Jennifer C; Aubert, Geraldine

    2011-09-01

    The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) held an exciting conference on Stem Cells, Development, and Cancer in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (March 3-6, 2011). The meeting was cochaired by Geoffrey Wahl, Connie Eaves, and Hans Clevers and was attended by 250 international researchers, 40% of whom were young investigators. Three key themes emerged: (i) heterogeneity in stem cells and cancer, (ii) solid tissue cancer stem cells, and (iii) lessons from development. The interdisciplinary foundation of this meeting was central to its success and appeal, underscoring the value of juxtaposing and interrelating work from the three topics addressed.

  16. Aspen Competition Drives Innovative Ideas for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When Valencia College became the first recipient of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence last month, an unsung sector earned uncommon recognition. Now that the speeches are over and the prize money has been awarded, the Aspen Institute is sharing early lessons from its yearlong effort to determine the top community college in the…

  17. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  18. Aspen Handbook on the Media: Research, Publications, Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William L., Ed.; Slater, William T., Ed.

    The Aspen Program on Communications and Society represents a major attempt to bring together men, ideas, and institutions to pioneer in the communications field, to identify the main communications issues confronting society, and to develop effective programs to implement these policies. This handbook was compiled as a result of an Aspen program…

  19. Polyploidy in aspen alters plant physiology and drought sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, B.; Still, C. J.; Brooks, J. R.; Meinzer, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Polyploids of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) may be better suited to dry climatic conditions than diploids. However, the expression of diploid and polyploid functional traits, including water use efficiency, an important component of drought avoidance and tolerance, are not well understood in quaking aspen. In this study diploid and triploid aspen clones' leaf, ramet, and stand functional traits were measured near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado. The physiology of diploid and triploid aspen, including leaf size, chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density and stomatal conductance, as well as growth rates and carbon isotope discrimination in response to climate (measured in tree rings), were found to be significantly different between ploidy levels. These findings demonstrate different sensitivities of diploid and triploid clones to drought related climate stressors which may impact strategies for aspen forest management and conservation.

  20. ASPEN PLUS在化工设计中的应用%ASPEN PLUS Applications in Chemical Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2011-01-01

    Using the ASPEN PLUS simulation methanol-water distillation separation,through sensitivity analysis and mapping tools to optimize the design.%使用ASPEN PLUS模拟甲醇一水精馏分离,通过灵敏度分析和绘图工具优化设计。

  1. API5 confers cancer stem cell-like properties through the FGF2-NANOG axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K-H; Cho, H; Kim, S; Lee, H-J; Oh, S J; Woo, S R; Hong, S-O; Jang, H S; Noh, K H; Choi, C H; Chung, J-Y; Hewitt, S M; Kim, J-H; Son, M; Kim, S-H; Lee, B I; Park, H-C; Bae, Y-K; Kim, T W

    2017-01-01

    Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. Critically, these CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. Furthermore, we uncovered the FGF2-NANOG molecular axis as a downstream component of API5 signaling that is conserved in cervical cancer patients. Finally, we found that the blockade of FGFR signaling is an effective strategy to control API5high human cancer. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial role of API5 in linking immune resistance and CSC-like properties, and provide the rationale for its therapeutic application for the treatment of API5+ refractory tumors. PMID:28092370

  2. Loss of RASSF2 Enhances Tumorigencity of Lung Cancer Cells and Confers Resistance to Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Clark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available RASSF2 is a novel pro-apoptotic effector of K-Ras that is frequently inactivated in a variety of primary tumors by promoter methylation. Inactivation of RASSF2 enhances K-Ras-mediated transformation and overexpression of RASSF2 suppresses tumor cell growth. In this study, we confirm that RASSF2 and K-Ras form an endogenous complex, validating that RASSF2 is a bona fide K-Ras effector. We adopted an RNAi approach to determine the effects of inactivation of RASSF2 on the transformed phenotype of lung cancer cells containing an oncogenic K-Ras. Loss of RASSF2 expression resulted in a more aggressive phenotype that was characterized by enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, decreased cell adhesion, the ability to grow in an anchorage-independent manner and cell morphological changes. This enhanced transformed phenotype of the cells correlated with increased levels of activated AKT, indicating that RASSF2 can modulate Ras signaling pathways. Loss of RASSF2 expression also confers resistance to taxol and cisplatin, two frontline therapeutics for the treatment of lung cancer. Thus we have shown that inactivation of RASSF2, a process that occurs frequently in primary tumors, enhances the transforming potential of activated K-Ras and our data suggests that RASSF2 may be a novel candidate for epigenetic-based therapy in lung cancer.

  3. Mutant p53 confers chemoresistance in non-small cell lung cancer by upregulating Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Min-Che; Lin, Po-Lin; Wang, Yao-Chen; He, Tsung-Ying; Lee, Ming-Ching; Yeh, Sauh D; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lee, Huei

    2015-12-08

    Nrf2 is a key transcription factor for genes coding for antioxidants, detoxification enzymes, and multiple drug resistance and it also confers resistance to anticancer drugs. Here, we hypothesized that mutant p53 could upregulate Nrf2 expression at the transcriptional level, thereby conferring cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Luciferase reporter assays and real-time PCR analysis indicated that the Nrf2 promoter activity and its mRNA levels were markedly suppressed by wild-type p53, but not by mutant p53. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) further confirmed that wild-type p53 binds at the p53 putative binding site to block Sp1 binding to the Nrf2 promoter and consequently to suppress the Nrf2 promoter activity. The MTT assay indicated that an increase in Nrf2 expression by mutant p53 is responsible for cisplatin resistance. Among the Nrf2 downstream genes, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL contribute more strongly to Nrf2-mediated cisplatin resistance when compared with heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Cox regression analysis showed that patients with high-Nrf2, high-Bcl-2, high-Bcl-xL mRNA tumors were more commonly occurred unfavorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy than their counterparts. The prognostic significance of Nrf2 mRNA levels on OS and RFS was also observed in patients who have received cisplatin-based chemotherapy, particularly in p53-mutant patients. Collectively, mutant p53 may confer cisplatin resistance via upregulation of Nrf2 expression, and Nrf2 mRNA level may predict chemotherapeutic response and outcomes in NSCLC.

  4. [Recent history: 12th International Conference on Cancer, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1978].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    Using the approaches of history of the present, this article recovers the discussions surrounding the 12th International Conference on Cancer carried out in Buenos Aires in 1978, in reaction to which Georges Périès organized a "counter-conference" in Paris. In order to understand this discussion, the political situation of the time is described, as is the state of human rights at the time in Argentina, the role of the media - in particular the newspapers La Nación and Clarín and the magazine Gente - and the institutional position adopted by the National Academy of Medicine, as expressed in a letter sent to the presidents of the primary scientific societies of the world. The letter is reprinted in this text as a documentary source, taken from Memoria: Año 1978 (Presidencia de Dr. José E. Rivarola) [Acta: Year 1978 (Presidency of Dr. José E. Rivarola)]. The framework of the discussion makes reference to science's social policy versus science's supposed neutrality and the role of scientific societies.

  5. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Inamoto, Takashi; Benson, John R; Forbes, John F; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent navigation system was discussed for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. These new issues should be examined further in practice. Finally, some agreement was reached on the importance of "four-node diagnosis" to aid in the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel nodes. Regarding breast treatment, there was general agreement that the clinical value of surgical margins in predicting local failure was dependent on the tumor's intrinsic biology and subtypes. For patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, less extensive excision may be feasible in those who respond to systemic therapy in an acceptable manner. Most trials of preoperative chemotherapy lack outcome data on local recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for such data for overview analysis. We also agreed that radiation after mastectomy may be beneficial in node-positive cases where more than four nodes are involved. Throughout the discussions for both invasive and noninvasive disease, the investigation of nomograms was justified for major issues in the decision-making process, such as the presence or absence of microinvasion and the involvement of nonsentinel nodes in sentinel node-positive patients.

  6. Genetic diversity in aspen and its relation to arthropod abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Vornam, Barbara; Volmer, Katharina; Prinz, Kathleen; Kleemann, Frauke; Köhler, Lars; Polle, Andrea; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The ecological consequences of biodiversity have become a prominent public issue. Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services. Here, a diversity experiment was established with European and North American aspen (Populus tremula, P. tremuloides) planted in plots representing either a single deme only or combinations of two, four and eight demes. The goals of this study were to explore the complex inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of aspen and to then relate three measures for diversity (deme diversity, genetic diversity determined as Shannon index or as expected heterozygosity) to arthropod abundance. Microsatellite and AFLP markers were used to analyze the genetic variation patterns within and between the aspen demes and deme mixtures. Large differences were observed regarding the genetic diversity within demes. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high. The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots. The average diversity increased from plots with only one deme to plots with two, four, and eight demes, respectively and separated plots with and without American aspen. To test whether intra- and interspecific diversity impacts on ecosystem services, arthropod abundance was determined. Increasing genetic diversity of aspen was related to increasing abundance of arthropods. However, the relationship was mainly driven by the presence of American aspen suggesting that species identity overrode the effect of intraspecific variation of European aspen.

  7. FGFR2 risk SNPs confer breast cancer risk by augmenting oestrogen responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Thomas M; Castro, Mauro A A; de Santiago, Ines; Fletcher, Michael N C; Halim, Silvia; Prathalingam, Radhika; Ponder, Bruce A J; Meyer, Kerstin B

    2016-08-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) locus is consistently the top hit in genome-wide association studies for oestrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer. Yet, its mode of action continues to be controversial. Here, we employ a systems biology approach to demonstrate that signalling via FGFR2 counteracts cell activation by oestrogen. In the presence of oestrogen, the oestrogen receptor (ESR1) regulon (set of ESR1 target genes) is in an active state. However, signalling by FGFR2 is able to reverse the activity of the ESR1 regulon. This effect is seen in multiple distinct FGFR2 signalling model systems, across multiple cells lines and is dependent on the presence of FGFR2. Increased oestrogen exposure has long been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We therefore hypothesized that risk variants should reduce FGFR2 expression and subsequent signalling. Indeed, transient transfection experiments assaying the three independent variants of the FGFR2 risk locus (rs2981578, rs35054928 and rs45631563) in their normal chromosomal context show that these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) map to transcriptional silencer elements and that, compared with wild type, the risk alleles augment silencer activity. The presence of risk variants results in lower FGFR2 expression and increased oestrogen responsiveness. We thus propose a molecular mechanism by which FGFR2 can confer increased breast cancer risk that is consistent with oestrogen exposure as a major driver of breast cancer risk. Our findings may have implications for the clinical use of FGFR2 inhibitors.

  8. The Application of Aspen Plus Simulation in Coal Gasification%Aspen Plus在煤气化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓花; 刘丹; 郝婷; 靳皎; 杨会民; 刘巧霞

    2016-01-01

    Aspen Plus是一种基于稳态化工模拟、优化、灵敏度分析和经济评价的大型化工流程模拟软件,由于其优良的性能而被广泛应用于化工领域.文章主要介绍了Aspen Plus软件的特点,并且综述了近几年来Aspen Plus在煤气化领域中的研究成果和发展概况.

  9. Identification of Bone-Derived Factors Conferring De Novo Therapeutic Resistance in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Lin, Song-Chang; Yu, Guoyu; Cheng, Chien-Jui; Liu, Bin; Liu, Hsuan-Chen; Hawke, David H; Parikh, Nila U; Varkaris, Andreas; Corn, Paul; Logothetis, Christopher; Satcher, Robert L; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Gallick, Gary E; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2015-11-15

    Resistance to currently available targeted therapies significantly hampers the survival of patients with prostate cancer with bone metastasis. Here we demonstrate an important resistance mechanism initiated from tumor-induced bone. Studies using an osteogenic patient-derived xenograft, MDA-PCa-118b, revealed that tumor cells resistant to cabozantinib, a Met and VEGFR-2 inhibitor, reside in a "resistance niche" adjacent to prostate cancer-induced bone. We performed secretome analysis of the conditioned medium from tumor-induced bone to identify proteins (termed "osteocrines") found within this resistance niche. In accordance with previous reports demonstrating that activation of integrin signaling pathways confers therapeutic resistance, 27 of the 90 osteocrines identified were integrin ligands. We found that following cabozantinib treatment, only tumor cells positioned adjacent to the newly formed woven bone remained viable and expressed high levels of pFAK-Y397 and pTalin-S425, mediators of integrin signaling. Accordingly, treatment of C4-2B4 cells with integrin ligands resulted in increased pFAK-Y397 expression and cell survival, whereas targeting integrins with FAK inhibitors PF-562271 or defactinib inhibited FAK phosphorylation and reduced the survival of PC3-mm2 cells. Moreover, treatment of MDA-PCa-118b tumors with PF-562271 led to decreased tumor growth, irrespective of initial tumor size. Finally, we show that upon treatment cessation, the combination of PF-562271 and cabozantinib delayed tumor recurrence in contrast to cabozantinib treatment alone. Our studies suggest that identifying paracrine de novo resistance mechanisms may significantly contribute to the generation of a broader set of potent therapeutic tools that act combinatorially to inhibit metastatic prostate cancer.

  10. Aspen Grupp võitis RKASi / Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2008-01-01

    Ehitusfirma Aspen Grupp OÜ võitis Tallinna ringkonnakohtus Riigi Kinnisvara AS-i, kes diskvalifitseeris ehitusfirma riigihankelt seaduses olnud maksevõlgnevuse keelu tõttu. Vt. samas: Lahendust ootavad veel kaks kohtuasja

  11. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship : highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Classen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germa Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J.T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J.W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European

  12. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: Highlights from the third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Beyer (Jörg); P. Albers (Peter); R. Altena (Renske); J. Aparicio (Jorge); C. Bokemeyer; J. Busch (Jamie); R. Cathomas (Richard); E. Cavallin-Stahl (Eva); N.W. Clarke (Noel); J. Claßen (Johannes); G. Cohn-Cedermark (Gabriella); A.A. Dahl; G. Daugaard (Gedske); U. de Giorgi (Ugo); M. de Santis (Maria); M. De Wit (Meike); R. de Wit (Ronald); K.P. Dieckmann; M. Fenner (Martin); K. Fizazi (Karim); A. Flechon (Aude); S.D. Fossa (Sophie); J.R. Germá Lluch (José Ramón); J.A. Gietema (Jourik); S. Gillessen (Silke); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); J.T. Hartmann; A. Heidenreich (Axel); M. Hentrich (Marcus); F.U. Honecker (Friedemann); A. Horwich; R.A. Huddart (Robbert); S. Kliesch (Sabine); C. Kollmannsberger (Christian); S. Krege (Susanne); M.P. Laguna (Maria Pilar); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); A. Lorch (Anja); J.P. Lotz (Jean Pierre); F. Mayer; A. Necchi (Andrea); N. Nicolai (Nicola); J. Nuver (Janine); K. Oechsle (Karin); J. Oldenburg (Jan); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); T. Powles (Tom); E. Rajpert-De Meyts (Ewa); O. Rick (Oliver); G. Rosti (Giovanni); R. Salvioni (Roberto); C. Winter (Christopher); C. Wittekind (Christian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et a

  13. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators.

  14. Something going on in Milan: a review of the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segré, C

    2010-01-01

    The 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference was held at the IFOM-IEO-Campus in Milan from 19-21 May 2010 http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.phpThe Conference covered many topics related to cancer, from basic biology to clinical aspects of the disease. All attendees presented their research, by either giving a talk or presenting a poster. This conference is an opportunity to introduce PhD students to top cancer research institutes across Europe.THE CORE PARTICIPANTING INSTITUTES INCLUDED: European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM)-IFOM-IEO Campus, MilanBeatson Institute for Cancer Research (BICR), GlasgowCambridge Research Institute (CRI), Cambridge, UKMRC Gray Institute of Radiation Biology (GIROB), OxfordLondon Research Institute (LRI), LondonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research (PICR), ManchesterThe Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), Amsterdam'You organizers have crushed all my prejudices towards Italians. Congratulations, I enjoyed the conference immensely!' Even if it might have sounded like rudeness for sure this was supposed to be a genuine compliment (at least, that's how we took it), also considering that it was told by a guy who himself was the fusion of two usually antithetical concepts: fashion style and English nationality.The year 2010 has marked an important event for Italian research in the international scientific panorama: the European School of Molecular Medicine (SEMM) had the honour to host the 4th International PhD Student Cancer Conference, which was held from 19-21 May 2010 at the IFOM-IEO-Campus (http://www.semm.it/events_researchPast.php) in Milan.The conference was attended by more than one hundred students, coming from a selection of cutting edge European institutes devoted to cancer research. The rationale behind it is the promotion of cooperation among young scientists across Europe to debate about science and to exchange ideas and experiences. But that is not all, it is also designed for PhD students to get in touch

  15. Advancing Treatment for Metastatic Bone Cancer: Consensus Recommendations from the Second Cambridge Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Robert E.; Guise, Theresa A.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Berenson, James R.; Body, Jean-Jacques; Boyce, Brendan F.; Calvi, Laura M.; Hadji, Peyman; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Saad, Fred; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.; Taichman, Russell S.; Vessella, Robert L.; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Summarize current knowledge, critical gaps in knowledge, and recommendations to advance the field of metastatic bone cancer. Experimental Design A multidisciplinary consensus conference was convened to review recent progress in basic and clinical research, assess critical gaps in current knowledge, and prioritize recommendations to advance research in the next 5 years. The program addressed three principal topics: biology of metastasis, preserving normal bone health, and optimizing bone-targeted therapies. Results A variety of specific recommendations were identified as important to advance research and clinical care over the next 5 years. Conclusions Priorities for research in bone biology include characterizing components of the stem cell niche in bone, developing oncogenic immunocompetent animal models of bone metastasis, and investigating the unique contribution of the bone microenvironment to tumor growth and dormancy. Priorities for research in preserving normal bone health include developing methods to measure and characterize disseminating tumor cells, assessing outcomes from the major prevention trials currently in progress, and improving methodologies to assess risks and benefits of treatment. Priorities for optimizing bone-targeted therapies include advancing studies of serum proteomics and genomics to reliably identify patients who will develop bone metastases, enhancing imaging for early detection of bone metastases and early response evaluation, and developing new tests to evaluate response to bone-directed treatments. PMID:18927277

  16. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  17. Management of aspen plant communities on the National Elk Refuge, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are 1,860 acres (753 ha) of aspen (Populus tremuloides) plant communities on the National Elk Refuge (NER). Aspen is an important tree species on the Refuge,...

  18. Maintaining a Normal Life: Proceedings of the National Conference for Parents of Children with Cancer (1st, Arlington, Virginia, June 23-25, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Twenty presentations from a 1978 conference for parents of children with cancer focus on the teenager and cancer, long term survival of children, the parents and treatment, and practical problems involved. The following papers and authors are represented: "The Role of the Patient Family" (Clark, Fox-Kolenda); "How the Child Perceives Illness and…

  19. Aspen Plus功能扩展方法探讨%Discussions on Method of Function Development for Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原璐; 吕海霞; 项曙光

    2005-01-01

    对化工过程模拟软件Aspen Plus的用户模型的开发进行了分析,探讨了Aspen Plus用户模型开发步骤和编写方法.Aspen Plus支持6种用户模型,其编写除了要遵循一个通用的规则外,针对每一种用户模型又有不同的定义方式.用户模型的编译和连接通过Aspen Plus提供的编译程序aspcomp和asplink来完成,最终生成一个目标模块文件或动态连接库.将该目标模块文件或动态连接库复制到Aspen Plus的执行目录下,即完成一个用户模型的开发全过程.最后给出一个具体用户模型的例子,以帮助用户熟悉该方法.

  20. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  1. PERACETIC ACID PRETREATMENT OF ALFALFA STEM AND ASPEN BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Xu; Ulrike W. Tschirner

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa stems and ground aspen were exposed to peracetic acid (0.5 to 9% on biomass) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 100° C and reaction times from 1 to 5 hours. Glucose release as a percentage of total cellulose content was determined using subsequent standard enzymatic hydrolysis. Statistical analysis confirmed that aspen showed a strong response to peracetic acid addition rate. 9% peracetic acid removed 14% of the original lignin and increased the rate of glucose release from 23% to 44%...

  2. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J; Albers, P; Altena, R; Aparicio, J; Bokemeyer, C; Busch, J; Cathomas, R; Cavallin-Stahl, E; Clarke, N W; Claßen, J; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Dahl, A A; Daugaard, G; De Giorgi, U; De Santis, M; De Wit, M; De Wit, R; Dieckmann, K P; Fenner, M; Fizazi, K; Flechon, A; Fossa, S D; Germá Lluch, J R; Gietema, J A; Gillessen, S; Giwercman, A; Hartmann, J T; Heidenreich, A; Hentrich, M; Honecker, F; Horwich, A; Huddart, R A; Kliesch, S; Kollmannsberger, C; Krege, S; Laguna, M P; Looijenga, L H J; Lorch, A; Lotz, J P; Mayer, F; Necchi, A; Nicolai, N; Nuver, J; Oechsle, K; Oldenburg, J; Oosterhuis, J W; Powles, T; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Rick, O; Rosti, G; Salvioni, R; Schrader, M; Schweyer, S; Sedlmayer, F; Sohaib, A; Souchon, R; Tandstad, T; Winter, C; Wittekind, C

    2013-04-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377-1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478-496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497-513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements.

  3. Aspen Plus 7.3在精馏设计中的应用%The Application of Aspen Plus 7.3 in Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创; 许航线

    2014-01-01

    Aspen Plus 7.3作为化工设计的首选软件,得到了众多化工爱好者的青睐。以Aspen Plus 7.3在精馏设计中的应用为例,介绍了Aspen Plus 7.3在化工设计中的步骤和方法,为我们进行化工设计和原有工艺改进提供了方法。%Aspen Plus 7.3 as the chemical engineering design software of the first choice have liked by many chemical enthusiasts. This paper shows that Aspen Plus 7.3 in the chemical design steps and methods for us to carry out chemical process design and improvement of existing methods by Aspen Plus 8.0 in distillation design application as an example.

  4. Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Burke T; Still, Christopher; Howe, Glenn T; Tague, Christina; Roberts, Dar A

    2016-05-01

    Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic data with species distribution modeling for predicting aspens' distribution.

  5. Application of Model Analysis Tools in ASPEN PLUS%ASPEN PLUS模型分析工具的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建方

    2011-01-01

    随着计算机技术的发展,ASPENPLUS在化工中的应用越来越广泛,文章对ASPENPLUS模拟软件进行概括,重点论述模型分析工具在化工中的应用。%With the development computer technique,ASPEN PLUS is used more and more widely in the chemical engineering,model analysis tools is mainly discussed in the chemical engineering according to summarizing ASPEN PLUS.

  6. Activation of the Met kinase confers acquired drug resistance in FGFR-targeted lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S-M; Kim, H; Yun, M R; Kang, H N; Pyo, K-H; Park, H J; Lee, J M; Choi, H M; Ellinghaus, P; Ocker, M; Paik, S; Kim, H R; Cho, B C

    2016-07-18

    Aberrant fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) activation/expression is a common feature in lung cancer (LC). In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of and the mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to two potent selective FGFR inhibitors, AZD4547 and BAY116387, in LC cell lines. The antitumor activity of AZD4547 and BAY1163877 was screened in 24 LC cell lines, including 5 with FGFR1 amplification. Two cell lines containing FGFR1 amplifications, H1581 and DMS114, were sensitive to FGFR inhibitors (IC50FGFR1-amplified H1581 cells resistant to AZD4547 or BAY116387 (H1581AR and H1581BR cells, respectively) were established. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array and immunoblotting analyses showed strong overexpression and activation of Met in H1581AR/BR cells, compared with that in the parental cells. Gene set enrichment analysis against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were significantly enriched in H1581AR/BR cells, with Met contributing significantly to the core enrichment. Genomic DNA quantitative PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed MET amplification in H1581AR, but not in H1581BR, cells. Met amplification drives acquired resistance to AZD4547 in H1581AR cells by activating ErbB3. Combination treatment with FGFR inhibitors and an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/Met inhibitor, crizotinib, or Met-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in both H1581AR and H1581BR cells. Conversely, ectopic expression of Met in H1581 cells conferred resistance to AZD4547 and BAY1163877. Acquired resistance to FGFR inhibitors not only altered cellular morphology, but also promoted migration and invasion of resistant clones, in part by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Taken together, our data suggest that Met activation is sufficient to bypass dependency on FGFR signaling. Concurrent inhibition of the Met

  7. RESTORATION OF QUAKING ASPEN WOODLANDS INVADED BY WESTERN JUNIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaking aspen woodlands are important plant communities in the interior mountains of the western United States, providing essential habitat for many wildlife species and contain a high diversity of understory plants. Western juniper woodlands are rapidly replacing lower elevation (<6800 ft) quaking...

  8. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  9. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  10. Widespread triploidy in Western North American aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen E; Callahan, Colin M; Islam-Faridi, M Nurul; Shaw, John D; Rai, Hardeep S; Sanderson, Stewart C; Rowe, Carol A; Ryel, Ronald J; Madritch, Michael D; Gardner, Richard S; Wolf, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    We document high rates of triploidy in aspen (Populus tremuloides) across the western USA (up to 69% of genets), and ask whether the incidence of triploidy across the species range corresponds with latitude, glacial history (as has been documented in other species), climate, or regional variance in clone size. Using a combination of microsatellite genotyping, flow cytometry, and cytology, we demonstrate that triploidy is highest in unglaciated, drought-prone regions of North America, where the largest clone sizes have been reported for this species. While we cannot completely rule out a low incidence of undetected aneuploidy, tetraploidy or duplicated loci, our evidence suggests that these phenomena are unlikely to be significant contributors to our observed patterns. We suggest that the distribution of triploid aspen is due to a positive synergy between triploidy and ecological factors driving clonality. Although triploids are expected to have low fertility, they are hypothesized to be an evolutionary link to sexual tetraploidy. Thus, interactions between clonality and polyploidy may be a broadly important component of geographic speciation patterns in perennial plants. Further, cytotypes are expected to show physiological and structural differences which may influence susceptibility to ecological factors such as drought, and we suggest that cytotype may be a significant and previously overlooked factor in recent patterns of high aspen mortality in the southwestern portion of the species range. Finally, triploidy should be carefully considered as a source of variance in genomic and ecological studies of aspen, particularly in western U.S. landscapes.

  11. Widespread triploidy in Western North American aspen (Populus tremuloides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Mock

    Full Text Available We document high rates of triploidy in aspen (Populus tremuloides across the western USA (up to 69% of genets, and ask whether the incidence of triploidy across the species range corresponds with latitude, glacial history (as has been documented in other species, climate, or regional variance in clone size. Using a combination of microsatellite genotyping, flow cytometry, and cytology, we demonstrate that triploidy is highest in unglaciated, drought-prone regions of North America, where the largest clone sizes have been reported for this species. While we cannot completely rule out a low incidence of undetected aneuploidy, tetraploidy or duplicated loci, our evidence suggests that these phenomena are unlikely to be significant contributors to our observed patterns. We suggest that the distribution of triploid aspen is due to a positive synergy between triploidy and ecological factors driving clonality. Although triploids are expected to have low fertility, they are hypothesized to be an evolutionary link to sexual tetraploidy. Thus, interactions between clonality and polyploidy may be a broadly important component of geographic speciation patterns in perennial plants. Further, cytotypes are expected to show physiological and structural differences which may influence susceptibility to ecological factors such as drought, and we suggest that cytotype may be a significant and previously overlooked factor in recent patterns of high aspen mortality in the southwestern portion of the species range. Finally, triploidy should be carefully considered as a source of variance in genomic and ecological studies of aspen, particularly in western U.S. landscapes.

  12. PREFACE: 1st Nano-IBCT Conference 2011 - Radiation Damage of Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernd A.; Malot, Christiane; Domaracka, Alicja; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    The 1st Nano-IBCT Conference entitled 'Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy' was held in Caen, France, in October 2011. The Meeting was organised in the framework of the COST Action MP1002 (Nano-IBCT) which was launched in December 2010 (http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/nano-ibct). This action aims to promote the understanding of mechanisms and processes underlying the radiation damage of biomolecular systems at the molecular and nanoscopic level and to use the findings to improve the strategy of Ion Beam Cancer Therapy. In the hope of achieving this, participants from different disciplines were invited to represent the fields of physics, biology, medicine and chemistry, and also included those from industry and the operators of hadron therapy centres. Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal healthy tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. Several ion beam cancer therapy clinical centres are now operating in Europe and elsewhere. However, the full potential of such therapy can only be exploited by better understanding the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that lead to cell death under ion irradiation. Considering a range of spatio-temporal scales, the proposed action therefore aims to combine the unique experimental and theoretical expertise available within Europe to acquire greater insight at the nanoscopic and molecular level into radiation damage induced by ion impact. Success in this endeavour will be both an important scientific breakthrough and give great impetus to the practical improvement of this innovative therapeutic technique. Ion therapy potentially provides an important advance in cancer therapy and the COST action MP1002 will be very significant in ensuring Europe's leadership in this field, providing the scientific background, required data and mechanistic insight which

  13. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felip, E; Gridelli, C; Baas, P;

    2011-01-01

    the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer to be addressed through discussion......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before...

  14. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  15. Telomere-binding protein TPP1 modulates telomere homeostasis and confers radioresistance to human colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is one of the major therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment. The telomere-binding protein TPP1 is an important component of the shelterin complex at mammalian telomeres. Our previous reports showed that TPP1 expression was elevated in radioresistant cells, but the exact effects and mechanisms of TPP1 on radiosensitivity is unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we found that elevated TPP1 expression significantly correlated with radioresistance and longer telomere length in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, TPP1 overexpression showed lengthened telomere length and a significant decrease of radiosensitivity to X-rays. TPP1 mediated radioresistance was correlated with a decreased apoptosis rate after IR exposure. Furthermore, TPP1 overexpression showed prolonged G2/M arrest mediated by ATM/ATR-Chk1 signal pathway after IR exposure. Moreover, TPP1 overexpression accelerated the repair kinetics of total DNA damage and telomere dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that elevated expressions of TPP1 in human colorectal cancer cells could protect telomere from DNA damage and confer radioresistance. These results suggested that TPP1 may be a potential target in the radiotherapy of colorectal cancer.

  16. Acquired resistance to dasatinib in lung cancer cell lines conferred by DDR2 gatekeeper mutation and NF1 loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Ellen M; Woods, Brittany A; Dulak, Austin M; Tan, Li; Xu, Chunxiao; Gray, Nathanael S; Bass, Adam J; Wong, Kwok-kin; Meyerson, Matthew; Hammerman, Peter S

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of non-small cell lung cancer has evolved dramatically over the past decade with the adoption of widespread use of effective targeted therapies in patients with distinct molecular alterations. In lung squamous cell carcinoma (lung SqCC), recent studies have suggested that DDR2 mutations are a biomarker for therapeutic response to dasatinib and clinical trials are underway testing this hypothesis. Although targeted therapeutics are typically quite effective as initial therapy for patients with lung cancer, nearly all patients develop resistance with long-term exposure to targeted drugs. Here, we use DDR2-dependent lung cancer cell lines to model acquired resistance to dasatinib therapy. We perform targeted exome sequencing to identify two distinct mechanisms of acquired resistance: acquisition of the T654I gatekeeper mutation in DDR2 and loss of NF1. We show that NF1 loss activates a bypass pathway, which confers ERK dependency downstream of RAS activation. These results indicate that acquired resistance to dasatinib can occur via both second-site mutations in DDR2 and by activation of bypass pathways. These data may help to anticipate mechanisms of resistance that may be identified in upcoming clinical trials of anti-DDR2 therapy in lung cancer and suggest strategies to overcome resistance.

  17. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colorectal cancer clinical management: the pathologists expert review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirke, P.; West, N.P.; Nagtegaal, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20 years; however, a considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore,

  18. Polymorphism of FGFR4 Gly388Arg does not confer an increased risk to breast cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R; Har, Y C; Taib, N A

    2009-01-01

    The genotype analysis of the Gly and Arg allele at codon 388 of fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) gene was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in a hospital-based Malaysian population. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 387 breast cancer patients and 252 normal and healthy women who had no history of any malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and breast cancer risk as well as clinicopathological parameters of the patients. The Gly/Gly, Gly/Arg, Arg/Arg, and Arg allele genotypes were detected in 46.3%, 44.4%, 9.3%, and 53.7% of breast cancer cases, respectively. The distribution of genotype (p = 0.204) and allele (p = 0.086) frequencies of FGFR4 polymorphism were not significantly different between the breast cancer cases and normal individuals. Women who were Arg/ Arg homozygotes (OR = 1.714, 95% CI 0.896-3.278), Gly/Arg heterozygotes (OR = 1.205, 95% CI 0.863-1.683), carriers of Arg allele genotype (OR = 1.269, 95% CI 0.921-1.750), or Arg allele (OR = 1.246, 95% CI 0.970-1.602) were not associated with breast cancer risk. The Arg allele genotype was significantly associated with lymph node metastases (p = 0.001) but not with other clinicopathological parameters. Our findings suggest that the polymorphic variant at codon 388 of FGFR4 gene does not confer increased risk to breast cancer development but it may be a potential genetic marker for tumor prognosis.

  19. Nutritional links to plausible mechanisms underlying pancreatic cancer: a conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, R Jean; Srivastava, Sudhir; Milner, John A; Ross, Sharon A

    2003-11-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is one of most catastrophic and least understood of cancers. Evidence from clinical studies indicates that the development of pancreas cancer progresses over many years before symptoms appear. Most people with pancreatic cancer die within six months of diagnosis. The lack of early disease markers, the paucity of direct subject/patient interview data and limited availability of high quality biological samples have slowed progress toward identifying environmental and genetic disease risk factors. Much remains to be learned about the development of pancreatic cancer and about potential interventions for disease prevention. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies examining risk factors for pancreatic cancer supply little consistent or strong evidence to provide a cohesive prevention strategy for this cancer, but offer clues for future research concerning the prevention and early detection of this devastating disease. This Executive Summary provides background discussion on pancreatic cancer and summaries of each of the topics discussed at the workshop, including 1) Molecular aspects, 2) Dietary and other risk factors for pancreatic cancer, 3) The metabolic hypothesis for pancreatic cancer, 4) Preclinical studies on pancreatic cancer, 5) Methylation, 6) Oxidative stress and 7) Biomarker Profiling. This document also contains a compilation of recommendations for future research, concluding remarks, a list of speakers and participants attending the workshop, and a selection of key references to aid future research into nutritional links to mechanisms underlying pancreas cancer. The recommendations section suggests gaps in current knowledge and articulates future directions for this area of investigation.

  20. Quantifying the consequences of conifer succession in aspen stands: decline in a biodiversity-supporting community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, S A; O'Geen, A T; Whiting, M L; Sarr, D A; Tate, K W

    2013-07-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) stands are important for biodiversity in conifer-dominated forest landscapes. Our goal was to quantify the consequences of conifer succession on understory diversity and litter quality, as well as associated changes in aspen stand condition. We studied aspen stands on national park land in the transition zone between the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade mountain ranges. We field-measured ten metrics of aspen stand condition in 29 aspen stands. Along a gradient of increasing current conifer cover, we observed decreases in herbaceous species diversity and richness and an increase in forest floor O horizon depth. We interpreted aerial photos from 1952 and 1998 to determine whether directional changes in conifer cover had occurred in the stands over the past half century, and used regression modeling to associate succession with the observed range of aspen stand condition. From the period 1952 to 1998, we found that conifer encroachment occurred in half the sampled stands, with an average increase in conifer cover of 1% a year. Aspen were persistent in the remaining stands. Stand cover dynamics and percent total canopy cover interacted to influence species richness, diversity, aspen sprouting, and litter quality. In stands with conifer encroachment, both understory species richness and diversity declined. Although aspen sprouting increased, aspen establishment declined and the relative mass of woody to fine soil litter increased.

  1. aspenONE先进控制和优化集成解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺建敏

    2006-01-01

    Aspen DMCplus多变量模型预估先进过程控制系统、Aspen Apollo非线性多变量模型预估先进过程控制系统、Aspen Plus Optimizer闭环实时优化系统、Aspen Blend油品调合多变量先进过程控制与优化系统、Aspen Watch在线监控系统、Aspen IQmodel Powertools软仪表系统,以及Aspen SmartStep智能化的控制器维护系统等构成了AspenTech的aspenONE先进过程控制和优化集成解决方案(见图1)。AspenTech的多变量模型预估控制技术与智能化的控制器维护系统和在线监控系统相结合,

  2. Mission-Driven Media: Not Just Survival, but Success. A Report of the Aspen Institute Forum on Diversity and the Media (Aspen, Colorado, July 11-14, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Titus

    This report of the Aspen Institute Forum on Diversity and the Media, supported and funded by the Ford Foundation, is not a typical Aspen Institute forum report. It explores an issue--the sustainability of mission-driven media--and through this discussion becomes a kind of resource guide for managers and others who desire to preserve and promote…

  3. "US-JAPAN CONFERENCE: INFLAMMATION, DIABETES AND CANCER" held at the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Lin, Ren-Jang; Jove, Richard

    2011-12-01

    The conference was held to facilitate research collaborations between US and Japan scientists, and to commemorate the rich history of the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope (COH) research contributed by many Japanese doctors. Most noticeable is Dr. Ryojun Kinoshita, an internationally renowned oncologist who built the first research team at the campus of COH Medical Center in 1952. The conference received enthusiastic support from Junichi Ihara, Consul General of Japan, Los Angeles. During the two day conference, seven scientists from Japan, six scientists from Southern California, and six scientists from COH presented various aspects of cancer and diabetes research which included nuclear receptor regulation, DNA base and chromatin modifications, cancer glycosylation, circadian clock, cell polarity, tumorigenesis, micro and small RNA therapies, genomics, epigenetics, and signaling.

  4. The Application of Aspen Plus Simulation in Fluorine Chemistry%Aspen Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛姬; 田端正; 吴江平; 张建君

    2011-01-01

    Aspen Plus is a large-scale process simulation system which is used universally in producing equipment design,steady-state simulation and optimization.Many famous engineering and manufacturing companies of chemical engineering,petro-chemical industry and%Aspen Plus是生产装置设计、稳态模拟和优化的大型通用流程模拟系统。全球各大化工、石化、炼油等过程工业制造企业及著名的工程公司都是Aspen Plus的用户。举例介绍了Aspen Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用,分析可能存在的困难,并展望Aspen Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用前景。

  5. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 2: T2 substaging and prostate cancer volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwast, T.H. van der; Amin, M.B.; Billis, A.; Epstein, J.I.; Griffiths, D.; Humphrey, P.A.; Montironi, R.; Wheeler, T.M.; Srigley, J.R.; Egevad, L.; Delahunt, B.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the substaging of pT2 prostate cancers according to the TNM 2002/2010 system, reporti

  6. Experts reviews of the multidisciplinary consensus conference colon and rectal cancer 2012 : Science, opinions and experiences from the experts of surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, C. J. H.; Boelens, P. G.; Tanis, P. J.; Espin, E.; Mroczkowski, P.; Naredi, P.; Pahlman, L.; Ortiz, H.; Rutten, H. J.; Breugom, A. J.; Smith, J. J.; Wibe, A.; Wiggers, T.; Valentini, V.

    2014-01-01

    The first multidisciplinary consensus conference on colon and rectal cancer was held in December 2012, achieving a majority of consensus for diagnostic and treatment decisions using the Delphi Method. This article will give a critical appraisal of the topics discussed during the meeting and in the c

  7. Stand Composition, Tree Proximity and Size Have Minimal Effects on Leaf Function of Coexisting Aspen and Subalpine Fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Aaron C; Barney, Trevor; St Clair, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    Forest structural heterogeneity due to species composition, spatial relationships and tree size are widely studied patterns in forest systems, but their impacts on tree function are not as well documented. The objective of this study was to examine how stand composition, tree proximity relationships and tree size influence the leaf functional traits of aspen, an early successional species, and subalpine fir, a climax species. We measured foliar nutrients, nonstructural carbohydrates (aspen only), defense chemistry and xylem water potential of aspen and subalpine fir trees in three size classes growing in close proximity or independently from other trees under three stand conditions: aspen dominant, aspen-conifer mixed, and conifer dominant stands. Close proximity of subalpine fir to aspen reduced aspen's storage of starch in foliar tissue by 17% suggesting that competition between these species may have small effects on carbon metabolism in aspen leaves. Simple sugar (glucose + sucrose) concentrations in aspen leaves were slightly higher in larger aspen trees than smaller trees. However, no differences were found in stem water potential, foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, or secondary defense chemicals of aspen or subalpine fir across the gradients of stand composition, tree proximity or tree size. These results suggest that mechanisms of coexistence allow both aspen and subalpine fir to maintain leaf function across a wide range of stand structural characteristics. For aspen, resource sharing through its clonal root system and high resource storage capacity may partially contribute to its functional stability in mixed aspen-conifer stands.

  8. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  9. Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Kubiske, Mark E; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2008-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure and hence forest water use, which has implications for climate feedbacks. We investigated how a 40% increase above ambient values in [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, affect tree water use of pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests in the free air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). Measurements of sap flux and canopy leaf area index (L) were made during two growing seasons, when steady-state L had been reached after more than 6 years of exposure to elevated [CO2] and [O3]. Maximum stand-level sap flux was not significantly affected by elevated [O3], but was increased by 18% by elevated [CO2] averaged across years, communities and O(3) regimes. Treatment effects were similar in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. Increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] was related to positive CO2 treatment effects on tree size and L (+40%). Tree water use was not reduced by elevated [O3] despite strong negative O3 treatment effects on tree size and L (-22%). Elevated [O3] predisposed pure aspen stands to drought-induced sap flux reductions, whereas increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] did not result in lower soil water content in the upper soil or decreasing sap flux relative to control values during dry periods. Maintenance of soil water content in the upper soil in the elevated [CO2] treatment was at least partly a function of enhanced soil water-holding capacity, probably a result of increased organic matter content from increased litter inputs. Our findings that larger trees growing in elevated [CO2] used more water and that tree size, but not maximal water use, was negatively affected by elevated [O3] suggest that the long-term cumulative effects on stand structure may be more important than the expected primary stomatal closure responses to

  10. Reconciling divergent interpretations of quaking aspen decline on the northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashian, Daniel M; Romme, William H; Regan, Claudia M

    2007-07-01

    Ecologists have debated over the past 65 years whether quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) has or has not declined in abundance, vigor, or regeneration in western North America. Many studies have provided divergent interpretations of the condition of aspen forests, leading to difficulty in translating this ecological information into management recommendations. To reconcile these contrasting conclusions and to test the hypothesis that multiple types of aspen decline and persistence occur simultaneously on heterogeneous landscapes, we assessed 91 aspen stands across the northern Colorado Front Range to determine the range of ecological conditions that underlie aspen decline or persistence. Approximately 15% of aspen forest area in our sample exhibited dieback of mature stems coupled with a lack of young trees indicative of declining stands, most often at lower elevations where elk browsing is heavy and chronic, and where effects of fire exclusion have been most significant. However, 52% of the area sampled had multiple cohorts indicative of self-replacing or persistent stands. Conifer dominance was increasing in over 33% of all aspen forest area sampled, most often at high elevations among lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Englem. ex Wats.) forests. Reconstructions of relative basal area and density of aspen and lodgepole pine in these stands suggest cyclical dominance of these species, where conifers gradually replace aspen over long fire intervals, and aspen vigorously re-establish following stand-replacing fires. The diversity of ecological contexts across the northern Colorado Front Range creates a variety of aspen dynamics leading to decline or persistence, and no single trend describes the general condition of aspen forests in appropriate detail for managers. Active management may be useful in preserving individual stands at fine scales, but management prescriptions should reflect specific drivers of decline in these stands.

  11. Analysis of Cryogenic Cycle with Process Modeling Tool: Aspen HYSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. M.; Patel, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Cryogenic engineering deals with the development and improvement of low temperature techniques, processes and equipment. A process simulator such as Aspen HYSYS, for the design, analysis, and optimization of process plants, has features that accommodate the special requirements and therefore can be used to simulate most cryogenic liquefaction and refrigeration processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Cryogenic processes require special attention in terms of the integration of various components like heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson Valve, Turbo expander and Compressor. Here, Aspen HYSYS, a process modeling tool, is used to understand the behavior of the complete plant. This paper presents the analysis of an air liquefaction plant based on the Linde cryogenic cycle, performed using the Aspen HYSYS process modeling tool. It covers the technique used to find the optimum values for getting the maximum liquefaction of the plant considering different constraints of other parameters. The analysis result so obtained gives clear idea in deciding various parameter values before implementation of the actual plant in the field. It also gives an idea about the productivity and profitability of the given configuration plant which leads to the design of an efficient productive plant.

  12. PERACETIC ACID PRETREATMENT OF ALFALFA STEM AND ASPEN BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa stems and ground aspen were exposed to peracetic acid (0.5 to 9% on biomass at temperatures ranging from 40 to 100° C and reaction times from 1 to 5 hours. Glucose release as a percentage of total cellulose content was determined using subsequent standard enzymatic hydrolysis. Statistical analysis confirmed that aspen showed a strong response to peracetic acid addition rate. 9% peracetic acid removed 14% of the original lignin and increased the rate of glucose release from 23% to 44%. Temperature and reaction time played a less significant role. For alfalfa stems, low levels of peractic acid (0.5% increased glucose release from 30 to 47%. The addition of larger doses of peracetic acid did not show any significant improvement; this effect appears to be closely related to rate of lignin removal. While peracetic acid effectively removed lignin from aspen, 98% of the original lignin was still present in alfalfa after higher level peracetic acid treatments; the yield loss observed during pretreatment of alfalfa stems originates from other biomass components.

  13. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  14. Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells confer drug resistance in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Jianguo; Yuan, Xiao; Yan, Yongmin; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2015-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in chemoresistance. Exosomes have been reported to modify cellular phenotype and function by mediating cell-cell communication. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether exosomes derived from MSCs (MSC-exosomes) are involved in mediating the resistance to chemotherapy in gastric cancer and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. We found that MSC-exosomes significantly induced the resistance of gastric cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil both in vivo and ex vivo. MSC-exosomes antagonized 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis and enhanced the expression of multi-drug resistance associated proteins, including MDR, MRP and LRP. Mechanistically, MSC-exosomes triggered the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM-Ks) and Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade in gastric cancer cells. Blocking the CaM-Ks/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway inhibited the promoting role of MSC-exosomes in chemoresistance. Collectively, MSC-exosomes could induce drug resistance in gastric cancer cells by activating CaM-Ks/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. Our findings suggest that MSC-exosomes have profound effects on modifying gastric cancer cells in the development of drug resistance. Targeting the interaction between MSC-exosomes and cancer cells may help improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in gastric cancer.

  15. Conditions for NIR fluorescence-guided tumor resectioning in preclinical lung cancer model (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Quan, Yuhua; Choi, Byeong Hyun; Choi, Yeonho; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary nodule could be identified by intraoperative fluorescence imaging system from systemic injection of indocyanine green (ICG) which achieves enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. This study was performed to evaluate optimal injection time of ICG for detecting cancer during surgery in rabbit lung cancer model. VX2 carcinoma cell was injected in rabbit lung under fluoroscopic computed tomography-guidance. Solitary lung cancer was confirmed on positron emitting tomography with CT (PET/CT) 2 weeks after inoculation. ICG was administered intravenously and fluorescent intensity of lung tumor was measured using the custom-built intraoperative color and fluorescence merged imaging system (ICFIS) for 15 hours. Solitary lung cancer was resected through thoracoscopic version of ICFIS. ICG was observed in all animals. Because Lung has fast blood pulmonary circulation, Fluorescent signal showed maximum intensity earlier than previous studies in other organs. Fluorescent intensity showed maximum intensity within 6-9 hours in rabbit lung cancer. Overall, Fluorescent intensity decreased with increasing time, however, all tumors were detectable using fluorescent images until 12 hours. In conclusion, while there had been studies in other organs showed that optimal injection time was at least 24 hours before operation, this study showed shorter optimal injection time at lung cancer. Since fluorescent signal showed the maximum intensity within 6-9 hours, cancer resection could be performed during this time. This data informed us that optimal injection time of ICG should be evaluated in each different solid organ tumor for fluorescent image guided surgery.

  16. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colon & rectal cancer multidisciplinary management: the radiology experts review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudyka, V; Blomqvist, L; Beets-Tan, R G H; Boelens, P G; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J; Dieguez, A; Brown, G

    2014-04-01

    Some interesting shifts have taken place in the diagnostic approach for detection of colorectal lesions over the past decade. This article accompanies the recent EURECCA consensus group reccomendations for optimal management of colon and rectal cancers. In summary, imaging has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis, staging assessment and follow up of patients with colon and rectal cancer. Recent advances include the use of CT colonography instead of Barium Enema in the diagnosis of colonoic cancer and as an alternative to colonoscopy. Modern mutlidetector CT scanning techniques have also shown improvements in prognostic stratification of patients with colonic cancer and clinical trials are underway testing the selective use of neoadjuvant therapy for imaging identified high risk colon cancers. In rectal cancer, high resolution MRI with a voxel size less or equal to 3 × 1 × 1 mm3 on T2-weighted images has a proven ability to accurately stage patients with rectal cancer. Moreover, preoperative identification of prognostic features allows stratification of patients into different prognostic groups based on assessment of depth of extramural spread, relationship of the tumour edge to the mesorectal fascia (MRF) and extramural venous invasion (EMVI). These poor prognostic features predict an increased risk of local recurrence and/or metastatic disease and should form the basis for preoperative local staging and multidisciplinary preoperative discussion of patient treatment options.

  17. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  18. The Multidisciplinary Team Conference's Decision on M-Staging in Patients with Gastric- and Gastroesophageal Cancer is not Accurate without Staging Laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandby, Rune Broni; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Fallentin, E.

    2016-01-01

    in the period 2010-2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient data were retrieved by searching for specific diagnosis and operation codes in the in-house system. The inclusion criteria were as follows: biopsy-verified cancer of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction or stomach, and no suspicion of peritoneal......BACKGROUND: The implementation of the multidisciplinary team conference has been shown to improve treatment outcome for patients with gastric- and gastroesophageal cancer. Likewise, the staging laparoscopy has increased the detection of patients with disseminated disease, that is, patients who do...... carcinomatosis or liver metastases on multidisciplinary team conference before staging laparoscopy. Furthermore, an evaluation with staging laparoscopy was required. RESULTS: In total, 222 patients met the inclusion criteria. Most cancers were located in the gastroesophageal junction, n = 171 (77.0%), and most...

  19. The 8th international symposium on the breast: Using next-generation science to understand the normal breast and the development of breast cancer- conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberawalla, Ameer; Love, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation is committed to performing and advancing research that will lead to the discovery of what causes cancer to develop in the human breast. As part of this effort, the Foundation hosted the 8th International Symposium on the Breast in Santa Monica, Calif., Feb. 19 to Feb. 21, 2015. More than 120 forward-thinking clinical researchers, epidemiologists, pathologists, basic scientists, translational investigators, and breast cancer advocates from six countries attended this year's conference, "Using Next Generation Science to Understand the Normal Breast and the Development of Cancer." The highlights from this year's symposium are summarized in this report.

  20. Disulfide-crosslinked nanomicelles confer cancer-specific drug delivery and improve efficacy of paclitaxel in bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Amy; Zhang, Hongyong; Li, Yuanpei; Lin, Tzu-yin; Wang, Fuli; Lee, Joyce; Cheng, Mingshan; Dall'Era, Marc; Li, Tianhong; deVere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-Xian; Lam, Kit S.

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy commonly used in the treatment of advanced bladder cancer is only moderately effective and associated with significant toxicity. There has been no appreciable improvement in overall survival over the last three decades. The goal of this project is to develop and characterize bladder cancer-specific nanometer-scale micelles loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX) and determine the anti-tumor activity and toxicity. Micelle-building-material telodendrimers were synthesized through the stepwise conjugation of eight cholic acid units at one terminus of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and a bladder cancer-specific targeting peptide named PLZ4 at the other terminus. To synthesize disulfide-crosslinked PLZ4 nanomicelles (DC-PNM), cysteine was introduced between the cholic acid and PEG. DC-PNM-PTX was synthesized through the evaporation method by loading PTX in the core. The loading capacity of PTX in DC-PNM was 25% (W/W). The loading efficiency was over 99%. DC-PNM-PTX was spherical with the median size of 25 nm. The stability of DC-PNM-PTX was determined in a solution containing sodium docecyl sulfate (SDS). It was stable in a SDS solution, but dissolved within 5 min after the addition of glutathione at the physiological intracellular concentration of 10 mM. In vivo targeting and anti-tumor activity were determined in immunodeficient mice carrying patient-derived bladder cancer xenografts (PDXs). After intravenous administration, DC-PNM specifically targeted the bladder cancer PDXs, but very little to the lung cancer xenografts in the same mice (p cancer xenografts in vivo, and improved the anti-cancer efficacy of PTX.

  1. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Claßen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germá Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J. T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Winter, C.; Wittekind, C.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377–1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478–496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497–513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements. PMID:23152360

  2. Design and simulation of heat exchangers using Aspen HYSYS, and Aspen exchanger design and rating for paddy drying application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Kamin, N. H.; Wong, K. H.; Tham, H. J.; Kong, V. V.; Farajpourlar, M.

    2016-06-01

    Air heating unit is one of the most important parts in paddy drying to ensure the efficiency of a drying process. In addition, an optimized air heating unit does not only promise a good paddy quality, but also save more for the operating cost. This study determined the suitable and best specifications heating unit to heat air for paddy drying in the LAMB dryer. In this study, Aspen HYSYS v7.3 was used to obtain the minimum flow rate of hot water needed. The resulting data obtained from Aspen HYSYS v7.3 were used in Aspen Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) to generate heat exchanger design and costs. The designs include shell and tubes and plate heat exchanger. The heat exchanger was designed in order to produce various drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C of air with different flow rate, 300, 2500 and 5000 LPM. The optimum condition for the heat exchanger were found to be plate heat exchanger with 0.6 mm plate thickness, 198.75 mm plate width, 554.8 mm plate length and 11 numbers of plates operating at 5000 LPM air flow rate.

  3. Upregulated, 7q21-22 amplicon candidate gene SHFM1 confers oncogenic advantage by suppressing p53 function in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilzhalagan, Sembulingam; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi; Periasamy, Jayaprakash; Lee, Ming Hui; Rha, Sun Young; Tan, Patrick; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2015-06-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are hallmarks of cancers and the locus of frequent genomic amplifications often harbors key cancer driver genes. Many genomic amplicons remain larger with hundreds of genes and the key drivers remain to be identified by an amplification-wide systematic analysis. The 7q21.12-q22.3 genomic amplification is frequent in gastric cancers which occur in ~10% of the patients and multiple cell lines. This 7q21.12-q22.3 amplicon has not yet been completely analyzed towards identifying the driver genes and their functional contribution in oncogenesis. The amplitude and prevalence indicate the important role conferred by this amplicon in gastric cancers. Among the 159 genes of this amplicon, 12 genes are found over-expressed in primary gastric tumors and cell lines. Many of the over-expressed genes show negative association with p53 transcriptional activity. RNAi based functional screening of the genes reveal, SHFM1 as key gastric cancer driver gene. SHFM1 confers cell cycle progression and resistance to p53 stabilizing drugs in gastric cancer cells. SHFM1 also activates Src, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. This is the first integrative genomic investigation of 7q21.12-q22.3 amplicon revealing the potential oncogenic candidacy of 12 genes. The oncogenic contribution of SHFM1, mediated by the p53 suppressive feature has been demonstrated in gastric cancer cells.

  4. The MTAP-CDKN2A Locus Confers Susceptibility to a Naturally Occurring Canine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearin, Abigail L.; Hedan, Benoit; Cadieu, Edouard; Erich, Suzanne A.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Faden, Daniel L.; Cullen, John; Abadie, Jerome; Kwon, Erika M.; Gröne, Andrea; Devauchelle, Patrick; Rimbault, Maud; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Lynch, Mary; Galibert, Francis; Breen, Matthew; Rutteman, Gerard R.; André, Catherine; Parker, Heidi G.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Advantages offered by canine population substructure, combined with clinical presentations similar to human disorders, makes the dog an attractive system for studies of cancer genetics. Cancers that have been difficult to study in human families or populations are of particular interest. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15–25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD). Methods Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected BMD in North America (NA) and Europe. Both independent and combined genome wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify cancer-associated loci. Fine mapping and sequencing narrowed the primary locus to a single gene region. Results Both populations shared the same primary locus, which features a single haplotype spanning MTAP and part of CDKN2A and is present in 96% of affected BMD. The haplotype is within the region homologous to human chromosome 9p21, which has been implicated in several types of cancer. Conclusions We present the first GWAS for HS in any species. The data identify an associated haplotype in the highly cited tumor suppressor locus near CDKN2A. These data demonstrate the power of studying distinctive malignancies in highly predisposed dog breeds. Impact Here, we establish a naturally-occurring model of cancer susceptibility due to CDKN2 dysregulation, thus providing insight regarding this cancer-associated, complex, and poorly understood genomic region. PMID:22623710

  5. Repurposing of tetracyclines to overcome resistance pathways associated with photochemotherapy in cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Joyce; Huang, Huang-Chiao; Rizvi, Imran; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Given the consistently poor prognoses for some of the most difficult-to-treat cancers, rapidly translatable treatment regimens that offer improvements in outcomes are much needed. The repurposing of FDA approved non-cancer drugs presents an opportunity to design clinically feasible, novel combinations of therapies with a mechanistic rationale, to overcome resistance and survival pathways that render many current treatments ineffective. Tetracyclines are a class of antibiotics that demonstrate potential for such repurposing, as they have also been shown by others to affect a wide range of targets in cancer. Notably, the unique structure of tetracyclines allows them to act through both light activated and non-light mediated mechanisms. While light activation of tetracyclines can result in singlet oxygen production, their non-light mediated targets include inhibition of DNA repair enzymes and modulation of hypoxia-inducible markers, among others. With these mechanisms in mind, we seek to elucidate the benefit of including tetracyclines as part of an already promising, mechanistically cooperative photochemotherapy combination for ovarian cancer. In ovarian cancer, the dismal rates of recurrence and survival associated with the aggressive disease further emphasize the need to mechanistically reinforce treatments regimens. Thus, the results will highlight insights into the cooperative effect of repurposed tetracyclines on treatment response and molecular markers, both in vitro and in a challenging mouse model of disseminated ovarian cancer.

  6. Beclin 1 and UVRAG confer protection from radiation-induced DNA damage and maintain centrosome stability in colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Myung Park

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 interacts with UV-irradiation-resistance-associated gene (UVRAG to form core complexes that induce autophagy. While cells with defective autophagy are prone to genomic instability that contributes to tumorigenesis, it is unknown whether Beclin1 or UVRAG can regulate the DNA damage/repair response to cancer treatment in established tumor cells. We found that siRNA knockdown of Beclin 1 or UVRAG can increase radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs, shown by pATM and γH2Ax, and promote colorectal cancer cell death. Furthermore, knockdown of Beclin 1, UVRAG or ATG5 increased the percentage of irradiated cells with nuclear foci expressing 53BP1, a marker of nonhomologous end joining but not RAD51 (homologous recombination, compared to control siRNA. Beclin 1 siRNA was shown to attenuate UVRAG expression. Cells with a UVRAG deletion mutant defective in Beclin 1 binding showed increased radiation-induced DSBs and cell death compared to cells with ectopic wild-type UVRAG. Knockdown of Beclin 1 or UVRAG, but not ATG5, resulted in a significant increase in centrosome number (γ-tubulin staining in irradiated cells compared to control siRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that Beclin 1 and UVRAG confer protection against radiation-induced DNA DSBs and may maintain centrosome stability in established tumor cells.

  7. Increased radiosensitivity as an indicator of genes conferring breast cancer susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, D.; Kreienberg, R.; Deissler, H.; Sauer, G. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. of Ulm Medical School (Germany); Vogel, W.; Bender, A.; Surowy, H.; Maier, C. [Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Ulm Medical School (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: This paper briefly summarizes the research on increased radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients measured by the micronucleus test (MNT) and its association to genetic variants in DNA repair genes. More preliminary data are presented on the distribution of chromosomes and chromosome fragments in micronuclei (MN) in order to gain more information on clastogenic and aneugenic effects and better understand the phenotype of increased radiosensitivity. Material and Methods: Reports of relevant studies obtained from a search of PubMed and studies referenced in those reports were reviewed. In four patients with high MN frequency (three cancer patients, one control) and four probands with low MN frequency, the presence of chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes in MN was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for chromosomes 1, 7, and 17. Results: An increased MN frequency in breast cancer patients compared to controls has consistently been reported with high significance. Higher MN frequencies were observed in 20-50% of breast cancer patients. Chromosomal fragments of chromosome 17, but not of chromosomes 1 and 7 were more frequent in the probands with high MN frequency than in those with low frequency (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The MNT detects a cellular phenotype common to a portion of sporadic breast cancer patients. This phenotype is very likely to be genetically determined. For the genetic dissection of breast cancer susceptibility this phenotype may turn out to be more efficient than breast cancer itself. Additional parameters which can be measured simultaneously with the MN frequency may be able to further enhance its usefulness. (orig.)

  8. Aspen Plus在循环冷却水系统中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus in Circulating Cooling Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽华; 李波

    2016-01-01

    Aspen Plus是一个生产装置设计、稳态模拟和优化的大型通用流程模拟系统.基于此,综述Aspen Plus在换热网络中的应用,并且利用Aspen Plus模拟了换热器的换热过程,同时也模拟了污垢对换热器的影响,为优化循环冷却水系统提供了一种新的方法.

  9. Aspen Plus软件在烟气脱硫系统中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus Software in Flue Gas Desulfuration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂兵; 缪明烽; 卢作基

    2011-01-01

    介绍了Aspen Plus软件的概况,系统地阐述了Aspen Plus在湿法脱硫工艺系统中应用,详细介绍了Aspen Plus在湿法脱硫FGD系统中的吸收塔、换热器、泵等关键设备设计,开发、选型中的应用,以及模型分析工具在工艺参数优化、降低工程造价中的应用.

  10. Recovering aspen follow changing elk dynamics in Yellowstone: evidence of a trophic cascade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Luke E; Beschta, Robert L; Larsen, Eric J; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the extent and causes of recent quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment in northern Yellowstone National Park, we measured browsing intensity and height of young aspen in 87 randomly selected aspen stands in 2012, and compared our results to similar data collected in 1997-1998. We also examined the relationship between aspen recovery and the distribution of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) on the Yellowstone northern ungulate winter range, using ungulate fecal pile densities and annual elk count data. In 1998, 90% of young aspen were browsed and none were taller-than 200 cm, the height at which aspen begin to escape from elk browsing. In 2012, only 37% in the east and 63% in the west portions of the winter range were browsed, and 65% of stands in the east had young aspen taller than 200 cm. Heights of young aspen were inversely related to browsing intensity, with the least browsing and greatest heights in the eastern portion of the range, corresponding with recent changes in elk density and distribution. In contrast with historical elk distribution (1930s-1990s), the greatest densities of elk recently (2006-2012) have been north of the park boundary (approximately 5 elk/km2), and in the western part of the range (2-4 elk/km2), with relatively few elk in the eastern portion of the range (aspen stands have begun to recover. Increased predation pressure following the reintroduction of gray wolves (Canis lupius) in 1995-1996 played a role in these changing elk population dynamics, interacting with other influences including increased predation by bears (Ursus spp.), competition with an expanding bison population, and shifting patterns of human land use and hunting outside the park. The resulting new aspen recruitment is evidence of a landscape-scale trophic cascade in which a resurgent large carnivore community, combined with other ecological changes, has benefited aspen through effects on ungulate prey.

  11. RON confers lapatinib resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanren; Quan, Haitian; Zhao, Jie; Xie, Chengying; Wang, Lei; Lou, Liguang

    2013-10-28

    Lapatinib-resistance is a major problem for HER2-positive breast cancer treatment. SK-BR-3-LR, a lapatinib-resistant cell clone, was established from HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells following chronic exposure to lapatinib. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was demonstrated to be resistant to HER2 inhibition in SK-BR-3-LR cells. However, both small-molecular Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON) inhibitors and RON-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively restored lapatinib sensitivity in these cells by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time the important role of RON in mediating lapatinib resistance and suggest that RON-targeted therapy may become a novel, promising therapeutic strategy after the failure of lapatinib treatment in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  12. Preanalytical considerations in detection of colorectal cancer in blood serum using Raman molecular imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treado, Patrick J.; Stewart, Shona D.; Smith, Aaron; Kirschner, Heather; Post, Christopher; Overholt, Bergein F.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women in the United States. Raman Molecular Imaging (RMI) is an effective technique to evaluate human tissue, cells and bodily fluids, including blood serum for disease diagnosis. ChemImage Corporation, in collaboration with clinicians, has been engaged in development of an in vitro diagnostic Raman assay focused on CRC detection. The Raman Assay for Colorectal Cancer (RACC) exploits the high specificity of Raman imaging to distinguish diseased from normal dried blood serum droplets without additional reagents. Pilot Study results from testing of hundreds of biobank patient samples have demonstrated that RACC detects CRC with high sensitivity and specificity. However, expanded clinical trials, which are ongoing, are revealing a host of important preanalytical considerations associated with sample collection, sample storage and stability, sample shipping, sample preparation and sample interferents, which impact detection performance. Results from recent clinical studies will be presented.

  13. [Consensus Meeting of the 9th International Conference on Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer (St. Gall, January 26-29, 2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thürlimann, B; Senn, H J

    2005-06-01

    More than 4,000 participants attended the congress and the consensus conference 2005, an increase of more than 1,000 participants. The conference had 2 highlights. (1) The presentation of the first results of the study BIG 1-98 -- letrozole as adjuvant, endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer -- showed a relative risk reduction in the disease-free survival of 19% when compared to tamoxifen. (2) The consensus conference adopted 2 new relevant developments: endocrine responsiveness as criterion for both chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. The newly introduced electronic voting system allowed the audience to observe the forming of the panelists' opinions on more than 100 predefined questions.

  14. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-01-01

    Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed desc...

  15. Advances in caring for the older cancer patient:a report from the 2015 conference of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rob Stepney

    2016-01-01

    A paradox in cancer research is that the majority of patients enrolled in clinical trials are relatively young and fit while typical patients in daily practice are elderly and have comorbidities and impaired organ function. Given these differences, many major studies provide an imperfect guide to optimizing the treatment of the majority of patients. Since cancer incidence is highly correlated with age, and since the world's population is rapidly ageing, this problem can only increase. For this reason, oncologists and geriatricians need to collaborate in developing tools to systematically assess the health status of elderly patients and their fitness to receive cancer therapies of various intensity. Tailoring anti-cancer treatments and supportive care to individual needs should be seen as part of the move towards personalized medicine. Achieving this goal is as much of a challenge to developing and middle-income countries as it is to western nations. The 2015 annual conference of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) held in Prague, Czech Republic, November 2015 and had a global focus on advancing the science of geriatric oncology and supportive care. Central to this approach is the systematic assessment of life expectancy, independent functioning, and the physical and psychological health of older cancer patients. The assumption behind comprehensive geriatric assessment is that elderly cancer patients have complex needs. The implication is that effective intervention will require a multidisciplinary team. Examples of effective geriatric assessment, multidisciplinary working and supportive care were presented at the SIOG conference.

  16. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ho Young [Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Manbok [Department of Medical Science, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells.

  17. Detection of esophageal cancer cell by photoelectrochemical Cu2O/ZnO biosensor (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Hsin; Chu, Cheng-Hsun; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Tsiang, Raymond Chien-Chao; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated a Cu2O/ZnO nanorods (NRs) array p-n heterostructures photoelectrochemical biosensor. The electrodeposition of Cu2O at pH 12 acquired the preferably (111) lattice planes, resulting in the largest interfacial electric field between Cu2O and ZnO, which finally led to the highest separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. High verticality ZnO nanorods by seed layer and thermal annealing assist the hydrothermal growth. The optimized Cu2O/ZnO NRs array p-n heterostructures exhibited enhanced PEC performance, such as elevated photocurrent and photoconversion efficiency, as well as excellent sensing performance for the sensitive detection of four strains of different races and different degree of cancer cell which made the device self-powered. We got spectral response characteristics and operating wavelength range of biosensor, and to verify the biological characteristics of cancer cells wafer react with different stages of cancer characterized by a cancer measured reaction experiment.

  18. ETV1 directs androgen metabolism and confers aggressive prostate cancer in targeted mice and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Esther; Shao, Zhen; Linn, Douglas E; Glass, Kimberly; Hamblen, Melanie J; Fujiwara, Yuko; Kim, Jonghwan; Nguyen, Minh; Zhang, Xin; Godinho, Frank J; Bronson, Roderick T; Mucci, Lorelei A; Loda, Massimo; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H; Li, Zhe

    2013-03-15

    Distinguishing aggressive from indolent disease and developing effective therapy for advanced disease are the major challenges in prostate cancer research. Chromosomal rearrangements involving ETS transcription factors, such as ERG and ETV1, occur frequently in prostate cancer. How they contribute to tumorigenesis and whether they play similar or distinct in vivo roles remain elusive. Here we show that in mice with ERG or ETV1 targeted to the endogenous Tmprss2 locus, either factor cooperated with loss of a single copy of Pten, leading to localized cancer, but only ETV1 appeared to support development of invasive adenocarcinoma under the background of full Pten loss. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that ERG and ETV1 control a common transcriptional network but largely in an opposing fashion. In particular, while ERG negatively regulates the androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional program, ETV1 cooperates with AR signaling by favoring activation of the AR transcriptional program. Furthermore, we found that ETV1 expression, but not that of ERG, promotes autonomous testosterone production. Last, we confirmed the association of an ETV1 expression signature with aggressive disease and poorer outcome in patient data. The distinct biology of ETV1-associated prostate cancer suggests that this disease class may require new therapies directed to underlying programs controlled by ETV1.

  19. A truncating mutation of HDAC2 in human cancers confers resistance to histone deacetylase inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropero, S; Fraga, MF; Ballestar, E;

    2006-01-01

    Disruption of histone acetylation patterns is a common feature of cancer cells, but very little is known about its genetic basis. We have identified truncating mutations in one of the primary human histone deacetylases, HDAC2, in sporadic carcinomas with microsatellite instability and in tumors a...

  20. Sequence variant on 8q24 confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Thorlacius, S.; Sulem, P.; Geller, F.; Aben, K.K.H.; Stacey, S.N.; Gudmundsson, J.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Bergthorsson, J.T.; Sigurdsson, A.; Blondal, T.; Witjes, J.A.M.; Vermeulen, H.H.M.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Ploeg, M.; Cornel, E.B.; Vergunst, H.; Thorgeirsson, T.E.; Gudbjartsson, D.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Kristinsson, K.T.; Mouy, M.; Snorradottir, S.; Placidi, D.; Campagna, M.; Arici, C.; Koppova, K.; Gurzau, E.; Rudnai, P.; Kellen, E.; Polidoro, S.; Guarrera, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Sanchez, M.; Saez, B.; Valdivia, G.; Ryk, C.; Verdier, P de; Lindblom, A.; Golka, K.; Bishop, D.T.; Knowles, M.A.; Nikulasson, S.; Petursdottir, V.; Jonsson, E.; Geirsson, G.; Kristjansson, B.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Steineck, G.; Porru, S.; Buntinx, F.; Zeegers, M.P.; Fletcher, T.; Kumar, R.; Matullo, G.; Vineis, P.; Kiltie, A.E.; Gulcher, J.R.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Kong, A.; Rafnar, T.; Stefansson, K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide SNP association study on 1,803 urinary bladder cancer (UBC) cases and 34,336 controls from Iceland and The Netherlands and follow up studies in seven additional case-control groups (2,165 cases and 3,800 controls). The strongest association was observed with allele T of rs

  1. Pragmatic study designs for older adults with cancer: Report from the U13 conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Yao, Nengliang Aaron; Lowenstein, Lisa M; Buckner, Jan C; Parker, Ira R; Gajra, Ajeet; Morrison, Vicki A; Dale, William; Ballman, Karla V

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is a disease occurring disproportionately in older adults. However, the evidence base regarding how best to care for these patients remains limited due to their underrepresentation in cancer clinical trials. Pragmatic clinical trials represent a promising approach for enhancing the evidence base in geriatric oncology by allowing investigators to enroll older, frailer patients onto cancer clinical trials. These trials are more accessible, less resource intensive, and place minimal additional burden on participating patients. Additionally, these trials can be designed to measure endpoints directly relevant to older adults, such as quality of life, functional independence and treatment tolerability which are often not addressed in standard clinical trials. Therefore, pragmatic clinical trials allow researchers to include patients for whom the treatment will ultimately be applied and to utilize meaningful endpoints. Examples of pragmatic studies include both large, simple trials and cluster randomized trials. These study designs allow investigators to conduct clinical trials within the context of everyday practice. Further, researchers can devise these studies to place minimal burden on the patient, the treating clinicians and the participating institutions. In order to be successful, pragmatic trials must efficiently utilize the electronic medical record for data capture while also maximizing patient recruitment, enrollment and retention. Additionally, by strategically utilizing pragmatic clinical trials to test therapies and interventions that have previously shown efficacy in younger, fitter patients, these trials represent a potential mechanism to improve the evidence base in geriatric oncology and enhance care for older adults with cancer.

  2. Simulation of Quaking Aspen Potential Fire Behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Justin DeRose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and Fuels Extension. The wind speeds necessary for crowning (crown-to-crown fire spread and torching (surface to crown fire spread were evaluated to test the hypothesis that predicted fire behavior is influenced by the proportion of aspen in the stand. Results showed a strong effect of species composition on crowning, but only under moderate fire weather, where aspen-dominated stands were unlikely to crown or torch. Although rarely observed in actual fires, conifer-dominated stands were likely to crown but not to torch, an example of “hysteresis” in crown fire behavior. Results support the hypothesis that potential crown fire behavior varies across a gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather, where it was likely under extreme and severe fire weather, and unlikely under moderate and high fire weather. Furthermore, the “fire-proof” nature of aspen stands broke down across the gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather.

  3. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  4. 77 FR 10491 - City of Aspen; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Aspen; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre....: 13254-002. c. Date Filed: December 12, 2011. d. Submitted By: City of Aspen. e. Name of Project: Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Maroon and Castle Creeks near the City of Aspen, in...

  5. Application of Aspen Plus in the Course of Chemical Engineering Principle%Aspen Plus软件在化工原理教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春勇; 郑纯智; 汪斌; 张国华; 文颖频; 张纪霞

    2010-01-01

    化工原理是一门内容广、实践性强的课程.为了培养学生的工程实践能力,将Aspen Plus软件应用于化工原理教学.介绍了Aspen Plus软件在化工原理教学中的应用,论述了将Aspen Plus软件强大的参数化建模功能应用于教学过程.将Aspen Plus引入到化工原理教学中,有助于学生对化工原理的理解,有助于学生学习兴趣的提高.

  6. Aspen Plus 8.0在精馏设计中的应用%The Application of Aspen Plus 8.0 in Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创; 闫晓前

    2014-01-01

    作为21世纪的化工人才,不但要懂得化工设计,而且要会使用电脑软件进行设计.Aspen Plus作为化工设计的首选软件,尤其是Aspen Plus 8.0以其新特点,得到了众多化工爱好者的青睐.本文以Aspen Plus 8.0在精馏设计中的应用为例,介绍了Aspen Plus 8.0在化工设计中的步骤和方法,为我们进行化工设计和原有工艺改进提供了方法.

  7. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Ekwonu; Perry, S.; E. A. Oyedoh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV) such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engin...

  8. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ekwonu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engine simulation gave an efficiency 40.7% and power output of 3592kW.

  9. 某化工系统流程的Aspen Plus软件模拟分析%Simulation Analysis with Aspen Plus for a Chemical System Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立娟; 王佳; 齐鹏

    2015-01-01

    利用Aspen Plus软件对某化工系统流程模拟,并查看各物流结果.应用实例表明,在化工生产中应用Aspen Plus软件可以优化生产,对设备和整套生产装置的操作参数进行模拟,从而实现装置设计优化.

  10. Experts reviews of the multidisciplinary consensus conference colon and rectal cancer 2012: science, opinions and experiences from the experts of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, C J H; Boelens, P G; Tanis, P J; Espin, E; Mroczkowski, P; Naredi, P; Pahlman, L; Ortiz, H; Rutten, H J; Breugom, A J; Smith, J J; Wibe, A; Wiggers, T; Valentini, V

    2014-04-01

    The first multidisciplinary consensus conference on colon and rectal cancer was held in December 2012, achieving a majority of consensus for diagnostic and treatment decisions using the Delphi Method. This article will give a critical appraisal of the topics discussed during the meeting and in the consensus document by well-known leaders in surgery that were involved in this multidisciplinary consensus process. Scientific evidence, experience and opinions are collected to support multidisciplinary teams (MDT) with arguments for medical decision-making in diagnosis, staging and treatment strategies for patients with colon or rectal cancer. Surgery is the cornerstone of curative treatment for colon and rectal cancer. Standardizing treatment is an effective instrument to improve outcome of multidisciplinary cancer care for patients with colon and rectal cancer. In this article, a review of the following focuses; Perioperative care, age and colorectal surgery, obstructive colorectal cancer, stenting, surgical anatomical considerations, total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery and training, surgical considerations for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) and local recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC), surgery in stage IV colorectal cancer, definitions of quality of surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM), laparoscopic colon and rectal surgery, preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, and how about functional outcome after surgery?

  11. A Targetable GATA2-IGF2 Axis Confers Aggressiveness in Lethal Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Samuel J.; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Quinn, S. Aidan; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Lujambio, Amaia; Williams, Estrelania; Sun, Xiaochen; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Lee, Albert; Readhead, Ben; Chen, Xintong; Galsky, Matthew; Esteve, Berta; Petrylak, Daniel P.; Dudley, Joel T.; Rabadan, Raul; Silva, Jose M.; Hoshida, Yujin; Lowe, Scott W.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Elucidating the determinants of aggressiveness in lethal prostate cancer may stimulate therapeutic strategies that improve clinical outcomes. We used experimental models and clinical databases to identify GATA2 as a regulator of chemotherapy resistance and tumorigenicity in this context. Mechanistically, direct upregulation of the growth hormone IGF2 emerged as a mediator of the aggressive properties regulated by GATA2. IGF2 in turn activated IGF1R and INSR as well as a downstream polykinase program. The characterization of this axis prompted a combination strategy whereby dual IGF1R/INSR inhibition restored the efficacy of chemotherapy and improved survival in preclinical models. These studies reveal a GATA2-IGF2 aggressiveness axis in lethal prostate cancer and identify a therapeutic opportunity in this challenging disease. PMID:25670080

  12. High-throughput autofluorescence flow cytometry of breast cancer metabolism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy T.; Cannon, Taylor M.; Higginbotham, Jim N.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-02-01

    Tumor heterogeneity poses challenges for devising optimal treatment regimens for cancer patients. In particular, subpopulations of cells can escape treatment and cause relapse. There is a need for methods to characterize tumor heterogeneity of treatment response. Cell metabolism is altered in cancer (Warburg effect), and cells use the autofluorescent cofactor NADH in numerous metabolic reactions. Previous studies have shown that microscopy measurements of NADH autofluorescence are sensitive to treatment response in breast cancer, and these techniques typically assess hundreds of cells per group. An alternative approach is flow cytometry, which measures fluorescence on a single-cell level and is attractive for characterizing tumor heterogeneity because it achieves high-throughput analysis and cell sorting in millions of cells per group. Current applications for flow cytometry rely on staining with fluorophores. This study characterizes flow cytometry measurements of NADH autofluorescence in breast cancer cells. Preliminary results indicate flow cytometry of NADH is sensitive to cyanide perturbation, which inhibits oxidative phosphorylation, in nonmalignant MCF10A cells. Additionally, flow cytometry is sensitive to higher NADH intensity for HER2-positive SKBr3 cells compared with triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. These results agree with previous microscopy studies. Finally, a mixture of SKBr3 and MDA-MB-231 cells were sorted into each cell type using NADH intensity. Sorted cells were cultured, and microscopy validation showed the expected morphology for each cell type. Ultimately, flow cytometry could be applied to characterize tumor heterogeneity based on treatment response and sort cell subpopulations based on metabolic profile. These achievements could enable individualized treatment strategies and improved patient outcomes.

  13. Partial wave spectroscopic microscopy can predict prostate cancer progression and mitigate over-treatment (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Graff, Taylor; Crawford, Susan; Subramanian, Hariharan; Thompson, Sebastian; Derbas, Justin R.; Lyengar, Radha; Roy, Hemant K.; Brendler, Charles B.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. While prostate specific antigen (PSA) test has been widely used for screening PC, >60% of the PSA detected cancers are indolent, leading to unnecessary clinical interventions. An alternative approach, active surveillance (AS), also suffer from high expense, discomfort and complications associated with repeat biopsies (every 1-3 years), limiting its acceptance. Hence, a technique that can differentiate indolent from aggressive PC would attenuate the harms from over-treatment. Combining microscopy with spectroscopy, our group has developed partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, which can quantify intracellular nanoscale organizations (e.g. chromatin structures) that are not accessible by conventional microscopy. PWS microscopy has previously been shown to predict the risk of cancer in seven different organs (N ~ 800 patients). Herein we use PWS measurement of label-free histologically-normal prostatic epithelium to distinguish indolent from aggressive PC and predict PC risk. Our results from 38 men with low-grade PC indicated that there is a significant increase in progressors compared to non-progressors (p=0.002, effect size=110%, AUC=0.80, sensitivity=88% and specificity=72%), while the baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different. We further improved the diagnostic power by performing nuclei-specific measurements using an automated system that separates in real-time the cell nuclei from the remaining prostate epithelium. In the long term, we envision that the PWS based prognostication can be coupled with AS without any change to the current procedure to mitigate the harms caused by over-treatment.

  14. Influence of the Tumor Microenvironment on Genomic Changes Conferring Chemoresistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    addition, I generated multiple fluorescent labeling technique and a transgenic mouse that would be useful to examine heterogeneous primary tumor cells in...tumor cells to examine tumor hypoxia, I validated endogenous expression of Hif1α in murine breast cancer cells that ara available at our laboratory...This approach was expected to be an effective way to distinguish individual primary tumor cells from heterogeneous population if combined with

  15. Sequence variant on 8q24 confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Thorlacius, Steinunn; Sulem, Patrick; Geller, Frank; Aben, Katja K.H.; Stacey, Simon N.; Gudmundsson, Julius; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Bergthorsson, Jon T.; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Blondal, Thorarinn; Witjes, J. Alfred; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Ploeg, Martine; Cornel, Erik B.; Vergunst, Henk; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Kristinsson, Kari T.; Mouy, Magali; Snorradottir, Steinunn; Placidi, Donatella; Campagna, Marcello; Arici, Cecilia; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Gurzau, Eugene; Rudnai, Peter; Kellen, Eliane; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sanchez, Manuel; Saez, Berta; Valdivia, Gabriel; Ryk, Charlotta; de Verdier, Petra; Lindblom, Annika; Golka, Klaus; Bishop, D. Timothy; Knowles, Margaret A.; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Jonsson, Eirikur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Kristjansson, Baldvin; Mayordomo, Jose I.; Steineck, Gunnar; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Fletcher, Tony; Kumar, Rajiv; Matullo, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo; Kiltie, Anne E.; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a genome wide SNP association study on 1,803 Urinary Bladder Cancer (UBC) cases and 34,336 controls from Iceland and the Netherlands and follow up studies in seven additional case control groups (2,165 cases and 3,800 controls). The strongest association was observed with allele T of rs9642880 on chromosome 8q24, 30kb upstream of the c-Myc gene (allele specific OR=1.22; P=9.34×10−12). Approximately 20% of individuals of European ancestry are homozygous for rs9642880 (T) and their estimated risk of developing UBC is 1.49 times that of non-carriers with population attributable risk (PAR) of 17%. No association was observed between UBC and the four 8q24 variants previously associated with prostate, colorectal and breast cancers, nor did rs9642880 associate with any of these three cancers. A weaker signal, but nonetheless of genome wide significance, was captured by rs710521 (A) located near the TP63 gene on chromosome 3q28 (allele specific OR=1.19; P=1. 15× 10−7). PMID:18794855

  16. Drought characteristics' role in widespread aspen forest mortality across Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Leander D L; Anderegg, William R L; Abatzoglou, John; Hausladen, Alexandra M; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Globally documented widespread drought-induced forest mortality has important ramifications for plant community structure, ecosystem function, and the ecosystem services provided by forests. Yet the characteristics of drought seasonality, severity, and duration that trigger mortality events have received little attention despite evidence of changing precipitation regimes, shifting snow melt timing, and increasing temperature stress. This study draws upon stand level ecohydrology and statewide climate and spatial analysis to examine the drought characteristics implicated in the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). We used isotopic observations of aspen xylem sap to determine water source use during natural and experimental drought in a region that experienced high tree mortality. We then drew upon multiple sources of climate data to characterize the drought that triggered aspen mortality. Finally, regression analysis was used to examine the drought characteristics most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality across Colorado. Isotopic analysis indicated that aspens generally utilize shallow soil moisture with little plasticity during drought stress. Climate analysis showed that the mortality-inciting drought was unprecedented in the observational record, especially in 2002 growing season temperature and evaporative deficit, resulting in record low shallow soil moisture reserves. High 2002 summer temperature and low shallow soil moisture were most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality. These results suggest that the 2002 drought subjected Colorado aspens to the most extreme growing season water stress of the past century by creating high atmospheric moisture demand and depleting the shallow soil moisture upon which aspens rely. Our findings highlight the important role of drought characteristics in mediating widespread aspen forest mortality, link this aspen die-off to regional climate change

  17. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  18. Spatiotemporally synchronized cancer combination therapy using photo-activated nanoparticle drug delivery systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    This talk will introduce a new nanotechnology platform for cancer combination therapy that utilizes near infrared light activation not only for photodynamic damage but also as an extrinsic mechanism to initiate release of complimentary drugs to suppress dynamic bursts in molecular signaling networks that promote tumor cell survival and treatment escape. The goal is to achieve co-delivery with concomitant activity of photodynamic, molecular inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents, selectively within the tumor. This approach overcomes challenges in achieving synergistic interactions using sequential drug delivery. Conventional drug delivery is compromised by the differential pharmacokinetics of individual agents and potentially antagonistic effects—such as vascular shutdown by one agent that limits delivery of the second. Here, photodynamic damage—which efficiently kills drug-resistant cells via damage of common proteins involved in drug-resistance (such as anti-apoptosis factors and drug-efflux transporters)—is synchronized spatially and temporally with the photo-initiated release of complimentary agents—to enable full interaction amongst the individual therapies. This spatiotemporal synchronization offers new prospects for exploiting time-sensitive synergistic interactions. Specific implementations of these concepts will be presented in preclinical models of cancer. Strategies to enable molecular-targeting of cancer cells via site-specific attachment of targeting moieties to the outer lipid shell of these nanovehicles will also be discussed. If successful in humans, this new paradigm for synchronized, tumor-focused combination therapy will ultimately supersede the present use of chronic drug injection by increasing efficacy per cycle whilst reducing systemic exposure to toxic drugs.

  19. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  20. Aspen shaving versus chip bedding: effects on breeding and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E; Demarest, K; Eckert, W J; Cates-Gatto, C; Nadav, T; Cates, L N; Howard, H; Roberts, A J

    2015-01-01

    The choice of laboratory cage bedding material is often based on both practical and husbandry issues, whereas behavioral outcomes rarely appear to be considered. It has been noted that a breeding success difference appears to be associated with the differential use of aspen chip and aspen shaving bedding in our facility; therefore, we sought to analyze breeding records maintained over a 20-month period. In fact, in all four mouse strains analyzed, shaving bedding was associated with a significant increase in average weanlings per litter relative to chip bedding. To determine whether these bedding types also resulted in differences in behaviors associated with wellbeing, we examined nest building, anxiety-like, depressive-like (or helpless-like), and social behavior in mice housed on chip versus shaving bedding. We found differences in the nests built, but no overall effect of bedding type on the other behaviors examined. Therefore, we argue that breeding success, perhaps especially in more challenging strains, is improved on shaving bedding and this is likely due to improved nest-building potential. For standard laboratory practices, however, these bedding types appear equivalent.

  1. Great Plains ASPEN model development: Phosam section. Final topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, S S; Kirman, J J

    1985-02-01

    An ASPEN model has been developed of the PHOSAM Section, Section 4600, of the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The bases for this model are the process description given in Section 6.18 of the Great Plains Project Management Plan and the Lummus Phosam Schematic Process Flow Diagram, Dwg. No. SKD-7102-IM-O. The ASPEN model that has been developed contains the complete set of components that are assumed to be in the gasifier effluent. The model is primarily a flowsheet simulation that will give the material and energy balance and equipment duties for a given set of process conditions. The model is unable to predict fully changes in process conditions that would result from load changes on equipment of fixed sizes, such as a rating model would predict. The model can be used to simulate the steady-state operation of the plant at or near design conditions or to design other PHOSAM units. Because of the limited amount of process information that was available, several major process assumptions had to be made in the development of the flowsheet model. Patent literature was consulted to establish the ammonia concentration in the circulating fluid. Case studies were made with the ammonia content of the feed 25% higher and 25% lower than the base feed. Results of these runs show slightly lower recoveries of ammonia with less ammonia in the feed. As expected, the duties of the Stripper and Fractionator reboilers were higher with more ammonia in the feed. 63 references.

  2. A site dependent top height growth model for hybrid aspen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tord Johansson

    2013-01-01

    In this study height growth models for hybrid aspen were developed using three growth equations. The mean age of the hybrid aspen was 21 years (range 15−51 years) with a mean stand density of 946 stems ha-1 (87−2374) and a mean diameter at breast height (over bark) of 19.6 cm (8.5−40.8 cm). Site index was also examined in relation to soil type. Multiple samples were collected for three types of soil: light clay, medium clay and till. Site index curves were constructed using the col-lected data and compared with published reports. A number of dynamic equations were assessed for modeling top-height growth from total age. A Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach model derived by Cieszewski (2001) performed the best. This model explained 99% of the observed variation in tree height growth and exhibited no apparent bias across the range of predicted site indices. There were no significant differences between the soil types and site indices.

  3. Conservation and yield aspects of old European aspen Populus tremula L. in Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazell, Per [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    1999-06-01

    Biodiversity issues are becoming integrated parts of Swedish forest management. In this context, the amount and distribution of broadleaved species, including aspen, are important. This thesis summarises results of two studies in which species from the rich epiphytic flora on aspen were used to evaluate important features of aspens, and two studies relating these features to production losses due to retention of aspen. The presence and abundance of four epiphytic, bark-living bryophytes in relation to stand and host-tree characteristics, were investigated in four mixed forest stands in central Sweden. There was no general and consistent relation between aspen density and bryophyte presence. Large diameter and rough bark of the aspen host, together with site factors and stand density around the host, were important. On 35 clearfelled areas, the bryophyte Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., species considered sensitive to clearfelling, were transplanted on retained aspen stems. As a reference, transplants were made on aspens in adjacent old stands. After two years the bryophyte showed its highest vitality in the forest, but was also vigorous on the north side of retained trees. The lichen thrived best on the clearfelled areas, on the north side of trees retained in groups. For conservation purposes, aspen are best retained in groups. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of retained large aspens (diameter 49.6{+-}7.0 cm and height 29.4{+-}1.0 m) were studied in a 110-year-old aspen stand. Twelve trees were destructively analysed to establish allometric equations relating stem, bark and branch biomass and current annual stem increment (CAI{sub s}) to diameter at breast height. Biomass of the mean tree was 1172 kg, of which 80% was stemwood. CAI{sub s} was 1.5% of total stem biomass. Finally, the yield of a 44-year-old Norway spruce stand under an aspen overstorey was compared with that of pure Norway spruce, estimated

  4. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Binkley, Dan; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Romme, William H.; Yin, Tongming; DiFazio, Stephen; Singer, Francis J.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado have been a cause of concern for more than 70 years. We used a combination of traditional dendrochronology and genetic techniques as well as measuring the characteristics of regenerating and nonregenerating stands on the elk winter range to determine when and under what conditions and estimated elk densities these stands established and through what mechanisms they may regenerate. The period from 1975 to 1995 at low elevation on the east side had 80-95 percent fewer aspen stems than would be expected based on the trend from 1855 through 1965. The age structure of aspen in the park indicates that the interacting effects of fires, elk population changes, and livestock grazing had more-or-less consistent effects on aspen from 1855 to 1965. The lack of a significant change in aspen numbers in recent decades in the higher elevation and west side parts of the park supports the idea that the extensive effects of elk browsing have been more important in reducing aspen numbers than other factors. The genetic variation of aspen populations in RMNP is high at the molecular level. We expected to find that most patches of aspen in the park were composed of a single clone of genetically identical trees, but in fact just 7 percent of measured aspen patches consisted of a single clone. A large frequency of polyploid (triploid and tetraploid) genotypes were found on the low elevation, east-side elk winter range. Nonregenerating aspen stands on the winter range had greater annual offtake, shorter saplings, and lower density of mid-height (1.5-2.5 m) saplings than regenerating stands. Overwinter elk browsing, however, did not appear to inhibit the leader length of aspen saplings. The winter range aspen stands of RMNP appear to be highly resilient in the face of

  5. COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Heinemann, Katharina; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Salamon, Achim; Linnebacher, Michael; Hinz, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The antitumorigenic mechanism of cannabidiol is still controversial. This study investigates the role of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in cannabidiol's proapoptotic and tumor-regressive action. In lung cancer cell lines (A549, H460) and primary cells from a patient with lung cancer, cannabidiol elicited decreased viability associated with apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death by cannabidiol was suppressed by NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor), GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist), and siRNA targeting COX-2 and PPAR-γ. Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis was paralleled by upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ mRNA and protein expression with a maximum induction of COX-2 mRNA after 8 hours and continuous increases of PPAR-γ mRNA when compared with vehicle. In response to cannabidiol, tumor cell lines exhibited increased levels of COX-2-dependent prostaglandins (PG) among which PGD(2) and 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) caused a translocation of PPAR-γ to the nucleus and induced a PPAR-γ-dependent apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in A549-xenografted nude mice, cannabidiol caused upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in tumor tissue and tumor regression that was reversible by GW9662. Together, our data show a novel proapoptotic mechanism of cannabidiol involving initial upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ and a subsequent nuclear translocation of PPAR-γ by COX-2-dependent PGs.

  6. HIF-1α/MDR1 pathway confers chemoresistance to cisplatin in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Guan, Zhenfeng; Liang, Liang; Cheng, Yongyi; Zhou, Jiancheng; Li, Jing; Xu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is the 9th most common malignant tumor and the 13th leading cause of death due to cancer. The development of surgery and target drugs bring new challenges for the traditional concept for BCa therapy, and chemotherapy is still the final option for many BCa patients, and cisplatin-containing regimen the most effective one. However, the ubiquitous application of cisplatin-containing regimen in BCa results in the cisplatin-resistance, in addition, the cisplatin‑resistant BCa manifests enhanced malignant behavior, the mechanism of which is unclear. In the present study, we used BCa cell lines to to clarify this point. BCa cell lines T24/J82 were pretreated with cisplatin >3 months to construct stable cisplatin-resistant cell lines (tagged T24(Cis-R) and J82(Cis-R)), which manifested as enhanced capacity of proliferation and malignant behavior in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by cisplatin, and even doxorubicin resistance. The following mechanism dissection revealed that prolonged treatment time of T24/J82 cells led to elevated expression of HIF-1α, which targeted the increased expression of MDR1 on the one hand, and contributed to BCa cell proliferation, migration/invasion on the other hand. Finally, IHC staining of human BCa tissue supported our conclusion that the expression of HIF-1α and MDR1 was higher in chemoresistant tissue vs. chemosensitive tissue. Our results provided a new view of HIF-1α in chemotherapy.

  7. A germline variant in the TP53 polyadenylation signal confers cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Masson, Gisli; Gudmundsson, Julius; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Magnusson, Olafur T; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Nexø, Bjørn A; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Hemminki, Kari; Corredera, Cristina; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Grasa, Pilar; Navarrete, Sebastian; Fuertes, Fernando; García-Prats, Maria D; Sanambrosio, Enrique; Panadero, Angeles; De Juan, Ana; Garcia, Almudena; Rivera, Fernando; Planelles, Dolores; Soriano, Virtudes; Requena, Celia; Aben, Katja K; van Rossum, Michelle M; Cremers, Ruben G H M; van Oort, Inge M; van Spronsen, Dick-Johan; Schalken, Jack A; Peters, Wilbert H M; Helfand, Brian T; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Badescu, Daniel; Codreanu, Ovidiu; Jinga, Mariana; Csiki, Irma E; Constantinescu, Vali; Badea, Paula; Mates, Ioan N; Dinu, Daniela E; Constantin, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Kristjansdottir, Sjofn; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Jonsson, Eirikur; Barkardottir, Rosa B; Einarsson, Gudmundur V; Sigurdsson, Fridbjorn; Moller, Pall H; Stefansson, Tryggvi; Valdimarsson, Trausti; Johannsson, Oskar T; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Jonsson, Thorvaldur; Jonasson, Jon G; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Rice, Terri; Hansen, Helen M; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Lachance, Daniel H; O Neill, Brian Patrick; Kosel, Matthew L; Decker, Paul A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Helgadottir, Hafdis T; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Lindblom, Annika; Sandler, Robert S; Keku, Temitope O; Banasik, Karina; Jørgensen, Torben; Witte, Daniel R; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Jinga, Viorel; Neal, David E; Catalona, William J; Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John; Jenkins, Robert B; Nagore, Eduardo; Vogel, Ulla; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kumar, Rajiv; Mayordomo, José I; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Rafnar, Thorunn; Stefansson, Kari

    2011-09-25

    To identify new risk variants for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, we performed a genome-wide association study of 16 million SNPs identified through whole-genome sequencing of 457 Icelanders. We imputed genotypes for 41,675 Illumina SNP chip-typed Icelanders and their relatives. In the discovery phase, the strongest signal came from rs78378222[C] (odds ratio (OR) = 2.36, P = 5.2 × 10(-17)), which has a frequency of 0.0192 in the Icelandic population. We then confirmed this association in non-Icelandic samples (OR = 1.75, P = 0.0060; overall OR = 2.16, P = 2.2 × 10(-20)). rs78378222 is in the 3' untranslated region of TP53 and changes the AATAAA polyadenylation signal to AATACA, resulting in impaired 3'-end processing of TP53 mRNA. Investigation of other tumor types identified associations of this SNP with prostate cancer (OR = 1.44, P = 2.4 × 10(-6)), glioma (OR = 2.35, P = 1.0 × 10(-5)) and colorectal adenoma (OR = 1.39, P = 1.6 × 10(-4)). However, we observed no effect for breast cancer, a common Li-Fraumeni syndrome tumor (OR = 1.06, P = 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.27).

  8. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 2: T2 substaging and prostate cancer volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kwast, Theo H; Amin, Mahul B; Billis, Athanase; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David; Humphrey, Peter A; Montironi, Rodolfo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Egevad, Lars; Delahunt, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology consensus conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the substaging of pT2 prostate cancers according to the TNM 2002/2010 system, reporting of tumor size/volume and zonal location of prostate cancers were coordinated by working group 2. A survey circulated before the consensus conference demonstrated that 74% of the 157 participants considered pT2 substaging of prostate cancer to be of clinical and/or academic relevance. The survey also revealed a considerable variation in the frequency of reporting of pT2b substage prostate cancer, which was likely a consequence of the variable methodologies used to distinguish pT2a from pT2b tumors. Overview of the literature indicates that current pT2 substaging criteria lack clinical relevance and the majority (65.5%) of conference attendees wished to discontinue pT2 substaging. Therefore, the consensus was that reporting of pT2 substages should, at present, be optional. Several studies have shown that prostate cancer volume is significantly correlated with other clinicopathological features, including Gleason score and extraprostatic extension of tumor; however, most studies fail to demonstrate this to have prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Consensus was reached with regard to the reporting of some quantitative measure of the volume of tumor in a prostatectomy specimen, without prescribing a specific methodology. Incorporation of the zonal and/or anterior location of the dominant/index tumor in the pathology report was accepted by most participants, but a formal definition of the identifying features of the dominant/index tumor remained undecided.

  9. High resolution microendoscopy for early detection of esophageal cancer in low-resource settings (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most deaths due to ESCN occur in developing countries, with highest risk areas in northern China. Lugol's chromoendoscopy (LCE) is the gold-standard for ESCN screening; while the sensitivity of LCE for ESCN is >95%, LCE suffers poor specificity (< 65%) due to false positive findings from inflammatory lesions. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) uses a low-cost, fiber-optic fluorescence microscope to image morphology of the surface epithelium without need for biopsy. We developed a tablet-interfaced HRME with automated, real-time image analysis. In an in vivo study of 177 patients referred for endoscopy in China, use of the algorithm identified neoplasia with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 91% compared to the gold standard of histology.

  10. The Application of Aspen Plus Simulation in Chemical Industry%Aspen Plus在化工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治山; 杨超龙

    2012-01-01

    Aspen Plus是基于稳态化工模拟、优化、灵敏度分析和经济评价的大型化工流程模拟软件,其广泛应用于化学与石油工业、炼油加工、生物及医药等方面。文章介绍了该软件的功能特点,综述了近几年来该流程模拟软件在化工工程中的应用成果及发展情况。%Aspen Plus is based on the steady-state chemical simulation, optimization, sensitivity analysis and economic evaluation of large-scale chemical process simulation software, which is widely used in chemistry and petroleum industry, oil refining process, biology and medicine and so on. The function characteristics of the software were introduced in the paper, the application results and the development situation of chemical process simulation software on process in recent years are summarized.

  11. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits.

  12. ISOCT study of collagen crosslinking of collagen in cancer models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Graham; Young, Scott T.; Yi, Ji; Shea, Lonnie D.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    The role of extracellular matrix modification and signaling in cancer progression is an increasingly recognized avenue for the progression of the disease. Previous study of field effect carcinogenesis with Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (ISOCT) has revealed pronounced changes in the nanoscale-sensitive mass fractal dimension D measured from field effect tissue when compared to healthy tissue. However, the origin of this difference in tissue ultrastructure in field effect carcinogenesis has remained poorly understood. Here, we present findings supporting the idea that enzymatic crosslinking of the extracellular matrix is an effect that presents at the earliest stages of carcinogenesis. We use a model of collagen gel with crosslinking induced by lysyl oxidase (LOXL4) to recapitulate the difference in D previously reported from healthy and cancerous tissue biopsies. Furthermore, STORM imaging of this collagen gel model verifies the morphologic effects of enzymatic crosslinking at length scales as small as 40 nm, close to the previously reported lower length scale sensitivity threshold of 35 nm for ISOCT. Analysis of the autocorrelation function from STORM images of collagen gels and subsequent fitting to the Whittle-Matérn correlation function shows a similar effect of LOXL4 on D from collagen measured with ISOCT and STORM. We extend this to mass spectrometric study of tissue to directly measure concentrations of collagen crosslink residues. The validation of ISOCT as a viable tool for non-invasive rapid quantification of collagen ultrastructure lends it to study other physiological phenomena involving ECM restructuring such as atherosclerotic plaque screening or cervical ripening during pregnancy.

  13. Leaf and canopy conductance in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air enrichment of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2009-11-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure, and hence forest feedbacks on climate. Here, we investigated how elevated concentrations of CO2 (+45%) and O3 (+35%), alone and in combination, affected conductance for mass transfer at the leaf and canopy levels in pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and in mixed aspen and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) forests in the free-air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). The study was conducted during two growing seasons, when steady-state leaf area index (L) had been reached after > 6 years of exposure to CO2- and O3-enrichment treatments. Canopy conductance (g(c)) was estimated from stand sap flux, while leaf-level conductance of sun leaves in the upper canopy was derived by three different and independent methods: sap flux and L in combination with vertical canopy modelling, leaf 13C discrimination methodology in combination with photosynthesis modelling and leaf-level gas exchange. Regardless of the method used, the mean values of leaf-level conductance were higher in trees growing under elevated CO2 and/or O3 than in trees growing in control plots, causing a CO2 x O3 interaction that was statistically significant (P aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. These results demonstrate that short-term primary stomatal closure responses to elevated CO2 and O3 were completely offset by long-term cumulative effects of these trace gases on tree and stand structure in determining canopy- and leaf-level conductance in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests. Our results, together with the findings from other long-term FACE experiments with trees, suggest that model assumptions of large reductions in stomatal conductance under rising atmospheric CO2 are very uncertain for forests.

  14. Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) intake and preference by mammalian herbivores: the role of plant secondary compounds and nutritional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J; Burritt, Elizabeth A; St Clair, Samuel B

    2014-10-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) has evolved a chemical defense system comprised of phenolic glycosides (PG), which effectively deter insect herbivory. However, much less is known about the role of PG and the nutritional quality of the associated plant community on aspen browse susceptibility to mammalian herbivores. In three successive periods during the growing season, we conducted experiments with sheep by offering leaves from two aspen stands with different concentrations of PG (LOW, HIGH) or aspen leaves vs. leaves from a forb (Utah pea, Lathyrus pauciflorus) or a grass (smooth brome, Bromus inermis Leyss.) growing in an aspen understory. Intake of aspen (19 to 35 % PG) was low in all periods (1 to 6 g/Kg(0.75) in 2 hr) supporting the notion that aspen's defense system may contribute to its ecological success. However, lambs ate larger amounts of LOW than of HIGH suggesting that sheep could discriminate between aspen stands with different concentrations of PG, even when both stands were relatively well defended. Concentration of nutrients and chemical defenses in aspen leaves remained fairly stable across the growing season, and preference for aspen increased over the growing season. In contrast, preference for the forb and the grass decreased across the growing season in concert with a decline in the nutritional quality of these plants. The data suggest that nutritional context of aspen and associated forage species drove preference more than contrasts in defense chemistry of aspen. There may be periods of "susceptibility" of aspen use by mammalian herbivores, despite high concentrations of chemical defenses, which can potentially be targeted by management to reduce aspen herbivory.

  15. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matti Maltamo; Annukka Pesonen; Lauri Korhonen; Jari Kouki; Mikko Vehmas; Kalle Eerikinen

    2015-01-01

    Background:The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods:We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes:volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results:The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50%with fewer sample plots (5–10) to values of 25%–50%with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions:This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our results suggest that

  16. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Maltamo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes: volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50% with fewer sample plots (5–10 to values of 25%–50% with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our

  17. A sequence variant at 4p16.3 confers susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Sulem, Patrick; Besenbacher, Soren; Vermeulen, Sita H; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Stacey, Simon N; Gudmundsson, Julius; Zanon, Carlo; Kostic, Jelena; Masson, Gisli; Bjarnason, Hjordis; Palsson, Stefan T; Skarphedinsson, Oskar B; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Witjes, J Alfred; Grotenhuis, Anne J; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Bishop, D Timothy; Sak, Sei Chung; Choudhury, Ananya; Elliott, Faye; Barrett, Jennifer H; Hurst, Carolyn D; de Verdier, Petra J; Ryk, Charlotta; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Campagna, Marcello; Placidi, Donatella; Arici, Cecilia; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kellen, Eliane; Gutierrez, Berta Saez; Sanz-Velez, José I; Sanchez-Zalabardo, Manuel; Valdivia, Gabriel; Garcia-Prats, Maria D; Hengstler, Jan G; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Dietrich, Holger; Ophoff, Roel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Alexiusdottir, Kristin; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Geirsson, Gudmundur; Nikulasson, Sigfus; Petursdottir, Vigdis; Kong, Augustine; Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir; Mungan, N Aydin; Lindblom, Annika; van Es, Michael A; Porru, Stefano; Buntinx, Frank; Golka, Klaus; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Matullo, Giuseppe; Steineck, Gunnar; Kiltie, Anne E; Aben, Katja K H; Jonsson, Eirikur; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Knowles, Margaret A; Rafnar, Thorunn; Stefansson, Kari

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we reported germline DNA variants associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) in Dutch and Icelandic subjects. Here we expanded the Icelandic sample set and tested the top 20 markers from the combined analysis in several European case-control sample sets, with a total of 4,739 cases and 45,549 controls. The T allele of rs798766 on 4p16.3 was found to associate with UBC (odds ratio = 1.24, P = 9.9 × 10−12). rs798766 is located in an intron of TACC3, 70 kb from FGFR3, which often harbors activating somatic mutations in low-grade, noninvasive UBC. Notably, rs798766[T] shows stronger association with low-grade and low-stage UBC than with more aggressive forms of the disease and is associated with higher risk of recurrence in low-grade stage Ta tumors. The frequency of rs798766[T] is higher in Ta tumors that carry an activating mutation in FGFR3 than in Ta tumors with wild-type FGFR3. Our results show a link between germline variants, somatic mutations of FGFR3 and risk of UBC. PMID:20348956

  18. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents ... Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog ...

  20. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Marchan, Rosemarie; Ickstadt, Katja; Golka, Klaus; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031), in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971) being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR) than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28) and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  1. Distinct SNP combinations confer susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer in smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schwender

    Full Text Available Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified and validated genetic variations associated with urinary bladder cancer (UBC. However, it is still unknown whether the high-risk alleles of several SNPs interact with one another, leading to an even higher disease risk. Additionally, there is no information available on how the UBC risk due to these SNPs compare to the risk of cigarette smoking and to occupational exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, and whether the same or different SNP combinations are relevant in smokers and non-smokers. To address these questions, we analyzed the genotypes of six SNPs, previously found to be associated with UBC, together with the GSTM1 deletion, in 1,595 UBC cases and 1,760 controls, stratified for smoking habits. We identified the strongest interactions of different orders and tested the stability of their effect by bootstrapping. We found that different SNP combinations were relevant in smokers and non-smokers. In smokers, polymorphisms involved in detoxification of cigarette smoke carcinogens were most relevant (GSTM1, rs11892031, in contrast to those in non-smokers with MYC and APOBEC3A near polymorphisms (rs9642880, rs1014971 being the most influential. Stable combinations of up to three high-risk alleles resulted in higher odds ratios (OR than the individual SNPs, although the interaction effect was less than additive. The highest stable combination effects resulted in an OR of about 2.0, which is still lower than the ORs of cigarette smoking (here, current smokers' OR: 3.28 and comparable to occupational carcinogen exposure risks which, depending on the workplace, show mostly ORs up to 2.0.

  2. 基于Aspen Plus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟%Analog of ClausSulfur Recovery Process Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林发现; 丁玲; 陈延林; 李繁荣; 师慧灵; 邹隐文

    2011-01-01

    Adopting Aspen Plus process analog calculation software,process flow for Claus sulfur recovery was simulated,simulated data was good coincident with the data demarcated by analog software used specially for sulfur recovery;on that basis,author has studied the influence of Claus key data on process flow by use of Aspen Plus modular analysis function,its conclusion was coincident with practical production process;result indicates that it has optimizing role for both design calculation and production operation based on the Claus sulfur recovery process analog.%采用Aspen P lus工艺模拟计算软件模拟了克劳斯硫回收工艺过程,模拟数据与硫回收专用模拟软件的标定数据吻合较好;在此基础上,利用Aspen P lus模块化分析功能,研究了克劳斯工艺的关键数据对工艺过程的影响,其结论与实际生产过程相符合;结果表明,基于Aspen P lus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟,对设计计算和生产操作均具有优化作用。

  3. Simulation of IGFC power generation system by Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sayem, Abu Sadahat

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy...... efficiency and power with respect to a variety of SOFC inputs. HRSG which is located after the SOFC is also included in current simulation study with various operating parameters. This paper also describes for the IGFC Power Plants, the optimization of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG...... and therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which drives steam turbine for electricity production. The SOFC stack model developed using the process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type. The results indicate there must be tread off...

  4. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  5. Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E-selectin-induced activation of the PI3K-NFκB survival axis downstream of Death receptor-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquet Éric R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells. It requires interactions between adhesion receptors on endothelial cells and their counter-receptors on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin, a major endothelial adhesion receptor, interacts with Death receptor-3 present on metastatic colon carcinoma cells. This interaction confers metastatic properties to colon cancer cells by promoting the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells and triggering the activation of the pro-migratory p38 and pro-survival ERK pathways in the cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated further the mechanisms by which the E-selectin-activated pathways downstream of DR3 confer a survival advantage to colon cancer cells. Methods Cell survival has been ascertained by using the WST-1 assay and by evaluating the activation of the PI3 kinase/NFκB survival axis. Apoptosis has been assayed by determining DNA fragmentation by Hoechst staining and by measuring cleavage of caspases-8 and -3. DR3 isoforms have been identified by PCR. For more precise quantification, targeted PCR reactions were carried out, and the amplified products were analyzed by automated chip-based microcapillary electrophoresis on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer instrument. Results Interaction between DR3-expressing HT29 colon carcinoma cells and E-selectin induces the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, p65/RelA, the anti-apoptotic subunit of NFκB, is rapidly translocated to the nucleus in response to E-selectin. This translocation is impaired by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway increases the cleavage of caspase 8 in colon cancer cells treated with E-selectin and this effect is still further increased when both ERK and PI3K pathways are concomitantly inhibited. Intriguingly, metastatic colon cancer cell lines such as HT

  6. Integration of photothermal therapy and synergistic chemotherapy by a porphyrin self-assembled micelle confers chemosensitivity in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shishuai; Ding, Yanping; Li, Yiye; Wu, Yan; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a malignant cancer type with a high risk of early recurrence and distant metastasis. Unlike other breast cancers, triple-negative breast cancer is lack of targetable receptors and, therefore, patients largely receive systemic chemotherapy. However, inevitable adverse effects and acquired drug resistance severely constrain the therapeutic outcome. Here we tailor-designed a porphyrin-based micelle that was self-assembled from a hybrid amphiphilic polymer comprising polyethylene glycol, poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) and porphyrin. The bilayer micelles can be simultaneously loaded with two chemotherapeutic drugs with synergistic cytotoxicity and distinct physiochemical properties, forming a uniform and spherical nanostructure. The drug-loaded micelles showed a tendency to accumulate in the tumor and can be internalized by tumor cells for drug release in acidic organelles. Under near-infrared laser irradiation, high density of self-quenched porphyrins in the hydrophobic layer absorbed light efficiently and converted into an excited state, leading to the release of sufficient heat for photothermal therapy. The integration of localized photothermal effect and synergistic chemotherapy conferred great chemosensitivity to cancer cells and achieved tumor regression using about 1/10 of traditional drug dosage. As a result, chemotherapy-associated adverse effects were successfully avoided. Our present study established a novel porphyrin-based nanoplatform with photothermal activity and expanded drug loading capacity, providing new opportunities for challenging conventional chemotherapy and fighting against stubborn triple-negative breast cancer.

  7. Best Practices Case Study: Shaw Construction Burlingame Ranch Ph.1, Aspen, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Shaw Construction built 84 energy efficient, affordable condominiums forthe City of Aspen that achieved HERS scores of less than 62 with help from Building America’s research team lead Building Science Corporation.

  8. 78 FR 46312 - Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...-of-way and border zones. Other priority treatment areas may be identified through the analysis and... conditions of spruce-fir and healthy clones of aspen. Removal of single trees or group selections of...

  9. The application of Aspen Plus server in software integration%Aspen Plus服务器在软件集成中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥冰; 岳金彩; 谭心舜; 焦巍

    2007-01-01

    ActiveX控件作为可重复使用的程序和数据可集成到其它应用程序中,Aspen Plus用户界面就是一个ActiveX服务器应用程序,利用接口程序能够将用户对装置模型及其参数的改变传递给Aspen Plus,再把模拟结果与外部应用程序相连接,实现软件集成.本文对Aspen Plus的服务器功能进行了探讨,并介绍了这个功能的详细开发步骤和编写方法,最后给出了一个吸收塔的具体接口实例.

  10. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eug...

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  12. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  13. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  14. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Hamann, Andreas; Thomas, Barb R

    2011-04-01

    Intensive forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones, and performance and trait evaluations are mostly made within these two groups. Here, we assessed how traits with potential adaptive value varied within and across these two plant groups. Variation in nine hydraulic and wood anatomical traits as well as growth were measured in selected aspen and hybrid poplar genotypes grown at a boreal planting site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically evaluated based on a blocked experimental design. We found that genotypes of trembling aspen were more resistant to cavitation, exhibited more negative water potentials, and were more water-use-efficient than hybrid poplars. Under the boreal field test conditions, which included major regional droughts, height growth was negatively correlated with branch vessel diameter (Dv ) in both aspen and hybrid poplars and differences in Dv were highly conserved in aspen trees from different provenances. Differences between the hybrid poplars and aspen provenances suggest that these two groups employ different water-use strategies. The data also suggest that vessel diameter may be a key trait in evaluating growth performance in a boreal environment.

  15. Aspen Plus在化工专业课程教学中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus in the teaching of chemical engineering major

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建东; 徐杰; 冯建华; 杨靖

    2016-01-01

    为了培养学生的工程实践能力,将Aspen Plus软件应用于化学工程与工艺专业课程教学.介绍了Aspen Plus软件在课堂教学中的应用,从而提高学生对化工专业课程的理解能力,增强学生的工程意识,有助于学生学习兴趣的提高.

  16. The Application of Aspen Plus in Chemical Engineering Learning%Aspen Plus在化工学习中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滑纬博; 李云凯; 吕燕

    2013-01-01

    在化工学习中,应用Aspen Plus对化工生产中的典型工艺——苯加氢合成环己烷系统进行模拟,结果表明,Aspen Plus不仅可以简化复杂的化工过程,而且可以提高学生学习的效率和质量,增强工程意识,有利于理论和实践的结合.

  17. Applications of Aspen Plus in the teaching of the separation engineering%Aspen Plus在《分离工程》教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢泽湘; 范立维; 廖益强

    2010-01-01

    分析了Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件的学习方法,探讨了Aspen Plus软件在课程教学改革中的运用.教改结果表明,教学中软件的应用提高了学生的学习兴趣,加深了学生对课程内容的理解,同时拓宽了学生的视野,使课程教学更接近工程实际,获得了良好的教学效果.

  18. Aspen Plus Applied in Teaching of Chemical Engineering Design%Aspen plus在化工设计教学中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪斌; 舒莉; 朱炳龙

    2010-01-01

    化工流程模拟软件Aspen plus在化工过程设计中得到了普遍应用,显著提高了化工工艺流程等方面的设计效率和水平.主要介绍该软件功能和应用方法,结合苯和甲苯精馏塔设计计算,讨论其在化工课程设计中的应用.将Aspen plus模拟值与文献值进行比较,相对误差小,符合较好.

  19. Predation risk, elk, and aspen: tests of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnie, John A

    2012-12-01

    Aspen in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are hypothesized to be recovering from decades of heavy browsing by elk due to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade (BMTC). Several authors have suggested that wolves interact with certain terrain features, creating places of high predation risk at fine spatial scales, and that elk avoid these places, which creates refugia for plants. This hypothesized BMTC could release aspen from elk browsing pressure, leading to a patchy recovery in places of high risk. I tested whether four specific, hypothesized fine-scale risk factors are correlated with changes in current elk browsing pressure on aspen, or with aspen recruitment since wolf reintroduction, in the Daly Creek drainage in Yellowstone National Park, and near two aspen enclosures outside of the park boundary. Aspen were not responding to hypothesized fine-scale risk factors in ways consistent with the current BMTC hypothesis.

  20. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok; Kang, Ho Young; Kim, Manbok; Koh, Sang Seok; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling.

  1. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  2. Radiation damage of biomolecular systems: Nano-scale insights into Ion-beam cancer therapy. 2nd Nano-IBCT conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Mason, Nigel J.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2014-10-01

    The second Nano-IBCT conference of the COST Action MP1002: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy was held in Sopot, Poland, from May 20th to May 24th, 2013. The Nano-IBCT action had been launched in December 2010 and brings together experts from different disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, hadron-therapy centres, medical institutions), with specialisms in the radiation damage of biological matter. This meeting follows up the first one that was held in October, 2011 in Caen, France and we were pleased to see again so many of the participants of the previous meeting as well as to welcome some new colleagues joining and sharing their knowledge and expertise in this field. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Nano-scale Insights into Ion-beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey V. Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Paulo Limão-Vieira and Malgorzata Smialek-Telega.

  3. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Coeur d’Alene, ID IASLC 9th World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The...World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The first International Conference on

  4. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  5. The Challenges of Change. A Report from the Aspen Institute Seminar on Hispanic Americans and the Business Community (Aspen, Colorado, July 27-30, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Georgianna; Nicolau, Siobhan

    This report from the 1997 Aspen Institute seminar concerns how demographic changes in American will affect Hispanic Americans' role in the business community. Section 1, "Lashes: Back, Front, and Sideways" (Harold Hodgkinson), describes pervasive national pessimism over demographic change and documents universal backlash to that change among all…

  6. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves.

  7. Aspen Plus 在化工热力学教学中的应用%Applications of Aspen Plus in the Teaching of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪; 刘熠斌; 宋春敏; 乔柯

    2014-01-01

    化工热力学是一门理论性强、逻辑性强、概念抽象、公式繁多的专业基础课。本文介绍了在化工热力学教学过程中引入Aspen Plus软件进行辅助教学,在优化教学内容、改善教学方法、提高学习效率、强化课程基础等方面进行有益的探索,认为引入Aspen Plus软件可以提高学生的学习兴趣,加深学生对课程内容的理解,提高学生的工程实践能力。%Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics was a professional basic course with strong theory , logicality , abstract concept and lots of formula.The citation of Aspen Plus to the teaching of chemical engineering thermodynamics was introduced.How to improve teaching content , teaching method , study efficiency and course base were investigated.When used Aspen Plus in the teaching of chemical engineering hemodynamics , the study interest , comprehension and engineering practice ability of students could be enhanced.

  8. The Application of Aspen Plus 7.3 in Chemical Engineering Design%Aspen Plus 7.3在化工设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创

    2014-01-01

    Chemical engineering design is the calculation process of the related parameters by computer. Because of the large amount of calculation, it must through the corresponding chemical simulation software to achieve. Aspen Plus 7.3 because the precise calculating, fast running speed, become the preferred software in chemical engineering design. This paper show the steps and methods of chemical engineering design by computer thought the flash condition is determined by Aspen Plus 7.3.%由于化工设计计算量大,必须通过相应的化工模拟软件来实现。Aspen Plus 7.3计算精确,运行速度快,成为化工设计者的首选软件。通过介绍利用Aspen Plus 7.3进行闪蒸条件的确定,说明利用计算机进行化工设计的步骤和方法。

  9. 基于Aspen Plus的褐煤热解过程模拟%The Lignite Coal Pyrolysis Process Simulation Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 商玉坤; 武建军

    2011-01-01

    With high moisture lignite coal as an example, the method and procedure to build simplified model for coal pyrogenation process (CPD) using the chemical process simulation software Aspen Plus were introduced. Setting process of CPD model simulation parameter was given, and the Aspen Plus software was used to simulate the calculation process of coal pyrogenation, and the obtained simulation value was compared with the actual value. At the same time, the coal pyrolysis simulation process and the results were analyzed and provided basic reference to coal pyrogenation process development and optimization.%以高水分褐煤为例,介绍了利用Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件建立煤热解过程简化模型的方法及步骤.阐述了CPD模型模拟参数的设置过程,并利用Aspen Plus软件对煤热解过程进行了模拟计算,将得出的模拟值与实际值进行了比较.同时,对煤热解模拟过程及结果进行了分析,给煤热解过程的工艺开发和工艺优化提供了参考依据.

  10. Dynamic Simulation of the Methanol Synthesis Reactor with the Aspen Dynamics Software%基于 Aspen Dynamics 的甲醇合成塔动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳芳华; 刘东斌; 申延明

    2014-01-01

    以某年产300 kt甲醇合成装置为研究对象,利用先进的Aspen Plus工程设计软件对其进行全流程稳态模拟;并在稳态模拟的基础上,应用Aspen Dynamics软件对甲醇合成塔进行动态模拟,从而得到可供参考的最优的工艺控制参数,以指导实际生产操作。%Taking the 300 kt/a methanol synthesis unit as the study object ,make its whole process steady‐state simulation with the advanced Aspen Plus engineering design software . On the basis of steady‐state simulation ,make the dynamic simulation of methanol synthesis reactor with the Aspen Dynamics software to obtain the optimal control parameters for reference ,which could guide the actual production operations .

  11. Aspen SUCROSE TRANSPORTER3 allocates carbon into wood fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ratke, Christine; Gorzsás, András; Kumar, Manoj; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Niittylä, Totte

    2013-12-01

    Wood formation in trees requires carbon import from the photosynthetic tissues. In several tree species, including Populus species, the majority of this carbon is derived from sucrose (Suc) transported in the phloem. The mechanism of radial Suc transport from phloem to developing wood is not well understood. We investigated the role of active Suc transport during secondary cell wall formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We show that RNA interference-mediated reduction of PttSUT3 (for Suc/H(+) symporter) during secondary cell wall formation in developing wood caused thinner wood fiber walls accompanied by a reduction in cellulose and an increase in lignin. Suc content in the phloem and developing wood was not significantly changed. However, after (13)CO2 assimilation, the SUT3RNAi lines contained more (13)C than the wild type in the Suc-containing extract of developing wood. Hence, Suc was transported into developing wood, but the Suc-derived carbon was not efficiently incorporated to wood fiber walls. A yellow fluorescent protein:PttSUT3 fusion localized to plasma membrane, suggesting that reduced Suc import into developing wood fibers was the cause of the observed cell wall phenotype. The results show the importance of active Suc transport for wood formation in a symplasmically phloem-loading tree species and identify PttSUT3 as a principal transporter for carbon delivery into secondary cell wall-forming wood fibers.

  12. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicochemical properties of the compounds and the operating conditions of equipment were developed using the simulator Aspen® and supplementary information. The main aspects of the engine working conditions were considered such as diesel-biodiesel ratio, air/fuel mixture, temperature of the combustion gases and heat load. Diesel physicochemical specifications were taken from reports of PEMEX and SENER. Methyl esters corresponding to the transesterification of fatty acids that comprise castor oil were regarded as representative molecules of biodiesel obtained from chromatographic analysis. The results include CO2, water vapor, combustion efficiency, power and lower calorific value of fuels.

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis from Cell Suspension Cultures of Aspen Clone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Suspension cultures initiated from callus derived from petiole explants of aspen hybrid (Populus tremuloides × P.tremula) produced somatic embryos. Callus was induced on a MS medium supplemented with 5 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 0.05 mg·L-1 zeatin under light conditions. Embryogenic calli were obtained when a subsequent subculture of calli was suspended in the same basal medium with 10 mg·L-1 2,4-D. The highest number of globular embryos were induced from embryogenic calli by cell suspension culture in a MS liquid medium supplemented with 10 mg·L-1 2,4-D. Genotype and 2,4-D concentration were vital to the induction of embryogenic calli producing competent cells. Embryogenic calli for each genotype were heterogeneous. Green calli with gel-like consistency could yield more competent cells than light yellow embryogenic calli. However, some globular embryos broke into slices and some developed abnormally after one month of culture under the same or other hormonal conditions.

  14. CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induced miR-125b promotes invasion and confers 5-fluorouracil resistance through enhancing autophagy in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinfeng; Shi, Wenna; Zhang, Yuhang; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Shiyue; Song, Zhiyu; Liu, Man; Zeng, Qiao; Cui, Shuxiang; Qu, Xianjun

    2017-01-01

    The activation of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is associated with potential progression of cancer, such as invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. However, the underlying mechanisms of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis and cancer progression have been poorly explored. We hypothesized that miRNAs might be critical downstream mediators of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis involved in cancer invasion and chemoresistance in CRC. In human CRC cells, we found that the activation of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and concurrent upregulation of miR-125b. Overexpression of miR-125b robustly triggered EMT and cancer invasion, which in turn enhanced the expression of CXCR4. Importantly, the reciprocal positive feedback loop between CXCR4 and miR-125b further activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. There was a negative correlation of the expression of miR-125b with APC mRNA in paired human colorectal tissue specimens. Further experiments indicated a role of miR-125b in conferring 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in CRC probably through increasing autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. MiR-125b functions as an important downstream mediator upon the activation of CXCL12/CXCR4 axis that involved in EMT, invasion and 5-FU resistance of CRC. These findings shed a new insight into the role of miR-125b and provide a potential therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:28176874

  15. Perturbation of wood cellulose synthesis causes pleiotropic effects in transgenic aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chandrashekhar P; Thammannagowda, Shivegowda; Fujino, Takeshi; Gou, Ji-Qing; Avci, Utku; Haigler, Candace H; McDonnell, Lisa M; Mansfield, Shawn D; Mengesha, Bemnet; Carpita, Nicholas C; Harris, Darby; Debolt, Seth; Peter, Gary F

    2011-03-01

    Genetic manipulation of cellulose biosynthesis in trees may provide novel insights into the growth and development of trees. To explore this possibility, the overexpression of an aspen secondary wall-associated cellulose synthase (PtdCesA8) gene was attempted in transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) and unexpectedly resulted in silencing of the transgene as well as its endogenous counterparts. The main axis of the transgenic aspen plants quickly stopped growing, and weak branches adopted a weeping growth habit. Furthermore, transgenic plants initially developed smaller leaves and a less extensive root system. Secondary xylem (wood) of transgenic aspen plants contained as little as 10% cellulose normalized to dry weight compared to 41% cellulose typically found in normal aspen wood. This massive reduction in cellulose was accompanied by proportional increases in lignin (35%) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (55%) compared to the 22% lignin and 36% non-cellulosic polysaccharides in control plants. The transgenic stems produced typical collapsed or 'irregular' xylem vessels that had altered secondary wall morphology and contained greatly reduced amounts of crystalline cellulose. These results demonstrate the fundamental role of secondary wall cellulose within the secondary xylem in maintaining the strength and structural integrity required to establish the vertical growth habit in trees.

  16. Phenology and climate relationships in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forest and woodland communities of southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gretchen A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Evelsizer, Ross J.; Vogelmann, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) occurs over wide geographical, latitudinal, elevational, and environmental gradients, making it a favorable candidate for a study of phenology and climate relationships. Aspen forests and woodlands provide numerous ecosystem services, such as high primary productivity and biodiversity, retention and storage of environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, snow–water equivalent) that affect the spring and fall phenology of the aspen woodland communities of southwestern Colorado. We assessed the land surface phenology of aspen woodlands using two phenology indices, start of season time (SOST) and end of season time (EOST), from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database of conterminous U.S. phenological indicators over an 11-year time period (2001–2011). These indicators were developed with 250 m resolution remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer processed to highlight vegetation response. We compiled data on SOST, EOST, elevation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow water equivalent (SWE) for selected sites having more than 80% cover by aspen woodland communities. In the 11-year time frame of our study, EOST had significant positive correlation with minimum fall temperature and significant negative correlation with fall precipitation. SOST had a significant positive correlation with spring SWE and spring maximum temperature.

  17. Perturbation of Wood Cellulose Synthesis Causes Pleiotropic Effects in Transgenic Aspen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandrashekhar P.Joshi; Nicholas C.Carpita; Darby Harris; Seth DeBolt; Gary F.Peter; Shivegowda Thammannagowda; Takeshi Fujino; Ji-Qing Gou; Utku Avci; Candace H.Haigler; Lisa M.McDonnell; Shawn D.Mansfield; Bemnet Mengesha

    2011-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of cellulose biosynthesis in trees may provide novel insights into the growth and development of trees. To explore this possibility,the overexpression of an aspen secondary wall-associated cellulose syn-thase (PtdCesA8) gene was attempted in transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) and unexpectedly resulted in silencing of the transgene as well as its endogenous counterparts. The main axis of the transgenic aspen plants quickly stopped growing,and weak branches adopted a weeping growth habit. Furthermore,transgenic plants initially developed smaller leaves and a less extensive root system. Secondary xylem (wood) of transgenic aspen plants contained as little as 10% cellulose normalized to dry weight compared to 41% cellulose typically found in normal aspen wood. This massive reduction in cellulose was accompanied by proportional increases in lignin (35%) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (55%) compared to the 22% lignin and 36% non-cellulosic polysaccharides in control plants. The transgenic stems produced typical collapsed or 'irregular' xylem vessels that had altered secondary wall morphology and contained greatly reduced amounts of crystalline cellulose. These results demonstrate the fundamental role of secondary wall cellulose within the secondary xylem in maintaining the strength and structural integrity required to establish the vertical growth habit in trees.

  18. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Sharkey, Thomas D; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F

    2010-04-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO(2) and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO(2) protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO(2) increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 degrees C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO(2) treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO(2) were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO(2). Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms.

  19. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  20. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-08-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  1. A simple PCR-based marker to determine sex in aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakull, B; Kersten, B; Lüneburg, J; Fladung, M

    2015-01-01

    The genus Populus features a genetically controlled sex determination system, located on chromosome 19. However, different Populus species vary in the position of the sex-linked region on the respective chromosome and the apparent heterogametic sex, and the precise mechanism of sex determination in Populus is still unknown. Using next generation sequencing of pooled samples of male and female aspens, we identified the aspen homologue of the P. trichocarpa gene Potri.019G047300 ('TOZ19') to be male-specific. While in P. tremuloides, the complete gene is missing in the genome of female plants, a short fragment of the 3'-part of the gene is still present in P. tremula females. The male-specific presence and transcription of TOZ19 was further verified using PCR in various different aspen individuals and RT-PCR expression analysis. TOZ19 is potentially involved in early steps of flower development, and represents an interesting candidate gene for involvement in sex determination in aspen. Regardless of its role as candidate gene, TOZ19 represents an ideal marker for determination of the sex of non-flowering aspen individuals or seedlings.

  2. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co......-processing aspen wood and neat glycerol led to a significant reduction in the char yield, and glycerol is hypothesized to act as a radical scavenger, alleviating re-polymerization of especially lignin-derived fragments. In the temperature range of 380–420 °C, it was found that biocrude and char yield, and biocrude...... quality were all invariant to the reaction temperature. By increasing the crude glycerol to aspen wood mass ratio from 0:1 to 3:1, char yield was decreased from 18.3% (only aspen wood) to 3.4%. Furthermore, the biocrude quality in terms of the effective hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/Ceff) was significantly...

  3. The Internet Time Lag: Anticipating the Long-Term Consequences of the Information Revolution. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (10th, Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Evan I.

    This is a report of the 10th annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001). Participants were also polled after the events of September 11, and these comments have been integrated into the report. The mission of this report is to take a wide-ranging look at the trends that are defining the next new…

  4. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  5. 76 FR 15306 - Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Aspen Merchant Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  6. Stand Dynamics, Humus Type and Water Balance Explain Aspen Long Term Productivity across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Anyomi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relative importance of soil, stand development and climate hypotheses in driving productivity for a species that is widely distributed in North America. Inventory plots, 3548 of such, either dominated by aspen or made up of species mixture of which aspen occurs in dominant canopy position were sampled along a longitudinal gradient from Quebec to British Columbia. Site index (SI, was used as a measure of productivity, and soil, climate and stand attributes were correlated with site index in order to determine their effects on productivity. Results show a decline in productivity with high moisture deficit. Soil humus correlates significantly with SI but does not sufficiently capture differential rates of litter deposition and decomposition effects over the long-term. Consequently, aspen composition, stand ageing, and stand structural changes dominate variability in productivity. Within the context where deciduous cover has being increasing, there are implications for forest productivity.

  7. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  8. Scale dependence of disease impacts on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on how disease impacts tree exposure to risk, both the prevalence of disease and disease effects on survival may contribute to patterns of mortality risk across a species' range. Disease may accelerate tree species' declines in response to global change factors, such as drought, biotic interactions, such as competition, or functional traits, such as allometry. To assess the role of disease in mediating mortality risk in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), we developed hierarchical Bayesian models for both disease prevalence in live aspen stems and the resulting survival rates of healthy and diseased aspen near the species' southern range limit using 5088 individual trees on 281 United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in the southwestern United States.

  9. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  10. ASPEN PLUS在化工教学及科研中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅博; 刘杨

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着计算机技术的发展,大型的模拟仿真软件,尤其是Aspen Plus软件的应用,对推动化工专业教学及科研的发展起到了很大的作用。本文重点论述Aspen Plus软件在化工专业教学以及在科研中的应用。实践表明,Aspen Plus软件的使用,可以提高化工专业教学的质量,促进科研的的创新及发展。

  11. Aspen Plus”软件在化工生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增花

    2013-01-01

      文章介绍了化工流程模拟软件“Aspen Plus”的主要功能及成功应用实例,应用实例表明,在化工生产中应用“Aspen Plus”软件不仅可以优化生产,而且还可以对某设备和整套生产装置的操作参数进行模拟分析,提高生产装置技术管理水平,从而产生巨大的经济效益,故应尽快在化工厂广大工程技术人员中推广使用“Aspen Plus”软件。

  12. Aspen Plus在化工专业教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩慧艳

    2013-01-01

    信息技术的普及推动了其在教育领域的应用,对提高教学质量起到了积极的促进作用。特别是Aspen Plus作为一种先进的计算机软件,凭借着较高的实验仿真能力,在化工专业教学中得到了广泛的应用。本文笔者在分析了化工专业课程体系的基础上,分析了Aspen Plus软件的优势,重点探讨了Aspen Plus在化工专业教学中的应用,目的是为化工专业教学提供指导和借鉴。

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 2016 2015 2014 ... Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 ... Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History ...

  15. Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales.

  16. Nostradamus conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; Nostradamus: Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

  17. Landscape dynamics in aspen and western juniper woodlands on the Owyhee Plateau, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Eva K.

    A century of altered fire regimes has affected the landscape vegetation dynamics in the Intermountain West. Suppression of wildfires has resulted in increases in woody plant cover in these semi-arid ecosystems, which has resulted in land cover changes affecting biogeochemical cycling, landscape composition, and habitat diversity. Recent developments in remote sensing technology, computational power, and a rapid development of analysis techniques have enabled us to quantify such changes at the landscape scale. Wavelet analysis is a powerful image analysis technique that is here applied in a novel fashion to fine scale remote sensing imagery to automatically detect the location and crown diameter of individual western juniper plants (Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis) expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe at multiple scales. The produced marked point pattern of historical and current spatial juniper distribution was compared regionally and changes in foliar cover and above ground biomass were estimated across a 330,000 ha area on the Owyhee Plateau, Idaho. The above ground carbon accumulation rate from 1946 to 1998 was estimate to be 3.3 gCm-2yr-1 and 10.0 gCm-2yr -1 employing the wavelet and conventional texture analysis methods, respectively, with an additional 25% rise in belowground carbon accumulation in root stock. This research further demonstrates that estimates of carbon accumulation rates as a result of woody encroachment are highly dependent on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. Conifer species, western juniper and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on the Owyhee Plateau, have further expanded into the biologically important quaking aspen ( Populus tremuloides) habitats resulting in conifer dominance and occasional loss of aspen clones. Classification of remotely sensed imagery combined with spatially explicit modeling of aspen successional stages indicate that, in the absence of management activity, loss of seral aspen stands

  18. Aspen Plus在泵选型设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄卫国

    2007-01-01

    应用Aspen Plus软件进行泵选型,先计算管线压降,初步确定泵的扬程和型号;然后输入泵的性能曲线,整个输送系统联合模拟,核算泵的性能。由于Aspen Plus软件拥有强大的物性数据库,所以输入简便,计算结果准确,可显著提高设计效率。

  19. Analysis of aspen-and-birch separated small woods’ vegetation in North Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nazarenko

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Conducted analysis of forest vegetation has allowed selecting and specifying classification and typological units of the aspen-and-birch separated small woods, which have statistically significant difference of ecotopic and coenotic parameters. Those parameters of studied forest ecosystems are characterised. Existence of the lines of hygrogenic and edaphogenic substitution, and succession rows are described. Phytoindication description of ecological factors’ pivotal conditions is presented. Driving factors determining parameters, structure and composition of the aspen-and-birch forest ecosystems are diminishing soil moisture, increasing annual temperatures amplitude and soil acidity.

  20. Common sequence variants on 2p15 and Xp11.22 confer susceptibility to prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudmundsson, J.; Sulem, P.; Rafnar, T.; Bergthorsson, J.T.; Manolescu, A.; Gudbjartsson, D.; Agnarsson, B.A.; Sigurdsson, A.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Blondal, T.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Stacey, S.N.; Kostic, J.; Kristinsson, K.T.; Birgisdottir, B.; Ghosh, S.; Magnusdottir, D.N.; Thorlacius, S.; Thorleifsson, G.; Zheng, S.L.; Sun, J.; Chang, B.L.; Elmore, J.B.; Breyer, J.P.; McReynolds, K.M.; Bradley, K.M.; Yaspan, B.L.; Wiklund, F.; Stattin, P.; Lindstrom, S.; Adami, H.O.; McDonnell, S.K.; Schaid, D.J.; Cunningham, J.M.; Wang, L.; Cerhan, J.R.; Sauver, J.L. St; Isaacs, S.D.; Wiley, K.E.; Partin, A.W.; Walsh, P.C.; Polo, S.; Ruiz-Echarri, M.; Navarrete, S.; Fuertes, F.; Saez, B.; Godino, J.; Weijerman, P.C.; Swinkels, D.W.; Aben, K.K.H.; Witjes, J.A.M.; Suarez, B.K.; Helfand, B.T.; Frigge, M.L.; Kristjansson, K.; Ober, C.; Jonsson, E.; Einarsson, G.V.; Xu, J.; Gronberg, H.; Smith, J.R.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Isaacs, W.B.; Catalona, W.J.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Gulcher, J.R.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Kong, A.; Stefansson, K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide SNP association study on prostate cancer on over 23,000 Icelanders, followed by a replication study including over 15,500 individuals from Europe and the United States. Two newly identified variants were shown to be associated with prostate cancer: rs5945572 on Xp11.22 and

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF METHANOL/WATER SPLITTER WITH ASPEN PLUS%用AspenPlus优化甲醇水分离塔操作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬加良

    2011-01-01

    To simulate the methanol/water splitter in Rectisol Plant with Aspen Plus engineering soft-ware for comparison with PDP;to optimize the working condition for the top methanol reflux under different water content and to compare the optimized data with the%应用AspenPlus工程软件对低温甲醇洗装置的甲醇水分离塔进行模拟,并与设计工艺包进行对比。对塔顶回流甲醇在不同含水量下的工况进行优化,将优化数据与该塔实际运行结果进行比较,为生产操作提供数据指导。

  2. Aspen Plus软件在气体分馏装置中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus in Gas Fractionation Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙献菊

    2006-01-01

    介绍了Aspen Plus软件在齐鲁分公司胜利炼油厂气分装置上的应用情况,主要包括:利用Aspen Plus软件准确模拟了气分装置的生产工况,优化了脱丙烷塔的操作条件,并在实际中得到了应用.分析了原料变化后装置操作工艺条件的变化情况,为生产工艺方案的制定提供了很好的指导,缩短了装置的调整时间.

  3. Study of Coal Gasification System Based on ASPEN PLUS Platform%基于ASPEN PLUS平台煤气化系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范峻铭; 诸林

    2014-01-01

    传统燃煤利用方式不仅造成煤热能利用效率低下,也使环境受到极大的破坏.煤气化是实现煤清洁和合理化利用的关键技术.目前多利用ASPEN PLUS软件模拟煤气化过程,并在该领域得到了越来越多的应用.因此,重点分析利用ASPEN PLUS建立煤气化模型的方法和原理,以期为今后研究提供方法性指导.

  4. The BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation confers sensitivity of thyroid cancer cells to the BRAF{sup V600E} inhibitor PLX4032 (RG7204)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Joanna [Division of Head and Neck Cancer Research, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Liu, Ruixin; Xing, Mingzhao [Laboratory for Cellular and Molecular Thyroid Research, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Trink, Barry, E-mail: btrink@jhmi.edu [Division of Head and Neck Cancer Research, Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Exciting therapeutic potential has been recently reported for the BRAF{sup V600E} inhibitor PLX4032 in melanoma. {yields} We tested the effects of PLX4032 on the growth of thyroid cancer cells which often harbor the BRAF{sup V600E} mutation. {yields} We observed a potent BRAF{sup V600E}-dependent inhibition of thyroid cancer cells by PLX4032. {yields} We thus demonstrated an important therapeutic potential of PLX4032 for thyroid cancer. -- Abstract: Aberrant signaling of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK (MAP kinase) pathway driven by the mutant kinase BRAF{sup V600E}, as a result of the BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation, plays a fundamental role in thyroid tumorigenesis. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of a BRAF{sup V600E}-selective inhibitor, PLX4032 (RG7204), for thyroid cancer by examining its effects on the MAP kinase signaling and proliferation of 10 thyroid cancer cell lines with wild-type BRAF or BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation. We found that PLX4032 could effectively inhibit the MAP kinase signaling, as reflected by the suppression of ERK phosphorylation, in cells harboring the BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation. PLX4032 also showed a potent and BRAF mutation-selective inhibition of cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. PLX4032 displayed low IC{sub 50} values (0.115-1.156 {mu}M) in BRAF{sup V600E} mutant cells, in contrast with wild-type BRAF cells that showed resistance to the inhibitor with high IC{sub 50} values (56.674-1349.788 {mu}M). Interestingly, cells with Ras mutations were also sensitive to PLX4032, albeit moderately. Thus, this study has confirmed that the BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation confers cancer cells sensitivity to PLX4032 and demonstrated its specific potential as an effective and BRAF{sup T1799A} mutation-selective therapeutic agent for thyroid cancer.

  5. Consensus conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper

    Our results point to significant national variation both in terms of the perceived aim of consensus conferences, expectations to conference outcomes, conceptions of the roles of lay people and experts, and in terms of the way in which the role of public deliberation is interpreted. Interestingly...

  6. Aspen Flare-net在火炬管网设计中的应用%Application of Aspen Flare-net in Design of Flare-net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡顺强; 张斌

    2015-01-01

    介绍了Aspen Flare-net软件在火炬管网设计分析中的计算原理和计算步骤,并简要介绍了软件的主要特性、主要功能以及软件的计算选项。通过对一改扩建项目中新增的低压火炬排放气排放至原低压火炬系统进行火炬管网压力降核算分析,核算结果表明,原低压火炬系统无需改造,即可满足改扩建后新增低压火炬排放气的安全排放要求。同时表明Aspen Flare-net软件在火炬管网工程设计中的应用价值。%In this article, the calculating principles and procedures of software Aspen Flare-net were, including its maln characteristics, maln functions and application choices, introduced in the design and analysis of flare-net. With the analysis of pressure drop in lfare-net due to the discharge of gas from newly added low pressure lfare to the original low pressure lfare-net in one expanded project, it was concluded that it is unnecessary to reform the originated lfare-net that the safe discharge requirements for newly added low pressure lfare can be met. At the same times, it was shown that software Aspen Flare-net is quite useful in the design of lfare-net.

  7. Development & Application of Aspen Orion System in Refinery%炼油企业Aspen Orion系统开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2004-01-01

    随着全球经济的一体化,企业之间的竞争加剧.为降低成本、提高资源利用率,炼油企业都在积极运用优化技术和计算机技术追求利益的最大化.简要介绍了Aspen Orion系统及其在炼油厂的实际应用.

  8. Simulation of Rectified Reaction Process-Example of Using ASPEN PLUS%反应精馏过程模拟——ASPEN PLUS应用范例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绪壮; 屈一新

    2001-01-01

    本文利用ASPEN PLUS软件对环氧丙烷水解生成丙二醇的反应精馏过程进行模拟计算,对有关物系的相行为进行预测,并进行物性计算和流程模拟,指明了该反应过程的主反应区及其形成原因.

  9. 物性估算在ASPEN PLUS软件中的应用%Application of Properties Estimation in ASPEN PLUS Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚一文; 方云进

    2007-01-01

    利用Aspen Plus软件提供的物性估算功能,计算发酵液中低浓度1,3-丙二醇分离的中间产物2-甲基-1,3-二哑烷(2MD)的物性,从而模拟分离过程,确定工艺条件,得到理想的产物结果.

  10. Application of ASPEN PLUS in Methanol Distillation Column in MDI Plant%ASPEN PLUS在MDI装置的甲醇除去塔中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宝学

    2008-01-01

    基于作者多年的工程技术开发经验介绍了ASPEN PLUS软件在MDI(二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯)装置的甲醇除去塔设计中的应用,模拟与设计结果成功用于公司的16万t/a MDI的建设.

  11. Aspen Plus模拟汽油分馏塔系统%Simulation of gasoline fractionator system by Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    堵祖荫

    2002-01-01

    Aspen Plus模拟乙烯装置汽油分馏塔系统,其轻烃部分物性可以用Peng-Robison、Redich-Kwong-Seave等状态方程来描述,馏分油部分物性则用虚拟组分(Fictitious Components)描述,文章还以此研究了各工艺参数对塔板温度的影响.

  12. Aspen Plus在煤焦油复杂组分精馏中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus in the Complex Components Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云; 许祥军

    2009-01-01

    在制备净化煤焦油沥青的过程中,净化沥青和轻质油组分的精馏分离是关键步骤之一.通过对组分的合理简化,用Aspen Plus对这一复杂组分精馏过程进行模拟,为试验及设计提供参考.

  13. ASPEN PLUS 对混合二甲苯分离工艺的分析研究%Research on Separation of mixed Xylene Using ASPEN PLUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春法; 孙剑; 阮栋

    2005-01-01

    C8芳烃(混合二甲苯)由于组分来源的不同,组分较多,组分间沸点差很小,使C8芳烃分离可供选择的流程很多.化工分公司应用ASPEN PLUS软件,研究了超精馏工艺分离混合二甲苯的可行性.

  14. 乳化炸药水相的ASPEN PLUS物性分析%Emulsion Explosives' Water-phase Material ASPEN PLUS Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾开亮

    2013-01-01

    文章结合乳化炸药传统水相材料物性实际数据,用ASPEN PLUS软件对使用硝铵水溶液的水相材料在不同温度下进行了pure和binary物性分析,物性分析方法为PENG-ROB法和RK-SOAVE法,分析结果与实际数据相符合.

  15. APPLICATION OF ASPEN PLUS PROCESS SIMULATION SOFTWARE IN LLDPE PLANT%Aspen Plus流程模拟软件在LLDPE装置上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高彤; 赵熠

    2008-01-01

    以LLDPE装置全流程模拟为例,对应用Aspen Plus软件进行分析和讨论.通过相关理论计算开发出了LLDPE装置流程模拟模型,并成功运用于实际生产,为安全稳定的进行牌号切换和开发新产品提供了依据.

  16. Stomatal uptake of O3 in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Hogg, Alan J; Teclaw, Ronald M; Carroll, Mary Anne; Ellsworth, David S

    2010-06-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may alleviate the toxicological impacts of concurrently rising tropospheric ozone (O3) during the present century if higher CO2 is accompanied by lower stomatal conductance (gs), as assumed by many models. We investigated how elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3, alone and in combination, affected the accumulated stomatal flux of O3 (AFst) by canopies and sun leaves in closed aspen and aspen-birch forests in the free-air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Stomatal conductance for O3 was derived from sap flux data and AFst was estimated either neglecting or accounting for the potential influence of non-stomatal leaf surface O3 deposition. Leaf-level AFst (AFst(l)) was not reduced by elevated CO2. Instead, there was a significant CO2 x O(3) interaction on AFst(l), as a consequence of lower values of gs in control plots and the combination treatment than in the two single-gas treatments. In addition, aspen leaves had higher AFst(l) than birch leaves, and estimates of AFst(l) were not very sensitive to non-stomatal leaf surface O3 deposition. Our results suggest that model projections of large CO2-induced reductions in gs alleviating the adverse effect of rising tropospheric O3 may not be reasonable for northern hardwood forests.

  17. The Application of Aspen One v7 in Chemical Separation Engineering Teaching%Aspen one v7在分离工程教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路华清

    2010-01-01

    分离工程是化工类专业重要专业课,是一门实践性非常强的课程.各种平衡分离过程的计算既是教学的重点,又是教学的难点.随着电脑在学生中普及率的提高,为使用模拟软件进行辅助教学提供了条件.使用aspen one v7的aspen properties模块和aspen plu.模块辅助教学,学生在aspen properties中完成物性参数计算、逸度系数、活度系数、平衡常数计算、泡露点计算等分离工程基础数据计算,同时熟悉aspen one软件的使用,为后续在aspen plus中完成单级平衡分离计算、精馏吸收严格计算打下基础.同时,在分离工程教学过程中引入aspen one的应用,为后续课程"化工过程模拟"的教学打下基础,收到较好的教学效果.

  18. Aspen Winter Workshop: New Directions in Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, a clear path forward was developed by the neutrino physics community. Exciting new results have recently come out as early steps along that path. The time is now ripe to look at new experimental ideas that have arisen and the performance of current experiments. This conference will take the current status of experiment as its launching point. We will examine new accelerator and reactor oscillation results, prospects for learning about mass hierarchy and leptonic CP violation, and potential for new physics in oscillation experiments. We will also cover the latest developments in neutrino physics, astrophysics and cosmology more broadly, including neutrinoless double beta decay, neutrino interactions, and supernovae. The emphasis of the conference will be on how new experimental techniques and theoretical ideas will impact the future directions of the field.

  19. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  20. Folate-Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with Ursolic Acid Confer Anti-Breast Cancer Activities in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Pi, Jiang; Yang, Fen; Jiang, Jinhuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Bai, Haihua; Shao, Mingtao; Huang, Lei; Zhu, Haiyan; Yang, Peihui; Li, Lihua; Li, Ting; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W.

    2016-07-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) has proved to have broad-spectrum anti-tumor effects, but its poor water solubility and incompetent targeting property largely limit its clinical application and efficiency. Here, we synthesized a nanoparticle-based drug carrier composed of chitosan, UA and folate (FA-CS-UA-NPs) and demonstrated that FA-CS-UA-NPs could effectively diminish off-target effects and increase local drug concentrations of UA. Using MCF-7 cells as in vitro model for anti-cancer mechanistic studies, we found that FA-CS-UA-NPs could be easily internalized by cancer cells through a folate receptor-mediated endocytic pathway. FA-CS-UA-NPs entered into lysosome, destructed the permeability of lysosomal membrane, and then got released from lysosomes. Subsequently, FA-CS-UA-NPs localized into mitochondria but not nuclei. The prolonged retention of FA-CS-UA-NPs in mitochondria induced overproduction of ROS and destruction of mitochondrial membrane potential, and resulted in the irreversible apoptosis in cancer cells. In vivo experiments showed that FA-CS-UA-NPs could significantly reduce breast cancer burden in MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. These results suggested that FA-CS-UA-NPs could further be explored as an anti-cancer drug candidate and that our approach might provide a platform to develop novel anti-cancer drug delivery system.

  1. Biomass production of hybrid aspen growing on former farm land in Sweden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tord Johansson

    2013-01-01

    We construct dry weight equations for hybrid aspen growing on former farmland in Sweden.Dry weight equations for fractions of hybrid aspen trees were also made.We estimated biomass production in 24 stands.The stands were located in Sweden at latitudes ranging from 55 to 60° N.The mean age was 18 years (range 15-23),the mean stand density 1090 stems·ha-1 (range 378-2374),and the mean diameter at breast height (over bark) 178 mm (range 85-244 mm).Soil types in the hybrid aspen stands were mainly clay (21 stands),tills (2 stands) and other (1 stand).The mean total standing dry weight above stump level (≈200 mm) for the hybrid aspen stands was 135±53 t·ha-1 with a range of 42-219 t·ha-1.In addition to estimating conventional dry weights of trees and tree components,basic density,specific leaf area (SLA),projected leaf area (PLA) and leaf area index (LAI) were estimated and were in agreement with published figures.

  2. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc... accurate information concerning the securities of Commercial Concepts, Inc. because it has not filed...

  3. Risk Communication, Metacommunication, and Rhetorical Stases in the Aspen-EPA Superfund Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratman, James F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Explores the relationship between current theoretical definitions of risk communication, the unique national role that EPA plays in defining health and environmental risks, and possible explanations for EPA's inability to persuade Aspen, Colorado, to accept a cleanup plan. Explores ownership messages conveyed through metacommunication conflict…

  4. AspenTech to Provide VPS for CNOOC-Shell Nanhai Petrochemicals Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ AspenTech, a US supplier of software and services to the process industries, recently announced it has been awarded a contract to supply a series of operator training simulators for the US$4.3 billion Nanhai Petrochemicals Project of CNOOC-Shell Petrochemical Company (CSPC)at Daya Bay in Huizhou City in South China's Guangdong Province.

  5. Root carbon reserve dynamics in aspen seedlings: does simulated drought induce reserve limitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, David A; Landhäusser, S M; Tyree, M T

    2011-03-01

    In a greenhouse study we quantified the gradual change of gas exchange, water relations and root reserves of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) seedlings growing over a 3-month period of severe water stress. The aim of the study was to quantify the complex interrelationship between growth, water and gas exchange, and root carbon (C) dynamics. Various growth, gas exchange and water relations variables in combination with root reserves were measured periodically on seedlings that had been exposed to a continuous drought treatment over a 12-week period and compared with well-watered seedlings. Although gas exchange and water relations parameters significantly decreased over the drought period in aspen seedlings, root reserves did not mirror this trend. During the course of the experiment roots of aspen seedlings growing under severe water stress showed a two orders of magnitude increase in sugar and starch content, and roots of these seedlings contained more starch relative to sugar than those in non-droughted seedlings. Drought resulted in a switch from growth to root reserves storage which indicates a close interrelationship between growth and physiological variables and the accumulation of root carbohydrate reserves. Although a severe 3-month drought period created physiological symptoms of C limitation, there was no indication of a depletion of root C reserve in aspen seedlings.

  6. Imaging spectroscopy links aspen genotype with below-ground processes at landscape scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madritch, Michael D; Kingdon, Clayton C; Singh, Aditya; Mock, Karen E; Lindroth, Richard L; Townsend, Philip A

    2014-01-01

    Fine-scale biodiversity is increasingly recognized as important to ecosystem-level processes. Remote sensing technologies have great potential to estimate both biodiversity and ecosystem function over large spatial scales. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of imaging spectroscopy to discriminate among genotypes of Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), one of the most genetically diverse and widespread forest species in North America. We combine imaging spectroscopy (AVIRIS) data with genetic, phytochemical, microbial and biogeochemical data to determine how intraspecific plant genetic variation influences below-ground processes at landscape scales. We demonstrate that both canopy chemistry and below-ground processes vary over large spatial scales (continental) according to aspen genotype. Imaging spectrometer data distinguish aspen genotypes through variation in canopy spectral signature. In addition, foliar spectral variation correlates well with variation in canopy chemistry, especially condensed tannins. Variation in aspen canopy chemistry, in turn, is correlated with variation in below-ground processes. Variation in spectra also correlates well with variation in soil traits. These findings indicate that forest tree species can create spatial mosaics of ecosystem functioning across large spatial scales and that these patterns can be quantified via remote sensing techniques. Moreover, they demonstrate the utility of using optical properties as proxies for fine-scale measurements of biodiversity over large spatial scales.

  7. ASPEN, the Alberta Special Education Network: Using Appropriate Technology to Bring the Community Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. Leigh; Anthony, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    The Alberta Special Education Network (ASPEN) is a computer-based communications and information network geared to the teaching and learning of exceptional children in rural Alberta, Canada. Network features include toll-free telephone access, a menu-driven user interface, training and awareness, electronic mail, weekly news, forums, and a…

  8. ASPEN Plus in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum: Suitable Course Content and Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstraw, David A.

    2005-01-01

    An established methodology involving the sequential presentation of five skills on ASPEN Plus to undergraduate seniors majoring in ChE is presented in this document: (1) specifying unit operations; (2) manipulating physical properties; (3) accessing variables; (4) specifying nonstandard components; and (5) applying advanced features. This…

  9. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  10. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-06-21

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eugenol levels and up to 22-fold eugenol glycoside levels in leaves of transgenic aspen plants. The overexpression of PhEGS alone resulted in a subtle increase in either eugenol or eugenol glycosides, and the overexpression of both PhCFAT and PhEGS resulted in significant increases in the levels of both eugenol and eugenol glycosides which were nonetheless lower than the increases seen with overexpression of PhCFAT alone. On the other hand, overexpression of PhCFAT in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco did not cause any synthesis of eugenol. These results indicate that aspen leaves, but not Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, have a partially active pathway to eugenol that is limited by the level of CFAT activity and thus the flux of this pathway can be increased by the introduction of a single heterologous gene.

  11. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  12. Using Aspen to Teach Chromatographic Bioprocessing: A Case Study in Weak Partitioning Chromatography for Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven T.; Huang, Xinqun; Cramer, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was employed to study and optimize an important new industrial separation process, weak partitioning chromatography. This case study on antibody purification was implemented in a chromatographic separations course. Parametric simulations were performed to investigate the effect of operating parameters…

  13. Increased saccharification yields from aspen biomass upon treatment with enzymatically generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Shona; Jing, Qing; Katona, Adrian; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Schilling, Jonathan; Tschirner, Ulrike; Aldajani, Waleed Wafa

    2010-03-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic release of sugars (saccharification) currently limits its use as feedstock for biofuels. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated aspen wood releases only 21.8% of the available sugars due primarily to the lignin barrier. Nature uses oxidative enzymes to selectively degrade lignin in lignocellulosic biomass, but thus far, natural enzymes have been too slow for industrial use. In this study, oxidative pretreatment with commercial peracetic acid (470 mM) removed 40% of the lignin (from 19.9 to 12.0 wt.% lignin) from aspen and enhanced the sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to about 90%. Increasing the amount of lignin removed correlated with increasing yields of sugar release. Unfortunately, peracetic acid is expensive, and concentrated forms can be hazardous. To reduce costs and hazards associated with using commercial peracetic acid, we used a hydrolase to catalyze the perhydrolysis of ethyl acetate generating 60-70 mM peracetic acid in situ as a pretreatment to remove lignin from aspen wood. A single pretreatment was insufficient, but multiple cycles (up to eight) removed up to 61.7% of the lignin enabling release of >90% of the sugars during saccharification. This value corresponds to a predicted 581 g of fermentable sugars from 1 kg of aspen wood. Improvements in the enzyme stability are needed before the enzymatically generated peracetic acid is a commercially viable alternative.

  14. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed description of how to implement this integration. The interface between Matlab and Aspen Plus is accomplished by sending the relevant information from Aspen Plus to Excel, which feeds the information to a Matlab routine. Once the Matlab routine processes the information, it is returned to Excel and to Aspen Plus. This paper includes the Excel and Matlab template files so the reader can implement their own simulations. By applying the protocol described here, a hybrid distillation-vapor permeation system has been simulated as an example of the applications that can be implemented. For the hybrid system, the effect of membrane selectivity on membrane area and reboiler duty for the partial dehydration of ethanol is studied. Very high selectivities are not necessarily required for an optimum hybrid distillation and vapor permeation system.

  15. Conifer expansion reduces the competitive ability and herbivore defense of aspen by modifying light environment and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, W John; Horn, Kevin J; St Clair, Samuel B

    2011-06-01

    Disturbance patterns strongly influence plant community structure. What remains less clear, particularly at a mechanistic level, is how changes in disturbance cycles alter successional outcomes in plant communities. There is evidence that fire suppression is resulting in longer fire return intervals in subalpine forests and that these lengthened intervals increase competitive interactions between aspen and conifer species. We conducted a field and greenhouse study to compare photosynthesis, growth and defense responses of quaking aspen and subalpine fir regeneration under light reductions and shifts in soil chemistry that occur as conifers increase in dominance. The studies demonstrated that aspen regeneration was substantially more sensitive to light and soil resource limitations than that of subalpine fir. For aspen, light reductions and/or shifts in soil chemistry limited height growth, biomass gain, photosynthesis and the production of defense compounds (phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins). Biomass gain and phenolic glycoside concentrations were co-limited by light reduction and changes in soil chemistry. In contrast, subalpine fir seedlings tended to be more tolerant of low light conditions and showed no sensitivity to changes in soil chemistry. Unlike aspen, subalpine fir increased its root to shoot ratio on conifer soils, which may partially explain its maintenance of growth and defense. The results suggest that increasing dominance of conifers in subalpine forests alters light conditions and soil chemistry in a way that places greater physiological and growth constraints on aspen than subalpine fir, with a likely outcome being more successful recruitment of conifers and losses in aspen cover.

  16. Disentangling herbivore impacts on Populus tremuloides: a comparison of native ungulates and cattle in Canada's Aspen Parkland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Edward W; Carlyle, Cameron N; Cahill, James F; Haddow, Rae E; Hudson, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Ungulates impact woody species' growth and abundance but little is understood about the comparative impacts of different ungulate species on forest expansion in savanna environments. Replacement of native herbivore guilds with livestock [i.e., beef cattle (Bos taurus)] has been hypothesized as a factor facilitating trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) encroachment into grasslands of the Northern Great Plains. We used a controlled herbivory study in the Parklands of western Canada to compare the impact of native ungulates and cattle on aspen saplings. Native ungulate treatments included a mixed species guild and sequences of herbivory by different ungulates [bison (Bison bison subsp. bison), elk (Cervus elaphus) then deer (Odocoileus hemionus); or deer, elk, then bison]. Herbivory treatments were replicated in three pastures, within which sets of 40 marked aspen saplings (aspen stand. Stems were assessed for mortality and incremental damage (herbivory, leader breakage, stem abrasion and trampling). Final mortality was greater with exposure to any type of herbivore, but remained similar between ungulate treatments. However, among all treatments, the growth of aspen was highest with exposure only to cattle. Herbivory of aspen was attributed primarily to elk within the native ungulate treatments, with other forms of physical damage, and ultimately sapling mortality, associated with exposure to bison. Overall, these results indicate that native ungulates, specifically elk and bison, have more negative impacts on aspen saplings and provide evidence that native and domestic ungulates can have different functional effects on woody plant dynamics in savanna ecosystems.

  17. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and/or O3 on intra- and interspecific competitive ability of aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiske, M E; Quinn, V S; Marquardt, P E; Karnosky, D F

    2007-03-01

    Three model communities of trembling aspen (monoculture, and mixed with either paper birch or sugar maple) were grown for seven years in elevated atmospheric CO(2) and O(3) using Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) technology. We utilized trends in species' importance, calculated as an index of volume growth and survival, as indications of shifting community composition. For the pure aspen communities, different clones emerged as having the highest change in relative importance values depending on the pollutant exposure. In the control and elevated CO(2) treatments, clone 42E was rapidly becoming the most successful clone while under elevated O(3), clone 8 L emerged as the dominant clone. In fact, growth of clone 8 L was greater in the elevated O(3) treatment compared to controls. For the mixed aspen-birch community, importance of aspen and birch changed by - 16 % and + 62 %, respectively, in the controls. In the treatments, however, importance of aspen and birch changed by - 27 % and + 87 %, respectively, in elevated O(3), and by - 10 % and + 45 %, respectively, in elevated CO(2). Thus, the presence of elevated O(3) hastened conversion of stands to paper birch, whereas the presence of elevated CO(2) delayed it. Relative importance of aspen and maple changed by - 2 % and + 3 %, respectively, after seven years in the control treatments. But in elevated O(3), relative importance of aspen and maple changed by - 2 % and + 5 %, respectively, and in elevated CO(2) by + 9 and - 20 %, respectively. Thus, elevated O(3) slightly increases the rate of conversion of aspen stands to sugar maple, but maple is placed at a competitive disadvantage to aspen under elevated CO(2).

  18. Mechanism of eliciting host immunity against cancer cells treated with silica-phthalocyanine-based near infrared photoimmunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-03-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting cancer-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highly-selective necrotic/ immunogenic cell death (ICD) only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cancer cells. This cell death occurs as early as 1 minute after exposure to NIR light. Meanwhile, immediately adjacent receptor-negative cells including immune cells are unharmed. Therefore, we hypothesized that NIR-PIT could efficiently elicit host immunity against treated cancer cells. Three-dimensional dynamic quantitative phase contrast microscopy and selective plane illumination microscopy of tumor cells undergoing PIT showed rapid swelling in treated cells immediately after light exposure suggesting rapid water influx into cells, followed by irreversible morphologic changes such as bleb formation, and rupture of vesicles. Furthermore, biological markers of ICD including relocation of HSP70/90 and calreticulin, and release of ATP and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), were clearly detected immediately after NIR-PIT. When NIR-PIT was performed in a mixture of cancer cells and immature dendritic cells, maturation of immature dendritic cells was strongly induced rapidly after NIR-PIT. In summary, NIR-PIT can induce necrotic/ immunogenic cell death that promotes rapid maturation of immature dendritic cells adjacent to dying cancer cells. Therefore, NIR-PIT could efficiently initiate host immune response against NIR-PIT treated cancer cells growing in patients.

  19. Drought characteristics drive patterns in widespread aspen forest mortality across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, W.; Anderegg, L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Berry, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Widespread drought-induced forest mortality has been documented across the globe in the last few decades and influences land-atmosphere interactions, biodiversity, carbon sequestration, and biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to climate change. These rapid mortality events are currently not well-captured in current vegetation models, limiting the ability to predict them. While many studies have focused on the plant physiological mechanisms that mediate vegetation mortality, the characteristics of drought seasonality, sequence, severity and duration that drive mortality events have received much less attention. These characteristics are particularly relevant in light of changing precipitation regimes, changes to snowpack and snowmelt, and increasing temperature stress associated with climate change. We examine the characteristics of drought associated with the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) across much of the western United States. We combine a regional model of watershed-level aspen mortality with in situ tissue isotopic analysis of water source to analyze the roles of drought seasonality, severity, and duration in this mortality event, including raw climate variables, derived drought indices, and variables generated by a climate envelope approach. We found that variables pertaining to spring temperatures and spring-summer water deficit, especially during the peak severity of drought, best capture regional mortality patterns, though multi-year drought variables did improve the model. Field water isotopic analysis of aspen water source over a growing season and during moderate seasonal water stress corroborate the regional model by indicating that aspen clones generally utilize surface water with little plasticity during drought stress. These results suggest that drought characteristics can play an important role in mediating widespread forest mortality and have implications for the future vulnerability of trembling aspen

  20. Effects of widespread drought-induced aspen mortality on understory plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, William R L; Anderegg, Leander D L; Sherman, Clare; Karp, Daniel S

    2012-12-01

    Forest die-off around the world is expected to increase in coming decades as temperature increases due to climate change. Forest die-off will likely affect understory plant communities, which have substantial influence on regional biological diversity, ecosystem function, and land-atmosphere interactions, but how die-off alters these plant communities is largely unknown. We examined changes in understory plant communities following a widespread, drought-induced die-off of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the western United States. We assessed shrub and herbaceous cover and volume in quadrats in 55 plots located across a wide range of levels of aspen mortality. We measured species richness and composition of herbaceous plant communities by recording species presence and absence in 12 sets of paired (1 healthy, 1 dying) aspen plots. Although understory composition in healthy and dying stands was heterogeneous across the landscape, shrub abundance, cover, and volume were higher and abundance of herbaceous species, cover, and volume were lower in dying aspen stands. Shrub cover and volume increased from 2009 to 2011 in dying stands, which suggests that shrub growth and expansion is ongoing. Species richness of herbs declined by 23% in dying stands. Composition of herbs differed significantly between dying and healthy stands. Richness of non-native species did not differ between stand types. The understory community in dying aspen stands was not similar to other shrub-dominated plant communities in the region and may constitute a novel community. Our results suggest that changes in understory plant communities as forests die off could be a significant indirect effect of climate change on biological diversity and forest communities.

  1. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis.

  2. Closing the loop: an interactive action-research conference format for delivering updated medical information while eliciting Latina patient/family experiences and psychosocial needs post-genetic cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Deborah J; Deri, Julia; Ricker, Charité; Perez, Martin A; Ogaz, Raquel; Feldman, Nancy; Viveros, Lori A; Paz, Benjamin; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Blazer, Kathleen R

    2012-09-01

    A patient/family-centered conference was conducted at an underserved community hospital to address Latinas' post-genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) medical information and psychosocial support needs, and determine the utility of the action research format. Latinas seen for GCRA were recruited to a half-day conference conducted in Spanish. Content was partly determined from follow-up survey feedback. Written surveys, interactive discussions, and Audience Response System (ARS) queries facilitated the participant-healthcare professional action research process. Analyses included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The 71 attendees (41 patients and 27 relatives/friends) were primarily non-US born Spanish-speaking females, mean age 43 years. Among patients, 73 % had a breast cancer history; 85 % had BRCA testing (49 % BRCA+). Nearly all (96 %) attendees completed the conference surveys and ARS queries; ≥48 % participated in interactive discussions. Most (95 %) agreed that the format met their personal interests and expectations and provided useful information and resources. Gaps/challenges identified in the GCRA process included pre-consult anxiety, uncertainty about reason for referral and expected outcomes, and psychosocial needs post-GCRA, such as absorbing and disseminating risk information to relatives and concurrently coping with a recent cancer diagnosis. The combined action research and educational conference format was innovative and effective for responding to continued patient information needs and addressing an important data gap about support needs of Latina patients and family members following genetic cancer risk assessment. Findings informed GCRA process improvements and provide a basis for theory-driven cancer control research.

  3. Development of InCVAX as a novel in situ autologous vaccine for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hode, Tomas; Alleruzzo, Luciano; Raker, Joseph; Lam, Samuel Siu Kit; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2016-03-01

    A novel method, an in situ autologous whole-cell cancer vaccine (inCVAX), is being developed by Immunophotonics, Inc., for the treatment of metastatic cancers. inCVAX combines phototherapy and immunotherapy to potentially induce a systemic anti-tumor immune response in the hosts. Immunophotonics and its academic partners have spent years conducting nonclinical research, developing CMC techniques and conducting clinical research. In 2015 the company initiated a late-stage (II/III) clinical trial in South America for advanced breast cancer patients. The process of developing the inCVAX approach from a laboratory setting into clinical trials requires significant efforts from a group of dedicated engineers, scientists, and physicians. The growth of the company and its business advances demonstrated the determination of a group of visionary investors, entrepreneurs, and business leaders. This talk will chronicle the milestones of the scientific achievement, medical progress, and business development of Immunophotonics.

  4. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  5. 利用Aspen Plus 7.3进行严格精馏过程模拟%The Simulation of Strict Distillation Process Using Aspen Plus 7.3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创

    2014-01-01

    化工过程模拟是通过计算机对化工生产过程的再现,由于计算量大,必须通过相应的化工模拟软件来实现.Aspen Plus,尤其是Aspen Plus 7.3,由于其计算精确、运行速度快,成为化工设计者的首选软件.本文通过介绍利用Aspen Plus 7.3进行严格精馏模拟,说明了严格精馏模拟的应用范围以及利用Aspen Plus 7.3进行严格精馏模拟的方法.

  6. BRCA1 R1699Q variant displaying ambiguous functional abrogation confers intermediate breast and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Whiley, Phillip J; Thompson, Bryony

    2012-01-01

    Clinical classification of rare sequence changes identified in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 is essential for appropriate genetic counselling of individuals carrying these variants. We previously showed that variant BRCA1 c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln in the BRCA1 transcriptional...

  7. International Conference on Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Teresa; Rigas, Alexandros; Gulati, Sneh

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest results in the field of risk analysis. Presented topics include probabilistic models in cancer research, models and methods in longevity, epidemiology of cancer risk, engineering reliability and economical risk problems. The contributions of this volume originate from the 5th International Conference on Risk Analysis (ICRA 5). The conference brought together researchers and practitioners working in the field of risk analysis in order to present new theoretical and computational methods with applications in biology, environmental sciences, public health, economics and finance.

  8. Modeling extracellular matrix (ECM) alterations in ovarian cancer by multiphoton excited fabrication of stromal models (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Paul J.; Ajeti, Visar; Lara, Jorge; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Patankar, Mansh

    2016-04-01

    A profound remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs in human ovarian cancer but it unknown how this affects tumor growth, where this understanding could lead to better diagnostics and therapeutic approaches. We investigate the role of these ECM alterations by using multiphoton excited (MPE) polymerization to fabricate biomimetic models to investigate operative cell-matrix interactions in invasion/metastasis. First, we create nano/microstructured gradients mimicking the basal lamina to study adhesion/migration dynamics of ovarian cancer cells of differing metastatic potential. We find a strong haptotactic response that depends on both contact guidance and ECM binding cues. While we found enhanced migration for more invasive cells, the specifics of alignment and directed migration also depend on cell polarity. We further use MPE fabrication to create collagen scaffolds with complex, 3D submicron morphology. The stromal scaffold designs are derived directly from "blueprints" based on SHG images of normal, high risk, and malignant ovarian tissues. The models are seeded with different cancer cell lines and this allows decoupling of the roles of cell characteristics (metastatic potential) and ECM structure and composition (normal vs cancer) on adhesion/migration dynamics. We found the malignant stroma structure promotes enhanced migration and proliferation and also cytoskeletal alignment. Creating synthetic models based on fibers patterns further allows decoupling the topographic roles of the fibers themselves vs their alignment within the tissue. These models cannot be synthesized by other conventional fabrication methods and we suggest the MPE image-based fabrication method will enable a variety of studies in cancer biology.

  9. Aspen Plus Software Applies to Technological Transformation of Trichlorosilane Synthesis%Aspen Plus软件在三氯氢硅低压合成技术改造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴平

    2014-01-01

    利用化工模拟软件Aspen Plus对三氯氢硅合成装置进行全流程模拟,并在此基础上完成了该系统的技术改造.Aspen Plus软件为系统工艺改造提供了可靠的基础数据,大大提高了改造的成功性.

  10. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 2:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  11. How to Create, Modify, and Interface Aspen In-House and User Databanks for System Configuration 1:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D W

    2000-10-27

    The goal of this document is to provide detailed instructions to create, modify, interface, and test Aspen User and In-House databanks with minimal frustration. The level of instructions are aimed at a novice Aspen Plus simulation user who is neither a programming nor computer-system expert. The instructions are tailored to Version 10.1 of Aspen Plus and the specific computing configuration summarized in the Title of this document and detailed in Section 2. Many details of setting up databanks depend on the computing environment specifics, such as the machines, operating systems, command languages, directory structures, inter-computer communications software, the version of the Aspen Engine and Graphical User Interface (GUI), and the directory structure of how these were installed.

  12. Influence of Lateral Flow on the Predisposition of Aspen Mortality during Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, X.; Mackay, D. S.; Anderegg, W.; Sperry, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Lateral subsurface flow can be critical to understanding the spatial soil moisture availability to plants, and when, where, and how drought are influencing individual plants. The concentration of intensive aspen damage in certain hillslopes with higher temperature and lower soil moisture suggests that soil augmentation/reduction from lateral redistribution could help explain the survivability of some aspen through its influence on soil water availability during drought. It remains unclear how lateral water redistribution helps to limit hydraulic impairment of aspen located in different topographic positions during a drought event. This study employed an integrated ecohydrology model, TREES, combining plant-water balance and canopy physiology, to examine the potential effects of lateral flow on hydraulic and metabolic performance of aspen, by exposing trees to a set of soil water conditions associated with different levels of water stress. Sap flux, soil moisture, meteorological and plant hydraulic data from aspen trees in Colorado that died (SAD) and those that lived were used to parameterize the model. Our goal was to quantify the extent to which lateral flow explained sudden aspen dieback. The results indicate that the predisposition of tree mortality is related to the level of soil water augmentation. A reduction of 30% soil water content could introduce 21.55% increase in the loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), 23.6% loss in canopy transpiration, 21.7% loss in GPP. It would also cause the frequency of greater than 50% PLC to increase from 42.1% of the time to 51% of the time, and the frequency of hitting the 88% PLC pressure to increase from 11% to 14% of the time. On the other hand, an augment of 30% soil water content could introduce 20.2% reduction in PLC, 16.4% gain in canopy transpiration, 16.5% gain in GPP. The frequency of greater than 50% PLC is reduced to 31% of the time and the frequency of hitting the 88% PLC pressure is reduced to 6% of the time

  13. Transcriptome responses to aluminum stress in roots of aspen (Populus tremula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Nadine

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ionic aluminum (mainly Al3+ is rhizotoxic and can be present in acid soils at concentrations high enough to inhibit root growth. Many forest tree species grow naturally in acid soils and often tolerate high concentrations of Al. Previously, we have shown that aspen (Populus tremula releases citrate and oxalate from roots in response to Al exposure. To obtain further insights into the root responses of aspen to Al, we investigated root gene expression at Al conditions that inhibit root growth. Results Treatment of the aspen roots with 500 μM Al induced a strong inhibition of root growth within 6 h of exposure time. The root growth subsequently recovered, reaching growth rates comparable to that of control plants. Changes in gene expression were determined after 6 h, 2 d, and 10 d of Al exposure. Replicated transcriptome analyses using the Affymetrix poplar genome array revealed a total of 175 significantly up-regulated and 69 down-regulated genes, of which 70% could be annotated based on Arabidopsis genome resources. Between 6 h and 2 d, the number of responsive genes strongly decreased from 202 to 26, and then the number of changes remained low. The responses after 6 h were characterized by genes involved in cell wall modification, ion transport, and oxidative stress. Two genes with prolonged induction were closely related to the Arabidopsis Al tolerance genes ALS3 (for Al sensitive 3 and MATE (for multidrug and toxin efflux protein, mediating citrate efflux. Patterns of expression in different plant organs and in response to Al indicated that the two aspen genes are homologs of the Arabidopsis ALS3 and MATE. Conclusion Exposure of aspen roots to Al results in a rapid inhibition of root growth and a large change in root gene expression. The subsequent root growth recovery and the concomitant reduction in the number of responsive genes presumably reflect the success of the roots in activating Al tolerance mechanisms. The

  14. Gold nanorods coupled with upconverting nanophosphors for targeted thermal ablation and imaging of bladder cancer cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suehyun K.; Su, Lih-Jen; Flaig, Thomas W.; Park, Wounjhang

    2016-09-01

    NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconverting nanophosphors (UCNPs) are robust and stable nanoparticles that absorb near-infrared (NIR) photons and emit green and red visible photons through energy transfer upconversion. This mechanism provides UCNPs several advantages as a bioimaging agent over traditional fluorescence imaging agent in that NIR excitation allows high-contrast imaging without autofluorescence and that they can be used for deep-tissue imaging. However, additional surface modification of UCNPs is necessary for them to be biocompatible. We use an amphiphilic polymer (poly(maleic anhydride-alt-octadecene) (PMAO) and a hetero-functional polyethylene glycol with amine and thiol ends (NH2-PEG-SH)) to make the UCNPs water-soluble. This reaction yields a carboxylic group that allows functionalization with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (aEGFR), which provides specific binding of UCNPs to EGFR-expressing bladder cancer cells. Additionally, the thiol ends of the PEGylated UCNPs are able to bind with gold nanorods (AuNRs) to create UCNP-AuNR complexes. The localized surface plasmon of the AuNR then allow localized heating of HTB9 bladder cancer cells, enabling in situ cell killing upon detection by UCNP fluorescence. Here, we report a successful synthesis, surface modification and conjugation of aEGFR functionalized UCNP-AuNR complexes and in vitro imaging and thermal ablation studies using them. Synthesis and surface modification of UCNP-AuNR complexes are confirmed by electron microscopy. Then, a combination of brightfield, NIR confocal fluorescence, and darkfield microscopy on the UCNP-AuNR treated bladder cancer cells revealed successful cancer targeting and imaging capabilities of the complex. Finally, cell viability assay showed that NIR irradiation of UCNP-AuNR conjugated cells resulted highly selective cell killing.

  15. Highlights from the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 in Vienna: Dealing with classification, prognostication, and prediction refinement to personalize the treatment of patients with early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The refinement of the classification, the risk of relapse and the prediction of response to multidisciplinary treatment for early breast cancer has been the major theme of the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference 2015. The meeting, held in Vienna, assembled 3500–4000 participants from 134 countries worldwide. It culminated, on the final day, with the International Consensus Session, delivered by 40–50 of the world’s most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The panelist addressed the “semantic” classification of breast cancer subtypes by pathology-based biomarkers (e.g. estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2) vs genomic classifiers. They also refined the biomarker prognostication dissecting the impact of the various gene signatures and pathologic variables in predicting the outcome of patients with early breast cancer in terms of early and late relapse. Finally they addressed the challenges stemming from the intra- and inter-observer variability in the assessment of pathologic variables and the role of gene signatures for the prediction of response to specific therapeutic approach such as endocrine therapy and chemotherapy and for personalizing local treatment of patients with early breast cancer. The vast majority of the questions asked during the consensus were about controversial issues. The opinion of the panel members has been used to implement guidance for treatment choice. This is the unique feature of the St. Gallen Consensus, ensuring that the resulting recommendations will take due cognizance of the variable resource limitations in different countries. Information derived from evidence based medicine and large meta-analyses is of obvious and enormous value. The weakness of this approach is that it gives particular weight to older trials (which have accumulated more event endpoints) and is frequently unable to collect sufficient detail on the patients and tumors in the trials

  16. Highlights from the 14(th) St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 in Vienna: Dealing with classification, prognostication, and prediction refinement to personalize the treatment of patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The refinement of the classification, the risk of relapse and the prediction of response to multidisciplinary treatment for early breast cancer has been the major theme of the 14(th) St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference 2015. The meeting, held in Vienna, assembled 3500-4000 participants from 134 countries worldwide. It culminated, on the final day, with the International Consensus Session, delivered by 40-50 of the world's most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The panelist addressed the "semantic" classification of breast cancer subtypes by pathology-based biomarkers (e.g. estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2) vs genomic classifiers. They also refined the biomarker prognostication dissecting the impact of the various gene signatures and pathologic variables in predicting the outcome of patients with early breast cancer in terms of early and late relapse. Finally they addressed the challenges stemming from the intra- and inter-observer variability in the assessment of pathologic variables and the role of gene signatures for the prediction of response to specific therapeutic approach such as endocrine therapy and chemotherapy and for personalizing local treatment of patients with early breast cancer. The vast majority of the questions asked during the consensus were about controversial issues. The opinion of the panel members has been used to implement guidance for treatment choice. This is the unique feature of the St. Gallen Consensus, ensuring that the resulting recommendations will take due cognizance of the variable resource limitations in different countries. Information derived from evidence based medicine and large meta-analyses is of obvious and enormous value. The weakness of this approach is that it gives particular weight to older trials (which have accumulated more event endpoints) and is frequently unable to collect sufficient detail on the patients and tumors in the trials to allow

  17. Technological Simulation and Optimizing Design of Atmospheric Distillation Column by ASPEN PLUS Software%ASPEN PLUS模拟常压塔装置设计优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘呈军

    2013-01-01

    本文采用ASPEN PLUS软件对大庆原油常压塔部分操作工况进行了工艺模拟计算.模拟结果表明,实际操作中的塔操作条件、总物料平衡、产品质量等指标与工艺设计吻合较好,为大型常压塔的设计选型提供了参考依据.

  18. 工业系统流程模拟利器--ASPEN PLUS%Introduction of a Useful Industrial Flowsheet Simulation Program, ASPEN PLUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琛琛

    2003-01-01

    流程模拟软件的功效在于依托精确的模型、科学的计算方法对单元和系统进行计算和高效的优化设计.在已经开发成功的模拟软件中,ASPEN PLUS是比较先进的,在大型化工和热工系统模拟中更展现了它的优势.概括介绍了这款软件的功能和使用方法.

  19. Process simulation for the rectification of vinyl chloride based on ASPEN PLUS%基于ASPEN PLUS的氯乙烯精馏过程的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群生; 刘阳

    2008-01-01

    应用ASPEN PLUS化工模拟系统中的RADFRAC精馏模块对氯乙烯精馏中的高低沸塔进行模拟,模拟值与实际值基本吻合.讨论了回流比、进料位置、馏出比等参数对精馏的影响,获得了对氯乙烯精馏具有指导意义的相关工艺数据.

  20. Simulation analysis of distillation of dichloroethane by using ASPEN PLUS%二氯乙烷精馏过程的ASPEN PLUS模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱启蒙

    2015-01-01

    利用化工流程模拟软件Aspen Plus对二氯乙烷(EDC)精制单元进行模拟研究.针对工艺流程改变后EDC纯度不达标的问题,提出了新的模拟优化方案.模拟结果表明:通过将脱重塔部分出料重新送入脱轻塔,改变脱轻塔进料组成,能有效提高EDC纯度.

  1. The efficacy of six elite isolates of the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum against the sprouting of European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Hantula, Jarkko

    2016-04-15

    The sprouting of broad-leaved trees after cutting is problematic in forest regeneration areas, along roads and railways, under electric power and above gas pipe lines. In Finland, one of the most difficult species to control in these areas is the European aspen (Populus tremula), which produces both stump sprouts and root suckers after saplings have been cut. In this study, we investigated whether a decay fungus of broad-leaved trees, Chondrostereum purpureum, could be used as a biological control agent against aspen sprouting. The efficacy of six elite strains of C. purpureum (improved earlier in a breeding process) was investigated on aspen for three years. The most efficient C. purpureum strain, R53, tested earlier on birch (Betula pendula and B. pubescens), was efficient in causing mortality of aspen stumps and preventing the development of root suckers. With this strain, stump mortality was 78%, while significantly lower in control stumps which were cut only (47%). Aspen trees in the vicinity of the treatments (within a 10 m radius around each sapling) decreased the efficacy of C. purpureum. This study shows that the decay fungus C. purpureum can successfully be used in the sprout control of aspen saplings.

  2. Mendel conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected accepted papers of Mendel conference that has been held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2015. The book contents three chapters which represent recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing and bio-inspired robotics.: Chapter 1: Evolutionary Computing, and Swarm intelligence, Chapter 2: Neural Networks, Self-organization, and Machine Learning, and Chapter3: Intelligent Image Processing, and Bio-inspired Robotics. The Mendel conference was established in 1995, and it carries the name of the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. In 2015 we are commemorating 150 years since Mendel's lectures, which he presented in Brno on February and March 1865. The main aim of the conference was to create a periodical possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange their ideas and novel research methods.  .

  3. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. de; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Ares, L.P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the Amst

  4. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. De; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  5. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  6. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A...

  7. Conference Notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Roskill Information Services and Metal Events Ltd areorganizing the 2nd International Rare Earths Conference,which will be held at the Conrad Hotel in Hong Kong onFebruary 28 to March 2 2006.The program is structured tocover all the main aspects of the rare earths industry,including development of Chinese rare earth industry; trendsin rare earths demand; potential constraints on supply;research on potential capacity of rare earths supply chain.Global rare earths consumers will attend the conference.Registra...

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of aspen biomass into fermentable sugars by using lignocellulases from Armillaria gemina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Kim, Tae-Su; Li, Jinglin; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-04-01

    A white rot fungus, identified as Armillaria gemina SKU2114 on the basis of morphological and phylogenetic analyses, was found to secrete efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. The strain showed maximum endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and β-glucosidase activities of 146, 34, and 15 U/mL, respectively, and also secreted xylanase, laccase, mannanase, and lignin peroxidase with activities of 1270, 0.16, 57, and 0.31 U/mL, respectively, when grown with rice straw as a carbon source. Among various plant biomasses tested for saccharification, aspen biomass produced the maximum amount of reducing sugar. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the hydrolysis of aspen biomass to achieve the highest level of sugar production. A maximum saccharification yield of 62% (429 mg/g-substrate) was obtained using Populus tomentiglandulosa biomass after 48 h of hydrolysis. A. gemina was shown to be a good option for use in the production of reducing sugars from lignocellulosic biomass.

  9. Lignin depolymerization/repolymerization and its critical role for delignification of aspen wood by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiebing; Henriksson, Gunnar; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2007-11-01

    Steam explosion is an important process for the fractionation of biomass components. In order to understand the behaviour of lignin under the conditions encountered in the steam explosion process, as well as in other types of steam treatment, aspen wood and isolated lignin from aspen were subjected to steam treatment under various conditions. The lignin portion was analyzed using NMR and size exclusion chromatography as major analytical techniques. Thereby, the competition between lignin depolymerization and repolymerization was revealed and the conditions required for these two types of reaction identified. Addition of a reactive phenol, 2-naphthol, was shown to inhibit the repolymerization reaction strongly, resulting in a highly improved delignification by subsequent solvent extraction and an extracted lignin of uniform structure.

  10. Standardized Competencies for Parenteral Nutrition Order Review and Parenteral Nutrition Preparation, Including Compounding: The ASPEN Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi

    2016-08-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff.

  11. Aspen Plus软件在工业上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛毓

    2014-01-01

    Aspen Plus软件是一款重要的工流程模拟软件,该软件应用范围广泛,在传热领域、精馏领域以及化工领域等方面都有应用,尤其是在化工模拟领域应用最广。本文主要对Aspen Plus软件功能进行了介绍,介绍了该软件在工业上的应用情况,并重点介绍了其在化工行业的应用。

  12. THE FOREST-ATMOSPHERIC CARBON TRANSFER AND STORAGE-II (FACTS-II): ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KARNOSKY,D.F.; HENDREY,G.; PREGITZER,K.; ISEBRANDS,J.G.

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (ASPEN FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE [Free-Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment] rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  13. The Forest-Atmospheric Carbon Transfer and Storage-II (FACTS-II): Aspen FACE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, D.F.; Pregitzer, K. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products; Hendrey, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Isebrands, J.G. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The FACTS II (Aspen FACE) infrastructure including 12 FACE rings, a central control facility, a central CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} receiving and storage area, a central O{sub 3} generation system, and a dispensing system for CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} was completed in 1997. The FACE rings were planted with over 10,000 plants (aspen, birch and maple). The entire system was thoroughly tested for both CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and was shown to be effective in delivering elevated CO{sub 2} and/or O{sub 3} on demand and at predetermined set points. The NCASI support to date has been extremely helpful in matching support for federal grants.

  14. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  15. Vegetation, land surface brightness, and temperature dynamics after aspen forest die-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cho-ying; Anderegg, William R. L.

    2014-07-01

    Forest dynamics following drought-induced tree mortality can affect regional climate through biophysical surface properties. These dynamics have not been well quantified, particularly at the regional scale, and are a large uncertainty in ecosystem-climate feedback. We investigated regional biophysical characteristics through time (1995-2011) in drought-impacted (2001-2003), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests by utilizing Landsat time series green and brown vegetation cover, surface brightness (total shortwave albedo), and daytime land surface temperature. We quantified the temporal dynamics and postdrought recovery of these characteristics for aspen forests experiencing severe drought-induced mortality in the San Juan National Forest in southwestern Colorado, USA. We partitioned forests into three categories from healthy to severe mortality (Healthy, Intermediate, and Die-off) by referring to field observations of aspen canopy mortality and live aboveground biomass losses. The vegetation cover of die-off areas in 2011 (26.9% of the aspen forest) was significantly different compared to predrought conditions (decrease of 7.4% of the green vegetation cover and increase of 12.1% of the brown vegetation cover compared to 1999). The surface brightness of the study region 9 years after drought however was comparable to predrought estimates (12.7-13.7%). Postdrought brightness was potentially influenced by understory shrubs, since they became the top layer green canopies in disturbed sites from a satellite's point of view. Satellite evidence also showed that the differences of land surface temperature among the three groups increased substantially (≥45%) after drought, possibly due to the reduction of plant evapotranspiration in the Intermediate and Die-off sites. Our results suggest that the mortality-affected systems have not recovered in terms of the surface biophysical properties. We also find that the temporal dynamics of vegetation cover holds

  16. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  17. The Impact of Nitrogen Limitation and Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Aspen Tree Growth and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Bich Thi Ngoc [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2014-08-18

    Nitrogen deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional deficiency affecting plants worldwide. Ectromycorrhizal symbiosis involves the beneficial interaction of plants with soil fungi and plays a critical role in nutrient cycling, including the uptake of nitrogen from the environment. The main goal of this study is to understand how limiting nitrogen in the presence or absence of an ectomycorrhizal fungi, Laccaria bicolor, affects the health of aspen trees, Populus temuloides.

  18. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  19. Bryophyte species richness on retention aspens recovers in time but community structure does not.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oldén

    Full Text Available Green-tree retention is a forest management method in which some living trees are left on a logged area. The aim is to offer 'lifeboats' to support species immediately after logging and to provide microhabitats during and after forest re-establishment. Several studies have shown immediate decline in bryophyte diversity after retention logging and thus questioned the effectiveness of this method, but longer term studies are lacking. Here we studied the epiphytic bryophytes on European aspen (Populus tremula L. retention trees along a 30-year chronosequence. We compared the bryophyte flora of 102 'retention aspens' on 14 differently aged retention sites with 102 'conservation aspens' on 14 differently aged conservation sites. We used a Bayesian community-level modelling approach to estimate the changes in bryophyte species richness, abundance (area covered and community structure during 30 years after logging. Using the fitted model, we estimated that two years after logging both species richness and abundance of bryophytes declined, but during the following 20-30 years both recovered to the level of conservation aspens. However, logging-induced changes in bryophyte community structure did not fully recover over the same time period. Liverwort species showed some or low potential to benefit from lifeboating and high potential to re-colonise as time since logging increases. Most moss species responded similarly, but two cushion-forming mosses benefited from the logging disturbance while several weft- or mat-forming mosses declined and did not re-colonise in 20-30 years. We conclude that retention trees do not function as equally effective lifeboats for all bryophyte species but are successful in providing suitable habitats for many species in the long-term. To be most effective, retention cuts should be located adjacent to conservation sites, which may function as sources of re-colonisation and support the populations of species that require old

  20. Parity and Short-Term Estradiol Treatment Utilizes Similar Cellular Mechanisms to Confer Protection Against Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Arumugam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protective effect of early pregnancy and short-term estrogen treatment (STET, against breast cancer is well established. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we compared the mammary gland cellular microenvironment influenced/induced by parity and STET alongside age-matched controls. Methods: Parous, STET, and control rats were injected with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea at 15 weeks and monitored for the development of mammary cancer. A subset of 4 rats were killed five weeks post carcinogen treatment and mammary gland samples were isolated and subjected to molecular analysis. Results: Our results demonstrated a reduction in cell survival, extracellular matrix associated proliferation, hormonal and growth factor receptor pathways in the experimental groups compared to control rats. Moreover, concomitant reductions in the EMT markers along with cell migration regulators were also observed in parous and STET groups. Hormonal receptor such as GHR, PR, ERα and growth factor receptors IGFR, EGFR and erbB2 were down regulated in the treatment groups. Further analysis revealed that parity and STET drastically reduced the expression, activation of JAK2 and nuclear localization of STATs. Conclusion: Parity and STET by targeting major cell signaling pathways involved in cell survival, cell migration and cell death reduces the mammary tumor promoting environment.

  1. Conference Report: CAQD Conference 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Silver

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nestled on the banks of the river Lahn in central Germany, the 15th CAQD conference was held at Marburg. A beautiful provincial town, it is one of very few that was spared the bombings of WWII; now providing the perfect backdrop for meeting to discuss developments in qualitative technology. This was the second international conference in the series with more than 140 delegates from 14 countries, including: Canada, Brazil, Portugal, the UK, as well as Germany. Hosted by MAGMA, the Marburg Research Group for Methodology and Evaluation, in partnership with Philipps-University Marburg, CAQD prioritizes a user-focus which balances practical and methodological workshops with conference presentations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302249

  2. Testing Transgenic Aspen Plants with bar Gene for Herbicide Resistance under Semi-natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V G; Faskhiev, V N; Kovalenko, N P; Shestibratov, K A; Miroshnikov, A I

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining herbicide resistant plants is an important task in the genetic engineering of forest trees. Transgenic European aspen plants (Populus tremula L.) expressing the bar gene for phosphinothricin resistance have been produced using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Successful genetic transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis for thirteen lines derived from two elite genotypes. In 2014-2015, six lines were evaluated for resistance to herbicide treatment under semi-natural conditions. All selected transgenic lines were resistant to the herbicide Basta at doses equivalent to 10 l/ha (twofold normal field dosage) whereas the control plants died at 2.5 l/ha. Foliar NH4-N concentrations in transgenic plants did not change after treatment. Extremely low temperatures in the third ten-day period of October 2014 revealed differences in freeze tolerance between the lines obtained from Pt of f2 aspen genotypes. Stable expression of the bar gene after overwintering outdoors was confirmed by RT-PCR. On the basis of the tests, four transgenic aspen lines were selected. The bar gene could be used for retransformation of transgenic forest trees expressing valuable traits, such as increased productivity.

  3. Methods to inventory and strip thin in dense stands of aspen root suckers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Headlee WL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspen and their hybrids have demonstrated high biomass productivity and can produce abundant regeneration in the form of root suckers. This makes aspen particularly intriguing for bio-energy production, because replanting costs can be avoided and additional biomass can be obtained by thinning the regenerating stands. Mechanical strip thinning (removal of stems in parallel strips has been proposed as a fast and efficient method for capturing biomass that would otherwise be lost to mortality in such stands. However, determining the appropriate width for the residual rows is challenging, due to the difficulty of conducting inventories with traditional sampling tools and the variability in gap sizes between root suckers in the residual rows. In this study, we describe the development and testing of a simple inventory tool that may be used to conduct either fixed-area or variable-radius sampling in these stands. Also described is the development and testing of an equation that uses such inventory data along with Poisson distribution theory to predict the size of the largest gap between root suckers within residual rows, which in turn can be used to inform strip thinning operations. Based on the promising results of our limited tests, we encourage further evaluation of these methods with regeneration from planted and natural aspen stands, as well as other root suckering species.

  4. Phosphate removal by refined aspen wood fiber treated with carboxymethyl cellulose and ferrous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thomas L; Min, Soo-Hong; Han, James S

    2006-12-01

    Biomass-based filtration media are of interest as an economical means to remove pollutants and nutrients found in stormwater runoff. Refined aspen wood fiber samples treated with iron salt solutions demonstrated limited capacities to remove (ortho)phosphate from test solutions. To provide additional sites for iron complex formation, and thereby impart a greater capacity for phosphate removal, a fiber pretreatment with an aqueous solution of a non-toxic anionic polymer, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), was evaluated. Problems with excessive viscosities during the screening of commercially available CMC products led to the selection of an ultra low viscosity CMC product that was still usable at a 4% concentration in water. Soxhlet extractions of chipped aspen wood and refined aspen wood fiber samples showed a higher extractives content for the refined material. Analysis of these extracts by FTIR spectroscopy suggested that the higher extractives content for the refined material resulted from the fragmentation of cell wall polymers (e.g., lignin, hemicelluloses) normally insoluble in their native states. Spectroscopic analysis of CMC and ferrous chloride treated fibers showed that the complex formed was sufficiently stable to resist removal during subsequent water washes. Equilibrium sorption data, which fit better with a Freundlich isotherm model than a Langmuir isotherm model, showed that phosphate removal could be enhanced by the CMC pretreatment. Results suggest that the process outlined may provide a facile means to improve the phosphate removal capacity of biomass-based stormwater filtration media.

  5. Drought-induced xylem pit membrane damage in aspen and balsam poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillabrand, Rachel M; Hacke, Uwe G; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-10-01

    Drought induces an increase in a tree's vulnerability to a loss of its hydraulic conductivity in many tree species, including two common in western Canada, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Termed 'cavitation fatigue' or 'air-seeding fatigue', the mechanism of this phenomenon is not well understood, but hypothesized to be a result of damage to xylem pit membranes. To examine the validity of this hypothesis, the effect of drought on the porosity of pit membranes in aspen and balsam poplar was investigated. Controlled drought and bench dehydration treatments were used to induce fatigue and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image pit membranes for relative porosity evaluations from air-dried samples after ethanol dehydration. A significant increase in the diameter of the largest pore was found in the drought and dehydration treatments of aspen, while an increase in the percentage of porous pit membranes was found in the dehydration treatments of both species. Additionally, the location of the largest pore per pit membrane was observed to tend toward the periphery of the membrane.

  6. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric C. Xu; Yajun Zhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes.The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  7. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS BETWEEN BIRCH CHEMICAL MECHANICAL PULPS AND ASPEN BLEACHED KRAFT PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EricC.Xu; YajunZhou

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, two different grades of birch chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) pulps and aspen market bleached kraft pulp were compared by low consistency refining of the pulps separately and in different combinations. In addition, the separately refined pulps were also combined to compare with the pulps from the co-refined pulp blend. The results showed that in both cases there were synergistic effects between the two types of pulps: adding the birch P-RC APMP pulp to the aspen kraft pulp improved pulp properties, and the resultant pulp blends had a higher fiber bonding strength (tensile and tensile energy absorption) than the sum of weighted contributions from the individual components. Understanding this synergistic effect between chemical mechanical (P-RC APMP) and kraft pulps can help to improve their applications and performances in various papermaking processes. The results also showed that introducing, at least up to certain percentage of, the birch P-RC APMP pulp into the aspen bleached kraft pulp not only improves optical and bulk properties, but also maintains or improves tensile strength, even though the P-RC APMP pulp used has lower tensile than the kraft pulp.

  8. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BIRCH AND ASPEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Kocaefe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The high temperature treatment of wood is one of the alternatives to chemical treatment. During this process, the wood is heated to higher temperatures than those of conventional drying. The wood structure changes due to decomposition of hemicelluloses, ramification of lignin, and crystallization of cellulose. The wood becomes less hygroscopic. These changes improve the dimensional stability of wood, increase its resistance to micro-organisms, darken its color, and modify its hardness. However, wood also might loose some of its elasticity. Consequently, the heat treatment conditions have to be optimized. Therefore, it is important to understand the transformation of the chemical structure of wood caused by the treatment. In this study, the modification of the surface composition of the wood was followed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and inverse gas chromatography (IGC under different experimental conditions. The effect of maximum treatment temperatures on the chemical composition of Canadian birch and aspen as well as the correlations between their chemical transformation and different mechanical properties are presented. FTIR analysis results showed that the heat treatment affected the chemical composition of birch more compared to that of aspen. The results of IGC tests illustrated that the surfaces of the aspen and birch became more basic with heat treatment. The mechanical properties were affected by degradation of hemicellulose, ramification of lignin and cellulose crystallization.

  9. DECAY RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL HEAT TREATED ASPEN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Bazyar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The decay resistance of oil-heat treated aspen wood (Populus tremula l. against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor and brown rot fungi (Coniophora puteana was investigated. Three different temperature stages and two time levels for oil heat treatment for the selection of optimum conditions were determined. Linseed oil as a heating medium was used. The mass loss of treated samples that were exposed to both fungi was significantly lower than that of the control samples. Results also showed improvement in dimensional stability after oil heat treatment. Decay resistance and dimensional stability of aspen wood were increased significantly with temperature increasing, but time seemed to have no effect on those properties. Oil heat treatment is a suitable method to improve decay resistance of aspen wood as it reduced the mass loss by 71% and 77% against Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana compared with control samples, respectively. On the other hand, oil heat treatment improved the dimensional stability by about 20.5%.

  10. Aspen-Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢青

    2015-01-01

    随着我国经济的快速发展,高新科技领域的不断进步,以及社会各领域间的广泛渗透交流,尤其是Aspen- Plus系统,化工领域的广泛应用,其极大的促进了化工行业生产力和生产效率的提高,为推动化工行业的健康可持续发展发挥关键作用。因Aspen- Plus系统,在生产装置优化等方面,具备优异的特性,因而当前其在化工行业的多个领域,如氟化工中得到了充分的应用,并取得了良好效果。本文将就Aspen- Plus模拟系统,当前在氟化工中应用情况进行详细分析。

  11. Dynamic Simulation Analysis on Steam Pipeline Net Based on ASPEN HYSYS%基于 ASPEN HYSYS对蒸汽管网动态模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮

    2015-01-01

    以大型化工项目蒸汽系统的设计为例,介绍了煤化工项目中蒸汽系统的重要性,利用ASPEN HYSYS 软件对超高压、高压和低压蒸汽管网的意外停车等工况进行动态模拟,分析当前设计的合理性,优化控制器的整定参数,为设计改进提供合理的动态数据。%Taking the design of steam system in the large-sized chemical project as an example, author has introduced the importance of steam system in the chemical project of coal, dynamic simulation has been made for working conditions of the unexpected shut-down and so on of super high pressure, high pressure and low pressure steam pipeline nets, using the ASPEN HYSYS software;author has analyzed the reasonability of present design, has opti-mized the setting parameters of the controller, so it provided the rational and dynamic data for improving the design.

  12. 基于ASPEN PLUS软件的甲烷化工艺模型%Simulation of methanation process based on ASPEN PLUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一夫

    2012-01-01

    利用ASPEN PLUS对煤制天然气的甲烷化工艺进行了流程模拟.模型模拟得到了替代天然气成分、反应器出口温度、循环比、分流率,揭示了循环比和分流率对反应器出口温度的影响.通过该模型,能够为工艺方案比选、优化设计提供模拟和预测.%The methanation process model is proposed and simulated by ASPEN PLUS software. The substitute natural gas composition, the reactor outlet temperature, the recycle ratio and the split ratio are obtained, which suggests the main influence of recycle ratio and the split ratio on the reactor outlet temperature. The model can simulate and predict the methanation process for process comparison and optimization design.

  13. Conference Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Annual conference outlines tasks for 2010 to solidify China’s economic recovery through rational investment and increasing consumptionc hina will adhere to a consistent and stable economic strategy, putting in place a proactive fiscal policy and an accommodative monetary policy for the 2010 fiscal year-the macro-economic course mapped out during China’s Central

  14. Monitoring cancer treatment response using photoacoustic and ultrasound spectral analysis in combination with oxygenation measurements (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Eno; May, Jonathan P.; Wirtzfeld, Lauren; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    At clinically-relevant depths, the frequency content of photoacoustic signals encodes information about the size, concentration and spatial distribution of non-resolvable blood vessels. This study evaluates whether photoacoustics can detect cancer therapy-induced vascular perturbations. Photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) spectral analysis was combined with functional, PA-based oxygenation and power Doppler (PD) perfusion estimates to assess treatment response. Co-registered, in-vivo US/PA/PD imaging of mice bearing breast cancer tumors was performed pre-treatment and 30m/2h/5h/24h/7d post-treatment (VevoLAZR, Fujifilm VisualSonics). Hyperthermia treatment (1h, 43C) was performed after systemic injections of doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSL, n=13) or free doxorubicin (DOX, n=11). Response was classified according to 2h, PA-based oxygenation drop and endpoint (>9d), caliper-based volume reduction. At all time-points/wavelengths (750/850nm), the spectral-slope (SS) was computed from the normalized US/PA power spectra using depth-matched reference phantoms. The percent-vascularity (PV) was estimated for the animal with the largest oxygenation-drop at 2h. TLS-treated responders decreased their PA-SS by 1.9x @750nm and 5.8x @850nm 30m post-treatment and remained constant for 24h; tumor oxygenation followed the same trend. Non-responding SS remained unchanged for 24h. The 750nm SS was 18.7x lower than 850nm suggesting the TSL is sensitive vessel oxygenation. Responder PV decreased 100% when the 30m oxygenation dropped 15% and increased 7x when the 7d oxygenation increased 20%. DOX-responders exhibited similar trends to TSL-responders although the 750nm PA-SS was 1.6x smaller and post-treatment PV was 50% higher. The US-SS remained unchanged until 7d post-treatment suggesting its sensitivity to tumor cell-death. These findings suggest that PA spectral analysis has potential in monitoring cancer treatment response.

  15. 基于Aspen Plus的蒸汽透平网络模拟和优化%Simulation and optimization of steam turbine network with Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳瑛; 赵亮; 李泽秋; 钱锋

    2012-01-01

    According to the unreasonable phenomena in the steam piping network of ethylene plant, the steam turbine network of the device is simulated and optimized by the chemical process software, Aspen Plus. The influence of operating condition change on turbine efficiency is discussed through simulation of the turbine, such as extraction steam flow, into steam temperature, exhaust steam pressure. Based on the results, the steam turbine network is simulated and optimized by particle swarm optimization through the interface toolkit MAP, while extraction steam flow for independent variable and the total into steam flow for target variables. Using intelligent algorithm, the defect of model's not easy to converge is avoided, which is caused by setting too much constraints as Design Regulations in Aspen Plus. The optimization results show that in the condition of meeting the same output power and the requirement of the other pipe networks, the steam consumption of supper-high-pressure (SS) could be reduced effectively by selecting the extraction capacity of every turbine reasonably. The turbine network optimized could decrease 0.6 ton SS consumption per hour.%针对乙烯装置蒸汽管网用能过程中存在的不合理现象,采用Aspen Plus化工流程软件对其中的蒸汽透平网络进行了模拟和优化.通过对单个透平的模拟,分析了透平抽汽量、进汽温度和排汽压力等操作条件的变化对透平效率的影响.在此基础上模拟了蒸汽透平网络,并以透平抽汽量为自变量、透平网络总进汽量为目标变量,通过MATLAB-Aspen Plus接口工具箱使用粒子群优化算法(PSO)对其进行操作参数优化.采用智能算法,避开了因在Aspen Plus中设置过多约束作为设计规定而导致模型不易收敛的不足;对于约束条件的处理,通过对不满足约束的粒子加以惩罚来实现.优化结果表明,在满足透平输出功率以及低等级管网蒸汽用量需求的前提下,通过合理分

  16. Usando modelos de usuario en matlab® en la interfaz de aspen plus® con excel® como puente

    OpenAIRE

    FONTALVO ALZATE, JAVIER

    2014-01-01

    El diseño de procesos intensificados y de nuevas tecnologías requiere de herramientas de simulación como Aspen Plus®. Sin embargo, las operaciones unitarias que no se incluyen en Aspen Plus pueden ser simuladas usando Matlab e integradas con la interfaz de Aspen Plus. De esta forma se pueden aprovechar todas la capacidades de Aspen plus como la optimización, el análisis de sensibilidad y la estimación de costos. Este artículo describe en detalle cómo implementar esta integración. La interfaz ...

  17. Wide-field optical coherence elastography for intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Wes M.; Chin, Lixin; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2016-03-01

    Incomplete excision of tumour margins is a major issue in breast-conserving surgery. Currently 20 - 60% of cases require a second surgical procedure required as a result of cancer recurrence. A number of techniques have been proposed to assess margin status, including frozen section analysis and imprint cytology. However, the recurrence rate after using these techniques remains very high. Over the last several years, our group has been developing optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a tool for the intraoperative assessment of tumour margins in breast cancer. We have reported a feasibility study on 65 ex vivo samples from patients undergoing mastectomy or wide local excision demonstrates the potential of OCE in differentiating benign from malignant tissue. In this study, malignant tissue was readily distinguished from surrounding relative tissue by a distinctive heterogeneous pattern in micro-elastograms. To date the largest field of view for a micro-elastogram is 20 x 20mm, however, lumpectomy samples are typically ~50 x 50 x 30mm. For OCE to progress as a useful clinical tool, elastograms must be acquired over larger areas to allow a greater portion of the surface area of lumpectomies to be assessed. Here, we propose a wide-field OCE scanner that utilizes a piezoelectric transducer with an internal diameter of 65mm. In this approach partially overlapped elastograms are stitched together forming a mosaic with overall dimensions of 50 x 50mm in a total acquisition time of 15 - 30 minutes. We present results using this approach on both tissue-mimicking phantoms and tissue, and discuss prospects for shorter acquisitions times.

  18. Simulation of coal liquefaction process by developing user models on Aspen Plus platform%Aspen Plus用户模型技术的煤直接液化全流程模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单贤根; 常小瑞; 任琼; 江洪波; 翁惠新

    2014-01-01

    Based on six lumped kinetic model, this paper used the BFGS optimization algorithm to obtain kinetic constant of heating-up and isothermal stage of direct coal liquefaction process, and through regression of experimental data to get specific product composition for separation unit of direct coal liquefaction. Then the Aspen Plus user model of direct coal liquefaction was developed and integrated with the Aspen Plus software to achieve an entire process simulation of direct coal liquefaction process in Aspen Plus platform which can make the best use of its powerful databases and simulation calculation ability of separation processes. The calculation value of gas liquid equilibrium in high temperature and low temperature separators for reaction products agreed well with the experiment data. The entire process simulation in Aspen Plus platform can provide technical support for the optimization of direct coal liquefaction reaction and separation conditions.%基于六集总动力学模型,采用BFGS优化算法获得煤直接液化升温阶段和恒温阶段的反应动力学常数,同时通过试验数据回归得到用于煤直接液化分离单元的具体产品组成,并以此为基础开发了煤直接液化反应的Aspen Plus用户模型。在此基础上,将上述煤直接液化用户模型与Aspen Plus流程模拟软件集成在一起,充分利用Aspen Plus软件强大的性质数据库和分离过程模拟计算能力,最终实现了基于Aspen Plus平台的煤直接液化全流程模拟,模拟计算得到的煤直接液化反应产物在高温和低温分离器的气液相平衡数据与实验值较吻合。基于Aspen Plus的全流程模拟可以为煤直接液化反应和分离条件的优化选择提供技术参考。

  19. Ligand-associated ERBB2/3 activation confers acquired resistance to FGFR inhibition in FGFR3-dependent cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Mikse, O; Liao, R G; Li, Y; Tan, L; Janne, P A; Gray, N S; Wong, K-k; Hammerman, P S

    2015-04-23

    Somatic alterations of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have been described in a wide range of malignancies. A number of anti-FGFR therapies are currently under investigation in clinical trials for subjects with FGFR gene amplifications, mutations and translocations. Here, we develop cell line models of acquired resistance to FGFR inhibition by exposure of cell lines harboring FGFR3 gene amplification and translocation to the selective FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 and multitargeted FGFR inhibitor ponatinib. We show that the acquisition of resistance is rapid, reversible and characterized by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and a switch from dependency on FGFR3 to ERBB family members. Acquired resistance was associated with demonstrable changes in gene expression including increased production of ERBB2/3 ligands, which were sufficient to drive resistance in the setting of FGFR3 dependency but not dependency on other FGFR family members. These data support the concept that activation of ERBB family members is sufficient to bypass dependency on FGFR3 and suggest that concurrent inhibition of these two pathways may be desirable when targeting FGFR3-dependent cancers.

  20. Applications of Aspen Plus in the Teaching of the Analysis and Synthesis for Chemical Engineering Process%Aspen plus在化工过程分析与合成课程教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 李书珍; 刘卫民

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and Synthesis for Chemical Engineering Process was an important professional course for chemical majors,which was also a strong practical course.In the paper,dimethyl ether distillation column of the actual process of methanol to dimethyl ether was simulated and analyzed by Aspen Plus software.Students were familiarized with the use of Aspen Plus software in the process of simulation and analysis.In addition,the application of aspen Plus could help the following teaching of Chemical Process design.%化工过程分析与合成是化工类实践性非常强的专业基础课,精馏塔的实践教学是教学的重点和难点。文章采用Aspen Plus软件,以甲醇制二甲醚的实际工艺为案例,对二甲醚精馏塔进行模拟、分析,同时使学生熟悉Aspen Plus软件的使用,为后续化工设计打下基础。

  1. SIGEF Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terceño-Gómez, Antonio; Ferrer-Comalat, Joan; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Linares-Mustarós, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the SIGEF conference, held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Girona (Spain), 06-08 July, 2015. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Scientific methods for the treatment of uncertainty in social sciences”. There are different ways for dealing with uncertainty in management. The book focuses on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. It gives a comprehensive overview of quantitative management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management in soft computing including Decision Making, Expert Systems and Forgotten Effects Theory, Forecasting Models, Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets, Modelling and Simulation Techniques, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms and Optimization and Control. The book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be es...

  2. Conference information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Thermag Ⅳ- The 4th International Conference on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature of IIR Refrigeration technology is widely used today. However, traditional vapor compression/expansion refrigeration technology has some disadvantages, such as low conversion efficiency of vapor compressor, and emission of the ozonosphere depletion gas and greenhouse effect gas, etc. Magnetic refrigeration is a new cooling technology with huge potential application prospect, characterized by high efficiency, energy saving and environmental friendly.

  3. Latest advances in confocal microscopy of skin cancers toward guiding patient care: a Mohs surgeon's review and perspective (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehal, Kishwer S.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Latest advances in confocal microscopy of skin cancers toward guiding patient care: a Mohs surgeon's review and perspective About 350 publications worldwide have reported the ability of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging to detect melanocytic skin lesions in vivo with specificity of 84-88% and sensitivity of 71-92%, and non-melanocytic skin lesions with specificity of 85-97% and sensitivity 100-92%. Lentigo maligna melanoma can be detected with sensitivity of 93% and specificity 82%. While the sensitivity is comparable to that of dermoscopy, the specificity is 2X superior, especially for lightly- and non-pigmented lesions. Dermoscopy combined with RCM imaging is proving to be both highly sensitive and highly specific. Recent studies have reported that the ratio of equivocal (i.e., would have been biopsied) lesions to detected melanomas dropped by ~2X when guided by dermoscopy and RCM imaging, compared to that with dermoscopy alone. Dermoscopy combined with RCM imaging is now being implemented to guide noninvasive diagnosis (to rule out malignancy and biopsy) and to also guide treatment, with promising initial impact: thus far, about 3,000 patients have been saved from biopsies of benign lesions. These are currently under follow-up monitoring. With fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) mosaicing, residual basal cell carcinomas can be detected in Mohs surgically excised fresh tissue ex vivo, with sensitivity of 94-97% and specificity 89-94%. FCM mosaicing is now being implemented for guiding Mohs surgery. To date, about 600 Mohs procedures have been performed, guided with mosaicing, and with pathology being performed in parallel to confirm the final outcome. These latest advances demonstrate the promising ability of RCM and FCM to guide patient care.

  4. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  5. Aspen Plus与Visual C++混合编程在化工模拟中的应用%Application of Mixed Programming Based on Aspen Plus and Visual C++ in Chemical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振兴

    2014-01-01

    化工过程模拟软件Aspen Plus在化工流程的设计、校核方面得到了广泛的应用,显著提高了化工工艺流程设计、校核的效率和水平.Aspen Plus支持ActiveX自动控制技术,并符合CAPE-OPEN接口标准.借助Visual C++编程环境,实现了对Aspen Plus数据库的调用、单元模块的开发、以及与水力学软件的集成.

  6. 运用ASPEN B-JAC 设计管壳式换热器%Design and Optimize Tube/Shell Heat Exchanger by Aspen B-jac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周奇

    2010-01-01

    描述了运用ASPEN B-JAC换热器计算软件进行管壳式换热器设计的步骤,讨论了换热器管程壳程优化设计的要点以及利用ASPEN B-JAC进行换热器设计优化过程中应注意的问题,为管壳式换热器的优化设计提供了参考.

  7. The Application of Aspen Plus in the Design of Distillation Column%流程模拟软件Aspen Plus在精馏塔设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰; 赵新堂; 万宝锋

    2014-01-01

    The simple design and rigorous accounting on the distillation column has been performed by Aspen Plus in this paper. Also, the analysis of the influence factors on the design of distillation column was completed. In addition, the economic accounting of distillation column was discussed preliminarily.%以Aspen Plus流程模拟软件对精馏塔进行了简捷设计和严格核算,对精馏塔设计的影响因素进行了分析,并对精馏塔的经济核算进行了初步说明。

  8. Aspen Plus在化工设计物料衡算中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅慧

    2015-01-01

    化工领域中最关键的基础内容就是化工设计,随着社会的进步和科学技术的发展,传统的化工设计方式逐渐被Aspen Plus软件所替代,在化工设计领域中发挥着重要作用.本文主要阐述了Aspen Plus的概念,并对其在化工设计发挥的作用进行探究,分析了Aspen Plus在化工设计物料衡算中的应用,以期更加透彻的分析化工过程连续生产时的物料衡算,进一步提高化工设计效果.

  9. Aspen height, stem-girth and survivorship in an area of high ungulate use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    An increase in ungulate population size potentially exposes aspen suckers, saplings, and trees to increased use. This study examined how stem height and girth influenced the selection of stems by ungulates for browsing, rubbing, and gnawing, and reconstructed the history of ungulate use for the study area. Transects were run through each of three aspen clones growing in southwestern Montana to determine height, circumference, and the surface area from which bark was totally and partially removed by rubbing and gnawing. Stems 20-250 cm tall were browsed. Stems 2-13 cm diameter were preferentially selected for rubbing and gnawing. The area of totally removed bark on dead saplings was twice the area of removed bark on live stems of similar diameter, suggesting that bark removal played a major role in the death of some stems. Based on an analysis of stem height and age, ungulate browsing was inferred to have increased from a light-to-moderate level to an intense level in 1991. The depth of scars was used to date scarring events. An increase in rubbing and gnawing was determined to have occurred about 1985. We concluded that elk were primarily responsible for the observed impacts. The combined effect of rubbing, gnawing, and browsing affects a broader span of ages compared to the effect of browsing alone. If prescribed fire is used to rejuvenate aspen stands, the resulting young stems should be protected from heavy browsing, rubbing and gnawing until they reach about 13 cm diameter and have grown out of the browse zone.

  10. Mercury in Red Aspen Boletes (Leccinum aurantiacum) mushrooms and the soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Kowalewska, Izabela; Nnorom, Innocent C; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Jarzyńska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    This communication reports data on the mercury contents of Red Aspen Boletes (Leccinum aurantiacum) mushrooms and the forest soils substrate layer (0-10 cm) underneath the fruit bodies collected from nine spatially distant sites across Poland. Total Hg concentration in soil substrate in seven of the nine sites studied varied from 0.0078 ± 0.0012 to 0.028 ± 0.007 μg/g dry weight (dw) and this could be considered baseline concentrations for uncontaminated forest soils in Poland. The arithmetic mean of mercury in Red Aspen Bolete caps varied, depending on the site from 0.27 ± 0.07 to 1.3 ± 0.6 μg/g dw. The lowest Hg contents in soil (0.011 ± 0.006 μg/g and 0.009 ± 0.002 μg/g) were observed for the sites of Wandalin and Opole Lubelskie (from Lubelska Upland region) with the corresponding highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of 130 ± 66 and 110 ± 13 for the mushroom caps and 58 ± 29 and 64 ± 8 for the stipes, respectively. The BCF values in caps showed a downward trend with increasing mercury content of soil. A meal of 300 g of fresh caps of Red Aspen Bolete from Aleksandrów Kujawski region could expose a consumer to 8.1 μg Hg, while this will be 39 μg at the Lubelska Upland amounting to 39 and 186 % of daily Hg reference dose, respectively.

  11. Spatial and temporal variability of xylan distribution in differentiating secondary xylem of hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Sik; Sandquist, David; Sundberg, Björn; Daniel, Geoffrey

    2012-06-01

    Xylans occupy approximately one-third of the cell wall components in hardwoods and their chemical structures are well understood. However, the microdistribution of xylans (O-acetyl-4-O-methylglucuronoxylans, AcGXs) in the cell wall and their correlation with functional properties of cells in hardwood xylem is poorly understood. We demonstrate here the spatial and temporal distribution of xylans in secondary xylem cells of hybrid aspen using immunolocalization with LM10 and LM11 antibodies. Xylan labeling was detected earliest in fibers at the cell corner of the S₁ layer, and then later in vessels and ray cells respectively. Fibers showed a heterogeneous labeling pattern in the mature cell wall with stronger labeling of low substituted xylans (lsAcGXs) in the outer than inner cell wall. In contrast, vessels showed uniform labeling in the mature cell wall with stronger labeling of lsAcGXs than fibers. Xylan labeling in ray cells was detected much later than that in fibers and vessels, but was also detected at the beginning of secondary cell wall formation as in fibers and vessels with uniform labeling in the cell wall regardless of developmental stage. Interestingly, pit membranes including fiber-, vessel- and ray-vessel pits showed strong labeling of highly substituted xylans (hsAcGXs) during differentiation, although this labeling gradually disappeared during pit maturation. Together our observations indicate that there are temporal and spatial variations of xylan deposition and chemical structure of xylans between cells in aspen xylem. Differences in xylan localization between aspen (hardwood) and cedar (softwood) are also discussed.

  12. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher T; Stevens, Michael T; Anderson, Jon E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Although plant growth is generally recognized to be influenced by allocation to defense, genetic background (e.g., inbreeding), and gender, rarely have those factors been addressed collectively. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) constitute up to 30 % of leaf dry weight. To quantify the allocation cost of this chemical defense, we measured growth, defense chemistry, and individual heterozygosity (H obs at 16 microsatellite loci) for male and female trees in both controlled and natural environments. The controlled environment consisted of 12 juvenile genets grown for 3 years in a common garden, with replication. The natural environment consisted of 51 mature genets in wild populations, from which we sampled multiple ramets (trees) per genet. Concentrations of PGs and CTs were negatively correlated. PGs were uncorrelated with growth, but CT production represented a major cost. Across the range of CT levels found in wild-grown trees, growth rates varied by 2.6-fold, such that a 10 % increase in CT concentration occurred with a 38.5 % decrease in growth. H obs had a marked effect on aspen growth: for wild trees, a 10 % increase in H obs corresponded to a 12.5 % increase in growth. In wild trees, this CT effect was significant only in females, in which reproduction seems to exacerbate the cost of defense, while the H obs effect was significant only in males. Despite the lower growth rate of low-H obs trees, their higher CT levels may improve survival, which could account for the deficit of heterozygotes repeatedly found in natural aspen populations.

  13. Interactions between Bacteria And Aspen Defense Chemicals at the Phyllosphere - Herbivore Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-03-01

    Plant- and insect-associated microorganisms encounter a diversity of allelochemicals, and require mechanisms for contending with these often deleterious and broadly-acting compounds. Trembling aspen, Populus tremuloides, contains two principal groups of defenses, phenolic glycosides (salicinoids) and condensed tannins, which differentially affect the folivorous gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its gut symbionts. The bacteria genus Acinetobacter is frequently associated with both aspen foliage and gypsy moth consuming that tissue, and one isolate, Acinetobacter sp. R7-1, previously has been shown to metabolize phenolic glycosides. In this study, we aimed to characterize further interactions between this Acinetobacter isolate and aspen secondary metabolites. We assessed bacterial carbon utilization and growth in response to different concentrations of phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins. We also tested if enzyme inhibitors reduce bacterial growth and catabolism of phenolic glycosides. Acinetobacter sp. R7-1 utilized condensed tannins but not phenolic glycosides or glucose as carbon sources. Growth in nutrient-rich medium was increased by condensed tannins, but reduced by phenolic glycosides. Addition of the P450 enzyme inhibitor piperonyl butoxide increased the effects of phenolic glycosides on Acinetobacter sp. R7-1. In contrast, the esterase inhibitor S,S,S,-tributyl-phosphorotrithioate did not affect phenolic glycoside inhibition of bacterial growth. Degradation of phenolic glycosides by Acinetobacter sp. R7-1 appears to alleviate the cytotoxicity of these compounds, rather than provide an energy source. Our results further suggest this bacterium utilizes additional, complementary mechanisms to degrade antimicrobial phytochemicals. Collectively, these results provide insight into mechanisms by which microorganisms contend with their environment within the context of plant-herbivore interactions.

  14. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L. from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species.

  15. A simulation study of Solid Oxide fuel cell for IGCC power generation using Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    in a more accurate fuel cell model giving an advantage over previous system studies based on simplified SOFC models. The objective of this work is to develop a simulation model of a SOFC for IGFC system, flexible enough for use in future development, capable of predicting system performance under various...... operating conditions and using diverse fuels. The SOFC stack model developed using the chemical process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type and is based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The SOFC model performs heat and mass balances and considers the ohmic, activation...

  16. 甲醇合成过程的Aspen模拟%Aspen Analog of Methanol Synthesis Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆军

    2005-01-01

    通过Aspen-Plus工具,采用合成动力学方程对甲醇合成流程进行了全流程模拟,分析了模拟计算结果.从循环气量、合成压力、冷却水温、合成塔进口温度、合成塔结构、催化剂装填量等方面论述了操作条件和反应器尺寸的变化对合成回路的影响.

  17. Nanocrystalline cellulose from aspen kraft pulp and its application in deinked pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghua; Gao, Yang; Qin, Menghua; Wu, Kaili; Fu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from bleached aspen kraft pulp was characterized, and its application as pulp strengthening additive and retention aid was investigated. Results showed that NCC with high crystallinity of more than 80% can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The structure of nanocrystalline cellulose is parallelepiped rod-like, and their cross-sectional dimension is in the nanometer range with a high aspect ratio. The formation of microparticle retention systems during the application of NCC together with cationic polyacrylamide and cationic starch in deinked pulp was able to further improve pulp retention and strength properties without negative influence on the drainage.

  18. 关于Aspen Plus在化工设计中应用的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿晓云[1; 李彦菊[2

    2015-01-01

    在化工设计中,Aspen Plus 是针对化工为代表的功能强大的过程系统模拟软件。介绍了如何将其引入化工设计环节。使用软件模拟可以节省计算量、提高效率,培养设计工作者解决工程问题的能力,与手工计算的差异对比分析原因。

  19. ASPEN PLUS与化工专业核心课程体系建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      通过分析化工专业课程体系,在传统教学的基础上,探讨将 Aspen Plus 流程模拟软件有目的、有步骤地引入化工专业核心课程化工原理、化学反应工程、化工热力学和分离工程的教学中,强化化工专业核心课程体系的建设。

  20. 关于Aspen Plus在化工设计中应用的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿晓云; 李彦菊

    2015-01-01

    在化工设计中,Aspen Plus 是针对化工为代表的功能强大的过程系统模拟软件,本文介绍了如何将其引入化工设计环节。使用软件模拟可以节省计算量、提高效率,培养设计工作者解决工程问题的能力,与手工计算的差异对比分析原因。

  1. 偏氟乙烯精馏的Aspen Plus模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟益堂

    2014-01-01

    通过Aspen Plus模拟软件对偏氟乙烯精馏过程进行了模拟.对精馏塔的进料位置、回流比、馏出比进行了灵敏度分析,综合考虑得出精馏塔适宜进料位置NF、回流摩尔比R、馏出摩尔比D/F分别是32、0.12、0.89.模拟结果与实际生产值基本一致,可指导工业生产.

  2. ASPEN PLUS优化甲醇水分离塔操作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬加良

    2010-01-01

    应用ASPEN PLUS工程软件对低温甲醇洗装置的甲醇水分离塔进行模拟,并与设计工艺包进行对比。对塔顶回流甲醇在不同含水量下的工况进行优化,将优化数据与该塔实际运行结果进行比较,为生产操作提供数据指导。

  3. Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, P. A.; Dutrizac, J. E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This workshop is part of a continuing series of joint workshops organized by CANMET of Natural Resources Canada and the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission in the areas of sustainable metallurgical processing, recycling and environmental protection. The program presented at this conference also benefited from the organizational support of the Canadian Association of Recycling Industries. Over the past twenty years these workshops served as a valuable forum for the discussion of the technological issues associated with metallurgical processing, recycling and compliance with environmental regulations within the framework of sustainable development. The program this year was organized in five sessions. A total of 32 papers were presented. Session One emphasized the international dimension of modern research as illustrated by the Intelligent Manufacturing System (MIS) program. Session Two dealt with recycling, with special attention to the recycling of plastics and construction materials. Session Three was devoted to highlighting European efforts to treat chromium-bearing solutions or to find alternatives to chromium salts in surface treatment operations. Session Four emphasized primary and secondary zinc processing and the importance of energy conservation. The final session reviewed waste management practices and the utilization of waste materials. Opening addresses by representatives of the sponsoring organizations and a list of conference attendees and their affiliations are also included.

  4. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  5. EGC Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschard, Gilbert; Pinaud, Bruno; Venturini, Gilles; Zighed, Djamel; Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management

    This book is a collection of representative and novel works done in Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Clustering and Classification that were originally presented in French at the EGC'2012 Conference held in Bordeaux, France, on January 2012. This conference was the 12th edition of this event, which takes place each year and which is now successful and well-known in the French-speaking community. This community was structured in 2003 by the foundation of the French-speaking EGC society (EGC in French stands for ``Extraction et Gestion des Connaissances'' and means ``Knowledge Discovery and Management'', or KDM). This book is intended to be read by all researchers interested in these fields, including PhD or MSc students, and researchers from public or private laboratories. It concerns both theoretical and practical aspects of KDM. The book is structured in two parts called ``Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining'' and ``Classification and Feature Extraction or Selection''. The first part (6 chapters) deals with...

  6. 采用Aspen Plus设计计算蒸汽减温减压系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇; 刘明; 夏红勋

    2015-01-01

    采用Aspen Plus设计计算蒸汽减温减压系统,并将所得数据与现场实际装置的运行情况相比较。结果表明,采用Aspen Plus模拟计算的结果与生产装置的运行参数和物性手册的数据相一致,在工程允许误差范围之内。

  7. PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans

    1982-01-01

    like to thank the active members of the IOC for an efficient and friendly co-operation in deciding about the program of invited speakers and for discussions on the general structure of the conference. Our most cordial thanks are extended to the invited speakers for coming to the conference to deliver such excellent talks and to provide us in good time for printing with so beautifully prepared manuscripts. Symposium on Plasma Theory: Preface Several satellite meetings were arranged following the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics in Göteborg. Among them a Symposium on Plasma Theory was held at Aspenäsgården outside Göteborg during three days, June 16-18, 1982. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss problems of current interest in plasma theory with applications to space and astrophysical plasmas as well as to fusion plasmas. A total of fifteen talks were given during the three days, and some very lively discussions arose, notably in the area of plasma turbulence. There were around 30 invited scientists present, about one third from the United States, one third from the Soviet Union, and the rest from England, Japan, and various other countries. This volume of Physica Scripta (2B, 506-595) includes some of the talks which were given at Aspenäsgården. Several of the authors of contributed papers to the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics were encouraged to write extended versions of their contributions, and these are also included in this number, as are furthermore some papers, which were prepared during prolonged stays of visiting scientists at our institute in connection with the 1982 ICPP. It is expected that the collection of papers thus assembled will give a general picture of the activities accompanying the main conference and that it will elucidate some trends in the development of plasma theory.

  8. MUSME Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of MUSME 2014, held at Huatulco in Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2014. Topics include analysis and synthesis of mechanisms; dynamics of multibody systems; design algorithms for mechatronic systems; simulation procedures and results; prototypes and their performance; robots and micromachines; experimental validations; theory of mechatronic simulation; mechatronic systems; and control of mechatronic systems. The MUSME symposium on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics was held under the auspices of IFToMM, the International Federation for Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, and FeIbIM, the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering. Since the first symposium in 2002, MUSME events have been characterised by the way they stimulate the integration between the various mechatronics and multibody systems dynamics disciplines, present a forum for facilitating contacts among researchers and students mainly in South American countries, and serve as a joint conference for the ...

  9. Severe obesity: a growing health concern A.S.P.E.N. should not ignore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A

    2005-01-01

    The definition of malnutrition in the published standards of the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) is any derangement in the normal nutrition status and includes overnutrition, commonly referred to as obesity. The incidence of obesity is increasing and reaching epidemic proportions in the United States and even worldwide. This has significant financial impact as our society spends billions of dollars on fad diets, commercial weight-loss programs, nutrition and dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter medications, and health clubs. Another approximately dollars 100 billion are spent to treat the medical consequences of obesity. Currently, for those patients with intractable morbid obesity, defined as having a body mass index >40 kg/m2, surgery offers the only option for achieving meaningful and sustainable weight loss. The resultant weight loss dramatically improves health and decreases the cost of health care for these patients. Years of refinement in technology and the introduction of safer and less invasive procedures have dramatically reduced the short-term morbidities and long-term metabolic consequences of these procedures. This address will review the field of weight loss (bariatric) surgery and will offer a compelling request for A.S.P.E.N. to include obesity in its fabric.

  10. Can elevated CO2 and ozone shift the genetic composition of aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Emily V; Kubiske, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The world's forests are currently exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3). Both pollutants can potentially exert a selective effect on plant populations. This, in turn, may lead to changes in ecosystem properties, such as carbon sequestration. Here, we report how elevated CO2 and O3 affect the genetic composition of a woody plant population via altered survival. Using data from the Aspen free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment (in which aspen clones were grown in factorial combinations of CO2 and O3), we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of survival. We also examine how survival differences between clones could affect pollutant responses in the next generation. Our model predicts that the relative abundance of the tested clones, given equal initial abundance, would shift under either elevated CO2 or O3 as a result of changing survival rates. Survival was strongly affected by between-clone differences in growth responses. Selection could noticeably decrease O3 sensitivity in the next generation, depending on the heritability of growth responses and the distribution of seed production. The response to selection by CO2, however, is likely to be small. Our results suggest that the changing atmospheric composition could shift the genotypic composition and average pollutant responses of tree populations over moderate timescales.

  11. Artificially decreased vapour pressure deficit in field conditions modifies foliar metabolite profiles in birch and aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, Jenna; Keinänen, Markku; Keski-Saari, Sarita; Kontunen-Soppela, Sari; Sõber, Anu; Oksanen, Elina

    2016-07-01

    Relative air humidity (RH) is expected to increase in northern Europe due to climate change. Increasing RH reduces the difference of water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaf and the atmosphere, and affects the gas exchange of plants. Little is known about the effects of decreased VPD on plant metabolism, especially under field conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effects of artificially decreased VPD on silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) foliar metabolite and nutrient profiles in a unique free air humidity manipulation (FAHM) field experiment during the fourth season of humidity manipulation, in 2011. Long-term exposure to decreased VPD modified nutrient homeostasis in tree leaves, as demonstrated by a lower N concentration and N:P ratio in aspen leaves, and higher Na concentration and lower K:Na ratio in the leaves of both species in decreased VPD than in ambient VPD. Decreased VPD caused a shift in foliar metabolite profiles of both species, affecting primary and secondary metabolites. Metabolic adjustment to decreased VPD included elevated levels of starch and heptulose sugars, sorbitol, hemiterpenoid and phenolic glycosides, and α-tocopherol. High levels of carbon reserves, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants under decreased VPD may modify plant resistance to environmental stresses emerging under changing climate.

  12. Process simulation and maximization of energy output in chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhang, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ling Zhou, Ramesh Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical-looping combustion (CLC is currently considered as a leading technology for reducing the economic cost of CO2 capture. In this paper, several process simulations of chemical-looping combustion are conducted using the ASPEN Plus software. The entire CLC process from the beginning of coal gasification to the reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled and validated against experimental data. The energy balance of each major component of the CLC process, e.g., the fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is examined. Different air flow rates and oxygen carrier feeding rates are used in the simulations to obtain the optimum ratio of coal, air, and oxygen carrier that produces the maximum power. Two scaled-up simulations are also conducted to investigate the influence of increase in coal feeding on power generation. It is demonstrated that the optimum ratio of coal, air supply, and oxygen carrier for maximum power generation remains valid for scaled-up cases with substantially larger coal feeding rates; the maximum power generation scales up linearly by using the process simulation models in ASPEN Plus. The energy output from four different types of coals is compared, and the optimum ratio of coal, air supply and oxygen carrier for maximum power generation for each type of coal is determined.

  13. Aspen Plus在换热器工艺选型物性计算中的应用%Application of Plus Aspen in Physical Property Calculation for Technique Lectotype of Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚立影; 常春梅; 唐海; 姚炜屹

    2016-01-01

    The thermal physical properties of the saturated moist air, the flue gas and the mixed feeding of the hydrogen heat exchanger are calculated by applying the Plus Aspen software, including the density, viscosity, thermal conductibity coefficient, specific heat capacity and etc. Then the results are compared with the reported values or the measured values. It shows that the deviation between the calculated values from the Plus Aspen and the reported values is less than 13%which meets the engineering requirements so that it's of great preference for the design of the heat exchanger.%应用Aspen Plus 软件对饱和湿空气、烟气及加氢换热器混合进料的热物性进行计算,包括换热器设计所涉及的密度、黏度、导热系数、比热容等物性参数,并将计算结果与文献值或实测值进行比较。结果表明,基于Aspen Plus的计算结果与文献值最大偏差不超过13%,满足工程要求,可以为换热器设计提供参考依据。

  14. 基于Aspen Plus物性分析计算甲醇水溶液凝固点%Calculation for freezing points of methanol aqueous solution based on property analysis of Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光明; 王伟鹏

    2013-01-01

    探讨了气液固多相平衡的机理,利用活度系数法计算各相热力学性质,采用Aspen plus物性分析计算不同浓度的甲醇水溶液凝固点,将计算结果与手册值进行比较,结果表明:模拟计算结果与手册值较为接近,在工程误差允许的范围内,可以用Aspen plus物性分析计算甲醇水溶液凝固点.%The multiphase balance mechanism of gas,liquid and solid was discussed.The thermodynamic properties of which were calculated by activity coefficient method.The freezing points of the methanol aqueous solution with different concentrations were calculated using the properties analysis of Aspen Plus.The results show that the simulation result is much close to the manual value.Within the allowed range of engineering error,the freezing points of the methanol aqueous solution can be simulated based on properties analysis of Aspen Plus and used in the practical engineering.

  15. Application of Aspen Plus in the Practical Teaching of Chemical Technology%基于 Aspen Plus 在化工工艺学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐新宜

    2016-01-01

    化工工艺学是一门理论与生产相结合的课程。本文讨论了化工流程模拟软件Aspen与化工工艺学教学的关系,将Aspen Plus流程模拟软件逐步引入到化工工艺学实践教学中,加深了学生对化工生产工艺的理解,并提高了学生利用工具解决实际问题的能力。引入Aspen Plus软件作为化工工艺学教学辅助工具,能使教学更接近实际生产过程,拓宽了学生的视野。%Chemical Technology is a rather practical course .The relationship between Aspen Plus software and Chemical Technology were discussed .Aspen Plus software was introduced in the teaching of Chemical Technology course to strengthen the understanding of Chemical Engineering courses and improve the hands-on and implementing ability of the students , which made the teaching closer to engineering practice and broaden the students ’visual field.

  16. Analysis of CO2 Separation by Selexol Based on Aspen Plus%基于Aspen Plus对Selexol分离CO2流程的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱朋华; 李丹丹; 徐宝龙; 呼姚; 杜昌帅; 吴少华

    2014-01-01

    整体煤气化联合循环发电系统可采取燃烧前捕集CO2的方法,处理的合成气量少,能耗低,且能够实现 CO2的近零排放,在 CO2脱除方面具有很大的优势。文中基于Aspen Plus 对 CO2/H2S 联合脱除和分别脱除流程建立了模型,对2流程的能耗、CO2及H2S的脱除效率以及Selexol溶液的再生性能进行了分析。得出:在出口 CO2纯度相同的情况下,CO2/H2S联合脱除流程的能耗仅占CO2/H2S分别脱除的21%左右,CO2脱除效率高于分别脱除流程,2流程Selexol溶液的再生性能相差不大,且H2S脱除效率也可达到95%以上,因此CO2/H2S联合脱除流程更经济。%Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)power generation system can adopt pre-combustion CO2 capture methods, handling with less syngas and have low energy consumption, which can achieve near-zero emissions of CO2, resulting in great advantages in terms of CO2 removal. Based on Aspen Plus, combined removal of CO2/H2S (CRCH) and separate removal of CO2/H2S (SRCH) were modeled . Energy consumption, capture efficiency of CO2 and H2S, as well as the regeneration performance of Selexol were analyzed by the two models. The results indicate that:while keeping the same CO2 purity in outlet stream, the energy consumption of CRCH accounts for only 21% of SRCH; the CO2 capture efficiency is higher than that of SRCH, the regeneration performance of Selexol is almost the same for the two processes, and the capture efficiency of H2S in the two processes can be higher than 95%. All those prove that CRCH is more economic than SRCH.

  17. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NPCR 2017 CDC National Cancer Conference Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  18. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  19. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.

    2011-10-01

    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  20. Fluxes of CH4 and N2O in aspen stands grown under ambient and twice-ambient CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Robertson, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 has the potential to change below-ground nutrient cycling and thereby alter the soil-atmosphere exchange of biogenic trace gases. We measured fluxes of CH4 and N2O in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stands grown in open-top chambers under ambient and twice...

  1. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophan Chhin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.

  2. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our process for... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  3. 基于Aspen Plus的自复叠热泵模拟%The Simulation of Auto-Cascade Heat Pump Ssystem Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金平; 朱海明; 刘雪峰

    2010-01-01

    自复叠热泵的变工况运行对其性能影响很大.应用Aspen Plus软件,对冷凝器入口水温从40~55℃的4个工况下的自复叠热泵进行了流程模拟,并对流程中各点参数变化进行了分析,对节流阀的流态进行了计算分析.结果表明,自复叠热泵在两个节流阀开度不变时,随着冷凝器入口水温的升高,压缩机耗功增加,主流与支流流量增大,蒸发压力升高,压缩机入口比容减小,循环的质量流量增大;两个节流阀均未达到雍塞流.

  4. Pulverized Coal Gasification Simulation Based on Aspen Plus Software%基于Aspen Plus的粉煤气化模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗飞; 汤连英; 吕庆元; 章卫星; 何正兆; 毕东煌

    2008-01-01

    Aspen Plus为模拟工具,选择反应平衡模型,并应用Gibbs自由能最小化方法建立了Shell粉煤气化模型;通过对神华、沾化和天碱煤种的气化模拟,对建立的模型进行了检验,结果表明:用N2输送粉煤的气化过程能够很好地模拟,而用CO2输送粉煤的气化过程模拟偏差较大.以沾化煤种为例,检验了气化炉散热损失取煤总热值约2%的合理性;研究了不同操作条件下的气化性能,结果表明:提高温度和压力可使气化过程得到强化.

  5. Cloning and Overproduction of Gibberellin 3-Oxidase in Hybrid Aspen Trees. Effects on Gibberellin Homeostasis and Development1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Maria; Mellerowicz, Ewa; Chono, Makiko; Gullberg, Jonas; Moritz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    To broaden our understanding of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and the mechanism whereby GA homeostasis is maintained in plants, we have investigated the degree to which the enzyme GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) limits the formation of bioactive GAs in elongating shoots of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides). We describe the cloning of a hybrid aspen GA3ox and its functional characterization, which confirmed that it has 3β-hydroxylation activity and more efficiently converts GA9 to GA4 than GA20 to GA1. To complement previous studies, in which transgenic GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) overexpressers were found to produce 20-fold higher bioactive GA levels and subsequently grew faster than wild-type plants, we overexpressed an Arabidopsis GA3ox in hybrid aspen. The generated GA3ox overexpresser lines had increased 3β-hydroxylation activity but exhibited no major changes in morphology. The nearly unaltered growth pattern was associated with relatively small changes in GA1 and GA4 levels, although tissue-dependent differences were observed. The absence of increases in bioactive GA levels did not appear to be due to feedback or feed-forward regulation of dioxygenase transcripts, according to semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of PttGA20ox1, PttGA3ox1, and two putative PttGA2ox genes. We conclude that 20-oxidation is the limiting step, rather than 3β-hydroxylation, in the formation of GA1 and GA4 in elongating shoots of hybrid aspen, and that ectopic GA3ox expression alone cannot increase the flux toward bioactive GAs. Finally, several lines of evidence now suggest that GA4 has a more pivotal role in the tree hybrid aspen than previously believed. PMID:15122019

  6. Cloning and overproduction of gibberellin 3-oxidase in hybrid aspen trees. Effects on gibberellin homeostasis and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Maria; Mellerowicz, Ewa; Chono, Makiko; Gullberg, Jonas; Moritz, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    To broaden our understanding of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and the mechanism whereby GA homeostasis is maintained in plants, we have investigated the degree to which the enzyme GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) limits the formation of bioactive GAs in elongating shoots of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides). We describe the cloning of a hybrid aspen GA3ox and its functional characterization, which confirmed that it has 3beta-hydroxylation activity and more efficiently converts GA9 to GA4 than GA20 to GA1. To complement previous studies, in which transgenic GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) overexpressers were found to produce 20-fold higher bioactive GA levels and subsequently grew faster than wild-type plants, we overexpressed an Arabidopsis GA3ox in hybrid aspen. The generated GA3ox overexpresser lines had increased 3beta-hydroxylation activity but exhibited no major changes in morphology. The nearly unaltered growth pattern was associated with relatively small changes in GA1 and GA4 levels, although tissue-dependent differences were observed. The absence of increases in bioactive GA levels did not appear to be due to feedback or feed-forward regulation of dioxygenase transcripts, according to semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of PttGA20ox1, PttGA3ox1, and two putative PttGA2ox genes. We conclude that 20-oxidation is the limiting step, rather than 3beta-hydroxylation, in the formation of GA1 and GA4 in elongating shoots of hybrid aspen, and that ectopic GA3ox expression alone cannot increase the flux toward bioactive GAs. Finally, several lines of evidence now suggest that GA4 has a more pivotal role in the tree hybrid aspen than previously believed.

  7. Response Surface Methodology and Aspen Plus Integration for the Simulation of the Catalytic Steam Reforming of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernay Cifuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steam reforming of ethanol (SRE on a bimetallic RhPt/CeO2 catalyst was evaluated by the integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Aspen Plus (version 9.0, Aspen Tech, Burlington, MA, USA, 2016. First, the effect of the Rh–Pt weight ratio (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1 on the performance of SRE on RhPt/CeO2 was assessed between 400 to 700 °C with a stoichiometric steam/ethanol molar ratio of 3. RSM enabled modeling of the system and identification of a maximum of 4.2 mol H2/mol EtOH (700 °C with the Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 catalyst. The mathematical models were integrated into Aspen Plus through Excel in order to simulate a process involving SRE, H2 purification, and electricity production in a fuel cell (FC. An energy sensitivity analysis of the process was performed in Aspen Plus, and the information obtained was used to generate new response surfaces. The response surfaces demonstrated that an increase in H2 production requires more energy consumption in the steam reforming of ethanol. However, increasing H2 production rebounds in more energy production in the fuel cell, which increases the overall efficiency of the system. The minimum H2 yield needed to make the system energetically sustainable was identified as 1.2 mol H2/mol EtOH. According to the results of the integration of RSM models into Aspen Plus, the system using Rh0.4Pt0.4/CeO2 can produce a maximum net energy of 742 kJ/mol H2, of which 40% could be converted into electricity in the FC (297 kJ/mol H2 produced. The remaining energy can be recovered as heat.

  8. Evolution and environmental degradation of superhydrophobic aspen and black locust leaf surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, George Christopher

    The current study is focused on the characterization of four natural leaf species (quaking, bigtooth and columnar european aspen as well as black locust) possessing a unique dual-scale cuticle structure composed of micro- and nano-scale asperities, which are able to effectively resist wetting (superhydrophobic), characteristic of The Lotus Effect. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to track the growth and evolution of their distinctive nano-scale epicuticular wax (ECW) morphologies over one full growing season. In addition, the stability of their superhydrophobic property was tested in various environments. It was determined that the long-term stability of these surfaces is tentatively linked to various environmental stress factors. Specifically, a combination of high temperature and humidity caused the degradation of nanoscale asperities and loss of the superhydrophobic property. The dual-scale surface structure was found to provide a suitable template for the design of future superhydrophobic engineering materials.

  9. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ling [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  10. Continuous hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood and glycerol with water phase recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas H.; Grigoras, Ionela F.; Hoffmann, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technology for the conversion of a wide range of bio-feedstock into a biocrude; a mixture of chemical compounds that holds the potential for a renewable production of chemicals and fuels. Most research in hydrothermal liquefaction is performed in batch type...... reactors, although a continuous and energy-efficient operation is paramount for such process to be feasible. In this work an experimental campaign in a continuous bench scale unit is presented. The campaign is based on glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of aspen wood carried out with the presence...... successfully at steady state conditions without any observation of system malfunctioning. The biocrude obtained was characterized using several analytical methods to evaluate the feasibility of the process and the quality of the product. Results showed that a high quality biocrude was obtained having a higher...

  11. Simulation and validation of chemical-looping combustion using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhou, Zheming Zhang, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experimental studies have demonstrated that Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC is an advanced technology which holds great potential for high-efficiency low-cost carbon capture. The generated syngas in CLC is subsequently oxidized to CO2 and H2O by reaction with an oxygen carrier. In this paper, process-level models of CLC are established in ASPEN Plus code for detailed simulations. The entire CLC process, from the beginning of coal gasification to reduction and oxidation of the oxygen carrier is modeled. The heat content of each major component such as fuel and air reactors and air/flue gas heat exchangers is carefully examined. Large amount of energy is produced in the fuel reactor, but energy needs to be supplied to the air reactor. The overall performance and efficiency of the modeled CLC systems are also evaluated.

  12. Changes in the microstructure and properties of aspen chemithermomechanical pulp fibres during recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingjuan; Wang, Rongrong; Li, Dejuan; Wang, Zhaojiang; Zhang, Fengshan; Meng, Qinglin; Qin, Menghua

    2015-03-06

    The effects of recycling on the microstructure and properties of bleached aspen chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) fibres were systematically investigated. The low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and atomic force microscopy results showed that a substantial amount of large pores and most of the very small pores in the fibre wall closed and the fibre surface became less coarse and porous during recycling. The partial cocrystallisation of cellulose microfibrils took place, as reflected in the increment of the cellulose crystallinity and the width of the crystallite in the 0 0 2 lattice plane. These irreversible structural changes caused significant hornification of the recycled fibres, leading to the loss of swelling and bonding capability. The decrease of the tensile index, burst index, and tear index further demonstrated the deterioration of the fibre properties. However, the single-fibre strength considerably increased after recycling, which was mainly due to the enlarged cellulose aggregates in the fibre wall.

  13. Three Stage Equilibrium Model for Coal Gasification in Entrained Flow Gasifiers Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Xiangdong; ZHONG Weimin; DU Wenli; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    A three stage equilibrium model is developed for coal gasification in the Texaco type coal gasifiers based on Aspen Plus to calculate the composition of product gas,carbon conversion,and gasification temperature.The model is divided into three stages including pyrolysis and combustion stage,char gas reaction stage,and gas phase reaction stage.Part of the water produced in the pyrolysis and combustion stage is assumed to be involved in the second stage to react with the unburned carbon.Carbon conversion is then estimated in the second stage by steam participation ratio expressed as a function of temperature.And the gas product compositions are calculated from gas phase reactions in the third stage.The simulation results are consistent with published experimental data.

  14. 美国 ACUSON ASPEN SN31893彩超特殊故障 1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2001-01-01

    @@美国 ASPEN SN31893彩超系美国 ACUSON公司的最新一代产品,为新一代全功能彩超,该机型在部队医院拥有量较大,据对经销商了解还没有出现过类似的故障。 故障现象 开机后机器开始自检, 4MB DRAM OK。然后是 ACUSON ASPEN的杉树图象出现,机器进入 POWER DIAGNOSTICS,一段时间后出现错误提示:

  15. The Aspen Framework for Dark Matter Substructure Inference from Strong Gravitational Lensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Keeton, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the dark matter particle or particles lead to different small scale halo populations, distributions, and evolution over cosmic time. We introduce a new method for characterizing the properties of substructure within galaxies through the power spectrum of potential fluctuations, and demonstrate how complete sets of multiwavelength imaging and time domain observations can be processed directly to infer all facets of the strong gravitational lensing components and source properties, including the dark matter substructure power spectrum constraints. We are able to take advantage of analysis parallels with cosmic background radiation techniques, and furthermore demonstrate how this technique, dubbed The Aspen Framework, reduces to the long-standing approach of working with reduced or derived observable quantities in lensing.

  16. Aspen Global Change Institute: 25 Years of Interdisciplinary Global Change Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Moss, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Global environmental changes such as climate change result from the interaction of human and natural systems. Research to understand these changes and options for addressing them requires the physical, environmental, and social sciences, as well as engineering and other applied fields. In this essay, we describe how the Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) has provided leadership in global change science over the past 25 years—in particular how it has contributed to the integration of the natural and social sciences needed to research the drivers of change, Earth system response, natural and human system impacts, and options for risk management. We illustrate the ways the history of AGCI has been intertwined with the evolution of global change science as it has become an increasingly interdisciplinary endeavor.

  17. Carbohydrate reactions during high-temperature steam treatment of aspen wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiebing; Henriksson, Gunnar; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2005-06-01

    Aspen wood was treated with steam at different time-temperature severity factors. Analysis of the amounts of acids released revealed a relationship between the acidity and the formation of furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural as degradation products from carbohydrates. It is suggested that two concurrent or consecutive mechanisms are responsible for the observed results: a homolytic cleavage and an acid hydrolysis of glucosidic linkages in the polysaccharides. By preimpregnating the wood with alkali, hydrolysis can be eliminated, resulting in a much cleaner depolymerization of the polysaccharides without any further acid-catalyzed degradation. The enzymatic digestibility of the steam-treated wood material for the formation of glucose was compared with that of steam-exploded wood. A more efficient route for glucose production from steam-exploded wood was found as long as the biomass-pretreated material was homogeneous and without shives.

  18. Process simulation of oxy-combustion for maximization of energy output using ASPEN plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhodeep Banerjee, Xiao Zhang, Suraj K. Puvvada, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxy-fuel combustion is a next-generation combustion technology that shows promise to address the need of low-cost carbon capture from fossil fueled power plants. Oxy-fuel combustion requires expensive pre-processing in an air separation unit to separate pure oxygen from air for the combustion process, which reduces the overall efficiency of the process. This paper employs ASPEN Plus process simulation software to model a simple oxy-fuel combustor and investigates the effect of various parameters on the energy output. The composition of the flue gas is carefully examined. The results of this study provide a starting point for optimized oxy-fuel combustion operation for maximum energy output, which will be crucial for future deployment of oxy-fuel combustion technology.

  19. Focus on quality of life, improve the patients' survival The 7th Conference of Chinese Cancer Rehabilitation and Palliative Care was held in Fuzhou, China%关注生活质量,改善患者生存——榕城举办第六届中国癌症康复与姑息医学大会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Cheng

    2012-01-01

    @@ From Nov.25th–27th, 2011, the 7th Conference of experts and clinicians participated in the conference, in-Chinese Cancer Rehabilitation and Palliative Care was cluding the civil servants of Ministry of Health, doctors, held in Fuzhou, China.The conference focused on the nurses and social workers.patients' quality of life, and the methods to improve their The opening ceremony was held in the evening of Nov.survival.The comprehensive therapy should be consid-25th.On the ceremony, some experts read poetry about ered at the beginning of the treatment, and the treatment the rehabilitation and palliative care.The poetry showed of rehabilitation and palliative care should be pursued the importance of rehabilitation and palliative care, the throughout all the anti-cancer therapeutic process.hope given to the patients and the decent life provided

  20. Conference this! Lead Pipers compare conference experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As library travel budgets are increasingly slashed around the country, it’s a tough time for conference-going. In this group post, we compare notes about the conferences we’ve attended, which have been our favorites, and why. We hope this will generate creative ideas on good conferences (online or in-person to look forward to, and maybe offer [...

  1. Short-day treatment during the growing period limits shoot growth and increases frost hardiness of hybrid aspen plants in the nursery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gang; Jaana Luoranen; Heikki Smolander

    2007-01-01

    In Finland, under nursery conditions hybrid aspen may continue their shoot growth until early September. Thus,frost hardening is usually delayed. To solve this problem, We used a three-week period of short-day (SD) treatment between late July and mid-August. During autumn after frost exposure,frost hardiness (FH) Was assessed three times with a stem-browning test. The resuits showed that after SD treatment shoot growth ceased and FH increased when compared to untreated hybrid aspen. Furthermore,the height of SD-treated hybrid aspen varied much less than that of the control plants. We conclude that SD treatment in the nursery during the growing period can be used as a supplementary method for producing well-hardened and uniform hybrid aspen plants.

  2. Tree age-dependent changes in photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange in leaves of micropropagated diploid, triploid and hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärnik, Tiit; Ivanova, Hiie; Keerberg, Olav; Vardja, Rael; Niinemets, Ulo

    2014-06-01

    The growth rate of triploid European aspen (Populus tremula L.) and hybrid aspen (P. tremula × Populus tremuloides Michx.) significantly exceeds that of diploid aspen, but the underlying physiological controls of the superior growth rates of these genotypes are not known. We tested the hypothesis that the superior growth rate of triploid and hybrid aspen reflects their greater net photosynthesis rate. Micropropagated clonal plants varying in age from 2.5 to 19 months were used to investigate the ploidy and plant age interaction. The quantum yield of net CO2 fixation (Φ) in leaves of young 2.5-month-old hybrid aspen was lower than that of diploid and triploid trees. However, Φ in 19-month-old hybrid aspen was equal to that in triploid aspen and higher than that in diploid aspen. Φ and the rate of light-saturated net photosynthesis (ANS) increased with plant age, largely due to higher leaf dry mass per unit area in older plants. ANS in leaves of 19-month-old trees was highest in hybrid, medium in triploid and lowest in diploid aspen. Light-saturated photosynthesis had a broad temperature optimum between 20 and 35 °C. Rate of respiration in the dark (RDS) did not vary among the genotypes in 2.5-month-old plants, and the shape of the temperature response was also similar. RDS increased with plant age, but RDS was still not significantly different among the leaves of 19-month-old diploid and triploid aspen, but it was significantly lower in leaves of 19-month-old hybrid plants. The initial differences in the growth of plants with different ploidy were minor up to the age of 19 months, but during the next 2 years, the growth rate of hybrid aspen exceeded that of triploid plants by 2.7 times and of diploid plants by five times, in line with differences in ANS of 19-month-old plants of these species. It is suggested that differences in photosynthesis and growth became more pronounced with tree aging, indicating that ontogeny plays a key role in the expression of

  3. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences....

  4. Evidence that the 5p12 Variant rs10941679 Confers Susceptibility to Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer through FGF10 and MRPS30 Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ghoussaini (Maya); J.D. French (Juliet); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); S. Nord (Silje); J. Beesley (Jonathan); Canisus, S. (Sander); K.M. Hillman (Kristine); S. Kaufmann (Susanne); H. Sivakumaran (Haran); Moradi Marjaneh, M. (Mahdi); J.S. Lee (Jason S); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); Wang, Q. (Qin); E. Dicks (Ed); R.L. Milne (Roger); Hopper, J.L. (John L.); Southey, M.C. (Melissa C.); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); O. Fletcher (Olivia); Johnson, N. (Nichola); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); Marme, F. (Frederik); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); A. González-Neira (Anna); M.R. Alonso (M Rosario); G. Pita (G.); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); H. Brenner (Hermann); Arndt, V. (Volker); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); U. Hamann (Ute); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); S. Khan (Sofia); Matsuo, K. (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); A.H. Wu (Anna); D. Van Den Berg (David); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); O.A.M. Floris; J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Rudolph, A. (Anja); P. Radice (Paolo); M. Barile (Monica); F.J. Couch (Fergus); Hallberg, E. (Emily); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); L. Le Marchand (Loic); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); S.-H. Teo; C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); W. Zheng (Wei); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); P. Hall (Per); K. Czene (Kamila); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); Koppert, L.B. (Linetta B.); J. Li (Jingmei); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); Y. Zheng (Ying); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); Shah, M. (Mitul); V. Rhenius (Valerie); Choi, J.-Y. (Ji-Yeob); D. Kang (Daehee); J.M. Hartman (Joost); Chia, K.S. (Kee Seng); M. Kabisch (Maria); D. Torres (Diana); C. Luccarini (Craig); D. Conroy (Don); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); Sangrajrang, S. (Suleeporn); P. Brennan (Paul); C. Olswold (Curtis); S. Slager (Susan); C.-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); M.-F. Hou (Ming-Feng); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); J. Simard (Jacques); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); V. Kristensen (Vessela); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); A.M. Dunning (Alison); S.L. Edwards (Stacey)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed increased breast cancer risk associated with multiple genetic variants at 5p12. Here, we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 104,660 subjects from 50 case-control studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (

  5. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Over several decades a number of epidemiological studies have identified the inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables and the risk of several cancers, including gastric, breast, colo-rectal, lung, prostate, bladder and endometrial cancers, via plausible physiological mechanisms. Although retrospective case-control studies have consistently reported inverse associations between the risk of these cancers and the intake of cruciferous vegetables and isothiocyanate-containing plants, current prospective cohort studies have found these associations to be weaker and less consistent. Genetic variations affecting the metabolism of glucosinolate hydrolysis products may modulate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on cancer risk, which may be one of the reasons for the discrepancies between retrospective and prospective studies. In addition, methodological issues such as measurement errors of dietary exposure, misclassification, recall bias, publication bias, confounding and study design should be carefully considered in interpreting the results of case-control and cohort studies and in drawing conclusions in relation to the potential effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancers. Although recent comprehensive reviews of numerous studies have purported to show the specific protective role of cruciferous vegetables, and particularly Brassicas, against cancer risk, the current epidemiological evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce the risk only of gastric and lung cancers. However, there is at present no conclusive evidence that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables attenuates the risk of all other cancers.

  6. 训练剂-1工艺过程的Aspen Plus全流程模拟%Simulation of the whole production process of training agent-1 using Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖希杰; 邓德茹; 刘兴红; 王志甄

    2010-01-01

    建立了训练剂-1间歇工艺过程的数学模型,利用流程模拟软件Aspen Plus内置的物性资源、物性估算和实验数据回归的方法,弥补了实验数据的不足.以工艺过程机理和间歇过程数学模型为基础,采用Aspen Plus软件对训练剂-1间歇工艺过程全流程进行了模拟,模拟结果与实际工艺系统运行情况吻合良好.

  7. Aspen Plus在制药化工原理汽液平衡教学中的应用%Applications of Aspen Plus in the Vapor-liquid Equilibrium Teaching of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Engineering Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤书

    2011-01-01

    介绍了Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件的一般使用方法,结合本人在山苍子油蒸馏分离模拟计算方面的科研成果,探讨了Aspen Plus软件在《制药化工原理》汽液平衡教学中的应用.实践表明,采用流程模拟软件辅助制药化工原理教学的方法,不仅有助于培养学生的兴趣和拓宽学生的视野,使学生加深了对汽液平衡内容的深刻理解,而且有助于培养学生利用流程模拟技术解决工程实际问题的能力.

  8. 基于 Aspen Plus 软件的磨煤干燥过程模拟与分析%Simulation and Analyzsis of the Coal Grinding and Drying Process with the Aspen Plus Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春平; 甘丹; 严应群

    2014-01-01

    After simulating and analyzing the coal grinding and drying process with the Aspen Plus software ,know accurately the utilities consumption which including the fuel gas ,low pressure nitrogen gas ,combustion air ,dilution air and electricity ,etc . Optimizing the drying process could provide guidance for the engineering design and manufacturing operation .%运用Aspen Plus软件对磨煤干燥过程进行模拟与分析,可以比较准确地知道CMD工段的燃料气、低低压氮气、助燃空气、稀释空气、电力等公用工程的消耗,优化干燥工艺流程,为工程设计和生产操作提供指导。

  9. Continuous Extraction and Separation Based on Aspen for the Water of the ISO-Propylene Alcohol-Water%基于Aspen plus异丙醚-异丙醇-水的连续萃取分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战俊磊

    2015-01-01

    选用乙二醇(EG)为萃取剂,用Aspen Plus化工模拟软件中的Radfrac单元操作模块,采用UNIFAC物性计算方法,通过优化各参数,在适宜操作条件下,塔顶可以得到高纯度的二异丙醚、异丙醇产品.

  10. Application of ASPEN PLUS Chemical Modeling System in the Process of Fractionation%ASPEN PLUS化工模拟系统在精馏过程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨虹

    2003-01-01

    应用ASPEN PLUS化工模拟系统中的RateFrac精馏模块对催化裂化气分工艺中的精馏塔进行模拟,模拟结果与装置原始设计结果吻合,可用于指导生产,并提供装置改造依据.

  11. Elevated STAT3 Signaling-Mediated Upregulation of MMP-2/9 Confers Enhanced Invasion Ability in Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of multidrug resistance greatly impedes effective cancer therapy. Recent advances in cancer research have demonstrated that acquisition of multidrug resistance by cancer cells is usually accompanied by enhanced cell invasiveness. Several lines of evidence indicated that cross activation of other signaling pathways during development of drug resistance may increase invasive potential of multidrug-resistant (MDR cancer cells. However, the accurate mechanism of this process is largely undefined. In this study, to better understand the associated molecular pathways responsible for cancer progression induced by drug resistance, a MDR human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3/EPR with P-glycoprotein overexpression was established using stepwise long-term exposure to increasing concentration of epirubicin. The SK-BR-3/EPR cell line exhibited decreased cell proliferative activity, but enhanced cell invasive capacity. We showed that the expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2/9 was elevated in SK-BR-3/EPR cells. Moreover, SK-BR-3/EPR cells showed elevated activation of STAT3. Activation of STAT3 signaling is responsible for enhanced invasiveness of SK-BR-3/EPR cells through upregulation of MMP-2/9. STAT3 is a well-known oncogene and is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance. Our findings augment insight into the mechanism underlying the functional association between MDR and cancer invasiveness.

  12. Elevated STAT3 Signaling-Mediated Upregulation of MMP-2/9 Confers Enhanced Invasion Ability in Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Wang, Zhiyong; Fan, Yanling; Xu, Qiao; Ji, Wei; Tian, Ran; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-10-16

    The development of multidrug resistance greatly impedes effective cancer therapy. Recent advances in cancer research have demonstrated that acquisition of multidrug resistance by cancer cells is usually accompanied by enhanced cell invasiveness. Several lines of evidence indicated that cross activation of other signaling pathways during development of drug resistance may increase invasive potential of multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells. However, the accurate mechanism of this process is largely undefined. In this study, to better understand the associated molecular pathways responsible for cancer progression induced by drug resistance, a MDR human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3/EPR with P-glycoprotein overexpression was established using stepwise long-term exposure to increasing concentration of epirubicin. The SK-BR-3/EPR cell line exhibited decreased cell proliferative activity, but enhanced cell invasive capacity. We showed that the expression of metastasis-related matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 was elevated in SK-BR-3/EPR cells. Moreover, SK-BR-3/EPR cells showed elevated activation of STAT3. Activation of STAT3 signaling is responsible for enhanced invasiveness of SK-BR-3/EPR cells through upregulation of MMP-2/9. STAT3 is a well-known oncogene and is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and chemotherapeutic resistance. Our findings augment insight into the mechanism underlying the functional association between MDR and cancer invasiveness.

  13. 化工设计中流程模拟软件Aspen Plus的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭江

    2015-01-01

    化工设计流程模拟软件是一款集化工设计、动态模拟以及各类计算于一体的极其强大的功能性软件。Aspen Plus在化工设计过程中得到普遍的应用,极大提升了我国化工领域工艺流程等方面的设计效率和水平。为此,本文就以A spen Plus软件的特点和优势进行介绍,并详细说明Aspen Plus在化工设计领域中突出的表现和运用的具体方法。

  14. Implications of Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Tropospheric Ozone for Water Use in Stands of Trembling Aspen and Paper Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Lee Kirk

    Projected increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and tropospheric O3 over the next 50 years are of concern due in part to their potential to affect forest water budgets. I conducted a series of studies at the Aspen Free Air CO2 and O3 Enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, WI to determine the effect of projected concentrations of these gases for the year 2050 on the water budget in stands of trembling aspen and paper birch. In order to determine the effects of elevated CO2 (eCO 2) and O3 (eO3) on rainfall partitioning between interception, through fall, and stem flow I performed a computerized analysis of photographed canopy branches and compared the results to hydrologic measurements. Elevated O3 significantly decreased total aspen and birch branch length, resulting in net decreases for 2002 whorls of -18 % and 2006 whorls of -16 %. Some of these changes had measurable effects on rainfall partitioning. The biomass of fine roots has been observed to change in response to eCO2 and eO3 at shallow depths, but little work has been done to assess deeper roots. I characterized fine root responses to eCO 2 and eO3 to a depth of one meter. Fumigation with O 3 increased small root biomass in shallow soil 30 % in all aspen plots and decreased root biomass in shallow soil 46 % in aspen-birch plots. Increases in root length up to 131 % and specific root length up to 77 % occurred under eO3 in middle and deep soil layers, indicating more extensive soil exploration at depth. Small root biomass in shallow soils increased 20 % to 24 % under eCO2, indicative of more intensive soil exploration near the surface. Previous studies of sapwood from Aspen-FACE indicated that anatomical structures related to hydraulic conductance (K) differed between aspen clones and that they responded to the treatments differently. I constructed embolism curves for stem wood samples collected below the base of the live crowns. There were no significant treatment effects on K at full water

  15. One-Dimensional Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Model with Reaction Kinetics Integrated in an Aspen Plus Biorefinery Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, David; Trendewicz, Anna; Braun, Robert; Dutta, Abhijit

    2017-01-27

    A biomass fast pyrolysis reactor model with detailed reaction kinetics and one-dimensional fluid dynamics was implemented in an equation-oriented modeling environment (Aspen Custom Modeler). Portions of this work were detailed in previous publications; further modifications have been made here to improve stability and reduce execution time of the model to make it compatible for use in large process flowsheets. The detailed reactor model was integrated into a larger process simulation in Aspen Plus and was stable for different feedstocks over a range of reactor temperatures. Sample results are presented that indicate general agreement with experimental results, but with higher gas losses caused by stripping of the bio-oil by the fluidizing gas in the simulated absorber/condenser. This integrated modeling approach can be extended to other well-defined, predictive reactor models for fast pyrolysis, catalytic fast pyrolysis, as well as other processes.

  16. 羊城举办第六届中国癌症康复与姑息医学大会%The 6th Conference of Chinese Cancer Rehabilitation and Palliative Care was held in Guangzhou-Struggling for 20 years, the WHO three-step analgesic ladder need further promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ From December 17th-19th, 2010, the 6th Conference of Chinese Cancer Rehabilitation and Palliative Care was held in Guangzhou.It has been 20 years since the Chinese medical experts firstly carry out the WHO three-step analgesic ladder.Academician Yan Sun, from Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, and Professor Shiying Yu, chairman of CPRC and from Wuhan Tongji Hospital, said that in order to relieve more cancer pain, the Chinese medical staff should further promote the WHO three-step analgesic ladder in the future.

  17. mTORC1 upregulation via ERK-dependent gene expression change confers intrinsic resistance to MEK inhibitors in oncogenic KRas-mutant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, N; Fujita, Y; Matsuda, M; Aoki, K

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells harboring oncogenic BRaf mutants, but not oncogenic KRas mutants, are sensitive to MEK inhibitors (MEKi). The mechanism underlying the intrinsic resistance to MEKi in KRas-mutant cells is under intensive investigation. Here, we pursued this mechanism by live imaging of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activities in oncogenic KRas or BRaf-mutant cancer cells. We established eight cancer cell lines expressing Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensors for ERK activity and S6K activity, which was used as a surrogate marker for mTORC1 activity. Under increasing concentrations of MEKi, ERK activity correlated linearly with the cell growth rate in BRaf-mutant cancer cells, but not KRas-mutant cancer cells. The administration of PI3K inhibitors resulted in a linear correlation between ERK activity and cell growth rate in KRas-mutant cancer cells. Intriguingly, mTORC1 activity was correlated linearly with the cell growth rate in both BRaf-mutant cancer cells and KRas-mutant cancer cells. These observations suggested that mTORC1 activity had a pivotal role in cell growth and that the mTORC1 activity was maintained primarily by the ERK pathway in BRaf-mutant cancer cells and by both the ERK and PI3K pathways in KRas-mutant cancer cells. FRET imaging revealed that MEKi inhibited mTORC1 activity with slow kinetics, implying transcriptional control of mTORC1 activity by ERK. In agreement with this observation, MEKi induced the expression of negative regulators of mTORC1, including TSC1, TSC2 and Deptor, which occurred more significantly in BRaf-mutant cells than in KRas-mutant cells. These findings suggested that the suppression of mTORC1 activity and induction of negative regulators of mTORC1 in cancer cells treated for at least 1 day could be used as surrogate markers for the MEKi sensitivity of cancer cells.

  18. Evidence that the 5p12 Variant rs10941679 Confers Susceptibility to Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer through FGF10 and MRPS30 Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoussaini, Maya; French, Juliet D; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2016-01-01

    expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers......, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis....

  19. Characterization of SP1, a Stress-Responsive, Boiling-Soluble, Homo-Oligomeric Protein from Aspen1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Pelah, Dan; Alergand, Tal; Shoseyov, Oded; Altman, Arie

    2002-01-01

    sp1 cDNA was isolated from aspen (Populus tremula) plants by immunoscreening an expression library using polyclonal antibodies against BspA protein. BspA, which is a boiling-stable protein, accumulates in aspen plants in response to water stress and abscisic acid application (Pelah et al., 1995). The sp1 cDNA was found to encode a 12.4-kD generally hydrophilic protein with a hydrophobic C terminus, which is different from the BspA protein and was termed SP1 (stable protein 1). Northern-blot analysis revealed that sp1 encodes a small mRNA (about 0.6 kb) that is expressed in aspen plants under non-stress conditions and is accumulated after salt, cold, heat, and desiccation stress, and during the recovery from stress. The SP1 detected in plants remained soluble upon boiling, migrated both as a 12.4-kD band and a much higher mass of 116 kD on a 17% (w/v) Tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. Comparative protease digestion patterns, amino acid analyses, and the N-terminal sequences of the 12.4- and 116-kD proteins revealed that SP1 is homo-oligomeric. Furthermore, gel filtration chromatography analysis indicated that SP1 exists in aspen plants as a complex, composed of 12 subunits of 12.4 kD. A large number of sequences deduced from expressed sequence tags and genomic sequences of other organisms with unknown function show high homology to SP1. Thus, SP1 may represent a new protein family. Here, we present the first report on this putative protein family: the cloning, isolation, and characterization of SP1, a stress-responsive, boiling-soluble, oligomeric protein. PMID:12376651

  20. Aspen InfoPlus.21实时数据库管理系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建荣; 万慧芸

    2013-01-01

    To meet the requirement of chemical plant information management, Aspen Infoplus.21 real-time database manage-ment system is constructed based on the current DCS, LIMS and company office LAN. With this network, DCS plant operation re-al-time data information is acquired, monitored and used directly via OPC interface, DCS batch information is acquired, monitored and used directly via Aspen Production Record Manager and Microsoft SQL Server, LIMS data is acquired, monitored and used di-rectly via ODBC interface, and the open framework is developed. With these excellent applications, we have achieved our high work efficiency, and have eventually improved our plant operation effectiveness.%  针对化工厂信息管理的需要,在现有DCS、LIMS和公司局域网(LAN)基础上,搭建Aspen Infoplus.21实时数据库管理系统,通过OPC接口实时读取、监控、查阅和应用DCS系统数据,通过Aspen Production Record Manag-er及Microsoft SQL Server直接抽取DCS工厂批量工艺批次信息,通过ODBC接口及时读取实验室LIMS产品化验数据,并支持开放框架运用。通过实际应用,提高工作效率,最终提高整个工厂生产运作的有效性。

  1. Effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation in the nursery on root colonization, growth, and nutrient uptake of aspen and balsam poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quoreshi, A.M.; Khasa, D.P. [Symbiotech Research Inc. 201, 509-11 Avenue, Nisku, AB (Canada); Forest Biology Research Centre, University of Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Aspen and balsam poplar seedlings were inoculated with six species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Hebeloma longicaudum, Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Pisolithus tinctorius, Rhizopogon vinicolor, and Suillus tomentosus), one species of endomycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices), two species of bacteria (Agrobacterium sp. and Burkholderia cepacia), treated with a growth hormone (SR3), and co-inoculated with a combination of Paxillus and Burkholderia. The seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under three different fertility regimes. Bacterial inoculation alone did not affect seedling growth and nutrition as observed when co-inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungus. The biomass and root collar diameter of aspen and balsam poplar were significantly increased when adequate mycorrhizas are formed and more prominent when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia and grown at the 67% fertilizer level. Except for R. vinicolor and S. tomentosus, the other four species of ectomycorrhizal fungi and G. intraradices formed symbiotic associations with both plant species. Both ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal colonization were observed at all fertilizer levels and fertilizer applications did not affect the colonization rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly improved in both aspen and balsam poplar compared with control only when co-inoculated with P. involutus and B. cepacia. However, plant net nitrogen uptake (content) increased significantly in all successful inoculation treatments and co-inoculated treatment when compared with control. These results hold promise for incorporation of inoculation of Populus sp. with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi and selected bacteria into commercial nursery system to improve the establishment of Populus in various sites. (author)

  2. Suppression of xylan endotransglycosylase PtxtXyn10A affects cellulose microfibril angle in secondary wall in aspen wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Awano, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Junko; Lucenius, Jessica; Ratke, Christine; Kontro, Inkeri; Busse-Wicher, Marta; Kosik, Ondrej; Tanaka, Ryo; Winzéll, Anders; Kallas, Åsa; Leśniewska, Joanna; Berthold, Fredrik; Immerzeel, Peter; Teeri, Tuula T; Ezcurra, Ines; Dupree, Paul; Serimaa, Ritva; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2015-01-01

    Certain xylanases from family GH10 are highly expressed during secondary wall deposition, but their function is unknown. We carried out functional analyses of the secondary-wall specific PtxtXyn10A in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). PtxtXyn10A function was analysed by expression studies, overexpression in Arabidopsis protoplasts and by downregulation in aspen. PtxtXyn10A overexpression in Arabidopsis protoplasts resulted in increased xylan endotransglycosylation rather than hydrolysis. In aspen, the enzyme was found to be proteolytically processed to a 68 kDa peptide and residing in cell walls. Its downregulation resulted in a corresponding decrease in xylan endotransglycosylase activity and no change in xylanase activity. This did not alter xylan molecular weight or its branching pattern but affected the cellulose-microfibril angle in wood fibres, increased primary growth (stem elongation, leaf formation and enlargement) and reduced the tendency to form tension wood. Transcriptomes of transgenic plants showed downregulation of tension wood related genes and changes in stress-responsive genes. The data indicate that PtxtXyn10A acts as a xylan endotransglycosylase and its main function is to release tensional stresses arising during secondary wall deposition. Furthermore, they suggest that regulation of stresses in secondary walls plays a vital role in plant development.

  3. Hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin transcription in roots of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Cooke, Janice E K; Kemppainen, Minna; Pardo, Alejandro G; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi have been reported to increase root hydraulic conductivity (L pr) by altering apoplastic and plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP)-mediated cell-to-cell water transport pathways in associated roots, or to have little effect on root water transport, depending on the interacting species and imposed stresses. In this study, we investigated the water transport properties and PIP transcription in roots of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings colonized by the wild-type strain of Laccaria bicolor and by strains overexpressing a major fungal water-transporting aquaporin JQ585595. Inoculation of aspen seedlings with L. bicolor resulted in about 30 % colonization rate of root tips, which developed dense mantle and the Hartig net that was restricted in the modified root epidermis. Transcript abundance of the aspen aquaporins PIP1;2, PIP2;1, and PIP2;2 decreased in colonized root tips. Root colonization by JQ585595-overexpressing strains had no significant impact on seedling shoot water potentials, gas exchange, or dry mass; however, it led to further decrease in transcript abundance of PIP1;2 and PIP2;3 and the significantly lower L pr than in non-inoculated roots. These results, taken together with our previous study that showed enhanced root water hydraulics of L. bicolor-colonized white spruce (Picea glauca), suggest that the impact of L. bicolor on root hydraulics varies by the ectomycorrhiza-associated tree species.

  4. Behavioral archives link the chemistry and clonal structure of trembling aspen to the food choice of North American porcupine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Brandee; Berteaux, Dominique; Fyles, Jim; Lindroth, Richard L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the links among plant genotype, plant chemistry, and food selection by vertebrate herbivores is critical to assess the role of herbivores in the evolution of plant secondary chemistry. Some specialized vertebrate herbivores have been shown to select plants differentially according to plant genotype, but examples from generalists, which constitute the vast majority of vertebrate herbivores, are few, especially in natural conditions. We examined the relationship between the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), a generalist mammalian herbivore, and clonal trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), a preferred food source of porcupines. We determined preference for certain aspen trees through visual examination of porcupine climbing scars left on tree bark, and through a controlled feeding experiment. We used genetic and biochemical analyses to link the behavioral archives (climbing scars) left by porcupines on aspen trunks to the clonal structure and chemical composition of trees. We show that two phenolic glycosides (tremulacin and salicortin), which are under a high degree of genetic control and thus vary in concentration across clones, are the chemical variables that most influence (deter) feeding choices by porcupines. Using behavioral archives left by a wild herbivore on a natural stand of plants thus allowed us to demonstrate that a generalist vertebrate herbivore can choose plants according to their clonal structure and genetically based chemical composition. Our results contribute to extending previous findings obtained with generalist herbivores studied in controlled conditions, and with specialist herbivores studied in the field.

  5. Comparative simulation study of gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized bed reactors using aspen polymers and two phase models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiria Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study describing gas-phase propylene polymerization in fluidized-bed reactors using Ziegler-Natta catalyst is presented. The reactor behavior was explained using a two-phase model (which is based on principles of fluidization as well as simulation using the Aspen Polymers process simulator. The two-phase reactor model accounts for the emulsion and bubble phases which contain different portions of catalysts with the polymerization occurring in both phases. Both models predict production rate, molecular weight, polydispersity index (PDI and melt flow index (MFI of the polymer. We used both models to investigate the effect of important polymerization parameters, namely catalyst feed rate and hydrogen concentration, on the product polypropylene properties, such as production rate, molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Both the two-phase model and Aspen Polymers simulator showed good agreement in terms of production rate. However, the models differed in their predictions for weight-average molecular weight, PDI and MFI. Based on these results, we propose incorporating the missing hydrodynamic effects into Aspen Polymers to provide a more realistic understanding of the phenomena encountered in fluidized bed reactors for polyolefin production.

  6. Geology of the Aspen 15-minute quadrangle, Pitkin and Gunnison counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Bruce

    1979-01-01

    The Aspen area, located 170 km southwest of Denver, Colo., lies at the intersection of the northeast-trending Colorado mineral belt and the west margin of the north-trending Sawatch uplift of Laramide age; it is within the southwest part of the northwest-trending late Paleozoic Eagle basin. Precambrian shales and graywackes, perhaps as old as 2 billion years (b.y.), were converted to sillimanite-bearing gneiss and muscovite-biotite schist 1.65-1.70 b.y. ago. They were deformed into northeast-plunging folds and were migmatized, and they were intruded by quartz diorite, porphyritic quartz monzonite, and granite. Muscovite-biotite quartz monzonite intruded this older Precambrian terrane about 1.45 b.y. ago and is the predominant Precambrian rock near Aspen. Uplift, some faulting, and much erosion occurred during the 900-million year (m.y.) interval between emplacement of the plutonic rocks and deposition of Upper Cambrian sediments. From Late Cambrian through Mississippian the region was part of a broad area alternately covered by shallow seas or occupied by low-lying land. Quartzite, dolomite, and limestone 200-320 m thick, comprising the Sawatch Quartzite and Peerless Formation (Cambrian), Manitou Dolomite (Ordovician), Chaffee Group (Mississippian(?) and Devonian), and Leadville Limestone (Mississippian) were deposited during this interval. After an hiatus during which soil formation and solution of the Leadville Limestone took place in the Late Mississippian, a thick sequence of marine and nonmarine clastic rocks was deposited in the newly developing Eagle basin during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic. Deposition of about 300 m of carbonaceous shale, limestone, dolomite, and minor siltstone and evaporite of the Belden Formation began in a shallow sea in Early and Middle Pennsylvanian time. Facies relations indicate that the northwest-trending Uncompahgre uplift southwest of Aspen, if present at that time, had very low relief. The overlying Middle

  7. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  8. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...... are active professionals in search of inspiration, and they also want to share knowledge with their peers at the conference. A theory of the conference as a forum for mutual inspiration and human co-flourishing is proposed, as are four design principles for a learning conference: 1. Presentations must...

  9. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  10. Changes in avian and plant communities of aspen woodlands over 12 years after livestock removal in the Northwestern Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnst, Susan L; Dobkin, David S; Ballard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Riparian and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlands are centers of avian abundance and diversity in the western United States, but they have been affected adversely by land use practices, particularly livestock grazing. In 1990, cattle were removed from a 112,500-ha national wildlife refuge in southeastern Oregon. Thereafter, we monitored changes in vegetation and bird abundance in years 1-3 (phase 1) and 10-12 (phase 2) in 17 riparian and 9 snow-pocket aspen plots. On each 1.5-ha plot, we sampled vegetation in 6 transects. Three times during each breeding season, observers recorded all birds 50 m to each side of the plot's 150-m centerline for 25 minutes. We analyzed data with multivariate analysis of variance and paired t tests with p values adjusted for multiple comparisons. In both periods, riparian and snow-pocket aspen produced extensive regeneration of new shoots (stems/ha and 7079 stems/ha, respectively). By phase 2, a 64% increase in medium-diameter trees in riparian stands indicated successful recruitment into the overstory, but this pattern was not seen in snow-pocket stands, where the density of trees was over 2 times greater. By phase 2 in riparian and snow-pocket stands, native forb cover had increased by 68% and 57%, respectively, mesic shrub cover had increased by 29% and 58%, and sagebrush cover had decreased by 24% and 31%. Total avian abundance increased by 33% and 39% in riparian and snow-pocket aspen, respectively, ground or understory nesters increased by 133% and 67% and overstory nesters increased by 34% and 33%. Similarly, ground or understory foragers increased by 25% and 32%, aerial foragers by 55% and 57%, and overstory foragers by 66% and 43%. We interpreted the substantial regeneration of aspen shoots, increased densities of riparian forbs and shrubs, and increased avian abundances as a multitrophic-level response to the total removal of livestock and as substantial movement toward recovery of biological integrity.

  11. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  12. Organo-mineral interactions promote greater soil organic carbon stability under aspen in semi-arid montane forests in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Miegroet, H.; Roman Dobarco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forest species influence soil organic carbon (SOC) storage through litter input, which in interaction with soil microclimate, texture and mineralogy, lead to different SOC stabilization and storage patterns. We sampled mineral soil (0-15 cm) across the ecotone between aspen (Populus tremuloides) and mixed conifers stands (Abies lasiocarpa and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in semi-arid montane forests from Utah, to investigate the influence of vegetation vs. site characteristics on SOC stabilization, storage and chemistry. SOC was divided into light fraction (LF), mineral-associated SOC in the silt and clay fraction (MoM), and a dense subfraction > 53 μm (SMoM) using wet sieving and electrostatic attraction. SOC decomposability and solubility was derived from long term laboratory incubations and hot water extractions (HWE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study differences in chemical functional groups in LF and MoM. Vegetation cover did not affect SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha-1), SOC decomposability (cumulative CO2-C release of 93.2 ± 65.4 g C g-1 C), or SOC solubility (9.8 ± 7.2 mg C g-1 C), but MoM content increased with presence of aspen [pure aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha-1) > mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha-1) > conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha-1)]. Organo-mineral complexes reduced biological availability of SOC, indicated by the negative correlation between silt+clay (%) and decomposable SOC per gram of C (r = -0.48, p = 0.001) or soluble SOC (r = -0.59, p < 0.0001). FTIR spectral analysis indicated that higher MoM content under aspen was not due to higher concentration of recalcitrant compounds (e.g., aliphatic and aromatic C), but rather to stabilization of simple molecules (e.g., polysaccharides) of plant or microbial origin. FTIR spectra clustered by sites with similar parent material rather than by vegetation cover. This suggests that initial differences in litter chemistry between aspen and conifers converged into similar MoM chemistry

  13. Dependence of Photosynthetic Capacity, Photosynthetic Pigment Allocation, and Carbon Storage on Nitrogen Levels in Foliage of Aspen Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Sullivan, Joseph H.; Papagno, Andrea J.

    2000-01-01

    The role of foliar nitrogen (N) in the seasonal dynamics and vertical canopy distribution of photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic capacity, and carbon (C) storage was investigated in boreal broadleaved species. The study was conducted at two different aged stands (60 y and 15 y) in 1994 and 1996 in Saskatchewan, Canada as part of the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS). Foliage in upper and lower strata was examined for aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and its associated hazelnut shrub (Corylus americana Walt.). We determined that C accumulation, expressed as dry mass per unit leaf area (mg C cm (exp -2)), was linearly dependent on N content (approximately 0.3- 3.5 mg N cm (exp -2))(r (exp 2) = 0.93, n=383, P less than 0.001) when eleven foliage groups were defined according to species, site, and developmental stage. C assembly was greatest in the upper aspen strata of both sites (seasonal average, 40.1 plus or minus 0.6 mg C cm (exp -2)), intermediate in the lower aspen strata (32.7 plus or minus 0.6), and considerably lower, and similar, in the hazelnut shrub layers (23.7 plus or minus 0.6) and in expanding aspen leaves (23.8 plus or minus 0.5); the lowest C assembly per unit N occurred in the two youngest, emerging leaf groups (17.1 plus or minus 0.6). Other relationships among physiological and biochemical variables were typically non-linear and were confounded by inclusion of the three groups of young (i.e., emerging or expanding) leaves, unless these were separately identified. Net C uptake, measured as photosynthetic capacity (A (sub max), micromole CO2 m (exp -2) s (exp -1)), was greater in aspen throughout the season, and optimal in mid-summer at a C:N ratio of approximately 18 (approximately 2.3 %N). When young leaves were excluded and logarithms of both variables were used, A (sub max) was approximately linearly dependent on N (mg N cm (exp-2) (r (exp 2) = 0.85, n= 193, P less than 0.001), attributed to incorporation of N into photosynthetic

  14. A novel process simulation model (PSM) for anaerobic digestion using Aspen Plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Karthik; Kankanala, Harshavardhan R; Lundin, Magnus; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2014-09-01

    A novel process simulation model (PSM) was developed for biogas production in anaerobic digesters using Aspen Plus®. The PSM is a library model of anaerobic digestion, which predicts the biogas production from any substrate at any given process condition. A total of 46 reactions were used in the model, which include inhibitions, rate-kinetics, pH, ammonia, volume, loading rate, and retention time. The hydrolysis reactions were based on the extent of the reaction, while the acidogenic, acetogenic, and methanogenic reactions were based on the kinetics. The PSM was validated against a variety of lab and industrial data on anaerobic digestion. The P-value after statistical analysis was found to be 0.701, which showed that there was no significant difference between discrete validations and processing conditions. The sensitivity analysis for a ±10% change in composition of substrate and extent of reaction results in 5.285% higher value than the experimental value. The model is available at http://hdl.handle.net/2320/12358 (Rajendran et al., 2013b).

  15. 13C Tracking after 13CO2 Supply Revealed Diurnal Patterns of Wood Formation in Aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Amir; Linden, Pernilla; Hedenström, Mattias; Moritz, Thomas; Niittylä, Totte

    2015-06-01

    Wood of trees is formed from carbon assimilated in the photosynthetic tissues. Determining the temporal dynamics of carbon assimilation, subsequent transport into developing wood, and incorporation to cell walls would further our understanding of wood formation in particular and tree growth in general. To investigate these questions, we designed a (13)CO2 labeling system to study carbon transport and incorporation to developing wood of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). Tracking of (13)C incorporation to wood over a time course using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed diurnal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis. The dark period had a differential effect on (13)C incorporation to lignin and cell wall carbohydrates. No (13)C was incorporated into aromatic amino acids of cell wall proteins in the dark, suggesting that cell wall protein biosynthesis ceased during the night. The results show previously unrecognized temporal patterns in wood cell wall biosynthesis, suggest diurnal cycle as a possible cue in the regulation of carbon incorporation to wood, and establish a unique (13)C labeling method for the analysis of wood formation and secondary growth in trees.

  16. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size.

  17. Full employment and competition in the Aspen economic model: implications for modeling acts of terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprigg, James A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew

    2004-11-01

    Acts of terrorism could have a range of broad impacts on an economy, including changes in consumer (or demand) confidence and the ability of productive sectors to respond to changes. As a first step toward a model of terrorism-based impacts, we develop here a model of production and employment that characterizes dynamics in ways useful toward understanding how terrorism-based shocks could propagate through the economy; subsequent models will introduce the role of savings and investment into the economy. We use Aspen, a powerful economic modeling tool developed at Sandia, to demonstrate for validation purposes that a single-firm economy converges to the known monopoly equilibrium price, output, and employment levels, while multiple-firm economies converge toward the competitive equilibria typified by lower prices and higher output and employment. However, we find that competition also leads to churn by consumers seeking lower prices, making it difficult for firms to optimize with respect to wages, prices, and employment levels. Thus, competitive firms generate market ''noise'' in the steady state as they search for prices and employment levels that will maximize profits. In the context of this model, not only could terrorism depress overall consumer confidence and economic activity but terrorist acts could also cause normal short-run dynamics to be misinterpreted by consumers as a faltering economy.

  18. Thermochemical Equilibrium Model of Synthetic Natural Gas Production from Coal Gasification Using Aspen Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Barrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG from coal is a process of interest in Colombia where the reserves-to-production ratio (R/P for natural gas is expected to be between 7 and 10 years, while the R/P for coal is forecasted to be around 90 years. In this work, the process to produce SNG by means of coal-entrained flow gasifiers is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium with the Gibbs free energy approach. The model was developed using a complete and comprehensive Aspen Plus model. Two typical technologies used in entrained flow gasifiers such as coal dry and coal slurry are modeled and simulated. Emphasis is put on interactions between the fuel feeding technology and selected energy output parameters of coal-SNG process, that is, energy efficiencies, power, and SNG quality. It was found that coal rank does not significantly affect energy indicators such as cold gas, process, and global efficiencies. However, feeding technology clearly has an effect on the process due to the gasifying agent. Simulations results are compared against available technical data with good accuracy. Thus, the proposed model is considered as a versatile and useful computational tool to study and optimize the coal to SNG process.

  19. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  20. XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism confers risk of breast cancer in American population: a meta-analysis of 10846 cases and 11723 controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Bu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 gene, a polymorphism, Arg399Gln (rs25487, has been shown to change neoconservative amino acid and thus result in alternation of DNA repair capacity. Numerous studies have investigated the association between Arg399Gln and breast cancer risk in the American population, but yielding inconsistent results. This study aimed to clarify the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to breast cancer. METHODS: Literatures were searched in multiple databases including PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, EBSCO and ScienceDirect databases up to April 2013. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall odds ratio (OR, by integrating data from 18 case control studies of 10846 cases and 11723 controls in the American population. RESULTS: Overall, significant association was observed between the Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk under the random-effects model (OR for dominant model = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.24, P heterogeneity = 0.003; OR for additive model = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.14, P heterogeneity = 0.017. Further sensitivity analysis supported the robust stability of this current result by showing similar ORs before and after removal of a single study. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism may significantly contribute to susceptibility of breast cancer in the American population.

  1. XRCC1 Arg399Gln Polymorphism Confers Risk of Breast Cancer in American Population: A Meta-Analysis of 10846 Cases and 11723 Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Zhao, Li; Peng, Yang; Zhou, Shudong; Li, Lixia; Chen, Sidong; Gao, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    Background In the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene, a polymorphism, Arg399Gln (rs25487), has been shown to change neoconservative amino acid and thus result in alternation of DNA repair capacity. Numerous studies have investigated the association between Arg399Gln and breast cancer risk in the American population, but yielding inconsistent results. This study aimed to clarify the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to breast cancer. Methods Literatures were searched in multiple databases including PubMed, Springer Link, Ovid, EBSCO and ScienceDirect databases up to April 2013. A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall odds ratio (OR), by integrating data from 18 case control studies of 10846 cases and 11723 controls in the American population. Results Overall, significant association was observed between the Arg399Gln polymorphism and breast cancer risk under the random-effects model (OR for dominant model = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.24, Pheterogeneity = 0.003; OR for additive model = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01–1.14, Pheterogeneity = 0.017). Further sensitivity analysis supported the robust stability of this current result by showing similar ORs before and after removal of a single study. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism may significantly contribute to susceptibility of breast cancer in the American population. PMID:24489692

  2. Evidence that the 5p12 Variant rs10941679 Confers Susceptibility to Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer through FGF10 and MRPS30 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussaini, Maya; French, Juliet D; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Nord, Silje; Beesley, Jonathan; Canisus, Sander; Hillman, Kristine M; Kaufmann, Susanne; Sivakumaran, Haran; Moradi Marjaneh, Mahdi; Lee, Jason S; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Alonso, M Rosario; Pita, Guillermo; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Wu, Anna H; Van Den Berg, David; Lambrechts, Diether; Floris, Giuseppe; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Goldberg, Mark S; Teo, Soo H; Yip, Cheng Har; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Andrulis, Irene L; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J; Koppert, Linetta B; Li, Jingmei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Ying; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Shah, Mitul; Rhenius, Valerie; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kang, Daehee; Hartman, Mikael; Chia, Kee Seng; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Luccarini, Craig; Conroy, Don M; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Edwards, Stacey L

    2016-10-06

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed increased breast cancer risk associated with multiple genetic variants at 5p12. Here, we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 104,660 subjects from 50 case-control studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). With data for 3,365 genotyped and imputed SNPs across a 1 Mb region (positions 44,394,495-45,364,167; NCBI build 37), we found evidence for at least three independent signals: the strongest signal, consisting of a single SNP rs10941679, was associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer (per-g allele OR ER(+) = 1.15; 95% CI 1.13-1.18; p = 8.35 × 10(-30)). After adjustment for rs10941679, we detected signal 2, consisting of 38 SNPs more strongly associated with ER-negative (ER(-)) breast cancer (lead SNP rs6864776: per-a allele OR ER(-) = 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.14; p conditional = 1.44 × 10(-12)), and a single signal 3 SNP (rs200229088: per-t allele OR ER(+) = 1.12; 95% CI 1.09-1.15; p conditional = 1.12 × 10(-05)). Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in normal breast tissues and breast tumors showed that the g (risk) allele of rs10941679 was associated with increased expression of FGF10 and MRPS30. Functional assays demonstrated that SNP rs10941679 maps to an enhancer element that physically interacts with the FGF10 and MRPS30 promoter regions in breast cancer cell lines. FGF10 is an oncogene that binds to FGFR2 and is overexpressed in ∼10% of human breast cancers, whereas MRPS30 plays a key role in apoptosis. These data suggest that the strongest signal of association at 5p12 is mediated through coordinated activation of FGF10 and MRPS30, two candidate genes for breast cancer pathogenesis.

  3. Early colonoscopy confers survival benefits on colon cancer patients with pre-existing iron deficiency anemia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lin Jerry Teng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic significance of pre-existing iron deficiency anemia (IDA and the benefits of early colonoscopy in patients with colon cancer, since these have not been clearly established to date. Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrieved and retrospectively reviewed the records of patients aged ≥ 55 years who were diagnosed with colon cancer between 2000 and 2005. The patient cohort was divided into two groups: patients with (n = 1,260 or without (n = 15,912 an IDA diagnosis during ≤ 18 months preceding the date of colon cancer diagnosis. We found that diabetes (27.9% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0001, cardiovascular disease (61.6% vs. 54.7%, p<0.001, and chronic kidney disease (4.6% vs. 2.2%, p<0.0001 were more common among patients with IDA than among those without IDA. The median overall survival times for patients with IDA and those without IDA were 4.6 and 5.7 years, respectively (p = 0.002. Patients who underwent colonoscopy ≤ 30 days, 31-90, and ≥ 91 days after IDA diagnosis showed median overall survival times of 5.79, 4.43, and 4.04 years, respectively (p = 0.003. Delayed colonoscopy was an independent factor associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.53; p = 0.01. In conclusion, colon cancer patients with IDA were more likely to experience comorbidities than were those without IDA. Pre-existing IDA was a poor prognostic factor in adult men and postmenopausal women who had colon cancer. Early colonoscopy could improve overall survival possibly by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Importance of two consecutive methionines at the N-terminus of a cellulose synthase (PtdCesA8A) for normal wood cellulose synthesis in aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunxia; Xu, Fuyu; Gou, Jiqing; Al-Haddad, Jameel; Telewski, Frank W; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

    2012-11-01

    All known orthologs of a secondary wall-associated cellulose synthase (CesA) gene from Arabidopsis, AtCesA8, encode CesA proteins with two consecutive methionines at their N-termini (MM or 2M). Here, we report that these 2Ms in an aspen ortholog of AtCesA8, PtdCesA8A, are important for maintaining normal wood cellulose biosynthesis in aspen trees. Overexpression of an altered PtdCesA8A cDNA encoding a PtdCesA8A protein missing one methionine at the N-terminus (1M) in aspen resulted in substantial decrease in cellulose content and caused negative effects on wood strength, suggesting that both methionines are essential for proper CesA expression and function in developing xylem tissues. Transcripts from a pair of paralogous native PtdCesA8 genes, as well as introduced PtdCesA8A:1M transgenes were significantly reduced in developing xylem tissues of transgenic aspen plants, suggestive of a co-suppression event. Overexpression of a native PtdCesA8A cDNA encoding a CesA protein with 2Ms at the N-terminus did not cause any such phenotypic changes. These results suggest the importance of 2Ms present at the N-terminus of PtdCesA8A protein during cellulose synthesis in aspen.

  5. Variation in Trembling Aspen and White Spruce Wood Quality Grown in Mixed and Single Species Stands in the Boreal Mixedwood Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis De Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian boreal forest is largely represented by mixed wood forests of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. In this study, a total of 300 trees originating from three sites composed of trembling aspen and white spruce with varying compositions were investigated for wood quality traits: one site was composed mainly of aspen, one mainly of spruce and a third was a mixed site. Four wood quality traits were examined: wood density, microfibril angle (MFA, fibre characteristics, and cell wall chemistry. Social classes were also determined for each site in an attempt to provide a more in-depth comparison. Wood density showed little variation among sites for both species, with only significant differences occurring between social classes. The aspen site showed statistically lower MFAs than the aspen from the mixed site, however, no differences were observed when comparing spruce. Fibre characteristics were higher in the pure species sites for both species. There were no differences in carbohydrate contents across sites, while lignin content varied. Overall, the use of social classes did not refine the characterization of sites.

  6. Expectations for Cancun Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the great hopes raised by the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun aroused fewer expectations. However, the international community is still waiting for a positive outcome that will benefit humankind as a whole. The Cancun conference is another important opportunity for all the participants to advance the Bali Road Map negotiations after last year's meeting in Copenhagen, which failed to reach a legally binding treaty for the years beyond 2012.

  7. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  8. Conference proceedings ISES 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Malmkvist, Jens

    The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers.......The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers....

  9. Multi-Objective Optimization of Dividing Wall Columns with Aspen Plus and NSGA-Ⅱ%基于Aspen Plus和NSGA-II的隔壁塔多目标优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 王纯正; 马占华; 孙兰义

    2015-01-01

    以年总操作费用(TAC)和再沸器负荷为目标,提出了基于遗传算法 NSGA-Ⅱ的优化方法,并将该方法应用于BTX分离隔壁塔的优化设计。首先应用Aspen Plus软件建立了BTX分离工艺的隔壁塔Radfrac两塔模型,并在Matlab平台上,通过MAP接口工具箱实现Matlab对Aspen Plus的操作与控制,同时Matlab调用NSGA-Ⅱ进行优化,完成种群大小为600、遗传代数为28的模拟过程,得到了10组Pareto解。研究表明,对于Pareto解分布,气相分配量βg、液相分配量βL、侧线抽出位置NS和液相分配位置NL基本不变,进料位置NF、预分馏塔板Nj和主塔板数Ni存在一定的线性关系。%An optimized method was used to evaluate the performance of dividing wall columns in BTX separation with multi-objective genetic algorithm to minimize theTAC andHeat duty. A two-column Radfrac model was established for the separation of BTX by Aspen Plus software. Matlab can operate and control Aspen Plus using MAP and it can use NSGA-II for optimization. Ten Pareto fronts were obtained with population of six hundred and generation of twenty-eight. The results show that interconnection vapor flowβg , interconnection liquid flowβL, stage of side productNS and stage of interconnection liquidNL are relatively stable on the base of distribution of Pareto front. However, there is a linear relationship between the number of the stages of prefractionator and that of the main column. The feed stage has a linear relationship with the prefractionator stage numbers.

  10. ¿Son las herramientas recomendadas por la ASPEN y la ESPEN equiparables en la valoración del estado nutricional? Are the tools recommended by ASPEN and ESPEN comparable for assessing the nutritional status?

    OpenAIRE

    M.ª A. Valero; L. Díez; N. El Kadaoui; Jiménez, A. E.; H. Rodríguez; M. León

    2005-01-01

    Introducción: No existe un método de valoración nutricional universalmente aceptado. Los expertos de ASPEN (2002) sugieren utilizar la valoración subjetiva global (VSG), mientras que los de ESPEN (2002) recomiendan el sistema NRS-2002. Objetivos y ámbito: Este estudio transversal tiene como objetivos: 1) conocer la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso hospitalario en un hospital terciario y 2) conocer el grado de asociación entre dos herramientas utilizadas para valorar el estado de nutrici...

  11. Study on vent washing and waste-heat recovery of DAP plant based on ASPEN PLUS%基于ASPEN PLUS的磷酸二铵装置尾气洗涤及余热回收研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田静; 莫春萍; 王万林; 张秀芳; 郑建国

    2014-01-01

    利用脱盐水间接冷凝尾气中的水蒸气以减少白雾的排放和回收尾气的低温位余热,同时使用ASPEN PLUS软件对尾气洗涤塔及余热回收过程进行模拟.结果表明,该软件模拟结果与现场测量参数较为吻合,可用于指导生产,并为装置改造提供依据.

  12. Optimization of Energy Consumption in Chemical Industry with Aspen Plus and Pinch Technology System%用Aspen Plus和夹点技术系统调优化工用能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玫

    2009-01-01

    针对我国的炼化工业越来越注重装置的基础设计和优化改造这一现状,提出了利用夹点技术和Aspen Plus模拟来实现化工过程全局用能优化的方法,该方法可以进一步节省蒸汽、燃料和循环水,并通过实例证明了此法的有效性.

  13. Blood test using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with colloidal silver nanoparticle substrate to detect polyps and colorectal cancer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Feng, Shangyuan; Tai, Isabella T.; Chen, Guannan; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and forth leading cause of cancer-related death. Early diagnosis is the key to long-term patient survival. Programmatic screening for the general population has shown to be cost-effective in reducing the incidence and mortality from CRC. Current CRC screening strategy relies on a broad range of test techniques such as fecal based tests and endoscopic exams. Occult blood tests like fecal immunochemical test is a cost effective way to detect CRC but have limited diagnostic values in detecting adenomatous polyp, the most treatable precursor to CRC. In the present work, we proposed the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles as substrate to analyze blood plasma for detecting both CRC and adenomatous polyps. Blood plasma samples collected from healthy subjects and patients diagnosed with adenomas and CRC were prepared with nanoparticles and measured using a real-time fiber optic probe based Raman system. The collected SERS spectra are analyzed with partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Classification of normal versus CRC plus adenomatous polyps achieved diagnostic sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 80%. This exploratory study suggests that blood plasma SERS analysis has potential to become a screening test for detecting both CRC and adenomas.

  14. Analysis of a reheat gas turbine cycle with chemical recuperation using Aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, S.; Kane, N`Diaye [ISITEM - Lab. d`Energetique, Nantes (France)

    1996-11-01

    Present-day high performance gas turbine based cycles use the combined cycle concept in which the heat in the hot turbine exhaust stream is used to raise steam which can be used to generate electricity using a steam turbine. Recent attention has focused in particular on the chemical heat recovery concept.The potential benefits of such cycles include high conversion efficiency, ultra-low NO{sub x} emission levels (less than 1 ppm) and high power density per unit of land. The low thermal NO{sub X} emissions result from the presence of hydrogen in the reformed fuel gas, which enables combustion at lower flame temperatures. Thus, a CRGT (Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine) cycle can meet the strictest NO{sub x} limits in operation today without the need for selective catalytic reduction. Such environmental characteristics are the primary reason fuelling current interest in CRGT cycles. For design reasons, reheat combustors cannot be easily adapted to stationary gas turbines, and until recently the CRGT cycle seemed to be limited to aeroderivative gas turbine applications. However, ABB recently unveiled its new GT26 series stationary gas turbines using staged expansion with reheat combustion, allowing high thermal efficiencies with relatively low turbine inlet temperatures. This type of turbine appears particularly well-suited for chemical heat recovery. In this paper, we present a CRGT cycle based on a reheat gas turbine with key design features similar to those of ABB`s GT26 machine. The cycle analysis is performed using ASPEN+ process simulation software. The report includes a detailed first and second law analysis of the cycle. The results confirm that the energy conversion efficiencies of CRGT cycles cannot rival with the efficiencies achieved by state-of-the-art combined cycles. 12 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Pyrolysis of waste tires: A modeling and parameter estimation study using Aspen Plus(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamza Y; Abbas, Ali; Azizi, Fouad; Zeaiter, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a simulation flowsheet model of a waste tire pyrolysis process with feed capacity of 150kg/h. A kinetic rate-based reaction model is formulated in a form implementable in the simulation package Aspen Plus, giving the flowsheet model the capability to predict more than 110 tire pyrolysis products as reported in experiments by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) and Williams (2013) for the oil and gas products respectively. The simulation model is successfully validated in two stages: firstly against experimental data from Olazar et al. (2008) by comparing the mass fractions for the oil products (gas, liquids (non-aromatics), aromatics, and tar) at temperatures of 425, 500, 550 and 610°C, and secondly against experimental results of main hydrocarbon products (C7 to C15) obtained by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) at temperatures of 400, 500, 600, and 700°C. The model was then used to analyze the effect of pyrolysis process temperature and showed that increased temperatures led to chain fractions from C10 and higher to decrease while smaller chains increased; this is attributed to the extensive cracking of the larger hydrocarbon chains at higher temperatures. The utility of the flowsheet model was highlighted through an energy analysis that targeted power efficiency of the process determined through production profiles of gasoline and diesel at various temperatures. This shows, through the summation of the net power gain from the plant for gasoline plus diesel that the maximum net power lies at the lower temperatures corresponding to minimum production of gasoline and maximum production of diesel. This simulation model can thus serve as a robust tool to respond to market conditions that dictate fuel demand and prices while at the same time identifying optimum process conditions (e.g. temperature) driven by process economics.

  16. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE/NETL; Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE/NETL; Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  17. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  18. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  19. Aspen软件在大型聚乙烯装置上的应用%Application of Aspen software in large-scale polyethylene plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文庆; 李延辉

    2004-01-01

    以线型低密度聚乙烯装置产品牌号切换时的露点计算为例,对采用AspenTech公司的Aspen P1us、InfoPlus.21软件的应用进行了研究与分析.使用Aspen软件可以实现露点等物性数据的实时计算,为安全、稳定地进行产品牌号切换提供准确的依据;而且,可以使用Visual Basic语言将Aspen Plus的输入数据和模拟结果与其他应用程序相连接,实现全自动的数据采集与计算.

  20. ASPEN PLUS软件模拟干气、液态烃脱硫和再生系统工艺流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇平

    2001-01-01

    Aspen Plus流程模拟软件是石油化工装置工艺设计中的重要工具。用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件对我厂干气,液态烃脱硫和再生系统的工艺流程进行模拟计算,计算结果与装置的实际运行情况基本吻合,说明AspenPlus模拟计算采用的热力学方程和建立的模拟流程有较高的可信度。

  1. Evolution, three-dimensional model and localization of truncated hemoglobin PttTrHb of hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Estelle; Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Parkash, Vimal; Vuosku, Jaana; Sundström, Robin; Nymalm, Yvonne; Sutela, Suvi; Taskinen, Katariina; Kallio, Pauli T; Salminen, Tiina A; Häggman, Hely

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, research on plant hemoglobins (Hbs) has mainly concentrated on symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs, and information on truncated Hbs (TrHbs) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the origin, structure and localization of the truncated Hb (PttTrHb) of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × tremuloides Michx.), the model system of tree biology. Additionally, we studied the PttTrHb expression in relation to non-symbiotic class1 Hb gene (PttHb1) using RNAi-silenced hybrid aspen lines. Both the phylogenetic analysis and the three-dimensional (3D) model of PttTrHb supported the view that plant TrHbs evolved vertically from a bacterial TrHb. The 3D model suggested that PttTrHb adopts a 2-on-2 sandwich of α-helices and has a Bacillus subtilis -like ligand-binding pocket in which E11Gln and B10Tyr form hydrogen bonds to a ligand. However, due to differences in tunnel cavity and gate residue (E7Ala), it might not show similar ligand-binding kinetics as in Bs-HbO (E7Thr). The immunolocalization showed that PttTrHb protein was present in roots, stems as well as leaves of in vitro -grown hybrid aspens. In mature organs, PttTrHb was predominantly found in the vascular bundles and specifically at the site of lateral root formation, overlapping consistently with areas of nitric oxide (NO) production in plants. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside treatment increased the amount of PttTrHb in stems. The observed PttTrHb localization suggests that PttTrHb plays a role in the NO metabolism.

  2. Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Stability in the Aspen-Conifer Ecotone in Montane Forests in Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Román Dobarco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the potential impact of conifer encroachment on soil organic carbon (SOC dynamics and storage in montane aspen-conifer forests from the interior western US, we sampled mineral soils (0–15 cm across the aspen-conifer ecotones in southern and northern Utah and quantified total SOC stocks, stable SOC (i.e., mineral-associated SOC (MoM, labile SOC (i.e., light fraction (LF, decomposable (CO2 release during long-term aerobic incubations and soluble SOC (hot water extractable organic carbon (HWEOC. Total SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha−1 and labile SOC as LF (14.0 ± 7.10 Mg C ha−1, SOC decomposability (cumulative released CO2-C of 5.6 ± 3.8 g C g−1 soil or HWEOC (0.6 ± 0.6 mg C g−1 soil did not differ substantially with vegetation type, although a slight increase in HWEOC was observed with increasing conifer in the overstory. There were statistically significant differences (p = 0.035 in stable MoM storage, which was higher under aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha−1 than under conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha−1, with intermediate values under mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha−1. Texture had the greatest impact on SOC distribution among labile and stable fractions, with increasing stabilization in MoM and decreasing bio-availability of SOC with increasing silt + clay content. Only at lower silt + clay contents (40%–70% could we discern the influence of vegetation on MoM content. This highlights the importance of chemical protection mechanisms for long-term C sequestration.

  3. Interface between MATLAB and Aspen Plus Based on COM Technology and its Advanced Application%基于COM技术的MATLAB与AsPen Plus接口及高级应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿大钊; 陈曦; 邵之江; 钱积新

    2006-01-01

    基于COM技术研制开发了MATLAB和Aspen Plus的接口工具箱MAP,实现了在MATLAB环境下对Aspen Plus中数据进行读写操作,并控制模拟的运行.MAP接口将MATLAB计算能力和Aspen Plus的模拟能力结合在一起,扩展了Aspen Plus的高级应用.通过精馏塔进料软测量的示例,阐述了如何通过MAP接口来调用自主开发的禁忌搜索优化算法,解决由于Aspen Plus中的优化算法的局限性所无法实现的模拟与优化问题.

  4. ASPEN PLUS对混合二甲苯分离工艺的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春法; 孙剑; 阮栋

    2005-01-01

    C8芳烃(混合二甲苯)由于组分来源的不同,组分较多,组分间沸点差很小,使C8芳烃分离可供选择的流程很多:化工分公司应用ASPEN PLUS软件,研究了超精馏工艺分离混合二甲苯的可行性。

  5. Aspen Plus模拟醋酸正丁酯反应精馏工艺过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 昊世逵; 吴剑锋; 周博煊; 王雨

    2013-01-01

    利用Aspen Plus对醋酸正丁酯的合成工艺流程进行了模拟计算。选用反应精馏技术,用强酸性阳离子交换树脂取代硫酸,在反应精馏塔中一次完成反应和分离,取代原有的分步流程,可连续生产出99.9%的高纯度醋酸正丁酯。

  6. Expectations for Cancun Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the great hopes raised by the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun aroused fewer expectations. However, the international community is still waiting for a positive outcome that will benefit humankind as a whole.

  7. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  8. The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Iñigo; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Schiavi, Francesca; Leskelä, Susanna; Pita, Guillermo; Milne, Roger; Maravall, Javier; Ramos, Ignacio; Andía, Víctor; Rodríguez-Poyo, Paloma; Jara-Albarrán, Antonino; Meoro, Amparo; del Peso, Cristina; Arribas, Luis; Iglesias, Pedro; Caballero, Javier; Serrano, Joaquín; Picó, Antonio; Pomares, Francisco; Giménez, Gabriel; López-Mondéjar, Pedro; Castello, Roberto; Merante-Boschin, Isabella; Pelizzo, Maria-Rosa; Mauricio, Didac; Opocher, Giuseppe; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; González-Neira, Anna; Matías-Guiu, Xavier; Santisteban, Pilar; Robledo, Mercedes

    2009-09-01

    In order to identify genetic factors related to thyroid cancer susceptibility, we adopted a candidate gene approach. We studied tag- and putative functional SNPs in genes involved in thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation, and in genes found to be differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma. A total of 768 SNPs in 97 genes were genotyped in a Spanish series of 615 cases and 525 controls, the former comprising the largest collection of patients with this pathology from a single population studied to date. SNPs in an LD block spanning the entire FOXE1 gene showed the strongest evidence of association with papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. This association was validated in a second stage of the study that included an independent Italian series of 482 patients and 532 controls. The strongest association results were observed for rs1867277 (OR[per-allele] = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.30-1.70; P = 5.9x10(-9)). Functional assays of rs1867277 (NM_004473.3:c.-283G>A) within the FOXE1 5' UTR suggested that this variant affects FOXE1 transcription. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that, exclusively, the sequence containing the A allele recruited the USF1/USF2 transcription factors, while both alleles formed a complex in which DREAM/CREB/alphaCREM participated. Transfection studies showed an allele-dependent transcriptional regulation of FOXE1. We propose a FOXE1 regulation model dependent on the rs1867277 genotype, indicating that this SNP is a causal variant in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Our results constitute the first functional explanation for an association identified by a GWAS and thereby elucidate a mechanism of thyroid cancer susceptibility. They also attest to the efficacy of candidate gene approaches in the GWAS era.

  9. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  10. Aspen simulation of chlorine and hydrogen chloride absorption system%基于Aspen的氯气、氯化氢气体吸收系统的模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王银亮; 刘军

    2016-01-01

    采用Aspen Plus对某项目氯气、氯化氢气体吸收系统进行了稳态模拟,并对吸收剂的用量进行了优化;在得到基础数据的基础上,利用Aspen HYSYS对该吸收系统进行了动态模拟,明确了部分参数的变化对吸收率产生的影响,对项目开车及员工培训方案的制定具有重要的参考作用.

  11. Comparative analysis of the effect of pretreating aspen wood with aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions of sulfuric and nitric acid on its reactivity during enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Osipov, D. O.; Zorov, I. N.;

    2016-01-01

    The effect of aspen wood pretreatment methods with the use of both aqueous solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids and aqueous-organic solutions (ethanol, butanol) of sulfuric acid (organosolv) on the limiting degree of conversion of this type of raw material into simple sugars during enzymatic...... of ground wood by 300–400%, compared to the initial raw material. Pretreatment with a 4.8% aqueous solution of nitric acid (125°C, 1.8 MPa, 10 min) is shown to be most effective, as it increases the reactivity of the ground aspen wood by more than 500%....

  12. 基于Aspen Plus的稀氨水吹脱工艺流程模拟%Simulation for Stripping Process flow of Dilute Ammonia Liquor Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任苏孟; 陈洁; 宣爱国; 李志刚

    2014-01-01

    为了降低合成氨工艺中稀氨水的排放浓度,使用Aspen Plus 软件对氨水吹脱过程进行模拟计算,在满足塔底氨含量小于0.5%的要求下,得出吹脱塔适宜的操作参数:进料空气流量为500 kg/h,进料氨水温度为60℃,理论塔板为6块,选用50 mm钢制矩鞍环填料,塔径为1.4 m。%In order to decrease the concentration of diluted ammonia water emissions in synthetic ammonia process , the ammonia water stripping process was simulated based on Aspen Plus software.Under satisfying the condition that ammonia content in the tower bottom was less than 0.5%, the suitable operation parameters were obtained for the air stripping tower .The feeding temperature of ammonia water was 60℃, number of theoretical tower plates was 6, the feeding air flow was 500 kg/h, and the diameter of the stripping tower was 1.4 m with φ50 steel INTX packing selected.

  13. Simulation and Analysis of Methanol Distillation based on Aspen Plus User Model%基于Aspen Plus用户模型的甲醇精馏模拟与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建宁; 陆文斌

    2012-01-01

    采用模拟软件Aspen Plus对某厂大型煤化工甲醇四塔精馏过程进行稳态模拟计算和分析,结果表明,应用物性方法 UNIFAC-DMD能有效模拟汽液平衡数据,模拟结果与工厂采集数据吻合良好。进行了常压塔侧线抽提位置分析、回流比对产品各组分浓度影响及精馏塔水力学分析等研究,提供了可行的精馏操作方案。%Using Aspen Plus,steady-state simulation and analysis were carried out on the four-column methanol distillation process in a large-scale coal chemical industry plant.It turned out that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data could effectively simulated by UNIFAC-DMD,and the simulation results were in good agreement with the practical industrial production data.Moreover,some operation conditions such as the location of side extraction,influences of reflux ratio on product components concentration and distillation column hydraulics were analyzed,and a feasible distillation scheme was put forward.

  14. 基于Aspen Plus的超大规模甲醇合成工艺模型%Simulation of large scale methanol synthesis process based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一夫

    2013-01-01

    The large scale methanol synthesis process model is proposed and simulated by ASPEN PLUS software. The crude methanol composition, the reactor outlet composition, the carbon efficiency and the recycle ratio are obtained, which presents the recycle ratio has great influence on the methanol mole flow, carbon efficiency, recycle gas compressor power and synthesis gas compressor power. The model can simulate and predict the large scale methanol synthesis process for process comparison and optimization design.%利用Aspen Plus对超大规模甲醇合成工艺进行了全流程模拟.模型模拟得到了粗甲醇的成分、反应器出口组成、碳效率、循环比,揭示了循环比对粗甲醇中甲醇摩尔流速、整个反应碳效率、循环气压缩机功率、合成气压缩机功率的影响.通过该模型能够为工艺方案比选、优化设计提供模拟和预测.

  15. 化工流程模拟软件Aspen Plus在湿法冶金学教学中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus in the Teaching Process of Hydrometallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝德均

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the chemical process simulation software,ASPEN Plus and the teaching process of Hydrometallurgy was discussed in detail.Introduction of ASPEN into the teaching process of Hydrometallurgy was practical completely,which was contributed to impart knowledge into students for improving teaching effect in the process of theoretical teaching,and to enhance the practice of Hydrometallurgy for the last goal of the course,and to give students the convenient fast simple pre-training of the job before working.%详细讨论了化工流程模拟软件ASPEN与湿法冶金学教学的关系。ASPEN软件的引入对于湿法冶金教学过程是完全可行的。这即有利于理论教学过程中对知识的灌输,改善教学效果,也有利于增强课程的实践环节,强化课程教学的最终目的,更可以使学生得到方便、快速、简单地就业前的岗位预训练。

  16. Simulation analysis with Aspen plus for hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas%天然气水蒸汽转化制氢的Aspen plus模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜薇; 马瑞; 赵峰; 张桂林

    2013-01-01

    The chemical software Aspen plus was used to simulate the steam reforming and water-gas shift reaction in the process of hydrogen production from natural gas. The simulation results were very consistent with the actual data, which indicated that the built process simulation model and the chosen equations for thermodynamic properties were right. Through the sensitivity analysis of the operating variables, the impacts of the steam to carbon ratio, temperature and pressure on the the reforming and water-gas shift processes were investigated.%应用化工模拟软件Aspen plus对天然气水蒸汽转化制氢生产工艺中转化及中变反应过程进行模拟.通过模拟结果与实际生产数据比较,两者非常吻合,说明所建流程模拟模型及热力学物性方程选择正确.对转化及中变过程的操作变量进行了灵敏度分析,得到了水碳比、温度、压力等重要操作参数对工艺的影响.

  17. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  18. GLI1 confers profound phenotypic changes upon LNCaP prostate cancer cells that include the acquisition of a hormone independent state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Nadendla

    Full Text Available The GLI (GLI1/GLI2 transcription factors have been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer although our understanding of how they actually contribute to the biology of these common tumours is limited. We observed that GLI reporter activity was higher in normal (PNT-2 and tumourigenic (DU145 and PC-3 androgen-independent cells compared to androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells and, accordingly, GLI mRNA levels were also elevated. Ectopic expression of GLI1 or the constitutively active ΔNGLI2 mutant induced a distinct cobblestone-like morphology in LNCaP cells that, regarding the former, correlated with increased GLI2 as well as expression of the basal/stem-like markers CD44, β1-integrin, ΔNp63 and BMI1, and decreased expression of the luminal marker AR (androgen receptor. LNCaP-GLI1 cells were viable in the presence of the AR inhibitor bicalutamide and gene expression profiling revealed that the transcriptome of LNCaP-GLI1 cells was significantly closer to DU145 and PC-3 cells than to control LNCaP-pBP (empty vector cells, as well as identifying LCN2/NGAL as a highly induced transcript which is associated with hormone independence in breast and prostate cancer. Functionally, LNCaP-GLI1 cells displayed greater clonal growth and were more invasive than control cells but they did not form colonies in soft agar or prostaspheres in suspension suggesting that they do not possess inherent stem cell properties. Moreover, targeted suppression of GLI1 or GLI2 with siRNA did not reverse the transformed phenotype of LNCaP-GLI1 cells nor did double GLI1/GLI2 knockdowns activate AR expression in DU145 or PC-3 cells. As such, early targeting of the GLI oncoproteins may hinder progression to a hormone independent state but a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that maintain this phenotype is required to determine if their inhibition will enhance the efficacy of anti-hormonal therapy through the induction of a luminal

  19. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects...

  20. Modelling growth-competition relationships in trembling aspen and white spruce mixed boreal forests of Western Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Huang

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of competition on stem growth of Picea glauca and Populus tremuloides in boreal mixedwood stands during the stem exclusion stage. We combined traditional approaches of collecting competition data with dendrochronology to provide retrospective measurements of stem diameter growth. Several competition indices including stand basal area (BA, the sum of stem diameter at breast height (SDBH, and density (N for the broadleaf and coniferous species, as well as similar indices considering only trees with diameters greater than each subject (BAGR, SDBHGR, and NGR, were evaluated. We used a nonlinear mixed model to characterize the basal area increment over the past 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 years as a function of growth of nearby dominant trees, the size of the subject trees, deciduous and coniferous competition indices, and ecoregions. SDBHGR and BAGR were better predictors for spruce, and SDBHGR and NGR were better for aspen, respectively, than other indices. Results showed strongest correlations with long-term stem growth, as the best models integrated growth for 10-25 years for aspen and ≥ 25 for spruce. Our model demonstrated a remarkable capability (adjusted R(2>0.67 to represent this complex variation in growth as a function of site, size and competition.